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ArchcL'ological  and  Historical' 


Volume  XIV. 




Archaeological  and  Historical 


Volume  XIV. 


Hntcred  accoiding  to  Act  of  Congress, 
in  the  year  1905 


In  the  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congresft 
at  Washing^ton. 



The  Shandon  Centennial.     By  Albert  Shaw 1 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College.     By  George  Allen  Hubbell....  12 

Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.     By  William  Jackson  Armstrong...  28 
The  Campaigns  of  the  Revolution  in  the  Ohio  Valley.     By  Juliette 

Sessions  39 

Bentley's  Lake.     By  A.  J.  Baughman 60 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.     (Alexander  Coffman  Ross.)     by  C.  B.  Gal- 
breath  (>2 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.     By  E.  O.  Randall.  101 

-"^arrison-Tarhe  Peace  Conference.     By  Col.  E.  L.  Taylor 121 

Tarhe  —  The  Crane.     By  Emil  Schlup 132 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian.     By  Benjamin  R.  Cowen 139 

The  Ordinance  of  1787.     By  Col.  W.  E.  Gilmore 148 

Indian  Boundary  Line.     By  W.  S.  Hanna 158 

A  Station  on  the  LInderground  Railroad.     By  Mrs.  Florence  Bedford 

Wright 164 

Robert  White  McFarland.     By  Frank  S.  Brooks 170 

So:^g  Writers  of  Ohio.     (Benjamin  Russel  Hanby.)     By  C.  B.  Gal- 
breath  180 

William  Allen  Trimble.     By  Mary  McArthur  Tuttle 225 

Caleb  At  water.     By  Clement  L.  MartzolflF 247 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.      By  Mrs.  xMaria  Ewing  Martin 272 

Sorg   Writers   of    Ohio.     (Will    Lamartine    Thompson.)     By    C.    B. 

(ialbreath   291 

Tarhc,  the  Wyandot  Chief.     By  Dr.  Charles  E.  Slocum 313 

Colonel  John  O'Bannon.     By  Nelson  W.  Evans 3j9 

A  Rock  with  .n  History.     By  Basil  Meek 328 

Twei  lieth    Annual   Meeting   of   the   Ohio    State   Archaeological    and 

H  istorical   Society   330 

•  Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.     By  E.  L.  Taylor 356 

The  Underground  Railroad.     By  S.  S.  Knabenshue 396 

Powder  Magazine  at  Fort  Hamilton.     By  William  C.  Miller. 404 

Navigation  r»n  the  Muskingum.     By  Irven  Travis 408 

Damoll's   Leap   for   Life 425 

Sorg   Writers  of   Ohio.     (Coates   Kinney   and  H.  D.   L.   Webster.) 

By    C.    B.    Galbreath 428 

Farewell  Song  of  the  Wyandot  Indians.     By  James  Rankins 442 

Note  —  Historical.     By   R.   W.    McFarland 443 



iv  Ohio.  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 


Origin    of    the    Phrase    "Keep   the    Ball    RolHng."     By    Thomas    J. 

Brown    444 

The  Indian   Mound,   Miamisburg,   Ohio 446 

Early    Cincinnati.    By   Joseph    Wilby...    448 

Kditprialana.     By  E.  O.  Randall 89,  216,  354,  464 

•    !    « 



Albert  Shaw    2 

Horace    Mann    12 

Birthplace   of   Horace  Mann 15 

President's   Residence  at  Antioch 19 

Monument  of  1  lorace  Mann  on  Antioch  Campus 26 

Bentley's   Lake    61 

Mr.  A.  C.  Ross,  Mrs.  Ross  and  Children 65 

Main   Street,  Zancsville,  Ohio,  in  184G 67 

Radge    oT   Zancsville   Tippecanoe    Club 76 

Mr.  A.  C.  Ross  at  the  age  of  Seventy  Years 84 

Home  of   Alexander  CofFman   Ross,   Zancsville,   Ohio 86 

Ohio  Building,  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition,  1904 101 

Wilham    F.    Hurdell 102 

Hon.  Myron  T.  Herrick 108 

Hon.  John  W.  Noble 115 

Peace    Memorial,    Stone    and    Tablet,    Harrison-Tarhe    Peace    Con- 
ference      122 

Chief  Tarhe  —  The   Crane KW 

Mr.  Kmil  Schlup  and  Log  Cabin KJT 

Hon.   Benjamin   R.   Cowen 139 

Dr.    Robert    White   McFarland 17(> 

Fac-simile  of  Letter  Written  by  Kate  Hanby 181 

Hanby    Home  at    Westerville,   Ohio 187 

Otterbein   University,   Westerville,   Ohio 201 

Benjamin   Russcl   Hanby  —  Portrait  and   Monument 213 

Hon.   Elroy  M.   Avery 216 

Gen.   William  Allen  Trimble 227 

Will    Lamartine    Thompson 204 

Fac-simile   of   Original    Manuscript    of   "Gathering   Shells   from   the 

Sea    Shore"    296 

Residence  of  Will  L.  Thompson,  East  Liverpool,  Ohio 311 

Col.  John  O'Bannon 317 

Col.    Johr.    O'Bannon 323 

A   Rock   with   .\   History 329 

Governor  Herrick  and  party  at   Fort  Ancient 349 

Portage  ( )r   Carrying   Place 360 

Waterway   from  St.  Lawrence  River  to  New  York  Harbor 364 

Route  traveled   by    Brule 369 


vi  Ohio,  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


Route  traveled  by  Brule  and   Grerolle 371 

Route   discovered   by   Nicolet 375 

Route  traveled  by  Jolict  and  his  Companions 37(5 

Route  discovered  and  explored  by  Marquette  and  Joliet 379 

Route  taken  by  Marquette  on  return  from  Illinois  River 381 

Route   traveled    by   LaSalle   from    Hamilton,    Ont.,   to    Lake   Chau- 
tauqua    383 

Route  traveled  by  French  from  Like  Chautauqua  to  Ohio 384 

Route  traveled  by  LaSalle  from  St.  Joseph  River  to  Chicago  River.  386 
Route  traveled  by  LaSalle  down  the  Mississippi  River  to  the  Gulf 

of  Mexico  389 

Routes  through  Ohio  and  Indiana  to  the  Mississippi  River 393 

Indians  in  Birch  Bark  Canoes 394 

Irven  Travis   408 

Coates  Kinney   428 

Indian  Mound  at  Miamisburg,  Ohio 44(> 

Map  of  the  City  of  Pekin 




Vol.  XIV.        JANUARY,  1905.  No.  I. 




Entered  accotding  to  Act  of  Congress, 
in  the  year  1905 


In  the  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress 
at  Washington. 


page:  ! 

The  Shandon  Centennial.     By  Albert  Shaw 1 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College.    By  George  Allen  Hubbell 12 

Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.    By  William  Jackson  Armstrong...  28 

The  Campaigns  of  the  Revolution  in  the  Ohio  Valley.    By  Juliette  j 

Sessions 39                              I 

Bentley's  Lake.     By  A.  J.  Baughman 60                              | 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.     (Alexander  Coffman  Ross.)     by  C.  B.  Gal-  I 

breath 62 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.    By  E.  O.  Randall.  101                              i 

--i-Iarrison-Tarhe  Peace  Conference.    By  Col.  E.  L.  Taylor 121 

Tarhe  —  The  Crane.     By  Emil  Schlup 132 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian.    By  Benjamin  R.  Cowen 139 

The  Ordinance  of  1787.     By  Col.  W.  E.  Gilmore 148 

Indian  Boundary  Line.     By  W.  S.  Hanna 158                              ! 

A  Station  on  the  Underground  Railroad.     By  Mrs.  Florence  Bedford  J 

Wright 164                               ] 

Robert  White  McFarland.     By  Frank  S.  Brooks 170                               | 

So!'g  Writers  of  Ohio.     (Benjamin  Russel  Hanby.)     By  C.  B.  Gal-  I 

breath 180 

William  Allen  Trimble.     By  Mary  McArthur  Tuttle 225                              j 

Caleb  Atwater.     By  Clement  L.  MartzolflF 247                              | 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.      By  Mrs.  Maria  Ewing  Martin 272 

Soi  g   Writers   of   Ohio.     (Will   Lamartine   Thompson.)     By    C.    B. 

(Jalbrcath   291 

Tarhc,  the  Wyandot  Chief.     By  Dr.  Charles  E.  Slocum 313 

Colonel  John  O'Bannon.     By  Nelson  W.  Evans 319 

A   Rock  with  n  History.     By  Basil  Meek 328 

Twertieth    Annnal   Meeting   of   the   Ohio    State   Archaeological   and 

Historical  Society   330 

•  Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.     By  E.  L.  Taylor 356 

Tho  Underground  Railroad.     By  S.  S.  Knabenshue 396 

Powder  Magazme  at  Fort  Hamilton.     By  William  C.  Miller. 404 

Navigation  on  the  Muskingum.     By  Irven  Travis 408 

Darnell's   Leap   for  Life 425 

Sorg   Writers  of  Ohio.     (Coates   Kinney   and  H.  D.   L.   Webster.) 

By    C    B.    Galbreath 428 

Farewell  Song  of  the  Wyandot  Indians.     By  James  Rankins 442 

Note— Historical.     By   R.  W.    McFarland 443 



iv  Ohio.  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 


Origin    of   ihc    Phrase    "Keep   the    Ball    Rolling.'*     By    Thomas   J. 

Brown    444 

The  Indian   Mound,  Miamisburg,  Ohio 446 

Early    Cincinnati.    By   Joseph    Wilby 448 

Editprialana.    By  E.  O.  Randall 89,  216.  354,  464 

■  I- 



Albert  Shaw    2 

Horace    Mann    12 

Birthplace  6i  Horace  Mann 15 

President's  Residence  at  Antioch 19 

Monument  of  liorace  Mann  on  Antioch  Campus 26 

Bentley's  Lake   61 

Mr.  A.  C.  Ross,  Mrs.  Ross  and  Children 65 

Main  Street,  Zanesville,  Ohio,  in  1846 67 

Badge   of  Zanesville   Tippecanoe   Club 76 

Mr.  A.  C.  Ross  at  the  age  of  Seventy  Years 84 

Home  of  Alexander  Coffman  Ross,   Zanesville,   Ohio 86 

Ohio  Building,  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition,  1904 101 

William   F.   Burdell 102 

Hon.  Myron  T.  Herrick 108 

Hon.  John  W.  Noble 115 

Peace    Memorial,    Stone    and    Tablet,    Harrison-Tarhe    Peace    Con- 
ference      122 

Chief  Tarhe  —  The  Crane 133 

Mr.  Emil  Schlup  and  Log  Cabin 137 

Hon.  Benjamin  R.  Cowen 139 

Dr.   Robert   White  McFarland 17(» 

Fac-simile  of  Letter  Written  by  Kate  Hanby 181 

Hanby   Home  at  Westerville,   Ohio 187 

Otterbein  University,  Westerville,  Ohio 201 

Benjamin   Russel  Hanby — Portrait  and   Monument 213 

Hon.  Elroy  M.  Avery 216 

Gen.  William  Allen  Trimble 227 

Will   Lamartine   Thompson 294 

Fac-similc  of   Original    Manuscript   of   **Gathcring   Shells   from   the 

Sea   Shore"    296 

Residence  of  Will  L.  Thompson,  East  Liverpool,  Ohio 311 

Col.  John  O'Bannon 317 

Col.    John    O'Bannon 323 

A  Rock  with  .\  History 32& 

Governor  Herrick  and  party  at  Fort  Ancient 349 

Portage  or  Carrying  Place 360 

Waterway   from  St.  Lawrence  River  to  New  York  Harbor 364 

Route  traveled  by   Brule 369 


vi  Ohio.  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


Route  traveled  by  Brule  and  Grer.ollc 371 

Route   discovered   by   Nicolet 375 

Route  traveled  by  Joliet  and  his  Companions 370 

Route  discovered  and  explored  by  Marquette  and  Joliet 379 

Route  taken  by  Marquette  on  return  from  Illinois  River 381 

Route   traveled    by   LaSalle   from    Hamilton,    Ont.,    to    Lake   Chau- 
tauqua    383 

Route  traveled  by  French  from  Like  Chautauqua  to  Ohio 384 

Route  traveled  by  LaSalle  from  St.  Joseph  River  to  Chicago  River.  386 
Route  traveled  by  LaSalle  down  the  Mississippi  River  to  the  Gulf 

of  Mexico 889 

Routes  through  Ohio  and  Indiana  to  the  Mississippi  River 393 

Indians  in  Birch  Bark  Canoes 394 

Irven  Travis   408 

Coates  Kinney  428 

Indian  Mound  at  Miamisburg,  Ohio 446 

Map  of  the  City  of  Pekin 



Vol.  XIV.        JANUARY,  1905.  No.  I. 




Archaeological  and  Historical 




[On  August  26  and  27,  1903,  there  was  held  at  Shandon,  Butler 
County,  Ohio,  a  centennial  celebration  of  the  Congregational  Church  and 
community  of  that  place.  The  order  of  exercises  embraced  addresses 
by  the  Reverend  M.  P.  Jones,  Pastor  of  the  Church,  Mrs.  M.  P.  Jones, 
Mr.  Stephen  R.  Williams,  Mr.  Minter  C.  Morris,  Mr.  Stanley  M.  Roland, 
Mr.  Michael  Jones,  Miss  Edna  Manuel,  Dr.  W.  O.  Thompson,  Mr.  Murat 
Halstead  and  Dr.  Albert  Shaw.  The  proceedings  of  that  centennial  have 
not  been  published  and  it  is  through  the  courtiesy  of  Mr.  Albert  Shaw, 
the  editor  of  the  Review  of  Reviews,  that  we  are  herewith  permitted  to 
put  in  public  print  for  the  first  time  his  admirable  address  delivered  upon 
that  occasion.  Dr.  Albert  Shaw  was  born  in  Shandon,  Butler  County, 
Ohio,  July  23,  1857.  —  Editor.] 

As  this  centennial  occasion  has  from  time,  to  time  been  in 
my  thoughts,  I  have  found  one  idea  presenting  itself  in  a  more 
fixed  and  definite  way  than  any  other.  That  idea  is  the  sense  of 
gratitude  and  pride  we  ought  to  feel  in  being  the  sons  and  daugh- 
ters of  a  race  of  sterling  pioneers.  It  is  a  great  thing  to  found 
a  nation  or  a  state  or  a  worthy  community.  In  all  history  we  can 
discover  tfie  records  of  no  better  or  braver  people  than  the  men 
and  women  who  subdued  the  American  wilderness;  prepared  it 
to  be  the  home  of  millions  of  people  speaking  the  same  language 
and  possessing  the  same  kind  of  civilization,  and  left  to  us  the 
heritage  of  their  hope,  their  courage  and  their  faith. 

Our  ancestors  in  England  or  Wales,  or  Scotland  or  Ireland, 
or  Germany  —  or  whatever  other  ancient  land  —  may  have  been 
very  humble,  or  they  may  have  been  of  educated  or  even  of  aris- 

Vol.  XIV—1.  (1) 

2  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist^.  Society  Publications. 

tocratic  lineage.  We  are  willing,  indeed,  to  know  anything  about 
them  that  we  can  find  out.  But,  after  all,  for  most  Americans 
it  will  always  suffice  to  trace  their  ancestry  back  to  the  first  of 
their  forefathers  who  crossed  the  seas  and  cast  in  his  lot  with 
the  makers  of  this  new  world. 

Very  many,  perhaps  the  majority,  of  the  English  nobility 

do  not  run  their  pedigree  back  more  than  two  or  three  hundred 

years.     We  have,  on  the  other  hand,  a  great  many  families  in  this 

country  who  clearly  trace  their  descent  from  ancestors  who  helped 

^^^  create    our    original    Eastern 

^^^^K^^^^^  colonies  more  than  two  hun- 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^  dred  and  fifty  years  ago.     In 

^^^^Z^^^^^^^^^^         April  I    was    on    the 

^^^^    ^^^^^^^^^       James     River,  Virginia, 

^^^B         ^^^^^^^^^L      conferring  with  the  men  who 

^^^HJB  ^P^^^^^^^^H     are  four     years 

^^^B         ^i  ^^^^^^^H     hence   to  celebrate  the  three 

^^^H  H^^^^^^^^^^^^l  permanent               settle- 

^^^^^     ^^^^^^^^^^^^m  the    Spanish 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V  post  at  St.  Augustine.      New 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V  York     City     has               cele- 

^^^HL     ^^^^^^^^V  the  two 

^^^m^^^^^^^^^m  the 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^r  original                   Our 

^^^^^^^^^^^  oldest     Eastern     universities 

have     been      observing     the 

ALBERT    SHAW,    EniTOB    OF    REVIEW  .  * 

OF  REVIEWS  anniversaries     that     remmd 

us  of  the  devotion  to  educa- 
tion of  the  early  pioneers.  My  own  home  is  now  on  the  Hudson 
River,  and  the  highway  that  passes  my  house  was  opened  almost 
two  hundred  and  sixty  years  ago.  When  Washington  was  in 
camp  there,  during  the  Revolution,  the  village  was  already  much 
more  than  a  hundred  years  old. 

And  yel,  it  was  only  the  merest  fringes  of  our  great  country 
that  were  occupied  before  the  Revolutionary  period.  It  was  not 
until  after  the  Revolution  that  Ihe  great  movemeni  of  expansion 
set  in,  and  the  United  States  began  to  develop  in  earnest.     To 

The  Shandon  Centennial,  8 

some  of  us  who  have  been  in  the  habit  of  thinking  that  New  York 
and  New  England  are  comparatively  old  regions,  it  might  be 
interesting  to  call  to  mind  the  fact  that  in  the  East,  as  well  as 
in  the  West,  the  country's  development  has  been  principally  in 
the  past  one  hundred  years. 

Thus,  to  be  personal,  I  might  illustrate  by  saying  that  while 
two  of  my  four  great-grandfathers  were  pioneering  in  the  Ohio 
River  country,  the  other  two  had  gone  out  from  Massachusetts 
and  Connecticut  respectively  as  pioneers  to  help  open  the  then 
unbroken  wilderness  of  Vermont.  Northern  New  England  and 
Northern  and  Western  New  York  are  of  just  as  recent  develop- 
ment as  Ohio.  The  same  thing  is  true  of  almost  the  entire  area 
of  the  Southern  States.  There  were  settlements  along  the  tidal 
streams  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  along  the  coasts  and  the 
navigable  rivers  of  the  Carolinas  and  Georgia ;  but  there  was  little 
or  no  development  of  the  great  interior  areas  and  valleys  of  those 
States  until  well  after  the  Revolutionary  War. 

Our  own  ancestors,  who  came  to  this  particular  neighbor- 
hood, belonged,  therefore,  to  the  true  pioneering  generation.  The 
process  of  pioneering  went  on  subsequently  in  successive  waves 
until  it  reached  the  great  Mississippi  prairies,  the  plain  beyond 
the  Missouri ;  the  Rocky  Mountain  regions,  and  the  Pacific  coast. 
It  has  been  a  part  of  my  experience  to  have  seen  something  of  the 
methods  of  pioneering  in  Iowa,  the  Dakotas,  Montana,  and  other 
parts  of  the  West.  But  the  great  generation  of  American  pio- 
neers was  that  which  lived  and  worked  in  the  thirty  or  forty 
years  following  the  Revolutionary  War  —  the  period  before  rail- 
roads were  built,  and  before  river  and  lake  steamboats  had  come 
into  much  use. 

This  was  the  generation  that  floated  down  the  rivers  on  flat- 
boats,  and  that  crossed  the  mountain  passes  with  ox-teams  and 
antique  wagons.  Washington's  interest  in  Ohio  had  done  much 
to  give  the  region  fame,  and  the  circumstances  under  which  the 
colonies  had  ceded  their  northwestern  territories  to  the  Union 
had  left  several  of  them  with  lands  to  dispose  of,  either  as  free 
grants  to  Revolutionary  soldiers  or  else  as  bargains  to  home- 
seekers.  The  northwestern  ordinance,  forever  excluding  slavery 
from  the  country  north  of  the  Ohio  River,  had  its  influence  also 

4  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

in  helping  to  fix  the  character  of  the  people  who  chose  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  arduous  work  of  redeeming  this  region  from  its 
wilderness  condition  and  making  here  a  home  for  themselves 
and  their  posterity. 

Ohio  has  recently  had  a  great  centennial  Statehood  anniver- 
sary, and  there  have  already  been  numerous  local  celebrations. 
Much  has  been  written  and  much  has  been  said  by  way  of  a 
review  of  the  origins  of  this  great  commonwealth.  I  shall  not 
attempt  to  add  anything  on  that  score  of  an  historical  character. 
Surely  nature  was  lavish  in  her  gifts  to  this  beautiful  and  pro- 
ductive region  that  lies  west  of  the  Alleghanies  and  south  of  the 
Great  Lakes,  and  that  embraces  the  better- favored  side  of  the 
Ohio  River  valley,  with  its  marvelously  rich  tributary  valleys. 
But,  there  are  other  fair  and  rich  countries  —  some  of  them  fairer 
and  richer  even  than  this  —  that  lie  desolate  to-day  because  they 
have  lacked  the  right  kind  of  men.  They  have  needed  but  have 
not  found  men  with  brawn  and  brain  and  heart  to  wrest  wealth 
from  the  soil ;  to  utilize  the  forces  and  bounties  of  nature ;  and  to 
plant  those  seeds  of  social  life  and  of  religious  and  political  insti- 
tutions, that  count  for  more,  after  all,  than  fields  of  waving 
com  or  golden  grain. 

Last  week  I  was  wandering  over  the  rock-ribbed  pasture 
lands  of  old  Connecticut.  At  best  the  thin  covering  of  soil 
seemed  only  a  few  inches  deep.  In  lieu  of  fences,  the  tiny  fields 
were  separated  by  massive  granite  stone  walls,  blasted  and  hewn 
out  of  the  solid  rock,  or  else  heaped  up  with  giant  boulders  by 
those  Yankees  of  prodigious  industry  a  hundred  years  or  more 
ago.  They  raised  poor  crops,  those  hardy  farmers,  but  they 
planted  churches  and  schools,  and  they  produced  men  and  women. 
These  are  the  real  tests  of  the  greatness  of  a  community  or  a 
State.  If  rural  life  has  since  decayed  a  good  deal  in  those  New 
England  regions,  it  lives  and  flourishes  yet.  where  New  England 
has  been  transplanted,  in  the  Western  Reserve  of  Ohio,  in  Illi- 
nois, Iowa.  Michigan,  Wisconsin,  Minnesota,  Kansas  and  Ne- 
braska, Colorado  and  California. 

If  in  the  same  spirit  of  devotion  and  courage  those  New  Eng- 
land pioneers  had  perchance  made  their  farms  on  richer  soil,  they 
would  have  been  none  the  worse  for  it,  and  the  results  in  a  local 

The  Shandon  Centennial.  6 

sense  would  have  been  more  enduring.  They  built  up  men  and 
women  for  the  glory  of  the  nation  and  the  peopling  of  prairie 
States  yet  unborn.  But  in  thousands  of  instances  their  farms,  so 
painfully  redeemed  from  forest  and  from  rock,  have  now  relapsed 
to  a  state  of  wilderness,  where  some  gnarled  old  apple  tree,  in  the 
very  thick  of  a  dense  young  growth  of  scrub. oak,  birch,  spruce 
and  pine,  reminds  us  that  here  were  once  cleared  fields  and  orch- 
ards, thrifty  homesteads,  men  who  plowed  and  women  who  spun, 
all  for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  greatness  of  the  American  name. 

Only  a  hundred  years  ago  —  or  even  seventy-five  years  or 
fifty  years  ago  —  these  were  tidy,  decent  farms.  To-day  they  are 
lost  in  mile  after  mile  of  tangled  young  forest,  where  the  fox 
dwells,  where  the  wild  deer  has  come  back,  and  where  even  the 
wolves  and  panthers  are  likely  soon  to  reappear.  Of  course, 
within  a  few  miles  there  are  thriving  manufacturing  towns,  and 
there  is  progress  along  other  lines.  But  these  manufacturing 
towns  are  made  up  of  a  new  and  strange  population  of  polyglot 
origin ;  and  in  the  lesser  of  the  farming  hamlets,  there  remain  few, 
if  any,  who  would  care  to  celebrate  the  one-hundredth  or  the 
two-hundredth  anniversary  of  the  neighborhood,  or  who  possess 
either  the  knowledge,  the  reverence,  or  the  personal  interest  to 
save  the  tombs  of  the  stalwart  forefathers  from  neglect  and  decay. 

From  the  spectacle  of  these  deserted  New  England  farms, 
and  these  ruined  New  England  villages,  I  come  with  congratula- 
tion and  thanksgiving  to  greet  you.  my  friends  and  old  neighbors, 
and  to  rejoice  with  you  in  the  preservation  intact  of  our  own 
beautiful  Ohio  community.  It  has  not,  like  some  of  those  East- 
ern places,  forgotten  itself.  Its  farms  are  better  tilled  than  ever. 
Our  forefathers,  with  faith  and  devotion  akin  to  that  which  set 
a  beacon  light  for  the  world  on  the  hills  of  New  England,  had 
the  further  wisdom  and  good  fortune  to  pitch  their  tents  and 
make  their  abiding  place  where  the  soil  vvas  rich,  the  ramfall  was 
equable,  the  climate  was  wholesome,  and  the  geographical  situa- 
tion was  bound  to  give  permanence  and  continuity  to  the  work 
of  their  hands. 

When  they  cleared  the  land  in  this  valley,  they  knew  that  the 
conditions  were  such  as  to  give  long  and  abiding  prosperity  to 
the  neighborhood,  and  to  justify  at  least  a  part  of  their  descend- 

6  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

ents  in  remaining  here  to  maintain  the  high  character  of  the 
neighborhood's  life,  and  to  keep  the  memories  and  traditions  of 
the  men  and  women  of  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century 
from  lapsing  into  oblivion. 

They  were  large-minded  people,  who  from  the  very  first 
were  determined  to  possess  good  church  advantages,  good  school 
advantages,  and  a  home  life  made  the  more  dignified  and  refined 
by  good  houses  and  substantial  improvements.  They  were  peo- 
ple of  high  ideals  and  unbounded  self-respect. 

The  life  of  a  little  country  community,  when  it  is  stagnant 
and  listless  and  without  the  touch  of  idealism  and  other  worldli- 
ness,  is  about  the  pettiest  and  worst  of  all  possible  kinds  of  life. 
The  city,  even  with  its  darker  aspects  of  misery  and  vice,  stimu- 
lates the  mind  by  its  rush  and  roar  —  its  external  activities  —  its 
ever-changing  sensations  and  novelties.  But  the  dull,  dead,  rus- 
tic hamlet,  where  nobody  cares  for  anything  or  believes  in  any- 
thing beyond  the  gratification  of  a  few  sordid  material  wants,  is 
in  danger  of  sinking  to  a  lower  moral  level  than  the  slums  of  the 
great  towns.  We  all  know  that  there  are  such  depraved  neigh- 
borhoods, where  fair  skies  shinQ  on  scenes  of  natural  loveliness 
without  seeming  in  the  very  least  to  lift  up  the  minds  and  souls 
of  men  to  noble  thoughts  and  aspirations. 

It  is  not  in  a  spirit  of  pride  or  boastfulness  that  we  proclaim 
the  fact  that  ours  has  always  been  a  good  neighborhood  to  live 
in.  Its  superiority  has  been  due,  as  we  all  know,  primarily  to 
the  religious  and  intellectual  qualities  of  the  early  settlers,  and 
secondarily  to  those  distinctive  facts  that  made  the  community  so 
largely  homogeneous.  Narrow  sectarianism  has  been  a  blighting 
curse  to  many  a  small  community.  It  has  destroyed  all  unity  of 
feeling.  It  has  kept  the  people  from  forming  the  habit  of  co-oper- 
ation, and  from  developing  the  neighborly  spirit  which  is  so 
essential  for  the  best  pijrposes  of  local  life. 

The  greatest  boon  we  owe  to  our  noble  Welsh  pioneers  of 
this  valley  is  the  strong  undenominational  church  they  formed. 
It  was  more  than  a  church  —  it  was  a  veritable  center  of  light  and 
leading ;  a  focus  of  intelligence ;  a  nursery  of  patriotism ;  a  mother 
of  schools ;  a  patron  of  music ;  a  rallying  place  for  innocent  social 
life ;  a  teacher  of  the  art  of  public  speaking ;  a  rewarder  and  pro- 

The  Shandon  CentenniaL  7 

moter  of  eloquence  —  a  place  ever  hospitable  to  those  having  a 
message  to  the  heart  or  to  the  head,  from  the  great  outside  world. 

This  undenominational  church  —  which  called  itself  Congre- 
gational in  order  to  have  some  sisterly  relations  with  other  inde- 
pendent churches  —  readily  assimilated  Presbyterians,  Metho- 
dists, Baptists,  Episcopalians  or  Lutherans.  Its  influence  was 
benignant  and  its  spirit  was  tolerant  through  a  period  of  such 
sectarian  throat-cutting  in  many  another  place  as  our  younger 
friends  here  to-day  cannot  understand,  or  even  imagine.  Such  a 
church  attracted  and  held  good  preachers.  It  was  known  and 
respected  in  Cincinnati,  Oxford,  Columbus,  Oberlin  and  Cleve- 
land —  and  it  was  highly  appreciated  in  the  New  York  and  Boston 
headquarters  of  benevolent  and  missionary  societies.  It  was  also 
well  known  in  Wales,  and  in  the  other  Welsh  settlements  of 
this  country. 

What  more  can  be  said  for  the  church  and  community  in 
those  early  days  than  that  it  had  such  a  man  as  Dr.  Chidlaw  for 
its  spiritual  and  intellectual  leader,  and  that  it  so  held  itself  as  to 
be  worthy  of  such  leadership?  Wales,  as  you  all  know,  was  a 
famous  center  of  Bible  study  and  pulpit  eloquence  in  the  period 
which  furnished  the  chief  Welsh  emigration  to  this  country.  It 
was  in  that  regard  superior  even  to  Scotland.  A  finer  race  never 
•came  to  America  than  these  devout,  keen-witted  Welsh  folk.  I 
am  not  able  to  claim  any  blood  kinship  with  them ;  but  at  least  I 
may  hope  to  have  derived  benefit  from  close  association  with 
them  in  home  and  school  and  church,  and  to  have  inherited  some- 
thing of  what  my  father  gained  as  a  pupil  of  Dr.  Chidlaw  and 
of  other  distinguished  Welshmen  who  were  school-masters  here 
in  the  old  days. 

Thankful,  then,  we  all  should  be  for  the  circumstances  that 
"brought  here  in  the  early  period  men  of  such  force  of  mind  and 
character  as  to  leave  their  impress  through  a  rounded  century. 
These  men  believed  in  learning,  as  only  next  in  importance  to 
religion.  There  never  has  been  a  time  when  this  community  was 
not  prepared  to  transmit  a  considerable  degree  of  scholarship  and 
knowledge  of  books  to  the  rising  generation.  The  old-fashioned 
school-master,  such  as  our  fathers  knew,  was  an  educator  of  no 
mean  ability.    I  am  not  on  this  programme  as  local  historian,  and 

8  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

I  am  not  thoroughly  versed  in  the  earliest  annals  of  the  neighbor- 
hood ;  but  I  have  heard  of  a  number  of  men  of  masterly  minds 
who  taught  school  here  in  the  days  when  my  own  father,  for 
instance,  was  a  pupil. 

They  were  not  all  Welshmen.  A  young  man  named  Den- 
nison,  who  afterward  became  Governor  of  the  State,  was  one  of 
them,  and  I  believe  Congressman  Shields,  before  he  went  to 
Washington,  had  some  teaching  experience.  I  know  that  later 
on,  in  the  fifties  and  early  sixties,  there  were  teachers  of  marked 
culture  and  enthusiasm.  Among  these  were  Scott  and  MqClung, 
and  various  others. 

My  own  first  teacher  was  the  Rev.  Mark  Williams.  While 
he  was  fitting  older  boys  for  college,  he  was  looking  after  a  few 
children  who  were  too  small  to  go  to  the  district  school. 

It  was  his  brother-in-law,  the  lamented  James  A.  Clark,  who 
afterwards  prepared  me  to  enter  college  —  as  he  prepared  others 
of  you  —  and  to  whose  patience  and  thoroughness  I  have  always 
felt  myself  greatly  indebted.  In  the  old  days,  our  schools  at- 
tracted here  a  great  many  good  pupils  from  other  communities 
round  about,  and  gave  their  educational  beginnings  to  a  large 
number  of  able,  well-instructed  men. 

Just  now  the  educators  of  the  whole  country  are  giving  their 
attention  to  what  for  many  of  them  is  the  new  idea  of  uniting 
districts  and  consolidating  country  schools,  in  order  to  supply  a 
central  school  with  better  equipment  and  teaching,  and  with  a 
graded  system  such  as  one  finds  in  larger  towns  and  cities.  This 
very  thing  is  what  you  were  able  to  accomplish  fully  thirty  years 
ago,  when  the  old  district  schools  were  abandoned,  the  private 
high  school  superseded,  and  the  present  free,  graded  school  estab- 
lished. This  helped  to  sustain  and  continue  the  idea  of  a  well- 
ordered,  unified  neighborhood  that  had  been  fostered  from  the 
beginning  by  the  Church.  For  that  achievement  we  were  indebted 
to  such  energetic  and  able  citizens  as  Abner  Francis,  Griffith 
Morris,  Evan  Evans  and  others. 

The  tradition  of  scholarship  is  a  persistent  one  in  families 
and  communities.  There  are  good  things,  fortunately,  as  well 
as  bad  ones,  that  are  catching.  Ambition  to  study  and  to  learn 
is  one  of  these  good  things  that  may  become  endemic,  so  to  speak,^ 

The  Shandon  Centennial.  9 

in  a  neighborhood;  and  it  has  flourished  here  persistently  to  the 
fourth  and  —  in  some  families,  perhaps —  to  the  fifth  genera- 
tion of  those  who  came  here  in  the  beginning. 

Our  friends  of  Virginia  and  the  South  love  to  throw  all 
possible  glamour  about  the  conditions  of  life  in  the  earlier  days  of 
their  States.  They  glorify  their  ancestors  almost  as  if  those 
tobacco  planters  were  some  fabled  race  of  demigods.  They  were, 
indeed,  a  stanch,  noble  people;  and  the  Southerners  of  to-day 
honor  themselves  in  thus  clinging  to  the  memories  of  their  fore- 
fathers. Few,  if  any,  of  our  Ohio  pioneers,  could  or  did  live  in 
the  manner  of  the  cultivated  and  aristocratic  families  who  built 
stately  homes  on  the  navigable  rivers  of  tide-water  Virginia,  raised 
tobacco  by  slave  labor,  and  sent  their  own  ships  to  English  mar- 
kets. Our  farmers  raised  wheat  and  corn,  worked  in  the  fields 
with  their  own  hands,  and  helped  enlarge  the  area  of  cultivation 
by  clearing  away  the  heaviest  of  forests. 

But  it  is  all  the  more  to  their  credit  that  many  of  them  suc- 
cessfully kept  —  through  the  roughest  and  hardest  log-cabin 
period  of  their  pioneer  efforts  —  a  gentle  and  refined  side  to  their 
lives.  And  it  was  their  good  fortune  to  prosper  so  rapidly  and 
substantially  that  in  due  time  fhany  of  their  farm-houses  were  as 
large  and  substantial  as  all  but  the  very  best  of  the  Southern 
plantation  mansions.  For  tobacco  and  cotton  were  not  the  only 
profitable  cash  crops  of  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century. 
Cincinnati  in  those  days  was  dubbed  Porkopolis.  It  was  the 
greatest  meat  packing  and  shipping  center  in  the  world.  The 
flush  days  of  the  cotton  and  sugar  planters  of  Mississippi,  Ala- 
bama and  Louisiana  had  arrived ;  and  the  plantations  lived  and 
thrived  on  our  Ohio  flour  and  cured  meats. 

In  the  winter  and  spring  our  turnpikes  were  almost  impass- 
able for  the  long  droves  of  fat  hogs  waddling  marketwards 
reluctantly.  Thus  many  of  our  farmers  became  comparativdy  rich 
men,  and  thus  they  built  durable  and  even  stately  brick  houses, 
and  constructed  solid,  stone-ballasted  roads,  along  which  —  like 
golden  argosies  of  old  —  their  massive  corn-fed  treasures  moved 
safely,  without  danger  of  being  stuck  in  the  mire.  Less  pictur- 
esque, doubtless,  than  the  white-winged  fleets  that  served  the 
tobacco  planters  of  the  Virginia  shores,  or  the  smart,   square- 

10  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

rigged  ships  that  brought  riches  to  the  pious  New  England  fore- 
fathers who  trafficked  in  rum  and  slaves ;  not  majestic,  like  parad- 
ing elephants  in  gilded  trappings  on  occasion  of  some  pompous 
ceremonial  in  India ;  not  so  dignified,  nor  so  suggestive  of  poetry 
as  the  long  caravans  of  camels  that  bear  precious  fabrics  across 
Arabian  deserts ;  yet  worthy  of  all  honor,  and  to  be  named  with 
respect  on  this  occasion,  I  repeat,  is  the  hog  —  the  prime  factor  in 
our  community's  prosperity  for  half  or  three-quarters  of  a  cen- 
tury. Not  the  varieties  known  as  the  Virginia  razor-back  or  the 
Kentucky  shoat,  but  the  large-framed,  broad-beamed,  well- 
rounded  Ohio  hog  that  weighed  half  a  ton,  and  that  gave  ample 
bacon,  pork  and  lard  to  the  field-hands  of  the  down-river  planta- 
tions, while  providing  in  return  the  cash  that  bought  the  black 
silk  dresses  our  mothers  wore,  the  top-buggies  our  older  brothers 
drove,  and  the  pianos  and  organs  that  our  sisters  rejoiced  in. 

Through  the  more  recent  period  of  feverish  rush  to  the 
cities  that  has  in  many  regions  brought  country  life  to  a  condi- 
tion of  sad  decline  and  stagnation,  you  have  safely  passed.  You 
have  contributed  your  full  quota  of  young  men  and  women  to 
the  making  of  the  farther  West,  and  to  the  throbbing  activities 
of  the  business  and  professional  life  of  our  towns  and  cities. 
But  you  have  meanwhile  kept  the  old  neighborhood  funning  — 
all  decently  and  in  good  order. 

When,  after  years  of  absence,  we  of  my  family  came  back 
here  to  bury  our  beloved  mother,  we  were  comforted  by  the  sym- 
pathy of  a  host  of  friends  who  also  loved  her  and  had  not  for- 
gotten us.  When  later  I  came  here  for  a  day  or  two,  with  my 
wife,  there  was  all  the  welcome  of  a  real  home-coming  for  her, 
though  a  stranger.  It  has  always  been  so.  My  father,  also 
born  and  bred  here,  had,  as  a  very  young  man,  gone  to  practice 
medicine  in  newer  but  larger  communities  further  west.  He 
came  back  some  fifty  years  ago  with  his  family,  in  order  to  find 
healthful  surroundings  for  them.  Only  a  few  days  ago,  letters 
were  placed  in  my  hands  written  at  that  time  by  my  mother; 
and  they  show  how  hospitable  and  kindly  was  the  welcome  given 
here  to  this  New  England  girl.  I  have  no  hesitation  in  making 
these  personal  allusions,  because  this  is  an  intimate  occasion, 
\vhere  friends  are  conferring  with  one  another  and  where  th^ 

The  Shandon  Centennial,  11 

outside  world  has  no  interest  or  curiosity.  I  am  trying  merely 
to  illustrate  the  fact  that  the  neighborhood  life  has  been  abso- 
lutely unbroken  in  its  continuity.  Many  a  family,  readily  for 
itself,  bounds  the  local  life  of  the  century  now  past.  My  grand- 
father, whom  I  well  remember,  and  who  was  married  here  in  his 
early  manhood  to  Rebecca  Halstead,  was  born  in  1783,  and 
would  have  been  120  years  old  if  he  had  lived  to  attend  this 

The  future  of  our  country  communities  has  very  good  prom- 
ise. Communication  grows  easier,  through  the  multiplication  of 
railways  and  telegraph  and  telephone  lines.  Books,  periodicals 
and  newspapers  are  entirely  accessible,  and  somehow  they  are 
much  more  thoroughly  read  in  the  country  than  in  the  city.  The 
tide  has  turned,  it  would  seem,  and  there  is  less  rush  for  the 
towns,  and  better  appreciation  of  the  advantages  of  country  life. 
I  beg  you,  therefore,  who  still  call  this  place  home,  to  believe  in 
it  as  a  good  place  to  live  in  and  to  determine  to  make  it  ever 
better.  Let  it  continue  to  stand  pre-eminent  before  its  neighbor- 
ing communities  for  the  intelligence  and  character  of  its  people. 
Let  its  life  continue  to  center  around  the  church,  and  the  school, 
and  let  it  make  another  century  record  worthy  of  the  one  now 
complete  and  secure. 



[Mr.  Hubbell  is  a  member  of  the  Faculty  of  Berea  College,  Kentucky, 
and  was  formerly  a  professor  at  Antioch  College  of  which  Mr.  Horace 
Mann  was  president.  —  Kditor.] 

Ohio  is  the  favorite  daughter  of  the  Eastern  States.  The 
cannon  of  the  Revolution  had  scarcely  cooled  when  the  Ordinance 
of  1787  was  adopted,  and  sturdy  men  began  to  look  over  the  bor- 
ders of  Virginia,  Pennsyl- 
vania, New  York,  Connec- 
ticut and  Massachusetts  to, 
the  rich  land  of  the  great 

Many  of  Virginia's  sons 
went  by  way  of  Kentucky ; 
the  sons  of  the  Keystone 
State  crossed  over  the  moun- 
tains, and  dropped  down  the 
Ohio  River  on  flatboats ; 
while  the  sons  of  far  Con- 
necticut and  Massachusetts 
came  through  New  York  and 
down  by  Lake  Erie  to  estab- 
lish themselves  in  the  West- 
ern Reserve. 

Thus,  things  went  on  for 

HORACE  MANN  — FIRST  PKEsiDENT       ^alf  a  centurv,  with  new  set- 

OF  ANTIOCH  COLLEGE,  tlcrs   cvcF  pouriug  out   from 

the,  old   home   into   this   new 

State,  so  rich   in   natural   resources,   so  rapidly   developing,   so 

strong  in  the  enterprise  and  the  daring  spirit  of  its  people,  thai  in 

1824  Lafayette  called  it  "the  eighth  wonder  of  the  world."     In 

1850  the  population  had  reacheil  nearly  two  millions.     Cincinnati 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College,  18 

'was  a  city  of  1 16,000.  Cleveland  and  Sandusky  were  important 
lake  ports.  The  little  Miami  Railroad,  from  Cincinnati  to 
Columbus,  was  opened  in  this  year,  and  Columbus  felt  a  new 
spirit  of  enterprise. 

Education  had  kept  pace.  In  1802,  even  before  Ohio  was 
•definitely  set  oflF  as  a  state,  a  bill  was  passed  establishing  Ohio 
University,  at  Athens.  This  was  opened  in  1804.  Next,  Miami 
University  was  established  in  the  township  of  Oxford.  But  col- 
leges increased  most  rapidly  from  1835  to  1845,  reaching  by  1845 
more  than  twenty  denominational  institutions.  Within  the  next 
ten  years  eight  institutions  were  added ;  one  of  these  was  Antioch 
College.     Its  source  was  religious. 

Late  in  the  seventeen  hundreds,  a  great  religious  revival 
swept  over  the  United  States.  Its  eflfect  was  to  send  men  with 
tender  hearts  and  open  minds  to  their  Bibles  to  learn  the  truth. 
From  this  condition  arose  many  denominations,  and,  about  the 
time  Washington  was  entering  upon  his  second  term,  there  sprang 
up  in  North  Carolina,  Kentucky,  New  York  and  Vermont,  con- 
gregations of  believers  holding  the  Bible  as  their  "only  rule  of 
faith  and  practice,"  and  answering  to  no  other  name  than  Chris- 
tians. At  first  these  people  had  not  looked  with  favor  upon  an 
educated  ministry,  but  fifty  years'  experience  had  taught  them 
many  things  and  a  great  wave  of  educational  enthusiasm  swept 
over  the  country,  leaving  deep  in  their  hearts  the  determination 
to  found  a  college. 

It  was  supposed  that  the  institution  would  be  located  in  some 
pleasant  town  between  Buffalo  and  Albany,  on  the  highway  of 
travel  made  famous  by  the  Erie  Canal ;  but  Yellow  Springs,  Ohio, 
oflFered  special  advantages  in  central  location,  in  climate,  in 
money,  in  citizens,  and,  most  of  all,  in  its  leading  citizen.  Judge 
Mills,  who  gave  a  tract  of  twenty  acres  of  land  for  the  college 
campus,  and  contributed  liberally  of  his  money  for  the  founding 
of  the  institution.  He  laid  out  a  large  part  of  his  farm  in  town 
lots,  and  in  every  way  sought  to  promote  the  interests  of  the  town 
and  of  the  college.  He  was  a  broad-minded,  far-sighted  man, 
devoted  to  the  welfare  of  the  community  and  to  the  cause  of  edu- 
cation in  the  West.     Friends,  under  the  leadership  of  Elder  John 

14  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Phillips,  agent  for  the  college,  raised  within  the  borders  of  the 
State  nearly  $100,000. 

The  wheat  field  which  Judge  Mills  had  given  as  a  college 
campus  was  measured  off,  the  best  point  selected,  and  the  founda- 
tions of  the  college  buildings  were  laid.  But  other  things  besides 
the  buildings  were  in  the  making ;  the  process  of  construction  was 
slow,  being  hindered  by  many  uncertainties  and  insecure  arrange- 
ments, particularly  on  the  financial  side.  The  master-builder  had 
been  called  from  Massachusetts,  but  many  of  his  workmen  were 
of  slight  experience  and  the  undertaking,  for  that  time  and  place, 
was  a  great  one.  The  leaders  had  planned  largely,  and  they 
were  building  largely.  Their  ambitions  were  high,  and  with  the 
spirit  of  true  liberality  they  looked  the  country  over  to  find  a 
man  worthy  to  be  the  first  president  of  the  new  college. 

Head  and  shoulders  above  all  other  educators  in  the  land, 
stood  Horace  Mann,  of  Massachusetts.  He  had  developed  and 
established  there  the  common  school  system.  He  had  traveled 
in  Europe,  and  brought  home  ideas,  ideals  and  methods.  He  had 
enlisted  in  the  work  of  education  the  foremost  men  of  the  nation. 
At  his  call  Daniel  Webster,  Henry  Ward  Beecher,  Gov.  Andrews, 
John  Quincy  Adams,  Dr.  Channing,  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson,  Dr. 
S.  G.  Howe,  Rev.  Cyrus  Pierce,  Hon.  Henry  Wilson  and  R.  G. 
Wintrop,  leading  men  of  the  state  and  nation,  had  campaigned 
Massachusetts  for  education   from  one  boundary  to  the  other. 

Ohio  was  eager  for  the  best  things.  Its  eyes  wxre  con- 
tinually turned  to  New  England,  and  when  Horace  Mann  was 
finishing  his  second  term  in  Congress,  the  leaders  of  the  college, 
movement  in  Ohio  met  in  the  little  town  of  Enon,  near  the  pres- 
ent line  of  the  Big  Four  Railroad,  between  Springfield  and  Day- 
ton, and  named  Horace  Mann  as  their  first  president.  This  had 
not  been  done  without  many  an  anxious  thought  and  much  cor- 
respondence among  friends.  When  the  matter  was  first  men- 
tioned to  Mr.  Mann,  he  gave  it  slight  consideration,  but  with  the 
turn  in  political  affairs  and  with  the  renewed  ascendency  of  his 
interest  in  the  cause  of  education,  he  paused  and  pondered,  and, 
at  the  age  of  fifty-eight,  again  entered  on  the  work  of  a  pioneer 
in  education. 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College. 


The  founders  of  the  college  had  already  determined  that  the 
institution  should  be  co-educational  and  non-sectarian  in  charac- 
ter. It  remained  for  Mr.  Manii  to  interpret  and  apply  these  two 
great  principles.  He  really  undertook  to  apply  to  college  work 
his  ideals  of  public  school  education.  To  this  he  added  a  new 
interpretation  of  the  code  of  honor ;  the  practice  of  using  time 
more  wisely  than  in  many  other  colleges;  and  the  golden  rule  of 
practical  joking,  "Indulge  only  in  those  jokes  that  are  amusing 
to  both  parties."     With  a  wisdom  beyond  his  age  he  sought  to 

give  the  students  definite  instruction  and  discipline  in  observing 
the  laws  of  health,  hoping  that  the  years  in  college  would  estab- 
lish habits  which  would  conserve  the  vitality  of  youth. 

The  first  concern  of  the  institution  was  to  deal  with  spirit- 
ual value  as  the  basis  of  all  values,  and  to  this  was  added  the 
care  of  health,  the  economy  of  time,  and  the  whole  round  of 
gifts  and  graces,  including  dress  and  manners.  He  taught 
science,  to  give  a  mastery  of  natural  forces ;  but  he  dwelt  much 
upon  the  duties  that  were  owing  to  the  ideal  state,  insisting  that 

16  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

it  should  provide  for  the  largest  individual  .liberty  consistent 
with  the  general  good.  Every  student  was  his  brother's  keeper 
and  was  to  render  him  all  services  within  his  power,  but  he  was 
also  the  keeper  of  the  honor  of  the  State  and  his  was  the  duty 
of  keeping  its  banner  unstained  by  falsity,  dishonor  or  political 
corruption.  Mr.  Mann's  new  interpretation  of  the  code  of 
honor  among  college  students  held  that  the  ^reputation  of  each 
was  the  concern  of  all,  and  that  whoever  knew  of  a  serious  fault 
in  his  fellow  was  bound  to  acquaint  those  in  authority  with  it, 
in  order  that  the  student  might  be  reclaimed  from  the  error  of 
his  way.  He  held  that  the  doctrine  of  emulation  might  develop 
keenness,  but  that  it  would  produce  tricky  merchants  and  dis- 
honorable politicians.  The  ideal  was  sublime,  the  effort  to 
accomplish  it  heroic. 

He  had  put  his  hand  to  the  plow  and  would  not  turn  back, 
but  when  a  man  of  fifty-eight  undertakes  to  plant  himself  in 
wholly  new  surroundings  and  to  establish  not  only  himself  and 
family,  but  wholly  new  ideals  and  a  new  institution  in  a  young 
.and  growing  community,  he  is  attempting  a  work  for  which  even 
the  vigor  and  enthusiasm  of  youth  are  not  more  than  adequate. 
The  journey  from  Massachusetts  was  long  and  difficult.  At 
Antioch  nothing  was  in  readiness.  "Though  the  trustees  had 
resolved  that  the  college  should  be  opened  earJy  in  October,  yet, 
said  Mr.  Mann,  'nothing  was  ready  but  our  own  hearts,'  add- 
ing, *if  Adam  and  Eve  had  been  introduced  into  Paradise,  as 
^arly  in  the  progress  of  creation,  in  proportion,  as  the  faculty 
were  introduced  at  Antioch,  thev  would  have  been  created  about 
Wednesday  night.'  " 

The  days  of  summer  slipped  away;  it  was  now  October. 
Though  the  main  college  building  was  still  unplastered  and 
unheated,  the  leaders,  with  undaunted  courage,  determined  to 
launch  the  great  enterprise.  The  dedication  was  but  little  adver- 
tised, lest  the  village  could  but  half  accommodate  the  people  who 
would  come.  ( )ctober  5th  arrived,  and  more  than  three  thousand 
people  in  wagons,  in  carts,  on  horseback  and  afoot,  came  from 
far  and  near  to  the  dedication  of  this  joy  and  hope  of  the  Chris- 
tians. It  was  an  imposing  sight.  On  the  great  white  steps  at 
the  east  fronjt  sjtood  Horace  Mann,  tall,  erect,  refined,  intelligent. 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College.  17 

with  keen  eyes,  and  face  luminous  and  sensitive.  About  him 
stood  the  leaders  of  the  Christian  connection  and  of  that  part 
of  Ohio  —  judges,  lawyers,  and  officers  of  State  were  in  that 
little  group;  and  in  the  audience  were  sturdy  farmers,  dressed 
in  their  Sunday  best,  young  men  and  maidens,  mothers  with 
children  in  arms  —  a  miscellaneous  collection  from  far  and  near, 
all  waiting  to  see  what  would  happen  next.  But  for  the  great 
leaders  there  was  no  hesitation.  After  a  hymn  and  prayer.  Rev. 
John  Phillips,  a  man  of  God,  came  forward  with  three  Bibles, 
and  delivered  them  to  Mr.  Mann  with  these  words:  "In  the 
name  of  the  Great  God,  I  present  these  to  you  as  the  Constitu- 
tion of  the  world.  1  pray  that  you,  and  those  under  your  care, 
may  be  guided  by  their  heavenly  teachings,  and  made  better  by 
their  counsels."  Horace  Mann  answered  thus,  in  manly  words 
of  high  purpose  and  unfailing  faith :  "Did  time  and  occasion 
permit,  I  might  give  myself  free  scope  to  enumerate  and  enlarge 
upon  the  grand  characteristics  and  prerogatives  of  this  volume 
of  the  sacred  Scriptures ;  I  might  speak  of  the  venerableness  of 
its  antiquity ;  of  the  sublimity  of  its  eloquence ;  of  the  splendor 
of  its  poetry,  whose  words  shine  out  as  though  precious  stones 
had  been  scattered  over  the  page;  of  its  touching  pathos;  of  its 
precepts  and  examples  of  wisdom  and  truth,  and  its  inspirations 
of  devotion  and  love ;  but  in  this  pressure  and  urgency  of  the 
hour  it  seems  more  fitting  that  I  should,  so  far  as  I  am  able, 
accumulate  all  excellences  in  one  phrase,  concentrate  all  eulo- 
giums  into  a  single  expression ;  ay,  sweep  the  horizon  of  time, 
and  of  eternity,  too,  gathering  their  glories  into  one  refulgent 
blaze,  and  say  that  it  is  a  book  which  contains  the  truths  that 
are  able  to  make  men  wise  unto  salvation." 

"Now,  sir,  no  one  knows  better  than  yourself  thai  a  single 
institution  cannot  compass  all  purposes.  As  our  college  is  not 
to  be  a  theological  or  divinity  school,  we  do  not  propose  to  incul- 
cate creeds,  articles  or  confessions  of  faith;  but  we  do  intend, 
and,  with  the  blessing  of  God,  we  do  hope,  to  train  our  pupils  to 
a  practical  Christian  life,  and  to  make  divine  thoughts  and  con- 
templations become  to  them,  as  it  were,  their  daily  bread.** 
These  exercises  occurred  at  ten  o'clock. 
Vol.  XIV  -2. 

18  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


At  twelve  o'clock  a  procession  was  formed,  which  moved 
into  the  college  chapel,  a  spacious  apartment  seating  fifteen  hun- 
dred people.  After  a  hymn  by  the  choir,  Rev.  Isaac  Walter 
delivered  to  the  President  the  charter  and  keys  of  the  institution. 
A  man  of  large  mold,  he  voiced  in  noble  words  the  hope  of  the 
Christians  for  this  great  institution,  and  their  ambition  "that  its 
light  might  continue  to  attract  the  seekers  after  truth  and  the 
lovers  of  duty  until  it  should  shed  its  radiance  on  the  evening 
of  the  world." 

It  was  a  great  occasion,  but  Horace  Mann  was  worthy  of 
it  all.  He  saw  a  beginning,  which,  stretching  out  into  the  centu- 
ries, would  grow  to  the  largest  plans  and  hopes.  In  thrilling 
word  he  dedicated  the  building  to  the  glory  of  God  and  the  serv- 
ice  of  man.  I  have  heard  a  few  inaugural  addresses  and  I  have 
read  many  more,  but  not  one  that  equals  the  inaugural  address 
of  Horace  Mann.  Throughout  its  thrilling  words  were  tuned 
to  the  grand  key,  **God,  Duty,  Humanity."  He  saw,  as  with  a 
prophet's  vision,  the  great  opportunity,  and  voiced  it  in  noble 
words  to  men  who  were  to  help  him  build  it  into  the  life  of  the 
great  new  West! 

"And  a  youthful  community  or  State  is  like  a  child.  Its 
bones  are  in  the  gristle,  and  can  be  shaped  into  symmetry  of 
form  and  nobleness  of  stature.  Its  heart  overflows  with  gen- 
erosity and  hope,  and  its  habits  of  thought  have  not  yet  been 
hardened  into  insoluble  dogmatism.  This  youthful  Western 
world  is  gigantic  youth,  and  therefore  its  education  must  be  such 
as  befits  a  giant.  It  is  born  to  such  power  as  no  heir  to  an  earthly 
throne  ever  inherited,  and  it  must  be  trained  to  make  that  power 
a  blessing  and  not  a  curse  to  mankind.  With  its  mighty  frame 
stretching  from  the  Alleghanies  to  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and 
with  great  rivers  for  arteries  to  circulate  its  blood,  it  must  have 
a  sensorium  in  which  all  mighty  interests  of  mankind  can  be 
mapped  out ;  and,  in  its  colossal  and  Briarean  form,  there  must 
be  a  heart  large  enough  for  worlds  to  swim  in.  Wherever  the 
capital  of  the  United  States  may  be,  this  valley  will  be  its  seat 
of  empire.  No  other  valley  —  the  Danube,  the  Ganges,  the  Nile 
or  the  Amazon  —  is  ever  to  exert  so  formative  an  influence  as 
this  upon  the  destinies  of  men ;  and,  therefore,  in  civil  polity,  in 

Horace  Matin  and  Aniioch  College, 


ethics,  in  studying  and  obeying  the  laws  of  Gcxl,  it  must  ascend 
to  a  contemplation  of  a  future  and  enduring  reign  of  beneficence 
and  peace. " 

But  no  teacher's  life  can  be  always  on  the  mountain  top.  The 
tables  in  the  dining  hall  were  cleared,  and  here  examinations  for 
entrance  to  college  began.  Out  of  the  uneven  company  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  who  presented  themselves,  eight  persons  were 
ranked  as  freshmen,  while  all  the  others  entered  lower  classes. 

And  so  Horace  Mann's  great  work  for  Ohio  began.  The 
professors  who  came  to  the  West  to  do  college  work  found  them- 


selves  busy  in  sorting  and  arranging  this  company,  nearly  all  of 
whom  were  busy  with  preparatory  subjects.  But  they  went  to 
the  work  with  high  enthusiasm.  And  well  they  might!  Here 
were  ministers  who  had  given  up  their  parishes  to  gain  an  edu- 
cation. Men  who  had  thought  their  life  course  already  deter- 
mined, and  who  had  settled  dowri  and  begun  to  rear  families, 
gathered  their  belongings  together  and  moved  to  Yellow  Springs, 

20  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

to  garner  the  fruits  of  knowledge  under  the  guidance  of  this 
great  apostle  of  education.  It  was  a  slow  process,  but  with  a 
heart  of  love,  with  unfailing  patience,  and  with  all  the  richness 
of  personal  magnetism  and  wide  experience,  Horace  Mann  and 
his  devoted  colleagues  gave  themselves  to  the  work  of  enduing 
this  company  with  life  and  power. 

Although  the  Christians  had  already  announced  as  the  lead- 
ing principle  of  the  institution  the  non-sectarian  and  co-educa- 
tional ideals,  yet,  for  most  of  them,  the  non-sectarian  ideal  was 
only  that  all  might  become  Christians.  As  for  the  co-educational 
ideal,  it  was  still  in  the  experimental  stage. 

To  Mr.  Mann's  surprise  and  disappointment,  he  found  him- 
self restricted  in  all  quarters  save  with  the  students.  Many  of 
the  ministers  who  came  there  to  co-operate  in  the  work  of  the 
institution  were  unable  to  realize  the  plan  which  he  had  been 
asked  to  finish  and  make  eflfective.  He  was  an  educated  man, 
a  person  of  rapid  action,  impatient  of  delay,  and  of  great 
resources  in  bringing  things  to  pass.  They  were  not  accus- 
tomed to  the  surroundings  and  the  spirit  of  labor,  nor  to  the  rapid 
method  by  which  he  had  wrought  all  the  large  things  which  he 
had  already  accomplished.  Soon  distrust  began  to  be  felt  in  the 
hearts  of  the  ministers  in  the  smaller  churches.  It  spread  far 
and  wide,  and  he  found  himself  growingly  restricted.  But  there 
.  were  two  obstacles  that  were  sufficient  to  discourage  the  stoutest 
heart  —  lack  of  money  and  conflict  of  authority.  Bills  began  to 
come  in  much  more  rapidly  than  the  money  with  which  to  pay 
them.  A  committee  was  called  to  examine  the  accounts  of  the 
institution,  and,  after  sitting  almost  steadily  for  forty  hours,  they 
thoroughly  satisfied  themselves  that  there  were  no  satisfactory 
records  of  the  debts  of  the  institution.  Representatives  of  the 
college  were  sent  to  the  various  banking  institutions  at  Spring- 
field, Xenia  and  other  cities  near  at  hand,  to  inquire  what  paper 
was  held  against  the  college.  After  a  time,  a  somewhat  unsatis- 
factory list  of  claims  was  made  out,  but  this  working  in  the  dark 
with  reference  to  debts  against  the  college  continued  until  the 
institution  was  sold  by  the  sheriflF. 

The  conflict  of  authority  grew  out  of  the  peculiar  form  of 
the  organization,  which  left  in  the  hand  of  the  Superintendent 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College,  21 

the  many  questions  of  policy  and  administrative  detail  which  in 
this  day  would  without  question  pass  into  the  hands  of  the  Presi- 
dent. This  conflict  of  authority  produced  continual  irritation 
and  misunderstanding.  Mr.  Mann  was  not  really  able  to  build 
in  the  small  way  which  these  men  demanded  of  him,  and  he 
lacked  the  patience  and  insight  to  deal  with  them  according  to 
their  limitations. 

The  story  of  Mr.  Mann's  work  is  one  of  sunshine  and 
shadow.  The  high  hope. and  inspiration  and  courage  and  pa- 
tience of  this  man  were  marvelous.  The  young  people  were 
open-minded  and  teachable.  Many  were  crude  and  in  some 
respects  uncouth,  but  their  hearts  were  rich  and  their  aspirations 
were  high.  They  may  have  lacked  the  best  ideals,  but  it  was 
these  they  were  seeking,  and  within  the  year  the  company  that 
Horace  Mann  and  his  fellow-laborers  had  met,  were  transformed. 
Love,  kindness  and  gentlemanly  behavior  had  been  instilled,  and 
the  aspirations  of  the  college  group  had  been  turned  into  new 
channels.  But  it  had  cost  hardships  not  a  few.  There  was  a 
kind  of  raw  democracy,  which  tended  to  a  constant  leveling 
down.  All  the  little  arts  and  refinements  of  cultivated  life  were 
looked  upon  as  so  many  earmarks  of  a  supercilious  aristocracy. 
Stools  were  used  for  seats,  and  when  some  of  the  ladies  of  the 
President's  household  brought  chairs,  their  action  was  regarded 
as  extreme  and  unreasonable.  Napkins  found  no  place,  and  the 
effort  to  secure  clean  plates  for  the  pie  was  made  a  matter  of 
dispute  and  contest. 

To  aid  in  instruction,  Horace  Mann  had  brought  his  nephew, 
C.  F.  Pennell,  and  his  niece,  Rebecca  Pennell,  two  well  educated, 
finely  trained,  Massachusetts  teachers.  All  the  other  officers  and 
teachers  of  the  institution  were  selected  by  the  Superintendent 
and  the  local  trustees,  upon  little  or  no  consultation  with  Mr. 
Mann.  Bookkeeping  had  been  advertised  as  one  of  the  branches, 
and  the  man  selected  to  teach  it  had  never  studied  it  a  day  in  his 
life,  but  the  Board  had  felt  that  he  would  be  a  good  man  because 
he  represented  certain  religious  ideals  for  which  they  were  jeal- 
ous.    Like  incidents  were  of  frequent  occurrence. 

The  deepest  and  darkest  of  all  the  trials  which  fell  on  Hor- 
ace Mann  was  the  great  spirit  of  doubt  and  distrust  growing  out 

22  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  the  sectarianism  which  was  called  non-sectarian,  but  which 
had  its  set  of  definite  beliefs  and  requirements  that  were  as  inex- 
orable as  any  Thirty-nine  Articles  that  were  ever  penned.  Mr. 
Mann's  motives  were  impugned,  and  the  ignorance  and  intoler- 
ance which  failed  to  understand  him  embarrassed  his  work  on 
every  hand. 

But  there  is  another  side  to  the  picture.  Though  the  con- 
test had  cost  him  many  a  heart  throb  and  many  a  waking  hour, 
the  men  who  wronged  him  so  'sadly  believed  in  their  own  hearts 
that  he  had  as  sadly  wronged  them.  They  charged  him  with  hav- 
ing sold  out  the  Christian  interests  to  Unitarian  friends  in  the 
East.  They  believed  that  his  interpretation  of  non-sectarianism 
was  permeated  with  rank  infidelity.  They  thought  that  his  demand 
for  higher  educational  standards  for  students  and  teachers  was 
only  that  he  might  bring  Eastern  friends  of  Unitarian  faith  to 
displace  the  sons  and  daughters  of  their  neighbors  and  friends. 
However  deep  may  have  been  his  trials,  theirs  were  no  less  deep. 
At  many  a  family  altar,  and  in  many  a  pastor's  prayer,  a  cry 
went  up  to  God  that  He  might  save  the  faith  of  the  Christians 
and  bring  to  naught  the  counsels  and  plans  of  this  strong  man, 
who  had  proved  untrue  to  the  trust  they  had  placed  in  him.  But 
the  struggle  grew  more  bitter.  Mr.  Mann  took  a  stand  against 
them.  He  was  strong,  resourceful  and  aggressive;  they  were 
less  so.  The  friends  of  his  early  manhood  were  loyal,  every  one 
feeling  that  his  was  a  mission  from  God,  who  wrought  mightily 
to  accomplish  His  purpose  through  Horace  Mann. 

The  institution  was  practically  bankrupt  when  Mr.  Mann 
entered  upon  his  work  as  President.  Though  by  the  plan  of 
organization,  he  was  in  no  way  responsible  for  the  financial  man- 
agement, yet  it  is  evident  that  until  the  matter  was  pressed  upon 
him,  he  had  given  so  little  attention  to  the  financial  standing  of 
the  institution  as  not  to  show  ordinary  business  prudence.  Those 
who  had  the  construction  in  charge  had  given  notes  in  many 
quarters,  and  kept  no  record  of  them.  Agents  had  been  sent  to 
solicit  funds  throughout  the  Christian  Connection,  but  with  the 
customary  negligence  of  the  time  no  records  were  kept,  and  con- 
tributions were  not  sent  promptly  to  the  college.  As  the  financial 
stress  became  greater,  more  agents  were  employed,  and  some  of 

Horace  Mann  and  AfUioch  College.  28 

these  received  large  commissions,  which,  with  their  traveling 
expenses,  materially  reduced  the  funds  collected.  Worse  still, 
the  institution  was  founded  on  a  scholarship  plan,  which,  in  the 
very  nature  of  things,  was  fatal.  The  holder  of  a  $ioo  scholar- 
ship was  promised  that  he  might  keep  one  student  in  the  college 
free  of  tuition  perpetually.  Many  of  these  scholarships  were 
represented  only  by  notes,  and  it  came  to  be  understood  that  the 
giver  would  never  be  required  to  pay  the  principal  so  long  as  the 
interest  was  promptly  paid.  In  some  cases  there  was  not  even 
a  note,  but  simply  the  promise  of  some  well-to-do  man  to  help  the 
college.  There  is  little  wonder  that  such  a  financial  plan  proved 

The  institution  was  steadily  running  behind ;  salaries  were 
unpaid,  and  bills  were  accumulating  far  more  rapidly  than  dona- 
tions. From  time  to  time  new  claims  would  appear.  There 
seemed  to  be  no  hope  of  adjustment  except  assignment;  accord- 
ingly, steps  were  taken  to  that  end,  and  on  the  twentieth  day  of 
April,  1859,  the  institution  was  sold  in  Cincinnati,  O.,  by  Hon. 
John  Kebler,  Master  Commissioner,  for  the  sum  of  $40,200.  It 
was  "knocked  off"  to  the  only  bidder,  Moses  Cummings,  for 
Frank  A.  Palmer,  of  the  Broadway  Bank,  New  York  City,  a 
member  of  the  Christian  denomination.  Later,  Mr.  Palmer 
agreed  to  turn  it  over  to  a  close  board,  consisting  of  Josiah 
Quincy,  Charles  E.  Bidler,  Eli  Fay,  Artemus  Carter  and  Thomas 
McWhinney.  At  the  same  time  he  surrendered  his  claim  of 
$18,000,  which  thus  became  his  gift  to  the  new  college.  These 
men  prepared  articles  of  incorporation,  and  in  that  form  duly 
carried  on  the  institution  until  the  succeeding  June,  when  a  full 
Board  of  Trustees  was  appointed  under  the  new  charter.  The 
tuition  was  raised  and  the  general  management  of  the  institution 
'was  very  much  the  same  as  before,  except  that  closer  attention 
was  given  to  finances. 

The  new  Antioch,  free  from  its  old  promises  to  pay  when 
there  was  nothing  to  pay  with,  and  its  old  false  hopes,  built  on 
a  speculation,  in  its  way,  as  wild  as  that  of  the  South  Sea  Bubble, 
was  formally  opened,  and  Horace  Mann  looked  forward  to  a  few 
years  of  joy,  comfort  and  triumph  in  this  educational  child  of  his 
old  age,  developing  in  the  new  West,  with  new  opportunities  and 

24  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

new  hopes,  surrounded  by  a  fresh,  strong  civilization,  somewhat 
crude  it  is  true,  but  virile  and  promising.  For  him  this  was 
not  to  be! 

For  months  preceding  the  Commencement  of  1859,  ^^• 
Mann  had  been  giving  himself  with  the  strength  ot  his  whole 
nature  to  the  effort  of  adjusting  the  financial  affairs  of  the  insti- 
tution. It  was  seen  at  last  that  assignment  was  the  only  course, 
and  with  tireless  energy  he  labored  to  organize  a  new  company 
of  friends  to.  take  hold  of  the  institution  and  carry  it  on  after 
assignment.  The  earlier  weeks  of  summer  were  spent  in  this 
way,  and  soon  after  Commencement  he  found  himself  prostrated 
with  fever.  It  did  not  seem  serious,  but  his  health  was  failing. 
On  the  morning  of  the  second  of  August,  the  physicians  an- 
nounced that  he  had  but  a  few  hours  to  liv6.  With  steady 
courage  he  called  about  him  his  students  and  friends,  some  forty 
in  number,  and  gave  to  each  one  the  caution  or  encoiuragement 
which  he  felt  to  be  the  special  need  of  the  hour.  It  was  near 
sunset,  and  he  was  heard  to  say,  faintly,  "Now  I  bid  you  all  good- 
night!" .  .  .  The  great  heart  ceased  to  beat  —  Horace  Mann 
was  dead. 

The  whole  community  was  stricken.  One  hundred  of  the 
students  came  from  their  summer  homes  to  take  a  last  look  at 
the  face  of  him  whom  they  loved  and  honored.  On  the  day  of 
burial  a  great  concourse  of  men  and  women  came  to  pay  the  last 
I  sad  tributes  of  respect  and  affection.  A  hymn  was  sung  by  the 
choir  of  the  village  church  where  he  used  to  worship.  Prayer 
was  offered  by  Rev.  H.  I.  Nye,  and  the  Rev.  Eli  Fay  spoke  ear- 
nest and  stirring  words  in  testimony  of  Mr.  Mann's  great  worth 
and  the  mighty  work  he  had  undertaken  and  carried  forward 
in  Ohio. 

A  year  later  his  body  was  disinterred  and  removed  to  the 
Old  North  Burial  ground,  at  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  laid  in  eternal 
rest  beside  his  first  wife,  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Messer,  once  Presi- 
dent of  Brown  University. 

But  what  are  the  tangible  results  of  Horace  Mann's  work  in 
Ohio?  Like  the  influence  of  the  sunlight  as  it  plays  on  a  thou- 
sand hills,  or  the  dew  as  it  blesses  the  varied  landscape,  these 
influences  are  hard  to  gather  and  to  name.    Horace  Mann  worked 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College. 


out  for  Ohio,  and  for  our  great  Middle  West,  some  of  the  mar- 
velous problems  which  have  helped  to  make  the  Ordinance  of 
1787  more  than  a  high-sounding  phrase  of  campaign  orators. 
He  taught  such  an  interpretation  of  non- sectarian  ism  as  has  been 
a  blessing  to  the  great  people  of  our  State  and  far  away  to  the 
westward.    He  did  much  to  fix  the  rank  and  standing  of  women 

in  co-educational  instilulions.  But,  most  of  all,  he  and  his  col- 
leagues gave  to  Antioch,  and  to  the  wide  territory  since  Influ- 
enced by  her,  those  ideals  of  scholarshi]),  devotion  to  duty  and 
interest  in  the  public  welfar^.  which,  through  his  students  and 
by  his  writint;s,  have  been  wrought  into  schools  from  Ohio  to 

26  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Altogether  apart  from  Mr.  Mann's  visible  work  in  the  insti- 
tution, may  be  found  agencies  which  he  set  in  operation,  whose 
influence  only  eternity  can  measure.  It  was  a  great  thing  for 
the  new  West  that  a  high  standard  of  scholarship  should  be 
placed  before  her  sons  and  daughters,  and  that  a  few  of  them, 
trained  by  "teachers  with  the  discipline  of  West  Point  and  the 
conscience  of  the  Massachusetts  Normal  School,"  should  be  sent 
out  into  every  comer  of  the  State  and  ultimately  to  the  farthest 
boundaries  of  the  nation,  with  the  sound  scholarship  and  the  love 
of  truth  that  never  failed. 

Mr.  Mann's  reputation  as  a  great  apostle  of  education  gave 
his  opinions  greater  weight  than  those  of  almost  any  other  man 
in  the  country.  As  a  result,  the  most  radical  educational  ideas 
were  received  from  him  with  respect,  and  he  carried  forward 
the  practical  embodiment  of  co-education  and  non-sectarianism 
as  few  other  educators  could  have  done.  He  went  into  every 
corner  of  the  State  and  into  the  great  West,  and  by  public 
addresses  and  personal  contact  kindled  in  the  minds  of  thousands 
of  the  young  people  a  devotion  to  truth  and  duty  which,  in  their 
old  age,  still  holds  its  inspiration. 

But,  with  due  allowance  for  all  other  things,  Mr.  Mann's 
greatest  work  in  the  West  was  done  in  Antioch  and  through 
Antioch.  Many  of  his  students  have  followed  his  ideals  with  a 
high  devotion,  and  have  made  them  living  forces  in  education, 
particularly  in  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Missouri  and  California. 
In  the  great  work  that  Dr.  Harris  did  in  St.  Louis  none  sup- 
ported him  more  loyally  and  none  contributed  more  largely  in 
patience  and  faith,  in  enthusiasm  and  the  vision  of  truth,  than 
the  Antioch  trained  men  and  women. 

Horace  Mann's  life  at  Antioch  was  full  of  petty  annoyances, 
grievous  disappointment  and  heart  sacrifices,  but  at  the  same 
time  it  was  rich  in  victory  for  the  cause  in  which  he  labored.  In 
those  years  he  wrought  mightily  for  the  higher  education  and 
elevation  of  woman.  He  demonstrated  that  men  and  women  can 
be  educated  together  with  profit  to  .intellect  and  to  morals.  He 
gave  an  interpretation  of  non-sectarianism  which  was  wholly 
new  to  the  thought  of  his  time.  He  showed  that  conduct  and 
character  are  the  central  elements  in  the  intellectual  and  moral 

Horace  Mann  and  Antioch  College.  27 

life.  Greater  than  all,  in  those  six  years  he  stamped  upon  hun- 
dreds of  young  people  such  high  ideals  and  touched  them  with 
such  glowing  inspiration  that  their  influence  was  always  to  count 
mightily  for  the  highest  and  best.  Far  and  near  he  stimulated 
thousands  of  people  to  nobler  thinking  and  higher  living. 

After  his  death  friends  carried  on  as  best  they  might  the 
work  which  he  had  undertaken.  Willing  hands  were  found  and 
tender  hearts  and  true,  but  the  great  master  spirit  was  gone. 
The  college  has  undergone  many  hardships,  and  its  work  at  times 
has  suffered  sorely,  but  still  there  are  found  signs  of  the  old 
ideals  and  there  breathes  yet  about  its  spacious  halls  something 
of  the  large  devotion  to  truth,  of  the  steady  following  of  science, 
of  the  earnest  love  of  learning,  and,  most  of  all,  of  that  large- 
minded  devotion  to  truth  which  has  gone  so  far  to  make  ours  the 
land  of  free  thought  and  of  free  speech.  The  spirit  of  the  real 
Antioch  could  never  be  kept  within  bounds.  It  must  have  a  field 
proportionate  to  the  high  ideals  and  the  broad  range  of  its 

"The  real  Antioch  promptly  slipped  the  fetters  of  the  little 
Ohio  town.  It  took  possession  of  great  hearts  in  great  commu- 
nities, backed  by  great  commonwealths.  A  non-sectarian,  co- 
educational, co-racial  war-cry  became  the  bugle  notes  that  gave 
success  to  Ann  Arbor,  Cornell  and  the  long  line  of  State  Univer- 
sities that  have  come  to  be  in  the  Western  States  since  Antioch 
was  born.  .  .  .  Whatever  becomes  of  the  Yellow  Springs 
Antioch,  the  Antioch  of  Horace  Mann  is  one  of  the  greatest  edu- 
cational successes  of  the  century."* 

♦  Rev.  Jenkin  Lloyd  Jones,  in  New  Unity. 



[Col.  W.  J.  Armstrong  was  inspector  of  the  United  States  consulates 
under  the  administrations  of  President  Grant.  He  is  the  author  of  "Siberia 
and  the  Nihilists,"  "The  Heroes  of  Defeat,"  etc.  —  Editor.] 

The  Mound  Builder  is  still  a  mystery.  His  story  has  not  been 
told.  He  is  not  yet  intelligibly  tangent  to  any  known  race.  He 
is  not  only  prehistoric,  but  unconnected.  His  clues  are  shy  and 
evasive,  lacking  the  thread  of  either  written  speech  or  hiero- 
glyphic memorials.  His  silence  is  impressive.  He  is  the  Pelas- 
gian  of  the  Western  World,  without  articulate  voice  to  reach  his 
successors.  On  the  Latin  theory,  omne  ignotum  pro  magnifico, 
he  tends  in  popular  fancy  to  enlargement  and  idealization.  Some- 
thing, however,  is  being  concretely,  if  slowly,  learned  of  him. 
For  a  century  or  more  he  has  been  studied  empirically  and  super- 
ficially in  these  western  valleys  along  the  great  Mississippi  basin. 
Generations  of  the  early  modern  settlers  here,  the  pioneers  of  the 
woods,  and  their  successors,  the  cultivators  of  the  soil,  looked 
with  inquiring  wonder  on  his  huge  traces,  his  burial  tumuli,  his 
gigantic  earth-works,  his  implements  of  flint  and  diorite.  Then 
they  gave  him  up  as  an  unresolved  and  impossible  problem.  They 
had  dimly  heard,  however,  that  he  was  an  "Aztec,"  or  '*Toltec," 
or  possibly  a  Tartar.  And  learned  investigation  has  not  pro- 
ceeded much  further.  The  scholar  is  still  a  fumbling  sciolist, 
dealing  with  the  now  mute  inhabitant,  who,  in  the  twili.c:ht  cen- 
turies, settled  down  here  amid  the  mysterious  forests.  Or,  who 
knows,  he  may  have  been,  like  the  forest  themselves,  autochthon- 
ous —  the  Adam  and  Eve  of  the  Occident  ? 

But,  as  has  been  intimated,  some  progress  has  been  made  in 
the  knowledge  of  this  misty  and  elusive  denizen  of  the  early 
wilds.  The  unearthing  and  inspection  of  his  remains  in  recent 
years  having  thrown  new  light  upon  his  habits  and  customs,  pos- 
sibly, his  grade  in  civilization.     As  is  fitting,  in  the  region  where 


Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.  21> 

the  evidences  most  abound,  Ohio  has  taken  the  lead  in  this  more 
minute  and  scientific  search ;  the  work  being  undertaken  here,  as 
in  other  sections  of  the  country,  under  the  direction  of  the  Ohio 
State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society,  whose  field  examina- 
tions have  been  latterly  conducted  by  Professor  W.  C.  Mills, 
curator  of  the  Society  and  to  the  Museum  of  the  State  University. 

I  accepted,  in  a  recent  year,  the  invitation  of  the  Ohio 
Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  to  accompany  its  annual 
field  party  in  search  of  the  relics  of  the  mysterious  race.  The 
site  of  explorations  was  fixed  near  the  village  of  Bourneville,  in 
Ross  County,  central  in  the  tier  of  counties  crossing  the  southern 
regions  of  the  State,  this  site  having  already  yielded  in  one  or 
two  previous  years  valuable  osteological  results  to  the  pick 
and  shovel. 

For,  to-day,  the  inquisition  for  these  early  settlers,  the  "first 
families"  of  Ohio,  so  to  speak,  is  largely  a  matter  of  bones. 
Though  his  origin  and  scheme  of  empire  be  elusive,  the  primitive 
citizen  did  not  fail  to  manufacture  abundant  testimony  of  his 
occupation  here.  The  colossal  mounds  still  rear  their  heads  along 
the  lowlands  of  the  river  courses,  and  their  builders,  whitherso- 
ever their  race  may  have  finally  departed,  have  left  their  skeletons 
in  and  around  these  monumental  earth-heaps,  where  they  remain 
to-day  as  startlingly  distinct  effigies  of  humanity  as  at  the  hour 
of  their  deposit.  The  Mound  Builder  lies  by  the  side  of  his 
mound.  He  is  neither  speculative  nor  a  myth.  Whatever  may 
have  been  his  aspirations  in  the  flesh,  or  whether  his  intentions 
may  have  been  more  or  less  honorable  in  his  furtive  residence 
here,  he  is  as  obvious  and  clear  in  his  osteology  as  the  Anglo^ 
Saxon  who  has  succeeded  him.  His  physical  proportions  and 
cranial  architecture  are  in  substantial  evidence. 

The  scene  selected  for  his  exhumation  under  review  was  a 
magnificent  valley  two  miles  in  breadth,  winding  along  Paint 
Creek,  or  river,  a  stream  of  irregular  turbulence,  watering  the 
fertile  Ohio  lowlands  and  emptying  into  the  Scioto.  Along  its 
sides  stretches  to-day,  for  twenty  miles,  an  expanse  of  rank,  opu- 
lent grain  fields,  the  soil  now  tame  under  four  generations  of  the 
civilized  plough  and  harrow.  The  county  of  Ross  prides  itself 
on  its  fecund  fields  and  its  antiquity  among  Ohio  communities. 

80  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

Chillicothe,  its  county  seat,  from  the  tower  of  whose  ancient 
Court  House  Daniel  Webster,  on  a  passage  through  the  State, 
three  quarters  of  a  century  ago,  praised  the  unrivaled  prospect  of 
springing  crops,  was  the  early  capital  of  the  commonwealth.  The 
opening  years  of  the  late  century  mark,  on  the  headstones  in  the 
local  graveyards,  the  dates  of  demise  of  the  early  pioneers  from 
the  trans-Alleghany  settlements.  But  over  the  smooth,  culti- 
vated fields,  along  the  water  of  Paint  River,  the  landmarks  of 
nature  are  still  unchanged,  wild  and  rugged,  as  in  the  days  when 
the  Mound  Builders,  with  an  unerring  eye  to  succulence,  pitched 
on  the  valley  for  an  enduring  habitat.  The  straight  line  of  hills 
lifted  almost  to  grandeur  on  one  side  of  the  stream,  and  clad  as 
then  with  primeval  forests,  is  the  same  in  aspect  as  when  it  looked 
down  on  his  encampment  on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  river ;  while 
rearward  of  his  ancient  abode,  the  heights,  similarly  clad  in  their 
aboriginal  green,  swing  into  superb  amphitheater,  rising  in  suc- 
cessive terraces  to  miniature  mountain  cones  against  the  sky  line. 
For  imposingly  picturesque  effect  the  hills  of  the  Rhine  and  lower 
Hudson  are  hardly  their  superior.  The  crescent  arena  under- 
neath, two  miles  in  breadth,  forming  the  hoar  camp  of  the 
departed  race,  on  which  we  pitched  our  modern  tents,  looked  on 
every  side  toward  this  frowning  circlet  of  heights.  The  prospect 
was  magnificent,  with  a  touch  of  gloom ;  the  shadow  of  this  lofty 
environment,  even  through  the  sunny  days,  falling  upon  us  in 
the  level  of  the  sombre  cornfields  with  suggestions  of  the  gray 
primeval  time.  Without  much  effort  of  the  imagination,  the 
olden  scene  could  be  nearly  perfectly  recalled  —  the  pre-historic 
squatters  from  their  valley  settlement  looking  to  these  green- 
robed  hills.  It  was  to  become  yet  more  real  through  our  subse- 
quent diggings  here.  But  the  antique  settler  on  this  site,  as  else- 
where in  his  selection  of  locality,  gave  evidence  of  an  eye  for 
natural  beauty  as  well  as  of  a  solicitude  for  venison  and  corn. 
For  the  Mound  Builder,  though  singularly  carnivorous,  was  a 
cultivator  of  the  maize. 

The  immediate  spot  chosen  for  our  summer  exploitation  was 
in  an  open  field  of  newly-mown  wheat  stubble,  over  an  ancient 
village  site  extending  from  the  base  of  a  lofty  mound  —  one  of 
several  tumuli  dotted  along  the  twenty  miles  of  this  fertile  valley 

nes  of  the  Mound  Builders.  31 


plain.  From  the  center  and  slope  of  the  mound  itself  had  been 
taken,  in  a  previous  year,  bones  and  relics  of  the  mysterious  archi- 
tects, not  less  than  seventy  of  their  skeletons  having  been 
unearthed  from  the  level  of  the  cornfield  neighboring  its  base. 
Over  this  whole  lowland,  or  river-bottom  plain,  indeed,  to  the 
distance  of  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  superficial  extent,  and  possibly 
in  yet  uninspected  territory  far  beyond,  are  the  profuse  relics  of 
the  ancient  occupation ;  arrow  point,  wrought  spear-heads  in 
flint,  and  obsidian,  fragments  of  pottery,  carved  shells  and  imple- 
ments of  diorite,  lying  so  thickly  strewn  over  the  alluvial  soil  that 
the  plowboy,  for  a  century  back,  has  only  needed  to  stoop  and 
select  at  pleasure  from  these  mementoes  of  the  forgotten  epoch ; 
though,  in  fact,  they  are  so  thickly  and  visibly  cast  that  they  have 
gone  for  generations  virtually  unheeded  by  the  residents  here. 
The  listless  curiosity,  however,  even  of  these  practical  sons  of 
agriculture  would  have  been  stirred  had  they  realized  over  what 
they  stepped.  It  was  a  city  of  the  dead  that,  within  a  few  inches 
of  the  disturbing  plowshare,  lay  with  its  grinning  skeletons 
upturned  to  their  feet ! 

It  is  to  these  previously  unnoted  village  sites,  rather  than  to 
the  imposing  and  more  sensational  tumuli,  that  the  recent  quest 
for  the  secret  of  the  Mound  Builder  has  been  chiefly  attracted. 
His  true  vestiges  and  inwardness  are  to  be  uncovered  here  —  his 
home,  his  habits,  his  tastes,  his  relations  to  his  dead. 

In  this  new  and  curious  archaeologic  quest,  the  Ohio  Society, 
so  liberally  sustained  by  the  State  representative  assembly,  is 
taking,  as  has  been  said,  a  marked  prominence ;  the  fact  being  due 
to  its  enlightened  board  of  officers,  aided  by  the  vigorous  and 
intelligent  labors  of  its  distinguished  secretary. 

To  me,  a  neophyte  in  necrologic  search,  the  accounts  of  these 
mysterious  village  habitations,  with  their  domestic  graveyards 
and  refuse-heaped  ash  pits  yielding  testimony  of  the  daily  life  of 
the  outworn  folk,  sounded  strange  and  unreal.  The  Mound 
Builder  found  in  his  alleged  identical  skeleton  was  a  probable 
myth,  or,  at  best,  a  galvanized  Indian  of  the  later  and  tangible 
epoch  —  whose  tribe  could  have  deposited  him  at  will,  by  way 
of  conspicuous  sepulture,  in  or  near  the  barrows  of  the  more 
ancient  people.     But  on  the  first  day  of  our  operations  on  this 

82  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

Bourneville  site,  under  the  first  thrust  of  the  spade,  there,  yellow 
and  shining  in  the  July  sun,  lay  the  clean,  indubitable  skull  of 
the  pre-historic  man !  At  its  side  was  a  pot  of  coarse,  heavy 
earthenware,  with  crudely  ornamented  rim.  The  spot  was  only 
a  few  hundred  feet  distant  from  the  central  mound,  around  whose 
base  nearly  a  hundred  other  skeletons  had  been  previously 
unearthed.  The  Indian  tribes  of  the  Ohio.  Valley  did  not  build 
mounds  nor  fashion  clay  pots.  To  them,  as  to  their  pale  modern 
successors,  these  monumental  earth-heaps  were  a  mystery  beyond 
the  call  of  tradition. 

The  skull  at  our  feet,  then,  was  not  the  cranial  relic  of  an 
Indian,  but  that  of  an  architect  of  the  giant  barrow  under  whose 
shadow  it  reposed.  Here  was  reality  and  history!  The  burial 
plat  was  the  rounding  bank  of  the  ancient  river  bed,  the  soil 
worn  thin  and  close  to  the  features  of  the  olden  dead  by  the 
modern  plow. 

As  from  the  initial  spade  stroke  we  proceeded  into  this  shal- 
low shore,  the  skeletons  came  everywhere  thickly  into  sight;  the 
burials  in  places  seemingly  having  been  imposed  upon  one 
another,  as  if  occurring  at  widely  separated  intervals.  The  work 
grew  interesting  almost  to  excitement.  We  were  face  to  face 
with  the  representatives  of  the  vanished  race!  Under  the  heads 
of  a  few  were  polished  stones  for  head-rests,  while,  near  others, 
were  broken  or  entire  pots  of  varying  size,  containing  flint  arrow- 
heads, ornamental  trinkets  in  bone,  minute  fragments  of  copper 
and  deposits  of  food  for  the  dead;  this  latter  persisting  in  the 
form  of  kernels  of  Indian  corn  and  the  shriveled  seeds  of  fruits, 
distinct  in  their  identity  as  on  the  day  of  interment. 

How  long  had  these  human  remnants  laid  here  thus,  integral 
and  intact?  One  hundred,  two  hundred,  four  hundred  years? 
Longer  than  that.  The  Indian  tribes  that  met  our  fathers  on  this 
soil  knew  nothing  of  these  burials.  Probably  six  hundred,  ten 
hundred,  two  thousand  years,  then  —  from  the  days  when  the 
Montagus  warred  with  the  Capulets  or  the  skin-clad  ancestors 
of  the  civilized  Saxon,  now  exhuming  them,  fell  under  the  sword 
of  the  Celtic  Dagobert  in  the  forests  by  the  Rhine  —  or  from 
still  beyond  in  the  pagan  mists.  How  long  will  the  frame  of 
man    last,   anyhow?    That   depends:   three   thousand   years,   as 

Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.  38 

^xampled  in  the  cairns  of  western  P  ranee,  or  by  the  experience 
of  Schiiemann  with  his  Mycenaean  kings  —  five  thousand,  ten 
thousand,  as  instanced  by  the  remains  of  upper  Egypt.  Here,  at 
least,  grinning  and  pertinent  before  us,  lay  the  bony  relics  of 
departed  tribes  of  men,  infract  and  substantial  as  in  their  days 
under  the  sunlight,  shocking  the  senses  almost  with  their  mock- 
ery of  contrast  with  man*s  brief  day  in  the  flesh.  The  soil  in  this 
Boumeville  burial  camp  is  alluvial  over  a  porous  clay,  itself 
imposed  on  a  drainage  stratum  of  loose  river  gravel  —  offering 
the  Mound  Builder  unusual  conditions  for  posthumous  endur- 
ance.    He  thus  remains  to-day  in  conspicuous  evidence. 

Before  the  end  of  a  week,  we  tiad  exposed  not  less  than 
twenty  of  these  amazingly  distinct  human  forms,  lying  in  the 
veritable  attitudes  in  which  they  had  been  laid  away  in  the  long- 
ago  epochs.  Method  of  direction  as  to  the  points  of  the  com- 
pass had  been  ignored  in  these  burials,  as  there  was  also  lacking 
evidence  of  religious  or  superstitious  rites  of  interment.  Scru- 
pulous care,  however,  had  in  many  instances  been  taken  as  to  the 
decorous  composure  of  the  bodies  and  limbs  of  the  dead. 

The  process  of  uncovering  these  remains  was  exceedingly 
careful;  for,  although  perfectly  natural  in  appearance,  the  bones 
of  these  age-worn  deposits  were,  for  the  most  part,  soft  and 
brittle.  After  throwing  off,  therefore,  by  the  aid  of  mattock 
and  shovel,  the  superficial  layers  of  soil,  it  was  necessary  to  com- 
plete the  exposure  with  minute  trowels  or  even  with  the  blades 
of  penknives;  the  delicate,  painstaking  care  of  the  proceeding 
being  equal  to  that  of  the  anatomical  expert  with  his  specimens 
for  a  museum. 

Sometimes  a  group  of  not  less  than  seven  or  eight  skeletons 
would  be  thus  prepared  for  the  photographer's  camera;  the 
human  shapes,  with  their  deliberate  meaning  attitudes  and  grin- 
ning skulls,  so  outlined  in  relief  against  the  earth,  having,  at 
times,  a  sinister  and  even  menacing  distinctness,  as  if  in  sardonic 
rebuke  of  our  intrusion  on  their  ancient  rest.  Faced  to  the  liv- 
ing, the  mysterious  dead  —  our  unmistakable  kindred  —  seemed 
to  speak  in  irony  out  of  the  ages.  There  was  no  answering  back ; 
though,  at  times,  the  prolonged,  almost  intelligent  stare  of  these 
reproachful  relics  produced  an  effect  so  nearly  appalling  that  the 

Vol.  XIV  — 3. 

34  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

tension  of  nerves  found  its  natural  physiological  relief  in  bursts 
of  hilarious  counter-mockery.  We  addressed  the  outraged  vic- 
tims of  our  spades  as  "J^^"/'  "Jonathan,"  the  "first  citizens," 
the  "late  lamented,"  etc.  But  the  limit  of  gruesome  humor  was 
reached  when  our  artist,  taking  conventional  stand,  admonished 
his  helpless  subject,  with  professional  courtesy,  to  "lie  still"  and 
"look  pleasant!" 

In  our  preliminary  diggings  during  the  first  ten  days,  more 
than  thirty  skeletons,  lying  over  an  area  of  scarcely  more  than 
as  many  square  feet,  were  thus  uncovered  and  photographed ;  the 
place  seeming  in  sections,  a  veritable  teeming  charnel  pit  of  the 
mound-building  tribe.  The  forms  ranged  from  untoothed 
infancy,  to  toothless  old  age,  more  than  one-half  of  the 
burials,  however,  being  those  of  infants  and  children  from  a  few 
weeks  to  a  few  months  or  years  of  age.  The  early  inhabitants 
here  were  clearly  not  economical  of  babies.  Scarlet  rash,  teeth- 
ing and  a  diet  of  imperfectly  boiled  green  corn  had  inferentially 
done  their  perfect  work. 

At  the  head  or  by  the  side  of  an  occasional  adult  lay  the 
carved  pipe  of  stone,  the  model,  in  size  and  form,  of  the  conven- 
tional pipe,  savage  or  civilized,  in  all  the  centuries  since.  A  thou-^ 
sand  years,  mayhap,  earlier  than  Raleigh  and  his  pampered  North 
Carolina  aristocrats  knew  the  luxury  of  the  weed,  the  primeval 
American  in  the  enjoyment  of  its  curling  fragrance  sat  here 
before  his  hut  door,  on  the  river  bank,  watching  the  failing  sun 
over  the  wooded  magnificence  of  these  hills.  From  all  evidences 
the  Mound  Builder  was  an  ardent  lover  of  tobacco. 

Here  and  there,  also,  near  the  skeletons,  lay  the  spearhead, 
the  stone  hatchet  or  other  implements,  in  bone  or  flint,  of  the 
primitive  warrior  or  hunter  —  notably  among  these  being  the 
shapely,  carved  bone  awl,  for  the  piercing  of  skins,  or  similar 
domestic  use. 

The  physical  proportions  of  the  Mound  Builder  have  not  yet 
been  adequately  studied  by  the  methods  of  ethnological  compari- 
son. The  adult  skeletons  found  by  us  here,  and  generally  over 
this  Bourneville  site,  have  a  size  not  much  varying  from  that  of 
average  modern  civilized  humanity,  but  tending  to  inferior  rather 
than  to  larger  dimensions.     Many  of  the  male  specimens,  meas- 


Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.  36 

ured  by  us,  did  not  exceed  the  length  of  five  feet  three  or  four 
inches.  One  almost  gigantic  figure,  however,  atoned  for  the 
brevity  of  his  neighbors;  his  huge,  naked  skeleton,  as  it  lay 
grimly  composed  with  head  resting  on  a  polished  stone  slab, 
stretching,  from  crown  to  heel,  the  full  six  feet  of  manly  propor- 
tions. In  life  he  must  have  exceeded  that  stature  by  several 
inches,  while  in  girth  of  ribs  and  massiveness  of  bone  he  was  truly 
colossal  —  evidently  from  his  size  and  distinction  in  burial  a  tow- 
ering Saul  among  his  race. 

The  skull  of  the  Mound  Builder,  as  it  came  under  our  inspec- 
tion, if  subjected  to  minute  examination,  would  furnish  a  curious 
study  and  one  far  more  fruitful  in  inference  than  has  yet  been 
made.  The  specimens  upturned  by  us  were  apparently  not  of  the 
Indian  type  with  which  we  are  familiar,  there  being  both  greater 
regularity  and  delicacy  than  mark  that  type.  They  were  still 
further  removed  from  the  type  of  the  yet  lower  savage  races, 
distinguished  by  the  prognathous  jaw  and  heaviness  in  the  occip- 
ital region.  On  the  contrary,  while  the  jaw  of  the  Mound  archi- 
tect as  here  found  is  regular  and  massive,  as  became  his  carniv- 
orous habit,  there  is  a  distinct  tendency  to  elevation  and  sym- 
metry in  the  cerebral  parts,  ranking  him  rather  with  the  best  of 
the  Turanian  types  of  men.  Much,  however,  must  be  awaited 
to  reduce  speculation  to  scientific  inference  on  this  point. 

Exhausting  after  a  few  days  the  limits  of  the  some  thirty- 
feet  square  graveyard,  we  proceeded  in  our  excavations  into  the 
immediately  adjacent  dwelling  sites. 

The  Mound  Builder  deposited  his  dead  under  two  feet  of 
earth,  at  his  doorway;  his  habitation  and  sepulchre  —  possibly 
from  lazv  convenience  sake  —  knowing  little  distinction.  Life  or 
death  had  for  him  little  of  the  civilized  panorama.  The  necessi- 
ties of  both  were  pressing  and  imperative.  Sentiment  and  imag- 
ination, or  even  considerations  of  health,  were  not  his  masters. 
Unquestionably,  in  spite  of  his  mounds  and  his  pots  and  his 
somewhat  equivocal  military  fortifications,  he  was  not  greatly 
superior  in  habits  to  the  Indian  who  succeeded  him.  His  burials^ 
his  stone  tools,  his  crude  art  and  his  reckless  care  of  his  babies 
attest  this.  But  he  was  clever  in  the  ways  of  the  semi-barbarian. 
His  dwelling  sites,  which  we  now  entered,  revealed  something 

86  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  his  methods  and  status.  To  us  delving  and  creeping  amid 
these  day  after  day  the  atmosphere  of  the  primitive  life  and  time 
stole  with  curious  effect  over  the  imagination,  the  impression 
verging  at  times  on  the  weird  and  uncanny.     Here  were  the  % 

penetralia,  the  Lares  and  Penates,  the  home  and  current  life,  of 
the  ancient  race.  The  Mound  Builder,  outside  of  his  mound, 
was  not  an  architect.  Beyond  his  primitive  implements,  he 
wrought  neither  in  wood  nor  in  stone.  His  home  was  probably 
a  wigwam  of  skins  and  twisted  boughs.  There  are  no  remains 
or  evidences  to  the  contrary  —  only  here  and  there  a  still  existing 
earth  hole  or  socket,  into  which  he  thrust  the  stake  or  pole  that 
propped  his  dwelling.  The  inference,  subject  to  correction,  may 
-do  him  vast  injustice;  but  the  Mound  Builder,  barring  his  zealous 
proclivity  for  heaping  his  huge  barrows,  was  a  lazy  son  of  the 
soil.  The  testimony  is  against  him.  He  carried  his  dead  only 
beyond  his  door  lintels;  and  here,  around  and  underneath  his 
immediate  habitation,  he  dug  circular  holes,  from  three  to  six 
ieet  in  depth,  into  which  to  empty  his  ash  pots  and  toss  the  rem- 
nants of  his  broken  food  and  other  refuse  from  domestic  uses. 
In  vulgar  parlance,  they  have  "given  him  away."  Through 
them,  like  the  Indians  in  the  comic  opera  of  "Columbus,"  he  has 
been  "discovered"  —  in  his  habits,  his  tastes  and  his  indolence. 
His  reputation  for  industry,  so  laboriously  wrought  up  in  his 
stupendous  monuments  over  the  surface  of  the  earth,  has  disap- 
peared in  these  discreditable  apertures  beneath  it.  As  to  his  deal- 
ings with  the  soil,  the  Mound  Builder,  prudent  for  his  fame, 
should  have  limited  his  efforts  to  the  superior  direction.  But 
history  has  been  served.  As  has  been  intimated,  within  these 
circular  pits,  clearly  defined  by  the  softness  of  their  soil  against 
the  hard  wall  of  the  untouched  neighboring  clay,  are  to  be  found 
the  true  vestigia  of  the  home  life  of  the  early  American.  As 
with  the  minute  trowels  we  painfully  disemboweled  these  cavities 
of  their  contents,  the  fruits  of  our  labors  became  intently  curious. 
Remnants  of  food,  broken  and  entire  implements  of  stone  or  bone 
for  household  use,  shells  of  the  native  river  mussel  and  land  tor- 
toise, flint  quirts,  fish  hooks  and  arrowheads  —  all  flung  with 
careless  hand  into  these  convenient  domestic  abysses  —  were 
found  in  plethoric  abundance.     Ashes,  in  layers  or  heaps,  most 

Homes  of  the  Mound  Builders.  37 

frequently   intervened   between   these  more   significant   finds   of 
family  debris.     The  Mound  Builder  cooked  his  victual. 

The  mode  of  clearing  these  waste  pits  was  grotesquely 
and,  at  times,  comically  uncomfortable ;  their  limited  circular  area 
requiring  the  delver,  with  his  tiny  spade,  to  squeeze  himself  into 
cross-legged  sitting  posture  and  sink  gradually,  in  the  process  of 
the  evacuation,  from  the  sight  of  his  fellows.  The  slowly-vanish- 
ing vision  of  one  bald-headed  member  of  our  party,  as  he  thus 
disappeared  from  the  surface,  was  the  unfailing  signal  for 

These  cavities  were  uniformly  prolific  in  their  yield  of  the 
customary  finds  in  flint  and  stone,  such  as  hammers,  hatchets, 
knives,  chisels,  wedges  and  similar  instruments.  But  addition- 
ally significant  of  the  industries  of  the  mystic  people  were  the 
implements  and  utensils  in  bone  and  shell.  Notable  among  these 
were  needles  fashioned  from  the  delicate  bones  of  birds  and  the 
so-called  "scrapers,"  sharply  and  curiously  carved  from  the  bones 
of  the  elk  and  deer  and,  inferentially,  used  in  the  cleaning  and 
preparation  of  the  skins  of  these  and  other  animals.  The  articles 
in  shell,  quite  commonly  from  the  favorite  and  ornamental  land 
tortoise,  were  the  more  than  inferential  cups  and  ladles  and 
spoons  employed  in  the  distribution  of  the  family  soup.  Still 
added  to  these  were  the  constantly  abundant  fragments  of  the 
earthen  pot,  indicating  a  varying  size  of  the  vessel  from  two 
inches  to  nearly  as  many  feet  in  diameter.  Indeed,  from  the 
everywhere  profuse  remains  of  this  family  receptacle  over  and 
underneath  the  soil  hereabouts,  it  must  have  been  nearly  as  plen- 
tiful with  the  tribes  as  modern  crockery  with  their  civilized 

The  taste  and  supply  in  ornament  of  these  strange  folk  was 
evinced  in  our  frequent  discoveries  of  bone  beads  and  diminutive 
specimens  of  copper,  together  with  other  articles  of  decorative 
gear,  not  infrequently  fashioned  from  material  transported  from 
remote  sections  of  the  country. 

But  most  significantly  characteristic  of  all  in  the  contents 
of  these  pits  were  the  varied  and  literally  massive  remains  of 
animal  life,  the  relicts  of  food  of  the  human  inhabitants  here. 
The  shells  of  the  river  mussel  were  found  in  literal  heaps,  while 

88  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

every  thrust  of  trowel  or  shovel  threw  to  light  the  bones  of  deer, 
elk  or  bear ;  the  accumulation  of  these  being  sufficient  to  make  a 
respectably  impressive  mound  by  the  side  of  each  pit.  The 
remains,  indeed,  of  not  less  than  twenty  species  of  animals,  mostly 
native  to  the  region,  were  found  not  sparingly  in  these  excava- 
tions, including  the  elk,  deer,  bear,  panther,  wolf,  wildcat,  squir- 
rel, rabbit,  coon,  wild  turkey,  opossum,  polecat,  dog,  and  many 
others,  most  of  which  had  been  apparently  utilized  in  the  way  of 
subsistence.  The  succulent  marrow  of  the  bones  of  the  deer  and 
kindred  animals  had  been  cleanly  extracted  or  carved,  in  every 
instance,  from  its  investment.  With  every  hour  and  step  of  the 
investigation  there  grew  the  overmastering  impression  of  the 
carnivorous  voracity  of  these  ancient  denizens  of  the  soil.  In 
whatever  else  the  primal  American  may  have  been  lacking,  he 
had  in  our  modem  vernacular  his  "appetite  always  with  him." 
He  evidently  lived  close  to  nature  in  his  struggle  with  her  here. 
He  was  a  tickler,  if  not  a  rude  cultivator,  of  the  earth  and  a  hun- 
ter among  men.  His  weapons  for  the  largest  game  were 
obviously  ample.  His  pots  were  capacious,  and  he  filled  his 
stomach.  But  beyond  his  specialty  of  the  towering  mound, 
neither  his  art  nor  his  ornament  was  high  or  elaborate. 
From  the  contents  of  these  curious  earth  cavities  adjacent  to 
his  hearthstone,  it  may  not  be  quite  fair,  indeed,  to  conclusively 
judge  of  the  ancient  inhabitant  of  the  soil  —  to  construct  the 
imaginary  temple  of  his  civilization  from  the  fragments  of  his 
domesticity,  by  himself  rejected.  Even  civilized  man  would  not 
elect  to  be  so  deduced  by  his  successors. 

His  gigantic  barrows  and  crude  fortifications  in  the  ultimate 
verdict  make  for  the  Mound  Builder  measureable  amendment. 
His  cranium  is  not  unpromising;  the  discovery  of  an  occa- 
sional grotesquely-carved  pipe  or  copper  ornament  may  elevate 
him  toward  the  rank  of  the  Zuni  or  Aztec ;  but  it  stands  to  reason 
that  these  tell-tale  cavities,  fecund  with  the  broken  paraphernalia 
of  his  daily  existence,  are  the  true  memorabilia  and  evidence  of 
his  half-barbarous,  evanished  race.  Taking  the  case  as  it  stands. 
at  least,  it  is  disconcerting  to  acknowledge  how  barely  he  is  res- 
cued by  his  mound  and  his  pot  from  the  status  of  the  familiar 
Indian,  of  whose  arts  and  habits  he  so  abundantly  partook. 



Their  Effect  on  the  Growth  of  the  United  States. 

JULIETTE    sessions. 

[In  1903  the  Ohio  Society,  Sons  of  the  Revolution  offered  a  prize 
•of  $100  for  the  best  essay  which  might  be  submitted  upon  the  subject 
heading  this  article.  Miss  Sessions,  a  member  of  the  teaching  corps  of 
The  Columbus  High  School  entered  the  contest  and  was  awarded  the 
prize.  The  essay  is  herewith  made  public  for  the  first  time  through  the 
courtesy  of  the  awarding  committee.  —  Editor.] 

The  American  Revolution  was,  unquestionably,  in  its  chief 
movements  a  struggle  for  independence,  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
it  was  a  war  of  conquest.  While  the  colonists,  truer  to  the  Eng- 
lish ideals  than  George  III.  and  his  friends,  were  fighting  for 
the  principles  of  English  liberty,  some  of  their  number  were  at 
the  same  time  taking  from  England  a  territory  more  than  equal 
to  their  own  and  subduing  the  land  and  its  savage  inhabitants. 
This  conquered  territory,  extending  from  the  heigths  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies  to  the  Mississippi,  has  as  its  center  the  Ohio  Valley,  and 
the  events  that  took  place  there  during  the  war  make  most  of  the 
story  of  this  first  conquest  of  the  United  States. 

At  the  close  of  the  French  and  Indian  War,  while  the  out- 
come of  Pontiac's  conspiracy  was  still  uncertain,  a  royal  proc- 
lamation was  issued  which  defined  the  policy  of  the  English 
government  with  regard  to  the  lands  just  acquired  from  France. 
After  arranging  for  governments  for  Quebec  and  for  West  and 
East  Florida,  the  proclamation  declares  it  "to  be  our  royal  will 
and  pleasure  .  .  .  that  no  governor  or  commander-in-chief 
of  our  colonies,  or  plantations  in  America,  do  presume  for  the 
present  to  grant  warrants  of  survey  or  pass  patents  for  any  lands 
beyond  the  heads  or  sources  of  any  of  the  rivers  that  fall  into 
the  Atlantic  Ocean  from  the  West  or  Northwest;  or  upon  any 


40  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

lands   whatever   which   have  not   been   ceded   or  purchased  by 
us,"  etc.^ 

The  first  object  of  this  proclamation  was,  undoubtedly,  to 
pacify  the  Indians  by  assurances  that  their  hunting  grounds  were 
not  to  be  invaded  by  settlers.  Another  object  probably  was  to 
maintain  the  Mississippi  Valley  a  wilderness  for  hunters  and 
traders,  where  business  would  languish  as  advancing  colonists 
cleared  the  land  and  exterminated  game.  From  several  sources 
it  would  appear,  also,  that  the  proclamation  reveals  the  intention 
of  the  English  government  to  annul  the  "from  sea  to  sea" 
clauses  of  the  colonial  charters,  and  keep  the  settlements  along 
the  seaboard.  So  thinks  a  writer  in  the  "Annual  Register  for 
1763.^  The  same  restrictive  policy  is  revealed  in  the  refusal,  4n 
1765,  to  grant  permission  to  plant  a  colony  in  the  Illinois  coun- 
try, Dr.  Franklin  finding  four  objections  made  to  the  plan : 
(i)  The  distance  would  render  such  a  colony  of  little  use  to 
England;  (2)  The  distance  would  render  it  difficult  to  defend 
and  govern  the  colony;  (3)  Such  a  colony  might,  in  time,  be- 
come troublesome  and  prejudicial  to  the  British  government; 
(4)  There  were  no  people  to  spare  in  either  England  or 
the  other  colonies,   to   settle   a    new   colony. 

When  also,  in  1772,  the  Lords  Commissioners  for  Trade 
and  Plantations  made  a  report  upon  the  petition  of  the  so-called 
Walpole  Company  for  a  grant  of  land  south  of  the  Ohio,  on 
which  to  establish  a  new  government,  they  found  that  to  grant 
the  petition  would  be  to  abandon  established  principles.  The 
"confining  of  the  western  extent  of  settlements  to  such  a  distance 
from  the  sea  coast  as  that  those  settlements  should  lie  within 
reach  of  the  trade  and  commerce  of  this  kingdom  .  .  .  and  also 
of  the  exercise  of  that  authority  and  jurisdiction  which  was  con- 
ceived to  be  necessary  for  the  preservation  of  the  colonies  in  due 
subordination  to  and  dependence  upon  the  Mother  country"  were 
declared  to  be  the  two  capital  objects  of  the  proclamation  of 
F763.'     The  refusal  of  the  Lords  of  Trade  was  made,  too,  right 

'Annual  Register  1763. 
■-'  Hinsdale,  p.  124. 

*  Poole,  p.  687  in  Chap.  IX,  Vol.  VI,  Narrative  and  Critical  History 
of  America. 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc,  41 

in  the  face  of  the  Treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  of  1768,  by  which  Sir 
William  Johnson  had  secured  from  the  Iroquois  a  cession  to  the 
British  crown  of  the  very  lands  that  the  petitioners  asked  for 
and  which  the  crown  would  be  perfectly  free  to  grant  out  if  the 
proclamation  were  only  to  protect  the  Indians. 

Washington,  however,  and  other  Americans  looked  upon  it 
as  only  a  temporary  expedient  which  would  lapse  when  the 
Indians  were  ready  to  give  up  their  lands.* 

But  whatever  the  motives  of  the  British  government,  the 
prohibition  came  as  a  real  and  immediate  grievance  to  the  colo- 
nists along  the  frontier.  They  had  already,  as  Burke  says, 
"topped  the  Alleghany  Mountains,"  from  which  they  beheld  "be- 
fore them  an  immense  plain,  one  vast  level  meadow ;  a  square  of 
five  hundred  miles."  Just  as  the  men  of  the  seaports  refused  to 
use  the  stamps  of  1765,  and  on  principle  evaded  the  provisipns 
of  the  Townsend  Acts,  so  the  frontiersmen  went  forward  into 
the  new  land,  spying  it  out,  building  hunters'  lodges  and  occu- 
pying in  defiance  of  the  proclamation.  While  they  did  not  grow 
into  "the  hordes  of  English  Tartars,"  which  Burke  pictures,  they 
became  a  sturdy  power  and  rose  in  instant  sympathy  with  their 
brothers  of  the  coast  lands. 

Their  frontier  settlements  were  all  south  of  the  Ohio,  the 
strength  of  the  Iroquois  and  Algonquins  of  the  lakes  making  an 
effectual  barrier  to  the  hunting  grounds  of  the  north.  Into  the 
western  parts  of  Virginia  the  most  considerable  advance  was 
made  by  Virginians  and  Pennsylvanians  and  groups  of  cabins 
were  dotted  all  the  way  from  Fort  Pitt  to  the  Kanawha  before 
the  Revolution  began.  In  1769  the  first  settlements  were  made 
about  the  head  waters  of  the  Tennessee  in  the  Watauga  Valley 
and  Daniel  Boone  explored  East  Kentucky  the  same  year. 

The  restrictive  quality  of  England's  land  policy  culminated 
in  the  Quebec  Act  in  1774,  which  made  the  territory  north  of 
the  Ohio  part  of  the  Province  of  Quebec,  thus  disposing  of 
any  charter  rights  the  colonies  might  later  assert.  The  further 
statements  of  the  act  that  the  Catholic  faith  and  the  old  French 
law  should  be  established  and  that  the  latter  was  the  only  kind 
of  government  proper  for  a  colony,  placed  the  Quebec  Act  among 

*  Biitterfield's  Washington-Crawford  Letters  3,   quoted  by    Hinsdale. 

42  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

the  chief  grievances  of  the  Colonies  and  it  is  mentioned  in  the 
Declaration  pf  Rights,  of  October,  1774,  in  the  Articles  of  As- 
sociation and  again,  though  in  veiled  terms,  in  the  Declaration 
of  Independence.  As  late  as  1782  Madison  in  a  report  says. 
5**The  Quebec  Act  was  one  of  the  multiplied  causes  of  our  oppo- 
sition and  finally  of  Revolution."  But  what  the  colonists  com- 
plained of  was  not  feo  much  the  destruction  of  their  charter 
rights  to  the  territory  as  the  extension  of  arbitrary  govern- 
ment and  religion.  The  charters  were  brought  forth  in  the 
peace  negotiations  of  1782  and  1783  to  support  the  American 
claims,  but  our  right  to  receive  the  land  west  of  the  mountains 
was  plainly  a  right  of  conquest. 

Before  going  into  the  events  of  the  war  it  will  be  well  to 
review  the  situation  at  its  opening.  Fort  Pitt,  at  the  head  of 
the  Ohio  Valley,  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Americans;  Detroit 
and  other  lake  posts,  in  the  hands  of  the  British.  In  the  northern 
side  of  the  Ohio  Valley  there  were  practically  no  English  set- 
tlements. On  the  Mississippi,  at  Kaskaskia  and  Cohokia,  and  at 
Vincennes  on  the  Wabash  were  French  communities  now  under 
English  control.  In  Eastern  Ohio  a  few  Moravian  Mission- 
aries lived  with  Christian  Indians  in  the  Tuscarawas  Valley. 
With  a  few  such  exceptions  the  control  of  the  red-man  was  un- 
disturbed from  Fort  Pitt  to  the  Mississippi.  Delawares,  Shaw- 
nees,  Miamis  and  the  Wabash  tribes  bordered  on  the  Ohio,  while 
Wyandots  and  others  lived  north  of  them  along  the  Erie  water- 
shed. Indian  territories  were  always  vaguely  bounded  and  over- 
lapping, but  the  country  directly  south  of  the  Ohio  was  not 
claimed  by  any  one  tribe.  It  was  a  rich  hunting  ground,  a  great 
buffalo  pasture,  and  was  used  in  common  by  tribes  to  the  north 
and  south.  The  southern  side  of  the  valley  of  the  Tennessee 
river  was  the  home  of  the  Cherokee  tribes,  who  during  the 
Revolution  and  long  after  made  precarious  the  life  of  the  pioneers 
of  Tennessee  and  Kentucky.  On  the  west  side  of  the  Missis- 
sippi, a  little  above  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio,  stood  the  Spanish- 
French  town  of  St.  Louis,  and  further  south  on  the  east  side 
was  Natchez,  in  control  of  the  English. 

»  Poole,  p.  715. 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  43 

In  all  the  years  of  the  war  the  Indians,  with  the  exception 
of  tribes  temporarily  subdued,  were  on  the  side  of  the  British. 
The  reasons  are  many  and  plain  to  see.  In  the  first  place,  the 
tribes  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  had  been  for  generations  the 
allies  of  the  French  and  with  the  French  had  passed  under 
English  influence.  Second,  the  Pyoclamation  of  1763  had  con- 
vinced them  that  the  English  intentions  were  friendly  to  them. 
Third,  the  English  and  the  French  of  Canada  came  into  the 
Indian  country  only  as  hunters  and  traders,  while  the  Amer- 
icans all  the  way  from  the  Green  Mountains  to  King's  Moun- 
tain were  pushing  into  their  hunting  grounds  to  settle  and  despoil. 
And  last,  and  perhaps  most  potent  of  all,  the  English  adopted 
the  plan  of  enlisting  these  savage  warriors  in  their  behalf  and 
sending  forth  the  scalping  knife  and  tomahawk  against  the 
frontier  settlements.  ®The  American  used  savage  allies  some- 
times, also,  but  knew  the  horrors  of  savage  warfare  too  well  to 
employ   them  extensively.^ 

The  undertakings  of  the  British  in  the  Ohio  Valley  were 
to  send  expeditions  of  Indians  and  white  rangers  from  Detroit 
southward  with  these  purposes  in  view ;  to  secure  and  hold  the 
Illinois  country,  to  attack  and  drive  settlers  out  of  the  Kentucky 
xrountry  and  to  cut  off  communication  by  the  Ohio  between 
Fort  Pitt  and  New  Orleans.  On  the  southern  side  of  the  val- 
ley the  Indians  were  incited  against  the  whites  of  Tennessee 
and  Kentucky  in  the  hope  of  destroying  settlements  and  also  to 
prevent  any  aid  going  from  the  mountaineers  to  the  men  of  the 

The  work  of  the  Americans  in  the  valley  was  threefold. 
First,  some  few  operations,  conducted  by  militia  or  continental 
forces,  from  Fort  Pitt ;  second,  a  steady  battling  against  the 
Indian  allies  of  England  by  the  backwoodsmen  of  Kentucky, 
Tennessee  and  Western  Virginia  ;  third,  the  campaigns  of  George 
Rogers  Clark,  who  was  backed  by  Virginia  and  the  backwoods- 
men, which  secured  the  Illinois  country,  kept  the  Ohio  under 
American  control  and  seriously  threatened  Detroit. 

^Roosevelt  I.  p.  276-280.     Hinsdale,  p.  149. 
'  Winsor,  p.  87. 

44  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

As  there  was  no  extended  or  continuously  pursued  plan  of 
war  in  the  Ohio  Valley,  the  only  way  to  relate  the  facts  will 
be  to  take  them  year  by  year,  indicating  the  important  move- 
ments as  they  come  in  order.  One  of  the  most  famous  Indian 
wars  in  our  annals,  Lord  Dunmore's  war,  began  while  the 
Quebec  Act  was  still  under  discussion  and  ended  in  the  Battle 
of  Point  Pleasant,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Kanawha,  after 
the  Continental  Congress  was  in  session  in  the  fall  of  1774. 
This  cannot  properly  be  called  a  part  of  the  Revolution,  but  has 
such  important  bearings  on  later  events  that  it  must  be  reviewed. 
It  was  conducted  by  a  royal  governor  of  Virginia  and  yet  was 
in  defence  of  Virginians  who  had  gone  beyond  the  sources  of 
eastward  flowing  rivers  into  the  land  forbidden  them  by  the 
Proclamation  of  1763.  This  advance  of  the  whites  into  the 
land  south  of  the  Ohio  was  viewed  with  hostile  eyes  by  the 
Northwest  Indians,  the  Shawnees  and  Mingoes  in  particular. 
Trouble  had  been  brewing  for  a  long  time  and  Virginia  had 
found  it  wise  to  keep  a  considerable  force  upon  the  frontier. 
Finally,  the  unwarranted  murder  of  the  people  of  Logan,  a  Mingo 
Chief,  heretofore  friendly  to  the  whites,  fired  him  and  soon  the 
natives  of  Southeastern  Ohio  were  on  the  war  path  under  the 
lead  of  Cornstalk,  one  of  the  bravest  and  best  of  his  kind.  Lord 
Dunmore  himself  took  to  the  field,  having  one  Andrew  Lewis 
as  second  in  command. 

Dunmore  at  once  took  the  offensive,  going  down  the  Ohio 
to  Hockhocking  and  thence  across  country  to  the  vicinity  of  the 
Indian  town  of  Chillicothe.  His  instructions  to  Lewis  were  to 
join  him  there,  but  Cornstalk  ferried  about  a  thousand  war- 
riors across  the  Ohio  and  engaged  the  force  of  Lewis  on  the 
south  shore  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Kanawha.  There  fol- 
lowed "the  most  closely  contested  of  any  battle  ever  fought  with 
the  northwest  Indians"  and  one  of  the  most  decisive  victories  for 
the  whites.  The  spirit  of  the  Indians  was  completely  broken 
and  Cornstalk  and  his  fellow  chiefs  went  to  Dunmore's  camp 
and  made  a  treaty  which  restored  all  prisoners  and  gave  up  all 
claims  to  land  south  of  the  Ohio. 

In  this  war  figured  many  who  were  to  be  the  leaders  in  the 
campaigns   we  are   to  study.     Clark   and    Simon    Kentnn    were 

J  u 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc,  45 

with  Dunmore;  Boone  was  in  charge  of  some  of  the  forts,  and 
with  Lewis,  whose  force  was  chiefly  of  backwoodsmen,  some 
of  whom  had  come  all  the  way  from  the  Watauga  settlements, 
were  the  Shelbys,  father  and  son,  and  Sevier  and  Robertson. 
Before  going  to  their  homes  the  officers  met  and  passed  reso- 
lutions in  which  they  professed  their  devotion  to  the  king  and 
the  British  empire,  but  extended  their  sympathy  to  the  people 
of  Boston  and  to  the  Continental  Congress.  They  gave  assur- 
ance that,  although  for  three  months  in  the  wilderness  they  had 
no  news  of  how  the  struggle  for  American  liberty  was  progress- 
ing, they  were  not  indifferent  to  the  cause  and  called  attention 
to  the  endurance  and  fighting  ability  of  their  troops.® 

Into  the  much  disputed  question  of  Dunmore*s  motives  and 
intentions  we  may  not  enter  here,  but  the  outcome  of  the  war, 
by  securing  quiet  and  occasional  alliances  of  the  Northwest  In- 
dians for  the  next  two  years,  made  safe  the  navigation  of  the 
Ohio  and  opened  the  way  to  the  settlement  of  Kentucky  and 
thus  to  the  establishment  of  an  Ohio  River  garrison  of  "Long 
Knives,"  as  the  Indians  called  the  Virginians,  and  leads  us  to 
believe  that  but  for  Dunmore*s  war,  the  treaty  of  1783  might 
have  left  the  colonies  with  the  AUeghanies  as  their  western 

In  the  spring  of  1775  the  systematic  movement  forward 
into  the  valleys  of  the  Kentucky  rivers  began.  The  most  pre- 
tentious undertaking  was  that  of  Colonel  Richard  Henderson  of 
Virginia,  who,  early  in  March  in  the  Watauga  Valley  made  a 
treaty  with  the  Cherokees  in  the  presence  of  full  twelve  hundred 
of  their  tribe  by  which  he  acquired  their  title  to  land  between 
the  Cumberland  and  Kentucky  rivers.*® 

Henderson's  plan  was  to  establish  a  feudal  or  proprietary 
state  of  Transylvania  but  the  plan  did  not  take  with  the  pioneers 
and  was  declared  against  by  the  governments  of  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina  and  his  state  never  materialized.  But  settlers 
went  into  the  land  and  protected  now  by  treaties  with  both 
northern  and  southern   Indians  Kentucky  had  a  rapid  growth. 

"  Roosevelt  I,  p.  240. 
'  Roosevelt  I,  p.  239. 
"*  Winsor,  p.  83. 

46  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

Under  warrant  from  Henderson,  Boone  blazed  a  trail  from  the 
Holston  and  Watauga  valleys  through  the  Cumberland  Gap  to 
the  valley  of  the  Kentucky  —  "Boone*s  Trace"  or  "the  Wilder- 
ness Road,"  which  became  the  great  highway  from  Virginia  and 
Carolina  into  the  Ohio  country. 

In  June,  1775,  the  Continental  Congress,  among  its  other 
preparation  for  the  war. already  begun,  arranged  three  Indian 
departments :  the  northern,  embodying  the  Six  Nations  and  other 
northern  tribes ;  the  southern,  including  the  Cherokees  and  others 
in  the  south ;  and  the  middle  which  centered  at  Pittsburg.  Com- 
missioners were  appointed  to  treat  with  the  tribes  and  counter- 
act the  influence  of  the  royalists.  The  same  year  Colonel  Henry 
Hamilton  was  put  in  charge  of  the  British  post  at  Detroit.  He 
was  under  orders  from  the  London  war  office  to  enlist  the 
savages  and  personally  was  strongly  in  favor  of  the  plan.  In 
the  south  John  Stuart,  who  had  long  served  as  agent  among  the 
Southern  tribes,  received  fresh  instructions.  Thus  at  the  open- 
ing of  the  war  both  sides  saw  the  importance  of  Indian  alliances. 

Hamilton  began  actively  sending  out  war  belts  and  calling 
councils,  but  through  memories  of  the  battle  of  the  Great  Kanawha 
and  the  influence  of  Zeisberger,  the  Moravian  missionary,  in  the 
Ohio  country,  the  northwest  tribes  maintained  neutrality  through 
the  year  1776.  Stuart  was  more  successful  and  early  in  June 
the  whole  Cherokee  nation  was  on  the  warpath.  With  this  war 
as  it  affected  the  southern  and  seaboard  colonies,  we  have  noth- 
ing to  do,  except  to  note  that  the  Cherokees  were  generally  de- 
feated, but  the  Watauga  and  Holston  settlements,  the  southeast 
border  land  of  the  Ohio  Valley,  were  attacked  and  their  gallant 
defense  under  the  lead  of  Robertson  and  Sevier  marks  one  more 
step  by  which  the  whole  Ohio  Valley  became  American  terri- 
tory. These  settlements  were  at  the  head  of  the  Wilderness 
Road,  and  had  they  been  annihilated  Kentucky  would  have  been 
open  to  attack  and  probably  have  been  abandoned.  The  Chero-. 
kees  made  little  trouble  for  several  years  after  this  and  by  that 
time  the  southern  side  of  the  Ohio  country  was  strong  enough 
to  take  care  of  itself. 

The  year  1777  was  a  dark  one  for  the  Americans  of  the 
frontier.     Hamilton,  by  means  of  war  talks  and  council  fires. 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  47 

gifts  of  arms,  firewater  and  trinkets,  had  established  his  influence 
among  the  northwest  Indians.  He  won  the  title  of  "hair-buyer" 
among  the  backwoodsmen  and  there  is  certain  evidence  that 
scalps  were  paid  for  at  Detroit.^^  Tories  of  the  border  flocked 
to  that  post  and  MeKee,  Eliot  and  Girty,  fleeing  thither  from 
Pittsburgh,  became  leaders  of  bands  of  white  rangers  and  Indians 
which  Hamilton  was  organizing.  The  most  notable  attack  of 
the  year  was  made  in  September  at  Wheeling,  then  called  Fort 
Henry.  About  three  hundred  Indians  with  some  Detroit  Rangers, 
flying  the  British  colors,  attacked  the  stockade.  Many  of  the 
men  were  lured  out  by  stratagem  and  slain,  but  those  left,  with 
the  help  of  the  women,  repelled  the  attack.  This  fight  is  famed 
for  the  exploit  of  Major  Samuel  McCulloch,  who  rode  his  old 
grey  horse  down  a  three  hundred  foot  precipice,  the  only  way  to 
evade  the  savages  and  reach  his  friends  in  Fort  Henry.  A  hill 
above  Wheeling  is  still  known  as  McCulloch's  Leap. 

Fortunately  for  Kentucky,  Hamilton  seems  not  to  have  real- 
ized the  importance  of  the  settlements  there  and  most  of  the 
efforts  of  the  year  were  directed  against  the  region  of  Fort 
Pitt.  Small  bands  of  Indians,  however,  crossed  the  Ohio  and 
fell  again  and  again  on  the  Kentucky  forts.  The  backwoodsmen, 
though  they  and  their  families  were  in  constant  peril,  held 
tenaciously  to  their  ground,  once  during  the  year  encouraged 
by  the  men  of  the  Holston  settlements  who  marched  north  to 
help  their  neighbors.  But  the  dangers  about  Pittsburg  com- 
pelled Hand,  in  command  there,  to  call  in  some  of  his  outposts 
and  that,  with  the  news  of  Washington's  loss  of  Philadelphia,  left 
the  trans-Alleghany  pioneers  very  much  alone  in  their  struggle. 

Early  in  1778  the  Kentuckians  were  weakened  by  the  loss 
of  Daniel  Boone,  who  was  captured  with  a  party  who  had  gone 
to  the  Blue  Licks  to  make  salt  for  the  garrisons.  He  was  taken 
by  the  Indians  to  Detroit  where  he  was  well  treated  by  Hamilton, 
who  offered  to  ransom  him.  But  the  Indians  liked  him,  refused 
to  give  him  up,  and  took  him  back  to  Chillicothe  and  adopted 
him  into  their  tribe.  Here  he  remained  some  months,  but  in 
June  war  parties  of  British  and  Indians  began  to  gather,  and 
finding  his  own  village  of  Boonsborough  was  to  be  the  object 

"  Roosevelt  IT,  p.  3. 

48  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  attack  Boone  managed  to  escape,  and  taking  a  bee  line  through 
the  forests,  reached  home  in  four  days,  having  traveled  one 
hundred  and  sixty  miles  and  had  one  meal  on  the  way.  So 
fearful  were  the  settlers  of  traitors  even  among  their  best,  that 
Boone  was  at  once  tried  by  court  martial  for  the  capture  at  the 
Blue  Licks,  ^^but  was  acquitted,  made  a  major  and  became  the 
leader  of  the  defense.  Boonsborough  was  strengthened  and  then 
impatient  waiting,  in  August,  Boone  led  a  foray  across  the  Ohio, 
but  learning  a  great  force  of  Miamis  was  on  its  way  south  made 
a  race  with  them  for  Boonsborough  and  got  there  in  time  to 
call  in  the  people  and  successfully  defend  the  fort.  This  makes 
the  last  serious  troubles  the  people  of  that  part  of  Kentucky 
had,  but  the  doings  of  the  border  in  the  years  following,  the 
dangers  and  the  darings,  in  which  Daniel  Boone  and  Simon 
Kenton  were  chief  actors,  would  fill  many  a  chapter  and  have 
made  them  the  center  of  gathering  traditions  which  in  an  earlier 
age  would  have  grown  into  a  national  epic  like  the  Cid,  or  the 
Story  of  King  Arthur  and  knights  of  the  Round  Table. 

Mention  has  been  made  of  George  Rogers  Clark  in  Lord 
Dunmore*s  war.  He  was  a  Virginian  who  explored  in  the  Ken- 
tucky country  in  1775,  and  in  1776  had  finally  cast  his  lot  with 
the  backwoodsmen.  By  that  time  Henderson's  claims  as  a  pro- 
prietary ruler  were  fading  and  at  the  suggestion  of  Clark  the 
settlers  gathered  at  Harrodstown  in  June  and  chose  two  dele- 
gates, one  of  whom  was  Clark,  to  go  to  Williamsburg,  the  cap- 
ital of  Virginia.  They  carried  a  petition  asking  that  Kentucky 
be  organized  as  a  county  of  that  state  and  promising  that  its 
people  would  do  their  part  in  the  struggle  in  which  all  Ameri- 
cans were  engaged.  The  journey  was  accomplished  after  much 
suffering  and  danger  and  the  petition  presented.  Clark's  re- 
quest for  five  hundred  pounds  of  gun-powder,  of  which  the  set- 
tlements were  in  great  need,  was  refused  at  first,  but  granted 
when  Clark  announced  that  Kentucky  would  have  to  assume  her 
independence  if  she  had  to  bear  her  burdens  alone.  The  powder 
wast  taken  safely  down  the  Ohio  to  Kentucky  and  the  next  ses- 
sion of  the  Virginia  legislature  organized  the  county  of  Ken- 


Roosevelt  II,  p.  21. 

Campaigfus  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  49 

But  the  work  of  Clark  had  only  begun.  While  aiding  in 
repelling  Indian  attacks  of  1777  he  conceived  the  desirability 
of  a  forward  movement  by  the  colonists  and  with  that  idea  in 
mind  sent  two  young  men  as  spies  northward  to  find  out  the 
strength  of  the  British  posts  in  the  French  towns  of  the  Illinois 
country  and  to  ascertain  the  temper  of  the  French  inhabitants. 
His  emissaries  reported  small  garrisons  and  but  little  interest 
in  the  struggles  on  the  part  of  the  French,  who  were  much 
impressed  by  the  stories  of  the  prowess  of  the  backwoodsmen.^^ 

Knowing  that  the  Kentuckians  could  not  furnish  a  sufficient 
force  to  leave  their  homes  for  this  oflFensive  movement,  Clark 
went  to  Virginia,  in  the  fall  of  1777,  journeying  over  the  Wil- 
derness Road,  the  shortest  and  safest  way.  The  news  of  Bur- 
goyne's  surrender  had  reached  Williamsburg  and  Clark  went 
with  patriotic  enthusiasm  to  lay  his  plans  before  Governor  Pat- 
rick Henry.  The  governor  was  responsive  enough,  but  Vir- 
ginia was  exhausted.  The  matter-  could  not  be  publicly  dis« 
cussed  and  volunteer  contributions  secured  and  all  that  Henry 
could  do  was  to  authorize  Clark  to  raise  seven  companies  of 
fifty  men  each,  to  act  and  be  paid  as  militia.  Some  money  was 
advanced  and  he  was  given  on  order  for  boats  and  supplies  at 
Pittsburg.  Three  Virginians,  JeflFerson,  Mason  and  Wythe,  gave 
him  their  written  promise  to  try  to  persuade  the  Virginia  Leg- 
islature to  give  each  of  his  men  three  hundred  acres  of  the 
conquered  land,  should  they  be  succcessful.  The  open  instruc- 
tions of  the  governor  ordered  Clark  to  the  relief  of  Kentucky, 
a  secret  letter  bade  him  attack  the  Illinois  region.  So,  it  will 
be  seen,  success  or  failure  of  the  expedition  rested  solely  on 
Clark  as  an  individual. 

Great  difficulty  was  experienced  in  enlisting  men,  but  by 
May,  1778,  he  had  secured  four  companies  in  Western  Virginia 
and  started  down  the  Monongahela  to  Pittsburg  with  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty  men,  and  some  other  adventurers  and  settlers  with 


Roosevelt  II,  p.  33.  For  the  events  of  this  campaign  and  the  others, 
I  follow  largely  Winsor  and  Roosevelt,  both  of  whom,  but  particularly  the 
latter,  give  exact  references  to  original  sources,  the  Haldimand  MSS.,  State 
Department  MSS.,  and  so  forth,  which  it  has  been  impossible  for  me  to 

Vol.  XTV— 4. 

60  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

their  families.  At  Pittsburg  and  Wheeling  he  got  his  supplies 
and  then  the  rude  flat  boats  started  on  their  long  and  dangerous 
journey  down  the  Ohio.  A  landing  was  made  at  the  Falls  of 
the  Ohio  on  May  27th.     Most  of  the  families  moved  off  into  } 

the  interior  of  Kentucky,  but  a  few  settled  near  the  falls  and 
made  the  nucleus  of  that  city  which  was  later  given  the  name 
of  the  King  of  France,  whose  alliance  with  the  colonies  Clark 
first  heard  of  at  that  time  and  place.  Here  some  Kentuckians, 
Kenton  among  them,  joined  him,  and  a  company  from  the  Hol- 
ston.  When  Clark  announced  his  plan  there  were  some  mur- 
murings  and  most  of  the  Holston  men  deserted.  He  then  weeded 
out  all  weakly  men  and  on  June  24th  his  boats  shots  the  rapids 
bearing  less  than  two  hundred  men,  all  told,  none  of  the  four 
companies  being  up  to  its  full  strength  of  fifty. 

Of  the  well  known  story  of  this  campaign,  which  reads 
like  a  mediaeval  romance,  only  the  most  salient  facts  can  be  given 
in  this  paper.  Fearing  interference  on  the  Mississippi,  Clark 
left  his  boats  a  little  below  the  mouth  of  the  Tennessee,  and  the 
expedition  marched  overland  to  Kaskaskia,  guided  by  a  party 
of  American  hunters  who  had  just  come  from  the  French  set- 
tlements. Clark  got  valuable  information  from  the  hunters,  and 
convinced  that  he  could  take  Kaskaskia  only  by  a  surprise  at- 
tack, he  led  his  army  forward  with  all  the  stealth  of  Indians. 
The  final  advance  upon  the  town  was  made  after  dark.  The 
fort  was  found  gaily  lighted,  a  post  ball  being  in  progress 
and  everybody  was  off  guard.  Clark  was  himself  inside  the 
fort  quietly  watching  the  dance  before  the  alarm  was  given  by 
an  Indian  who  saw  the  strange  face  in  the  flickering  torch  light. 
In  the  confusion  that  followed  with  what  grim  humor  Clark 
bade  them  go  on  with  the  dance,  but  to  remember  that  it  was 
now  under  the  flag  of  Virginia,  not  of  England ! 

The  town  was  easily  secured  and  the  French  passed  a  night 
of  abject  terror,  for  the  appearance  of  the  backwoodsmen  was 
quite  in  keeping  with  the  tales  they  had  heard  of  their  strength 
and  brutality.  When  morning  came  the  chief  inhabitants  came 
humbly  asking  the  dear  boon  of  life.  Then  Clark  showed  him- 
self a  master  diplomatist  as  well  as  a  keen  warrior.  He  told 
them  he  came  not  to  enslave,  but  to  set  them  free ;  told  of  the  al- 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  61 

liance  between  the  French  government  and  his  nation  and  when 
questioned  by  the  priest,  Gibault,  as  to  whether  the  Catholic 
church  could  be  opened,  made  his  master  stroke  by  saying  that 
under  the  laws  of  his  Republic  one  religion  had  as  much  pro- 
tection as  another.  The  mercurial  spirits  of  the  French  rose  and 
all  went  home  to  rejoice  after  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance,  while 
Gibault  became  from  that  time  on  a  useful  champion  of  the 
American  cause. 

The  news  of  what  had  happened  at  Kaskaskia  brought  the 
immediate  submission  of  Cahokia,  to  which  town  Clark  sent  a 
small  force  of  his  men  with  some  French  volunteers.  Gibault 
on  his  own  motion  went  to  Vincennes  and  secured  its  adherence 
by  his  own  arts  of  persuasion.  Thus  with  practically  no  fighting 
Illinois  passed  into  American  control. 

But  the  real  difficulties  of  Clark's  undertaking  now  began. 
He  was  in  the  midst  of  a  great  savage  country  with  only  a 
handful  of  men  and  no  near  base  of  supplies  and  reinforce- 
ment. The  French  of  the  villages  were  his  friends  and  he  found 
sympathy  in  the  Spanish  posts  across  the  Mississippi,  but  the 
attitude  of  the 'Indians  was  still  unsettled  and  a  force  might  be 
sent  against  him  from  Detroit  at  any  time.  Moreover,  the  time 
of  enlistment  of  his  men  expired  and  only  about  one  hundred 
re-enlisted,  though  a  few  young  Frenchmen  filled  up  the  com- 
panies. Crowds  of  Indians,  representing  all  the  tribes  of  the 
Northwest,  began  to  gather  at  Cahokia  to  hear  what  had  hap- 
pened. There  went  on  days  of  **talk,"  of  negotiation,  of  con- 
ciliation and  cajolery,  during  which  Clark  had  to  keep  every 
sense  alive  to  guard  against  sudden  stealth  and  cunning.  But 
he  understood  Indian  character  perfectly  and  finally  in  speeches 
of  real  Indian  imagery  convinced  the  gathered  hordes  of  his 
power  and  that  of  the  people  he  represented,  as  well  as  of  their 
good  intentions  toward  the  redmen.  A  solemn  peace  treaty 
was  entered  into  with  full  Indian  ceremonies  and  the  safetv 
of  the  American  garrison  then  secured.  Clark  was  ever  after 
a  great  figure  in  the  Indian  minds  and  it  v^as  reported  that  in 
later  wars  they  would  treat  with  no  other  American  officer  if 
Clark  was  present.^* 


Roosevelt  I,  p.  57 

62  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

Hamilton  at  Detroit  was  planning  an  expedition  against  Fort 
Pitt  when  news  of  Clark's  expedition  reached  him,  and  he  im- 
mediately gave  up  that  enterprise  to  go  to  the  Illinois  country. 
The  Indians  near  at  hand  were  rallied  and  the  posts  on  Lake 
Michigan  notified  to  stir  up  their  savages.  An  expedition  was 
promptly  prepared  at  Detroit  and  in  October  (1778)  started 
down  the  river  for  Vincennes.  From  Lake  Erie  they  rowed 
up  the  Maumee,  then  had  a  nine-mile  carry  to  the  Wabash,  the 
water  of  which  led  directly  to  Vincennes.  Hamilton  went  in 
person  and  had  in  his  commands  only  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
seven  whites,  but  gathering  Indians  as  he  went  secured  a  force 
of  about  five  hundred.  It  was  a  hard  journey  and  Hamilton 
gained  opinions  as  to  the  difficulties  of  the  Illinois  country 
which  did  Clark  good  service  the  following  winter.  The  Amer- 
ican force  was  so  small  that  Clark  had  not  dared  divide  it,  and 
Captain  Helm,  whom  he  put  in  command  at  Vincennes  had  only 
a  handful  of  men.  Scouts  sent  out  by  Helm  were  captured,  so 
news  of  Hamilton's  approach  did  not  reach  him  and  the  town 
passed  easily  into  English  hands  on  December  17th. 

The  British  commander  now  felt  perfectly  secure,  for  spies 
had  told  him  that  Clark  had  but  one  hundred  and  ten  men,  and, 
besides,  the  route  from  Kaskaskia  was  one  of  the  great  difficulty 
in  winter.  If  he  had  moved  on  at  once  it  would  seem  that  he 
might  easily  have  crushed  Clark,  whose  base  of  supplies  at 
Fort  Pitt  was  really  cut  off,  while  his  own  was  comparatively 
accessible.  But  he  dreaded  a  winter  campaign  and  settled  down 
to  wait  for  spring. 

When  Clark  learned  through  Francis  Vigo,  an  Italian  trader, 
that  Hamilton  had  only  eighty  men  in  his  garrison  and  that  he 
planned  to  gather  a  great  force  to  overrun  the  country  in  the 
spring,  the  terrors  of  winter  weather  and  swampy  wilderness 
faded  away  from  before  the  Americans  and  preparations  were 
at  once  begun  for  retaking  Vincennes.  An  armed  row-l>oat  was 
sent  down  to  the  Ohio  to  watch  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash.  The 
French  came  gladly. to  his  aid  and  young  men  volunteered  until 
he  was  able  to  march  out  of  Kaskaskia  on  February  7th  ( 1779) 
with  a  force  of  one  hundred  and  seventy.  The  march  oi  two 
hundred   and    forty   miles   was   accomplished   against    ordinarily 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  53 

insuperable  obstacles.  Cold  and  hunger  were  expected  difficulties, 
but  to  this  march  was  added  the  necessity  of  moving  forward 
over  plains  flooded  with  ice-cold  water,  often  to  a  man's  waist, 
and  sometimes  deeper.  Canoes  or  dug-outs  were  built  to  carry 
the  weaker  men  and  scanty  baggage  and  occasionally  the  whole 
force  was  ferried  where  the  water  was  over  head  in  depth.  It 
took  all  of  Clark's  ingenuity  to  keep  his  men  alive,  to  keep  up 
their  spirits  and  prevent  desertions.  But  he  succeeded,  and  sur- 
prising Hamilton  completely,  secured  Vincennes  after  a  very 
little  fighting,  and  the  whole  garrison  of  seventy-nine  men,  in- 
cluding Hamilton,  as  prisoners  of* war.  A  valuable  load  of  sup- 
plies and  goods  of  all  sorts  on  its  way  from  Detroit,  was  cap- 
tured just  above  Vincennes  and  distributed  among  the  soldiers, 
who  were  gladdened  at  the  same  time  by  messengers  from  the 
Virginia  government  bringing  thanks  and  promises  of  pay. 

The  Americans  were  now  in  complete  control  of  the  Illinois 
country  and  all  the  Indians  of  the  region  were  neutral  through 
the  rest  of  the  war.  Then  French  and  Spanish  across  the  river 
were  Clark's  enthusiastic  friends.  Virginia  shortly  organized 
the  new  territory  as  a  county  with  John  Todd  as  County  Lieu- 
tenant. The  great  trouble  now  for  both  Clark  and  Todd  was 
to  secure  funds  with  which  to  take  care  of  their  charge.  Pollock, 
an  American  trader  at  New  Orleans,  and  Francis  Vigo  stepped 
in  here  and  honored  Clark's  drafts  again  and  again.^°  The  Ohio 
River  was  now  perfectly  safe,  and  before  the  summer  of  1779 
was  over  the  Spanish  from  New  Orleans  took  Natchez  and 
supply  boats  could  pass  from  Fort  Pitt  to  New  Orleans  and 
back.  Toward  the  end  of  the  year  Clark  himself  took  up  his 
post  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio  where  he  might  serve  as  a  shield 
to  both  Kentucky  and  the  Illinois  country  and  from  which  point 
he  hoped  to  l)e  able  to  move  against  Detroit.  Clark's  great  ser- 
vices to  his  country  end  here,  but  probably  no  single  man  ever 
did  so  much  on  his  own  personal  responsibility  to  enlarge  the 
territory  of  the  United  States  as  he  had  done. 

The  same  season  of  Clark's  campaign  in  Illinois,  1778,  the 
Congress  and  Washington  had  decided  to  strengthen  the  forces 
at  Fort  Pitt,  and  General  Mcintosh  was  sent  to  take  charge. 

"Hinsdale,  p.  155.    Winsor,  p.  131. 

54  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

With  an  enlarged  army  of  Continentals  and  militia,  he  was  to 
move  across  country  against  Detroit.  The  start  was  made,  but 
Mcintosh  moved  with  such  caution  and  built  forts  with  such 
care  that  winter  set  in  when  he  had  advanced  only  to  the  Upper 
Muskingum  valley.  He  left  a  small  force  to  hold  that  post, 
retired  to  Pittsburg,  and  sent  his  militia  home. 

The  year  1779  saw  some  trouble  for  the  Kentucky  settle- 
ments, but  Clark's  work  disorganized  their  foes  and  two  great 
streams  of  emigrants  poured  into  the  territory,  one  by  the 
Wilderness  Road  and  one  down  the  Ohio.  It  was  this  year  that 
James  Robertson,  of  Watauga  fame,  went  to  the  Kentucky  River 
by  the  Wilderness  Road,  and  then  struck  across  to  the  great 
bend  in  the  Cumberland,  where  he  made  ready  for  a  large  party 
of  his  friends  under  Donelson,  the  father  of  the  future  Mrs. 
Andrew  Jackson.  Donelson's  party,  his  daughter  among  them, 
came  by  water  all  the  way  down  the  Tennessee  to  the  Ohio,  and 
thence  up  the  Cumberlanl.  It  was  a  perilous  undertaking,  but 
was  really  no  part  of  the  war  except  that  each  advancing  colony 
made  more  secure  the  claims  that  America  could  make  to  trans- 
Alleghany  territory. 

In  May  of  1779  Indian  forays  stirred  up  the  Kentuckians, 
and  a  party  of  about  one  hundred  under  John  Bowman,  a  cqunty 
lieutenant  —  for  Kentucky  was  now  divided  into  several  coun- 
ties—  went  against  Chillicothe.  The  town  was  burned  by  the 
Indians,  who  rallied  and  drove  off  the  whites.  It  was  a  humil- 
iating defeat,  but  it  had  a  disastrous  effect  upon  an  army  just 
starting  from  Detroit,  under  Captain  Henry  Bird.  His  entire 
force  of  Indians  fled  from  him,  panic-stricken,  when  they  heard 
of  the  attack  on  Chillicothe,  and  Kentucky  was  spared  an  attack. 

In  1780,  DePeyster,  a  New  York  tory,  took  command  at 
Detroit,  and  a  determined  and  systematic  attack  on  the  Amer- 
ican positions  was  begun.  Efforts  were  made  to  send  bands 
against  Vincennes  and  against  Clark  at  the  Falls,  but  the  Indians 
of  the  region  were  now  hard  to  rouse  against  the  Americans,  and 
made  most  uncertain  allies.  In  May,  a  force  of  six  or  seven 
hundred  Indians  and  a  few  Canadians  started  for  the  Ohio, 
aimed  against  the  villages  of  Kentucky,  where  DePeyster  cor- 
rectly thought  was  the  strongest  hold  of  the  Americans  on  the 

Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  55 

Ohio  Valley.  Bird  was  in  command  again,  and  this  time  suc- 
ceeded in  passing  down  the  Miami,  crossing  the  Ohio  and  taking 
two  small  stockades  near  the  Licking  River.  Satisfied  with  this, 
he  began  his  retreat  to  Detroit,  but  his  Indians  became  unrul3f 
and  stole  and  plundered,  and  he  could  not  even  get  his  little 
cannon  back  to  Detroit. 

Stirred  up  by  this  small  British  adventure,  Clark,  disguised 
as  an  Indian  to  prevent  attack  by  strolling  savages,  hurried 
through  the  forest  to  the  panic-stricken  Kentucky  settlements. 
Many  recent  arrivals  were  all  ready  to  flee  the  country,  but 
Clark  sent  a  force  to  drive  them  back  from  the  Wilderness  Road, 
and,  appointing  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  as  a  rendezvous,  pre- 
pared for  a  counter  foray.  About  nine  hundred  men  responded 
to  his  call.  They  went  up  the  Ohio  some  distance,  crossed  it, 
and  marched  against  old  Chillicothe.  That  town  had  been  de- 
serted, but  a  Piqua  town,  containing  Girty  and  several  hundred 
Indians,  was  attacked.  Clark's  party  was  successful,  drove  out 
the  Indians  and  destroyed  their  property,  and  seized  the  stores 
of  some  British  traders.     There  was  no  more  trouble  in  1780. 

In  the  winter  of  1 780-1 781,  Clark  went  to  Virginia  to  se- 
cure forces  and  supplies  for  an  attack  on  Detroit.  Jefferson, 
their  governor,  did  all  in  his  power,  and  both  men  appealed  to 
Washington.  The  commander-in-chief  had  more  work  than  he 
could  take  care  of  as  it  was,  and  could  only  instruct  Colonel 
Brodhead,  at  Fort  Pitt,  to  do  what  he  could  to  help  Clark.  The 
latter  was  empowered  to  raise  troops,  but  went  up  and  down  the 
Ohio  from  Fort  Pitt  to  the  Falls  and  to  Illinois,  without  getting 
a  sufficient  response.  One  small  party  of  Pennsylvanians,  com- 
ing down  the  Ohio  to  join  him,  was  attacked  by  a  force  of  In- 
dians under  the  famous  Joseph  Brant,  and  all  killed  or  captured. 
The  news  of  Clark's  intended  attack  on  Detroit  caused  the  col- 
lection of  war  bands  to  oppose  him.  One  under  McKee  and 
Brant  attained  considerable  size,  but  fell  to  pieces  when  they 
heard  Clark  had  abandoned  his  plan,  and  only  some  small  forays 
took  place. 

The  surrender  of  Cornwallis,  in  October,  1781,  did  not 
bring  quiet  to  the  frontier.  The  winter  following  witnessed  the 
wanton  massacre  of  the  Moravian  Indians,  by  a  party  from  Fort 

66  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

Pitt.  The  Moravians  had  been  neutral  all  through  the  war,  but 
betw^n  two  fires,  and  suspected  by  their  brother  Indians  and  the 
Americans.  It  is  a  dark  page  in  our  annals,  but  cannot  detain  us 
here.  The  following  spring  a  force  of  Pennsylvania  and  Vir- 
ginia militia  was  sent  against  Sandusky,  was  worsted,  and  re- 
treated with  considerable  loss.  Some  of  the  men  had  shared  in 
the  Moravian  massacre,  and  captives  were  put  to  death  by  the 
Indians  with  peculiar  torture;  the  chief  sufferer,  Colonel  Craw- 
ford was,  however,  innocent  of  that  crime. 

The  summer  of  1782  was  almost  a  repetition  of  that  of  1781. 
Caldwell  and  McKee  started  from  Detroit  with  some  rangers, 
and  speedily  gathered  over  a  thousand  Indians,  the  largest  force 
west  of  the  Alleghanies  during  the  Revolution.  They  planned 
an  attack  on  Wheeling,  but  turned  aside  because  of  a  rumor  that 
Clark  was  intending  to  attack  the  Shawnee  towns.^**  Finding 
it  was  a  false  alarm  many  of  the  Indians  deserted,  but  three  or 
four  hundred  were  retained,  and  with  them  the  Ohio  was  crossed 
and  an  attack  made  on  the  forts  in  Fayette  County,  between  the 
Ohio  and  Kentucky  Rivers,  then  the  feeblest  and  most  exposed 
part  of  Kentucky.  Several  stations  were  destroyed,  and  the 
party  began  a  leisurely  retreat  to  the  Blue  Licks,  where  they 
were  overtaken  by  a  hastily-gathered  force  of  backwoodsmen. 
Boone  was  with  them,  and  advised  that  an  attack  be  postponed 
until  other  troops  known  to  be  on  the  way  could  come  up.  But 
rasher  councils  prevailed,  and  an  attack  made,  which  ended  in  a 
wild  rout  of  the  whites.  "He  that  could  remount  a  horse  was 
well  off;  he  that  could  not  had  no  time  for  delay."^^  This  battle 
of  the  Blue  Licks  was  the  bloodiest  Kentucky  had  known. 

Clark  was  once  more  roused,  and  gathering  forces  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Licking,  as  before,  started  up  the  Miami  Valley 
in  November,  1782,  with  one  thousand  and  fifty  mounted  rifle- 
men. The  Indians  fell  back  before  this  force  —  towns  and  sup- 
plies were  destroyed.  McKee  tried  to  come  to  the  aid  of  his 
Indian  friends,  but  his  forces  were  scattered ;  Clark's  dream 
might  also  have  been  realized,  for  McKee  wrote  that  the  severity 

"  Roosevelt  II,  p.  188. 

"  Levi  Todd's  Letter,   Roosevelt  II,  p.  203. 

CampaigfiiS  of  the  Revolution,  Etc.  67 

'of  the  blow  left  the  road  open  to  Detroit.^*  But  the  war  went 
no  further.  By  the  opening  of  1783  the  news  of  peace  reached 
the  frontier,  and  the  campaigns  of  the  Revolution  were  over. 

Just  what  had  been  accomplished  by  the  war  in  the  West 
can  be  briefly  summarized:  (i)  The  advance  of  settlers  to  the 
south  side  of  the  upper  Ohio,  and  into  the  Watauga  Valley,  gave 
the  colonists  a  footing  west  of  the  mountains.  (2)  These  set- 
tlements made  necessary  the  battle  of  the  Great  Kanawha,  in 
1774,  and  the  defeat  of  the  Shawnees  there  opened  the  Ohio 
River  as  a  route  to  the  Kentucky  valleys.  (3)  The  treaty  of 
Henderson  and  Boone,  in  1775,  and  the  settlements  made  by 
them  established  a  hold  on  the  Kentucky  country.  (4)  The 
success  of  the  Watauga  men  over  the  Cherokees,  in  1776,  made 
their  own  position  permanent  and  placed  a  barrier  between  Ken- 
tucky and  the  South.  (5)  In  1778  Clark's  conquest  was  in 
itself  the  greatest  advance  made  and  besides  cleared  the  northern 
horizon  so  that,  (6)  the  growth  of  Kentucky  increased,  and  in 
1779,  especially,  a  new  frontier  was  established  by  Robertson 
-and  his  company  in  the  Cumberland  Valley. 

It  is  well  said  that  the  last  contest  for  the  Western  country 
was  the  diplomatic  battle  fought  by  John  Jay,  at  Paris.  Though 
France  and  Spain  had  been  our  allies  during  the  war  there  was 
nothing  that  either  of  them  desired  less  than  a  free  republic, 
extending  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Mississippi.  In  the  negotia- 
tions that  took  place  it  was  fortunate  that  the  American  Com- 
missioners had  a  liberal  English  ministry  to  treat  with,  rather 
than  that  of  Lord  North.  It  was  a  help  to  their  claims  that  a 
shadow  of  a  right  to  the  Western  lands  had  come  down  from 
the  old  charters,  but  the  weight  of  argument  rested  upon  the 
actual  conquest  and  occupation  of  the  country  asked  for.  As 
Livingston  wrote  to  Franklin,  in  January,  1782,  "This  extension 
to  the  Mississippi  is  founded  on  justice,  and  our  claims  are  at 
least  such  as  the  events  of  the  war  give  us  a  right  to  insist 
upon,"  while  the  settlements  in  the  West  "render  a  relinquish- 
ment of  the  claim  highly  impolitic  and  unjust."^®     Even  France 



Roosevelt  II.  p.  209. 
Winsor,  p.  209.         , 

58  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

and  Spain  recognized  the  right  that  lies  in  possession,  and  one 
line  was  proposed  by  them,  which  would  have  given  to  the 
Republic  the  territory  that  had  actually  been  settled  by  her  peo- 
ple.^® What  the  United  States  really  got  was  only  what  had 
been  conquered,  for,  though  the  treaty  of  1783  gave  the  Great 
Lakes  and  Florida  as  the  northern  and  southern  boundaries,  it 
took  a  good  many  years  and  at  least  one  treaty  more  to  obtain 
actual  possession  of  it  all.  So  the  first  result  of  the  campaigns 
in  the  Ohio  Valley  was  unquestionably  the  acquisition  of  that 
valley  by  the  United  States;. 

Further,  this  acquisition  made  sure  the  future  growth  of  the 
territory.  Count  d'Aranda,  the  Spanish  commissioner  at  Paris, 
^'predicted  the  enormous  expansion  of  the  Federal  Republic  at 
the  expense  of  Florida,  Louisiana  and  Mexico,  unless  effectually 
curbed  in  its  youth, "^^  His  prediction  has  been  more  than  ful- 
filled. The  possession  of  half  the  Mississippi  Valley  made  essen- 
tial the  control  of  its  mouth,  hence  the  Louisiana  purchase.  The 
holding  of  the  interior  gave  a  need  for  the  gulf  coast,  and  we 
acquired  Florida. 

These  campaigns  were  carried  on  chiefly  by  men  who  were 
coming  into  the  land  to  possess  it,  and  each  advancing  victory 
drew  after  it  a  fresh  wave  of  immigration ;  colonization  and  con- 
quest, mutually  cause  and  effect.  But  the  stress  of  danger 
brought  forth  united  action  of  the  frontiersmen,  and  developed 
a  feeling  of  common  interest  which  drew  them  together  under 
some  form  of  civil  regulations ;  whereas,  in  less  stirring  times 
they  might  have  remained  much  longer  free  bands  of  hunters 
and  woodsmen,  and  the  civilization  and  growth  of  the  interior 
been  much  delayed. 

The  acquisition  of  the  western  lands  appeared  at  first  as  an 
enormous  advantage  to  certain  States  holding  the  ancient  char- 
ters, but  when  their  titles  were  quit-claimed  to  the  United  States 
a  national  domain  was  created,  interest  in  which  and  care  of 
which  did  a  great  deal  to  hold  the  States  together  in  the  perilous 
days  of  the  Confederation  and  to  lead  to  the  stronger  union  of 
the  Constitution. 

*  Hinsdale,  p.  170.     Map  opposite  p.  180. 
"Roosevelt  II. ^p.  370.. 


Campaigns  of  the  Revolution,  Etc,  6& 

Furthermore,  at  the  close  of  the  war,  a  vast  immigration 
into  the  new  lands  began.  Some  came  to  redeem  soldiers'  boun- 
ties, some  from  ruined  homes  along  the  coast  sought  to  renew 
their  fortunes  in  the  rich  soil  of  these  river  valleys.  New  sources 
of  wealth  were  opened  up  and  the  opportunities  of  the  great 
West  drew  to  our  shores  throngs  of  Europeans  to  multiply  our 
population  and  add  to  our  wealth  and  power. 

Finally,  it  may  not  be  going  too  far  to  say  that  this  Ohio 
Valley  conquest  developed  a  race  of  pioneers  who  have  formed 
the  forward  moving  element  all  through  our  history.  Pioneers 
are  men  who  keep  ahead  of  civilization  as  long  as  there  is  a 
wilderness  to  conquer,  and  then  turn  to  subdue  the  evils  that 
grow  out  of  civilization  itself.  Daniel  Boone  died  west  of  the 
Mississippi,  still  pursuing  the  wilderness;  Andrew  Jackson  was 
a  product  of  East  Tennessee  in  Revolutionary  times,  while  his 
wife,  the  daughter  of  Donelson,  went  to  the  Cdmberland  Valley 
with  her  father  in  1779;  the  younger  brother  of  Clark  shares 
with  Lewis  the  credit  for  the  exploration  of  the  Oregon  country, 
and  Sam  Houston,  a  product  of  the  Tennessee  frontier,  was  the 
founder  of  the  United  States  power  in  Texas.  As  the  first  back- 
woodsmen went  forward  and  took  the  land  in  the  face  of  British 
and  Indians,  so  it  has  been  their  sons  or  the  inheritors  of  their 
spirit  who  have  led  the  advance  of  the  United  States  all  the  way 
to  the  Pacific.  And  Lincoln,  "the  first  American,"  was  essen- 
tially a  backwoods  product,  whose  pioneer  instinct  turned  back 
to  destroy  the  weeds  of  human  slavery  and  in  the  tangles  of 
State  and  party  enmity  to  prepare  the  way,  to  make  straight  the 
paths,  for  a  new  and  greater  nation  than  the  world  had  yet 

Principal  authorities  for  the  facts  related  in  the  foregoing  Article: 
Hinsdale  —  The  Old  Northwest.  IVinsor  —  The  Westward  Movement. 
Roosevelt  —  The  Winning  of  the  West.  Poole  —  The  West,  in  Narrative 
and  Critical  History  of  America,  Vol.  VI,  Chap.  IX.  Jay — The  Treaty 
of  1783  in  Narrative  and  Critical  History.  English  —  Conquest  of  the 
Country  Northwest  of  the  Ohio  River.  Fiske  —  American  Revolution. 
Fiske  —  Critical   Period  of  American  History. 


Secretary  of  the  Richland  County  Historical  Society. 

The  Bentley  Lake,  seven  miles  east  of  Mansfield,  was  created 
in  1846,  and  had  a  peculiar  origin.  In  1821,  Jonas  Ballyet 
entered  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  15,  Mifflin  township, 
Richland  county,  and  near  the  center  of  this  tract  there  was 
a  circular  marsh  of  eight  orten  acres,  surrounded  by  a  rim  of 
elevations  of  gentle  slope,  giving  a  bowl-like  appearance  in 
the  place.  At  the  east  side  or  end  there  was  a  depression  in 
the  rim,  as  though  the  marsh  had  at  one  time  been  a  lake,  and 
that  this  depression  had  been  its  outlet  to  the  Blackfork  of  the 
Mohican  river,  a  mile  distant.  Between  the  marsh  and  the  river, 
and  extending  from  the  one  to  the  other,  is  a  stretch  of  boggy 
land  called  the  "Black  swamp,"  lower  than  the  marsh.  And 
"Uncle  Jonas  Ballyet  theorized  that  to  cut  a  ditch  through  the 
depression  would  drain  the  marsh  through  the  swamp  to  the 
river,  and  thus  add  to  the  tillable  acreage  of  his  farm.  The 
theory  seemed  so  plausible  that  men  were  employed  to  dig  a 
trench,  the  bottom  of  which  was  six  feet  below  the  surface  of 
the  marsh.  The  job  was  completed  July  25,  1846.  Through  this 
ditch  water  flowed  quite  copiously,  and  the  prospects  seemed 
to  be  favorable  for  the  marsh  to  be  drained  in  a.  short  time.  But 
a  condition  existed  which  "Uncle  Jonas"  had  not  considered  in 
his  philosophy,  for  beneath  was  a  lake,  and  the  marsh  was  but  a 
fenny  cover  —  the  accumulation  of  a  century  —  over  its  deep 
waters.  The  night  after  the  opening  of  the  ditch,  the  waters 
underlying  the  morass  having  been  lowered  about  six  feet,  the 
cover  sank,  and  the  next  morning  a  lake  was  seen  where  the 
marsh  had  previously  been. 

The  sinking  of  the  bog-covering  caused  the  earth  to  quake 
and  tremble  for  miles  around,  and  alarmed  the  people,  some  think- 
ing it  was  an  earthquake,  others  that  "the  end  of  the  world"  was 
coming,  as  had  been  prophesied  by  the  Millerites. 

The  time  set  by  the  Rev.  William  Miller  for  the  "second 
coming  of  Christ"  was  the  year  1843,  but  as  it  did  not  occur  at 


Benlley's  Lake.  61 

that  time,  nor  at  later  dates,  and  the  people  were  admonished  to 
say  not  in  their  hearts,  "My  Lord  delayeth  His  coming." 

The  lake  covers  an  area  of  about  nine  acres,  and  has  an 
average  depth  of  seventy  feet.  It  presents  a  lovely  appearance 
in  its  frame-setting  of  hills,  with  a  beautiful  grove  to  the  south- 
east. The  water  when  viewed  in  the  lake  is  of  a  green  tint, 
but  when  dipped  up  in  the  hand  is  pure  and  clear. 

In  the  camping  party  in  the  view  given,  is  Gen.  R.  Brinker- 
hoff,  president  of  the  Ohio  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society ; 


the  Hon.  M.  B.  Bushncll  and  members  of  their  families.  Mr. 
Bushnell  and  the  wife  of  General  Bnnkerhoff  are  grandchildren 
of  Gen.  Robert  Itentley,  for  whom  the  lake  is  named.  General 
Bentley  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Richland  county.  He  settled 
in  the  Bentley  lake  vincinity  in  1815.  He  built  the  first  brick 
farm  house  in  the  county.  He  was  judge  of  the  court  in  1821*8, 
served  two  terms  in  the  state  senate  and  was  a  major-general 
of  militia.  History  and  historical  associations  are  interestingly 
woven  about  the  lake  and  its  localitv. 




"I  am  a  Buckeye,  from  the  Buckeye  State."  This  was  the 
proud  declaration  of  the  author  of  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too, 
as  he  faced  a  large  and  enthusiastic  audience  in  New  York  City, 
just  before  he  gave  to  fame  that  political  campaign  song  —  the 
most  effective  ever  sung  in  the  history  of  the  Republic. 

Alexander  Coffman  Ross  first  opened  his  eyes  to  the  light 
in  Zanesville,  O.,  May  31,  1812.  His  father,  Elijah  Ross,^  born 
in  Brownsvifle,  Pa.,  November,  1786,  located  in  Zane^town, 
(Zanesville)  in  1804,  and  died  there  February  29,  1864.  He  was 
a  soldier  of  the  War  of  1812,  and,  being  a  gunsmith,  was  ordered 
id  remain  in  his  home  town  to  repair  guns,  swords  and  accoutre- 
ments. His  wife,  whose  maiden  name  was  M?iry  Goffman,  was 
born  at  Fredericktown,  Pa.,  September  10,  1788,  and  died  in 
Zanesville  December  29,   1862.     Their  family  numbered  twelve 

*In  1804,  Elijah  RoSs  came  to  Zanestown  {Zanesville)  and  prospected 
through  the  Muskingum  and  Miami  valleys.  He  was  a  gunsmith  by  trade, 
the  first  of  this  section,  and  soon  after  his  arrival  in  the  new  country 
settled  in  the  village  and  erected  a  cabin,  which  served  as  dwelling  and 
shop,  on  what  is  now  the  northeast  corner  of  Locust  alley  and  Second 
street.  At  the  beginning  of  the  War  of  1812,  he  entered  the  service  as 
third  corporal,  and  was  detailed  to  remain  at  home  and  repair  arms  for 
the  soldiers.  In  1816  he  moved  to  West  Zanesville.  In  1823  he  returned 
to  the  east  side  of  the  river,  where  he  continued  to  work  at  his  trade. 
He  bored  his  own  gun  barrels,  made  the  first  blow-pipes  there  used  for 
blowing  glass  (1815),  and  sometimes  aided  the  glass-blowers  in  their 
work.  He  was  especially  fond  of  fox  hunting,  and  seemed  never  hap- 
pier than  when  following  his  hounds  over  the  Muskingum  hills.  A  genial, 
unassuming  man  and  a  total  abstainer  from  intoxicants,  he  lived  to  the 
ripe  age  of  seventy-nine  years,  and  died  respected  for  his  industry  and 
honesty.  ( 62 ) 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  68 

children,  two  of  whom,  Mrs.  Daniel  Hurd,  of  Denver,  Col.,  and 
Mrs.  George  W.  Keene,  of  New  York  City,  still  survive. 

The  parents  were  of  the  sturdy  pioneers  of  the  new  state. 
They  began  life  on  the  frontier  in  a  typical  log  cabin  of  the 
period.  Here  the  subject  of  this  sketch  passed  his  boyhood  in  the 
midst  of  healthful  home  influences  and  the  not  unfortunate  envi- 
ronment of  this  growing  and  ambitious  western  town,  located  on 
the  banks  of  the  Muskingum,  and  directly  in  the  line  of  the  great 
overland  thoroughfare  along  which  the  tide  of  civilization  was 
moving  to  regions  more  remote.  At  the  close  of  the  second 
decade  of  the  last  century,  the  "town  of  Zane,,^  ranked  second 
among  the  incorporated  places  of  Ohio  and  stood  without  a  rival 
north  of  the  "River  Beautiful*'  in  thrift,  aspiration  and  progres- 
sive spirit.  The  old  road,  known  in  history  as  "Zane's  Trace," 
leading  backward  toward  the  base  of  American  culture  and  expan- 
sive energy  in  the  East,  and  downward  southwesterly  to  the  realm 
of  forests  primeval,  was  an  avenue  for  the  exchange  of  ideas  as 
well  as  merchandise.  The  youth  who  in  "that  elder  day"  dwelt 
at  the  junction  of  the  waterway  and  the  highway,  though  sur- 
rounded by  the  wilderness,  felt  that  he  was  still  on  the  line  of 
communication  with  the  cities  of  the  far-away  Atlantic  coast. 

Especially  was  this  true  of  young  Ross,  who  seems  to  have 
been  from  early  years  studious,  industrious  and  prompt  to  make 
the  best  of  his  opportunities. 

His  daughter,  Ellen,  writing  interestingly  of  his  social  qual- 
ities, says : 

His  grandfather  was  a  canny  Scotchman,  and  I  think  it  must  have 
been  from  this  ancestor  that  Alexander  inherited  his  social  traits  and  love 
of  dancing,  for  one  of  the  sisters,  Margaret,  used  to  say  that  the  only 
recollection  of  her  grandfather  was  seeing  the  old  gentleman,  on  one  of 
his  visits  to  his  son  in  Ohio,  come  dancing  into  the  room  in  his  black 
velvet  knee  breeches  and  silver  shoe  buckles,  as  gay  and  active  as  any 
young  dandy  of  his  day. 

From  his  father  he  doubtless  inherited  and  acquired  a  fond- 
ness and  aptness  for  mechanical  pursuits.  In  the  little  shop  at 
home  he  witnessed  the  repair  and  manufacture  of  guns,  and  early 

^  Including  Putnam,  now  a  part  of  Zanesville. 

64  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

learned  to  handle  tools.  Though  he  did  not  have  the  opportunity 
to  attend  free  public  schools,  his  education  was  not  wholly  neg- 
lected. Under  private  teachers  and  at  home  he  gained  a  knowl- 
edge of  the  common  branches,  which  he  greatly  extended  by 
reading  with  avidity  the  best  literature  that  he  could  get.  He 
found  greatest  pleasure  in  the  perusal  of  scientific  works,  and 
became  an  expert  in  demonstrating  by  experiment  the  principles 
set  forth  in  what  he  read.  "He  was  fortunate  in  having,  toward 
the  latter  part  of  his  school  course,  two  very  excellent  teachers, 
Allan  Cadwallader  and  his  brother,  members  of  a  good  old 
Quaker  family." 

At  the  age  of  seventeen  years,  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  watch- 
maker and  jeweler  of  his  native  city.  In  1831-32,  he  completed 
preparation  for  his  chosen  trade  in  New  York  City. 

•  To  such  a  youth,  two  years  in  the  metropolis  was  in  itself  no 
mean  education.  Here  he  enjoyed  rare  opportunities  for  reading 
and  investigation.  Nor  was  his  leisure  devoted  to  study  alone. 
Music  and  art  invited  to  occasional  entertainment  and  recreation. 

Returning  home  at  the  close  of  his  apprenticeship,  he  applied 
himself  industriously  to  his  trade  and  was  soon  recognized  as  a 
master  in  his  chosen  vocation.  His  chief  interest  was  in  the  latest 
scientific  discoveries,  which  he  interpreted  and  applied  with  the 
ease  of  a  trained  specialist. 

In  1838  he  married  Caroline  Granger,  who  was  in  hearty 
sympathy  with  his  various  enterprises  and  "recreations."  Their 
home  attracted  the  young  people  of  Zanesville  who  were  fond 
of  music  and  art.  At  the  age  of  eighty-five  ye^rs  she  manifests 
a  lively  interest  in  current  events  and  finds  a  pleasant  residence 
with  her  two  daughters  at  the  old  homestead. 

From  its  founding  he  was  an  enthusiastic  patron  of  the 
Athenaeum,  the  local  library,  one  of  the  first  in  the  state  to  have 
a  home  of  its  own.  This  building  he  rendered  famous  by  using 
it  as  the  object  in  testing  a  wonderful  invention  announced  from 
across  the  sea. 

In  the  year  1839,  Daguerre's  process  of  developing  and  fix- 
ing upon  a  plate  the  image  of  external  objects,  or,  in  other  words, 
of  making  the  daguerreotype,  was  first  published  in  this  country. 
Ross  read  the  description  and  proceeded  at  once  to  construct  a 

66  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

camera,  using  telescope  lenses,  and  transferred  to  b,  chemically 
prepared  plate  a  counterfeit  preseqtment  of  the  Zanesville 
Athenaeum,  the  first  picture  of  the  kind  made  in  this  country  out- 
side of  New  York  City  and  perhaps  the  first  in  America:^ 

Following  is  Ross's  account  of  the  successful  experiment.  It 
illustrates  his  simple  and  direct  exposition  of  a  scientific  process. 
No  apology  is  made  for  reproducing  it  in  full : 

"On  the  29th  day  of  August,  1839,  Daguerre  gave  to  the  French 
government  the  process  which  was  proclaimed  by  Porfessor  Arago.  It  was 
not  until  the  following  November  that  I  saw  a  notice  of  it,  and  then  a 
newspaper  account  of  the  process  fully  described.  I  concluded  to  make 
an  attempt  to  produce  a  picture,  although  I  had  no  camera  or  silver  plate. 
I  procured  two  nice  cigar  boxes,  cut  one  down  so  that  it  would  slide  into 
the  other;  Master  Hill  loaned  me  the  object  lens  from  his  spy  glass, 
the  lens  having  a  focal  length  of  eighteen  inches. 

"The  lens  was  secured  in  a  paper  tube  some  six  inches  in  length, 
and  one  end  of  this  tube  was  fitted  into  the  end  of  the  largest  cigar  box, 
and  a  ground  plate  (which  I  also  made)  was  fitted  so  as  to  slide  in  and 
out  of  this  box ;  —  this  was  my  camera.  The  silvered  plate  was  my  next 
consideration,  and  here  I  had  to  rely  on  my  knowledge  as  a  silversmith ; 
I  took  a  piece  of  planished  copper  about  three  by  four  inches,  and  hav- 
ing dissolved  some  nitrate  of  "Silver  in  distilled  water,  I  applied  the  fluid 
with  a  broad  hair  pencil  to  the  surface  of  the  plate  until  it  was  darkened, 
and  then  immediately  rubbed  it  over  with  bitartrate  of  potash,  and  re- 
peated the  process  until  i  secured  a  good  deposit  of  the  silver.  Con- 
trary to  instructions  I  had  a  'buff'  —  but  more  of  this  hereafter  —  and 
finished  up  the  plate  until  I  had  what  silversmiths  call  a  'black  polish.' 
The  next  thing  was  to  coat  the  plate  with  iodine ;  for  this  I  placed  some 
iodine  in  the  bottom  of  a  saucer,  took  it  into  a  dark  room,  and  by  the 
light  of  a  tallow  dip  in  one  hand,  holding  the  plate  over  the  saucer  with 
the  other,  I  watched  the  process  for  about  twenty  minutes,  when  I  found 
it  coated  to  suit  me;  I  afterwards  learned  that  this  first  coating  was 
admirably  done. 

"Having  progressed  thus  far,  I  set  my  camera  out  of  the  front  window 
in  the  building  now  occupied  by  the  Union  Bank,  then  by  Hill  &  Ross, 
and  directed  it  to  the  Atheneum.     The  focus  of  the  lens  being  so  long, 

*  Dr.  Draper  was  experimenting  concurrently  with  Ross,  and  made 
daguerreotypes  about  the  same  time.  As  exact  dates  have  not  been 
preserved,  it  is  impossible  to  say  who  may  claim  precedence  in  the  appli- 
cation of  the  art.  Dr.  Draper  took  a  picture  of  his  sister,  the  first  por- 
trait made  by  the  process  in  this  or  any  other  country.  To  produce  this 
it  was  necessary  for  her  to  sit  in  a  bright  light  with  closed  eyes  for  half 
an  hour. 

Song  IVriters  of  Ohio. 

68  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

I  could  only  take  in  about  half  the  building.  I  focused  the  camera, 
took  out  the  ground  glass  and  inserted  the  prepared  plate,  covering  the 
end  of  the  camera  with  my  hat  lest  the  light  might  get  in  at  the  sides. 
I  let  in  the  light  when  all  was  ready,  and  left  it  exposed  for  over  twenty 
minutes;  it  was  a  bright  sun  light.  At  the  end  of  the  twenty  minutes  I 
carried  camera  and  all  into  my  darkened  room,  took  out  my  plate  and 
expected  to  be  able  to  see  some  outline  of  the  building.  I  was  disap- 
pointed, but  soon  I  remembered  that  there  was  another  process  to  be 
gone  through,  and  that  I  had  neglected  to  make  any  preparation  for  it  — 
the  plate  must  be  exposed  to  the  vapor  of  mercury,  I  soon  got  a  spirit 
lamp,  put  a  few  drops  of  mercury  in  a  tea  cup,  applied  the  lamp  under  the 
bottom  of  the  cup  and  held  my  plate  over  it.  Soon  the  fumes  rose,  and 
by  the  light  of  my  tallow-dip,  I  watched  the  result  in  breathless  anxiety; 
the  picture  began  to  appear  and  I  witnessed  my  success  with  joy  unspeak- 
able. I  called  my  wife  and  Master  Hill  and  there  in  that  little  darkened 
room  I  showed  them  the  first  daguerreotype  ever  made  in  Ohio,  or  west 
of  New  York  City,  to  my  knowledge. 

"But  my  picture  was  not  yet  finished;  the  iodine  had  to  be  removed 
before  I  dare  expose  it  to  the  light;  the  chemical  agent  to  be  used  to 
remove  the  iodine  was  hyposulphate  of  soda,  and  that  I  could  not  obtain. 
I  thought  I  would  try  salt  water  —  I  made  a  strong  solution  in  a  tin 
dish,  put  the  plate  into  it,  warmed  it  over  a  spirit  lamp,  and  in  a  short 
time  found  my  picture  clear.  You  may  believe  that  I  was  not  long  in 
covering  it  with  glass  and  showing  it  to  my  friends.  It  was  noticed  in 
the  papers  that  day  as  the  first  daguerreotype  ever  made  in  Ohio. 

"In  February,  1840,  I  took  a  view  of  the  Putnam  Seminary,  which 
I  kept  for  many  years.  During  the  summer  of  1840  I  did  nothing  at 
picture  taking ;  the  political  storm  was  upon  us,  and  every  ordinary  em- 
ployment seemed  as  nothing. 

^In  the  winter  of  1840-41,  I  got  up  a  set  of  good  instruments  and 
turned  my  attention  to  taking  likenesses,  which  was  then  being  experi- 
mented upon  by  Professor  Draper,  Morse,  Walcott  and  Dr.  Chilton.  I 
met  with  many  difficulties  in  not  having  an  achromatic  lens,  which  at  that 
lime  was  hard  to  get.  I  ordered  two  planoconvex  lenses  (four  inches 
in  diameter  with  combined  focal  length  of  eight  inches)  from  Paris,  for 
which  I  paid  $60  to  a  friend  in  Philadelphia.  In  the  non-achromatic  lens 
there  was  a  certain  focus  to  get  which  was  not  only  my  difficulty,  but  a 
difficulty  with  all  others  as  well.  Light  has  two  kinds  of  rays  —  the 
chemical  and  luminous  —  and  these  rays  have  different  foci,  the  focus 
of  the  chemical  rays  being  within  that  of  the  luminous.  You  can,  by 
sight,  adjust  the  camera  to  the  focus  of  the  luminous  rays,  but,  to  get 
a  wdl  defined  picture  you  must  get  your  plate  into  the  focus  of  the  chem- 
ical or  actinic  rays.  This  1.  did  not  know,  and  I  worked  many  a  day 

"I  had  no  trouble  in  getting  a  picture,  but  it  was  always  taken  in  the 
luminous  focus  and  was  indistinct.     My  wife  would  sit  for  me   for  ten 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  69 

and  even  fifteen  minutes  in  the  sun,  still  the  picture  was  blurred.  I  could 
get  no  information  on  the  subject;  I  was  almost  in  despair.  One  day  I 
had  been  using  some  tea  cups  in  my  room,  and  had  placed  them  on  the 
edge  of  the  window  sill,  just  in  front  of  where  my  wife  sat.  I  had  majde 
some  change  and  was  trying  to  focus  the  camera  on  her,  as  usual.  I  could 
also  see  the  cups,  but  not  nearly  so  sharp  in  outline.  I  took  the  picture, 
developed  it,  and,  to  my  great  delight,  found  that  the  cup  nearest  the  in- 
strument was  perfect,  even  showing  the  small  flower  on  it.  I  felt  as  if 
I  had  made  a  great  discovery,  and  to  me  it  was  one.  After  reflecting 
over  the  matter,  I  concluded  to  mark  the  tube  of  the  camera  as  it  was 
then  adjusted.  I  then  looked  through  the  camera  at  the  cup,  and  moved 
the  tube  until  the  cup  was  in  the  luminous  focus,  and  then  again  marked 
the  tube;  the  distance  between  the  two  marks  thus  made  was  about  the 
one-eighth  of  an  inch. 

"I  then  prepared  a  good  plate,  placed  my  wife  again,  got  the  luminous 
focus,  then  pushed  the  tube  in  one-eighth  of  an  inch,  took  a  picture  and 
found  it  an  excellent  one.  My  delight  was  unbounded.  I  felt  that  I  had 
overcome  a  great  difficulty,  and  solved  a  mystery.  I  was  not  long  in  let- 
ting it  be  known,  and  many  a  poor  devil  did  I  help  out  of  difficulty,  with- 
out reward.  Visitors  from  Springfield,  Marietta,  Cincinnati,  Cleveland, 
and  other  places,  called  upon  me  for  information  and  got  it  free  of 
charge.  A  Professor  Garlick,  however,  insisted  upon  making  some  com- 
pensation, and  gave  me  a  splendidly  bound  book  of  steel  engravings  of 
the  London  Art  Gallery. 

"I  will  finish  this  by  stating  that,  except  those  made  by  myself,  I 
never  saw  a  daguerreotype  until  the  fall  of  1841.  I  was  frequently  tnld 
by  persons  who  had  seen  other  pictures,  that  mine  were  far  superior  to 
any  they  had  seen,  although  not  so  sharp  in  the  outline  as  those  taken 
with  the  achromatic  lens.  Mine  were  strong  and  bold,  and  could  be  seen 
in  any  position.  I  received  the  first  premium  at  the  Mechanics'  Institute 
exhibition  at  Cincinnati  in  June  1842.  I  will  now  refer  back  to  the  buff. 
I  found  the  superiority  of  my  pictures  was  altogether  in  the  manner  in 
which  I  polished  my  plates. 

"All  others  at  the  beginning  followed  Daguerre's  process  to  the  let- 
ter, and  being  a  silversmith  I  knew  that  with  the  buff  was  the  only  pos- 
sible way  that  a  silver  plate  could  be  brought  to  a  high  polish,  and  as 
Daguerre  said,  'the  higher  the  polish  the  better.*  I  kept  it  no  secret;  it 
soon  came  into  general  use,  and  some  few  years  after  some  one  got  out  a 
patent  for  the  buff  wheel.  If  I  could  see  you  I  could  tell  you  many  little 
incidents  about  the  daguerreotype  flattering  to  mc,  but  I  do  not  care  to 
write  them  out.' " 

Judge  James  Sheward,  late  of  Dunkirk,  N.  Y.,  formerly 
of  Zanesville,  wrote  a  number  of  articles  for  the  Courier  of  the 
latter  city  and  ^gned  them   "Black   Hand."     In  one  of  these 

70  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

he  included  the  foregoing  extract  from  a  letter  written  to  him 
by  Ross,  but  not  intended  for  publication.  The  two  were  life- 
long friends. 

The  details  of  Daguerre's  procees  seem  to  have  been  pub- 
lished in  London,  August  26,  1839.  As  there  were  no  regular 
steamship  lines  across  the  Atlantic  at  that  time,  it  must  have 
been  several  weeks  later  when  publication  was  made  in  America. 
Ross  may  therefore  have  been  the  first  to  make  a  daguerreotype 
on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic. 

Col.  R.  B.  Brown,  of  Zanesville,  who  was  intimately  ac- 
quainted with  Ross,  in  a  letter  to  the  writer  says: 

"You  will  note  that  Mr.  Ross's  pictures  were  made  in  November, 
1839,  following  the  publication  of  the  description  of  the  Daguerre  pro- 
cess in  a  French  journal  the  latter  part  of  August  of  that  year.  The  trans- 
lation was  printed  in  New  York  as  soon  as  the  mail  could  bring  the 
article,  and  I  am  sure  that  you  will  make  no  mistake  in  the  claim  that 
A.  C.  Ross  made  the  first  daguerreotype  in  the  United  States.  Of  this  I 
know  Mr.  Ross  never  had  a  doubt,  but  I  have  heard  him  say,  as  he  has 
been  quoted,  'I  made  the  first  west  of  the  Alleghanies.'  To  me  he  always 
claimed,  'I  made  the  first  in  this  country.*  I  believe  it,  and  I  do  not 
believe  that  the  statement  can  be  disproved." 

As  first  practiced,  the  process  required  long  exposure,  and 
was  applied  successfully  only  to  inanimate  objects.  Dr.  Draper 
introduced  many  improvements.  Ross  followed  these  closely, 
and  soon  made  excellent  pictures,  with  apparatus  of  his  own 

No  sooner  had  the  Morse  system  of  telegraphy  been  an- 
nounced than  he  began  to  test  it  experimentally.  When  the  first 
line  reached  Zanesville,  in  1847,  he  was  so  familiar  with  the 
practical  working  of  the  invention  that  he  took  charge  of  tlie 
office  and  became  the  first  telegraph  operator  of  the  city. ' 

In  a  similar  manner  he  constructed  from  written  descriptions 
the  telephone,  and  even  the  phonograph,  before  either  was  brought 
to  the  city.  When  the  latter  was  finally  put  on  exhibition  there, 
a  friend  called  and  invited  him  to  see  and  hear  it. 

**It  is  not  at  all  necessary  or  worth  my  while,''  said  he.  ''T 
have  had  for  some  days  a  machine  of  my  own  make  that  works 
very  satisfactorily." 

Song  Writers  ol  Ohio,  71 

As  his  father  had  followed  the  chase  with  keen  zest,  the  son 
found  interest  in  the  study  of  natural  history  and  taxidermy,  and 
choice  specimens  usually  adorned  the  windows  of  his  jewelry 

In  his  later  years,  he  devoted  a  part  of  his  leisure  to  water- 
color  painting,  and  did  work  that  might  well  have  been  the  envy 
of  the  professional. 

His  scientific  reading  led  him  early  into  the  investigation  of 
gas  lighting.  He  organized  the  first  company  to  offer  this  illu- 
minant  to  the  city,  and,  as  its  president,  conducted  this  business 
venture  with  marked  success. 

When  an  express  office  was  opened  in  Zanesville  he  was 
chosen  agent.  He  retired  from  the  jewelry  business  in  1863. 
Four  years  later  he  withdrew  from  the  management  of  the 
express  office,  to  devote  his  entire  time  to  the  gas  company  and 
the  insurance  business.  He  was  the  gliding  spirit  in  these 
interests  until  a  few  days  before  his  death. 

His  was  a  fervent  patriotism.  He  was  president  of  the 
War  Association  of  Muskingum  County  in  the  early  sixties.  He 
thoroughly  understood  military  tactics,  was  an  officer  in  a  local 
independent  company,  and  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
drilled  numerous  members  of  the  "awkward  squad,'*  General 
M.  D.  Leggett  among  them.  His  son,  Charles  H.  Ross,  served 
the  Union  cause  in  the  field  till  the  flag  waved  over  a  united 

Modest  and  unassuming  in  his  demeanor,  he  was  blessed 
with  a  large  degree  of  public  spirit,  and  was  ever  ready  to  lend 
his  valuable  aid  to  the  industrial  and  moral  upbuilding  of  the 

•  This  versatile  son  of  Ohio  was  a  lover  of  music,  too.  "He 
used  to  tell  how,  when  a  little  boy,  the  young  men  of  the  town 
sent  him  to  the  circus  to  learn  the  popular  airs,  which,  in  those 
days,  were  always  sung  by  the  clown.  The  visit  to  the  circus 
answered  two  purposes,  as  he  always  reproduced  the  best  fea- 
tures, such  as  tight-rope  dancing,  vaulting  and  tumbling,  for  the 
benefit  of  the  school,  as  well  as  singing  the  songs  till  the  young 
men  learned  them."  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  began  to  play  on 
the  clarionet.     He  had  a  good  voice,  became  a  member  of  the 

72  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

local  church  choir,  and  was  teter  in  demand  on  occasions  requiring^ 
the  services  of  an  entertaining  vocalist. 

Of  his  experience  in  New  York  City,  his  daughter  writes : 

"When  a  boy  of  twenty  he  became  a  member  of  one  of  the  first 
orchestras  organized  in  New  York  City — led  by  Uri  Hill — playing  *by  ear' 
the  first  clarionet.  Music  was  always  his  passion,  and  he  had  opportunities 
when  in  New  York  on  business  to  hear  all  the  best  musicians.  When  he 
returned  to  Zanesville  to  reside,  the  citizens  reaped  the  benefit,  for  through 
his  individual  efforts  all  the  first  troupes  traveling  came  to  Zanesville  and 
he  made  many  warm  friends  among  them." 

The  wave  of  Whig  sentiment  that  swept  over  the  country  in 
the  later  thirties  rose  to  tidal  height  in  the  memorable  campaign 
of  1840.  To  the  movement,  Alexander  Coffman  Ross  contrib- 
uted a  service  that  helped  to  swell  the  enthusiasm  for  "Old  Tip- 
pecanoe," and  carried  the  fame  of  the  ** Buckeye  boys"  and  the 
Buckeye  State  to  every  home  in  the  Union. 

Though  the  theme  might  warrant  the  digression,  space  will 
not  permit  a  general  survey  of  the  great  uprising  in  support  of 
William  Henry  Harrison  —  unfortunately  designated  in  history 
as  the  "log  cabin  and  hard  cider  campaign."  If  the  political 
foes  of  that  grand  old  patriot  helped  to  their  own  immediate 
undoing  in  derisively  referring  to  him  as  the  "log  cabin,  hard- 
cider  candidate,"  in  the  long  run  they  would  seem  to  have  accom- 
plished something  of  their  purpose,  to  have  detracted  from  the 
movement  and  the  man,  when  a  twentieth  century  historian  can 
sit  down  and  calmly  write: 

"In  the  campaign  referred  to  a  log  cabin  was  chosen  as  a  symbol 
of  the  plain  and  unpretentious  candidate,  and  a  barrel  of  cider  as  that  of 
his  hospitality.  During  the  campaign,  all  over  the  country,  in  hamlets, 
villages,  and  cities,  log  cabins  were  erected  and  fully  supplied  with  barrels 
of  cider.  These  houses  were  the  usual  gathering  places  of  the  partisans 
of  Harrison,  young  and  old,  and  to  every  one  hard  cider  was  freely  given. 
The  meetings  were  often  mere  drunken  carousals  that  were  injurious  to 
all,  and  especially  to  youth.  Many  a  drunkard  afterwards  pointed  sadly 
to  the  hard  cider  campaign  in  1840,  as  the  time  of  his  departure  from 
sobriety  and  respectability." 

Doubtless  drunken  brawls  sometimes  attended  the  big  dem- 
onstrations of  the  campaign.     It  \^  not  true,  however,  that  they 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  7^ 

were  peculiar  to  it  or  that  the  uprising  was  a  wild,  bacchanalian 
orgie  in  honor  of  the  fermented  juice  of  the  orchard  and  kin- 
dred spirits. 

General  Harrison  had  lived  in  a  log  cabin.  He  was  for  a 
number  of  years  a  poor  farmer.  But  it  was  not  because  of  this 
that  he  was  nominated  for  the  presidency.  He  was  simple, 
direct,  hospitable  and  kind,  but  he  was  more.  He  was  courage- 
ous, he  was  honest,  he  was  a  man  of  affairs.  On  the  field  and 
in  the  forum  he  had  proven  his  patriotism  and  statesmanship. 
Though  surpassed  in  constitutional  lore  and  forensic  power  by 
Webster  and  Clay,  he  was  an  orator  of  no  mean  ability,  prepared 
his  own  addresses,  and  delivered  them  with  an  effectiveness 
rarely  surpassed  by  a  candidate  for  the  presidency. 

The  personality  of  General  Harrison,  however,  was  not  the 
occasion  of  the  political  upheaval  of  1840.  It  was  the  rising  of 
the  people  in  their  might  to  smite  the  ruling  autocracy.  For 
twelve  years  the  Republic  had  been  ruled  by  one  man.  General 
Jackson  will  ever  be  honored  for  repelling  the  invader  at  New 
Orleans  and  suppressing  nullification  in  South  Carolina,  but  it 
is  putting  it  mildly  to  say  that  in  his  administrations  he  levied 
upon  the  American  people  a  heavy  tribute  for  his  services.  He 
played  politics  to  the  limit.  By  profession  and  practice  he  was  a 
spoilsman.  Entering  upon  his  duties  with  the  declaration  that  the 
President  should  be  ineligible  for  re-election,  he  did  everything 
in  his  power  to  pave  the  way  to  succeed  himself  in  office. 

At  the  close  of  his  second  term,  he  used  the  political  machine 
that  he  had  built  up  to  dictate  the  nomination  of  his  successor. 
Not  satisfied  to  pause  here,  he  had  Van  Buren  renominated  for 
a  second  term.  Every  appointive  office  was  filled  by  a  man  whose 
first  duty  was  to  Jackson.  The  public  service  exhibited  the  inev- 
itable results  of  the  spoils  system  —  insolence  and  incompetence. 

The  Jacksonian  regime  dominated  the  body  politic.  It  die- 
tated  nominations,  national,  state  and  local.  Governors,  judges 
and  country  "  'squires"  bowed  to  its  sway.  At  length  its  fruit 
began  to  ripen.  Defalcations  were  frequent ;  "leg  treasurers**^ 
were  numerous.  "Business  generally  was  at  a  standstill ;  the  cur- 
rency was  in  such  a  confused  state  that  specie  to  pay  postage 
was  almost  beyond  reach :  banks  had  been  in  a  state  of  suspen- 

74  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

sion  for  a  long  time ;  mechanics  and  laboring  men  were  out  of 
employment  or  working  for  62^,  75,  or  Syi  cents  a  day,  payable 
in  ^orders  on  the  store ;'  market  money  could  be  obtained  with 
difficulty,  and  things  generally  had  reached  so  low  an  ebb  as  to 
make  any   change   seem  desirable/' 

The  people,  goaded  to  desperation,  resolved  to  dethrone  the 
dictator  and  restore  the  republic  to  the  ideal  of  the  fathers.  Pre- 
paratory to  their  supreme  effort  to  dislodge  a  desperate  and  thor- 
oughly organized  foe  from  the  places  of  power,  the  Whigs  and 
independent  voters  of  the  country  chose  Harrison  as  their  leader, 
and  they  chose  well.  Those  who  have  read  his  speeches,  espe- 
cially the  one  delivered  at  Dayton,  and  his  inaugural  address,  can 
but  regret  that  he  did  not  live  to  carry  out  the  reforms  to  which 
he  gave  eloquent  approval. 

The  campaign  opened  with  a  burst  of  enthusiasm  that  sur- 
prised the  Whig  leaders  almost  as  much  as  their  opponents.  On 
the  22d  of  February,  1840,  twenty  thousand  people  from  all 
parts  of  the  state  met  in  convention  at  Columbus,  O.,  to  ratify 
the  nomination  of  Harrison  and  Tyler.  From  places  near  and 
remote  they  came.  Some  had  spent  days  on  the  journey.  An 
eye-witness  thus  describes  the  scene  presented  in  the  capital  city 
on  that  memorable  occasion: 

"The  rain  came  down  in  torrents,  the  streets  were  one  vast  sheet  of 
mud,  but  the  crowds  paid  no  heed  to  the  elements.  A  full-rigged  ship 
on  wheels,  canoes,  log  cabins,  with  inmates  feasting  on  corn-pone  and 
hard  cider,  miniature  forts,  flags,  banners,  drums  and  fifes,  bands  of 
music,  live  coons,  roosters  crowing,  and  shouting  men  by  the  ten  thousand, 
made  a  scene  of  attraction,  confusion,  and  excitement  such  as  has  never 
been  equaled.  Stands  were  erected,  and  orators  went  to  work ;  but  the 
staid  party  leaders  failed  to  hit  the  key-note.  Itinerant  speakers  mounted 
store-boxes,  and  blazed  away.  It  was  made  known  that  the  Cleveland 
delegation,  on  their  route  to  the  city,  had  had  the  wheels  stolen  from  some 
of  their  wagons  by  Locofocos,  and  were  compelled  to  continue  their  jour- 
ney on  foot.  One  of  these  enforced  foot-passengers  was  something  of  a 
poet,  and  wrote  a  song  descriptive  of  *Up  Salt  River,'  and  was  encored 
over  and  over  again.  On  the  spur  of  the  moment,  many  songs  were 
written  and  sung;  the  pent-up  enthusiasm  had  found  vent." 

The  spirit  of  the  movement  pervaded  every  rank.  The  busi- 
ness man,  the  recluse  and  the  scholar  touched  elbows  with  lusty 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  75 

farmers,  waded  in  the  mud  and  helped  to  swell  the  universal 

In  the  procession  was  a  cabin  on  wheels  from  Union  County. 
It  was  made  of  buckeye  logs,  and  in  it  was  a  band  of  singers 
discoursing,  to  the  tune  of  Highland  Laddie,  the  famous  Buckeye 
song,  written  for  the  occasion  by  perhaps  the  first  Ohio  poet  of 
his  time,  Otway  Curry: 

Oh,  where,  tell  me  where,  was  your  Buckeye  cabin  made? 
Oh,  where,  tell  me  where,  was  your  Buckeye  cabin  made? 
Twas  built  among  the  merry  boys  that  wield  the  plow  and  spade. 
Where  the  log  cabin  stands,  in  the  bonnie  Buckeye  shade. 

Oh,  what,  tell  me  what,  is  to  be  your  cabin's  fate? 
Oh,  what,  tell  me  what,  is  to  be  your  cabin's  fate? 
We'll  wheel  it  to  the  capital,  and  place  it  there  elate. 
For  a  token  and  a  sign  of  the  bonnie  Buckeye  State ! 

Oh,  why,  tell  me  why,  does  your  Buckeye  cabin  go? 
Oh,  why,  tell  me  why,  does  your  Buckeye  cabin  go? 
It  goes  against  the  spoilsmen,  for  well  its  builders  know 
It  was  Harrison  that  fought  for  the  cabins  long  ago. 

Oh,  what,  tell  me  what,  then,  will  little  Martin  do? 
Oh,  what,  tell  me  what,  then,  will  little  Martin  do? 
He'll  "follow  in  the  footsteps"  of  Price  and  Swarthout  too. 
While  the  log  cabin  rings  again  with  old  Tippecanoe. 

Oh,  who  fell  before  him  in  battle,  tell  me  who? 
Oh,  who  fell  before  him  in  battle,  tell  me  who? 
He  drove  the  savage  legions,  and  British  armies  too 
At  the  Rapids,  and  the  Thames,  and  old  Tippecanoe ! 

By  whom,  tell  me  whom,  will  the  battle  next  be  won? 
By  whom,  tell  me  whom,  will  the  battle  next  be  won? 
The  spoilsmen  and  leg  treasurers  will  soon  begin  to  run ! 
And  the  "Log  Cabin  Candidate"  will  march  to  Washington! 

"But,"  said  Judge  Sheward,  of  Zanesville,  "the  song  of  the 
campaign  had  not  yet  been  written."  He  then  proceeds  with  the 
following  account  of  its  origin  and  progress  to  popularity: 

"On  the  return  of  our  delegation  a  Tippecanoe  Club  was  formed, 
and  a  glee  club  organized,  of  whom  Ross  was  one.     The  club  meetings 

Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


WKIPE.     ^ 


Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  77 

were  opened  and  closed  with  singing  by  the  glee  club.  Billy  McKibbon 
wrote  *Amos  Peddling  Yokes,'  to  be  sung  to  the  tune  of  *Yip,  fal,  lal/ 
which  proved  very  popular ;  he  also  composed  'Hard  Times/  and  'Martin's 
Lament/    Those  who  figured  in  that  day  will  remember  the  chorus: 

Oh,  dear!  what  will  become  of  me? 

Oh,  dear!  what  shall  I  do? 
I  am  certainly  doomed  to  be  beaten 

By  the  heroes  of  Tippecanoe. 

"This  song  was  well  received,  but  there  seemed  something  lacking. 
The  wild  outburst  of  feeling  demanded  by  the  meetings  had  not  yet  been 
provided  for.  Tom  Lauder  suggested  to  Ross  that  the  tune  of  Little  Pigs 
would  furnish  a  chorus  just  adapted  for  the  meetings.  Ross  seized  upon 
the  suggestion,  and  on  the  succeeding  Sunday,  while  he  was  singing  as 
a  member  of  a  church  choir,  his  head  was  full  of  Little  Pigs/  and  efforts 
to  make  a  song  fitting  the  time  and  the  circumstances.  Oblivious  to  all 
else,  he  had,  before  the  sermon  was  finished,  blocked  out  the  song  of 
Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too.     The  line,  as  originally  composed  by  him  of 

Van,  Van,  you're  a  nice  little  man, 

<lid  not  suit  him,  and  when  Saturday  night  came  round  he  was  cudgelling 
his  brains  to  amend  it.  He  was  absent  from  the  meeting,  and  was  sent 
for.  He  came,  and  informed  the  glee  club  that  he  had  a  new  song  to 
sing,  but  that  there  was  one  line  in  it  he  did  not  like,  and  that  his  delay 
was  occasioned  by  the  desire  to  correct  it. 

*Let  me  hear  the  line/  said  Culbertson.     Ross  repeated  it  to  him. 

'Thunder!'  said  he,  'make  it  —  Van's  a  used-up  inatif —  and  there 
and  then  the  song  was  completed. 

"The  meeting  in  the  Court  House  was  a  monster,  the  old  Senate 
Chamber  was  crowded  full  to  hear  McKibbon's  new  song,  Martin's  La- 
fnent,  which  was  loudly  applauded  and  encored.  When  the  first  speech 
was  over,  Ross  led  off  with  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too,  having  furnished 
each  member  of  the  glee  club  with  the  chorus.  That  was  the  song  at 
last.  Cheers,  yells,  and  encores  greeted  it.  The  next  day,  men  and  boys 
were  singing  the  chorus  in  the  street,  in  the  work  shops,  and  at  the  table. 
Olcot  White  came  near  to  starting  a  hymn  to  the  tune  in  the  Radical 
Church  on  South  street.  What  the  Marseillaise  Hymn  was  to  Frenchmen, 
Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too,  was  to  the  Whigs  of  1840. 

"In  Septeniber,  Mr.  Ross  went  to  New  York  City  to  purchase  goods. 
He  attended  a  meeting  in  Lafayette  Hall.  Prentiss,  of  Mississippi,  Tall- 
madge,  of  New  York,  and  Otis,  of  Boston,  were  to  speak.  Ross  found 
the  hall  full  of  enthusiastic  people,  and  was  compelled  to  stand  near  the 
entrance.  The  speakers  had  not  arrived,  and  several  songs  were  sung  to 
keep  the  crowd  together.     The  stock  of  songs  was  soon  exhausted,  and 

78  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publicaiions. 

the  chairman  (Charley  Delavan,  I  think)  arose  and  requested  any  one 
present  who  could  sing,  to  come  forward  and  do  so.  Ross  said,  *If  I  could 
get  on  the  stand,  I  would  sing  a  song,'  and  hardly  had  the  words  out 
before  he  found  himself  passing  rapidly  over  the  heads  of  the  crowd, 
to  be  handed  at  length  on  the  platform.  Questions  of  'Who  are  you?' 
'What's  your  name?'  came  from  every  hand. 

*I  am  a  Buckeye,  from  the  Buckeye  State,'  was  the  answer.  'Three 
cheers  for  the  Buckeye  State !'  cried  out  the  president,  and  they  were 
given  with  a  will.  Ross  requested  the  meeting  to  keep  quiet  until  he  had 
sung  three  or  four  verses,  and  it  did.  But  the  enthusiasm  swelled  up 
to  an  uncontrollable  pitch,  and  at  last  the  whole  meeting  joined  in  the 
chorus  with  a  vim  and  vigor  indescribable.  The  song  was  encored  and 
sung  again  and  again,  but  the  same  verses  were  not  repeated,  as  he  had 
many  in  mind,  and  could  make  them  to  suit  the  occasion.  While  he 
was  singing  in  response  to  the  third  encore,  the  speakers,  Otis  and  Tall- 
madge,  arrived,  and  Ross  improvised : 

We'll  now  stop  singing,  for  Tallmadge  is  here,  here,  here, 

And  Otis,  too. 
We'll  have  a  speech  from  each  of  them. 

For  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too,  etc. 

The  song,  as  originally  written,  was  as  follows : 


What  has  caused  the  great  commotion,  motion,  motion, 
Our  country  through? 
It  is  the  ball  a  rolling  on, 


For  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too  —  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too; 

And  with  them  we'll  beat  little  Van,  Van,  Van. 

Van  is  a  used-up  man ; 

And  with  them  we'll  beat  little  Van. 

Like  the  rushing  of  mighty  waters,  waters,  waters. 
On  it  will  go, 

And  in  its  course  will  clear  the  way 
Of  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

See  the  Loco  standard  tottering,  tottering,  tottering, 
Down  it  must  go. 
And  in  its  place  we'll  rear  the  flag 
Of  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  79 

Don't  you  hear  from  every  quarter,  quarter,  quarter, 
Good  news  and  true, 
That  swift  the  ball  is  rolling  on 
For  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

The  Buckeye  boys  turned  out  in  thousands,  thousands. 
Not  long  ago. 

And  at  Columbus  set  their  seals 
To  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

Now  you  hear  Van  Jacks  talking,  talking,  talking. 
Things  look  quite  blue, 
For  all  the  world  seems  turning  round 
For  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

Let  them  talk  about  hard  cider,  cider,  cider. 
And   log  cabins,  too, 
'Twill  only  help  to  speed  the  ball 
For  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

The  latch-string  hangs  outside  the  door,  door,  door. 
And  is  never  pulled  through 
For  it  never  was  the  custom  of 
Old  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

He  always  had  his  table  set,  set,  set, 
For  all  honest  and  true, 
And  invites  them  to  take  a  bite 

With  Tippecanoe,  etc. 

See  the  spoilsmen  and   leg  treasurers,  treas,  treas, 
All  in  a  stew. 

For  well  they  know  they  stand  no  chance 
With   Tippecanoe,  etc. 

The  fourth  stanza  was  frequently  changed  to  adapt  the  song 
to  the  different  states.  Other  stanzas  were  added  to  suit  par- 
ticular localities  and  special  occasions.  A  modern  historian,  who 
evidently  did  not  know  who  wrote  it,  speaks  of  it  as  the  "most 
popular  song  of  the  campaign,"  and  says  that  it  had,  "by  the 
inventive  song-genius  of  Horace  Greeley  and  scores  of  other 
less  famous  poets  been  extended  to  every  incident  and  sentiment 
of  the  day."  The  following  final  stanza  was  frequently  used  in 
the  Ohio  campaign : 

80  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Now  who  shall  be  our  next  governor,  governor, 

Who,  tell  me  who? 

Let's  have  Tom  Corwin,  for  he's  a  team 
ForTippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too  —  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too, 
And  with  him  we'll  beat  Wilson  Shannon,   Shannon, 
Shannon  is  a  used-up  man, 
And  with  him  we'll  beat  Wilson  Shannon! 

It  has  been  said  that  the  song  is  poor  poetry,  and  judged  by 
literary  standards  this  is  certainly  true,  but  the  alliteral  chorus 
is  remarkably  musical  and  "catchy"  and  the  stanzas  abound  in 
homely  truth  and  telling  hits.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  it  was 
readily  understood  by  all  classes.  The  composition  probably 
surpassed  all  others  in  popularity,  because  it  more  nearly  met  the 
demands  of  the  hour. 

The  reference  to  the  "ball  that's  rolling  on"  is  worthy  of 
notice  in  passing.  Just  when  the  "ball"  began  to  roll  in  Amer- 
ican political  literature  has  perhaps  not  yet  been  definitely  deter- 
mined. Thomas  H.  Benton  has  been  given  the  credit  of  starting 
it.  Its  origin  probably  dates  some  years  prior  to  the  Harrison 
campaign.  It  must  be  admitted,  however,  that  the  "ball,"  like 
the  "buckeye,"  was  invested  with  a  new  significance  and  a  wider 
currency  in  the  year  1840,  and  the  song  written  by  Ross  was 
probably  the  first  that  "set  the  ball  in  motion." 

In  an  account  of  the  Young  Men's  Whig  convention,  at 
Baltimore,  May  4,  1840,  is  found  the  following  description  of 
one  of  the  features  of  the  Maryland  section  of  the  procession : 

"A  curious  affair  followed  here,  which  was  immediately  preceded 
by  a  flag  announcing  that  'Alleghany  is  coming.'  It  was  a  huge  ball, 
about  ten  feet  in  diameter,  which  was  rolled  along  by  a  number  of  the 
members  of  this  delegation.  The  ball  was  apparently  a  wooden  frame 
covered  with  linen,  painted  divers  colors,  and  bearing  a  multitude  of 
inscriptions,  apt  quotations,  original  stanzas  and  pithy  sentences." 

At  the  convention  in  Nashville,  Tenn.,  August  17th,  one  of 
the  leading  attractions  was  described  as  follows : 

"The  great  ball,  from  Zancsville,  Ohio,  which  came  safe  to  hand  on 
the  steamer  Rochester,  on  Saturday  night,  occupied  a  conspicuous  place 
in  the  procession.  It  was  given  in  charge  of  the  Kentucky  delegation, 
and   was   hauled   on    four   wheels,   under   the   immediate   care   of    Porter, 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  81 

the  Kentucky  giant.     The  ball  is  in  the  form  of  a  hemisphere,  moving 
upon  its  axis  and  representing  each  of  the  individual  states  of  the  Uniom" 

Ross's  daughter  gives  the  following  additional  information  t 

"There  was  a  real  ball  that  illustrated  the  song.  It  was  an  immense 
thing  made  at  Dresden,  Ohio,  and  at  great  political  meetings  it  was 
drawn  in  the  procession  by  twenty-four  milk  white  oxen.  It  was  after- 
wards taken  to  Lexington,  Kentucky,  but  not  by  oxen." 

The  Annapolis  Tippecanoe  Club,  on  August  i8th,  celebrated 
the  progress  of  the  cause  in  a  song  entitled  "The  Whig  Ball/' 
It  began  as  follows: 

Hail  to  the  ball  which  in  grandeur  advances, 

Long  life  to  the  yeoman  who  urge  it  along; 
The  abuse  of  our  hero  his  worth  but  enhances ; 

Then  welcome  his  triumphs  with  shout  and  with  song. 
The  Whig  ball  is  moving! 
The  Whig  ball  is  moving! 

The  big  ball  started  from  Zanesville  was  probably  the  inspi-^ 
ration  for  the  foregoing  and  similar  effusions  that  broke  forth 
about  this  time.  At  other  great  meetings  throughout  the  country 
the  ball  literally  "went  rolling  on." 

It  is  perhaps  needless  to  say  that  there  have  been  rival  claim- 
ants for  the  honor  of  authorship  of  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too. 
Fortunately,  their  pretentions,  with  a  single  exception,  have  not 
been  sufficiently  serious  to  merit  attention.  Henry  Russell,  the 
famous  English  singer,  who  seems  in  his  later  years  to  have 
developed  a  penchant  for  claiming  pretty  much  everything  that 
has  been  written  in  his  line,  in  his  autobiography,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  the  initial  launching  of  the  song  on  its  voyage 
to  popularity: 

"About  this  time,  (1841)  the  presidential  election  was  causing  great 
excitement  in  America.  The  rival  candidates  for  the  presidency  were 
Martin  Van  Buren,  Democrat;  and  General  Harrison,  Whig. 

♦  ♦  ♦  ♦ 

*T  was  one  day  sitting  in  the  office  of  the  Boston  Transcript,  and  to 
beguile  the  time  while  waiting  for  my  friend,  Houghton,  the  editor  and 
proprietor,  I  sat  idly  turning  over  the  pages  of  some  of  the  numerous 
exchange  journals  with  which  the  office  table  was  littered,  when  my  at- 

Vol.  XIV- 6. 

82  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

tention  was  attracted  by  a  poem  on  the  subject  of  the  forthcoming  elec- 
tion. The  name  of  the  paper  it  appeared  in  has  escaped  my  memory,  but 
the  poem  was  called  "Tippecanoe/'  after  the  famous  battle  fought  and 
won  by  General  Harrison. 

"I  only  remember  now  the  chorus,  which  ran  as  follows : 

For  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too,  for  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too  — 
With  them  we'll  beat  little  Van 
Van!  Van!  Van!  a  used  up  man, 
With  them  we'll  beat  little  Van. 

"I  had  a  singular  remembrance  of  an  old  Irish  song,  known  by  the 
poetic  title  of  "Three  little  pigs  lay  on  very  good  straw,"  the  chorus  of 
which  ran  thus: 

Lila  bolara,  Lila  bolara,  Lila  bolara,  och  hone, 
For  my  dad  is  a  bonny  wee  man,  man,  man,  man! 
My  dad  is  a  bonny  wee  man. 

"Almost  unconsciously  I  put  the  words  of  the  poem  before  me  to  the 
melody  of  the  old  Irish  song,  and  when  Houghton  came  in  I  sang  them 
over  to  him. 

"He  appeared  delighted,  and  at  his  suggestion,  I  sang  the  song  from 
the  window  of  the  Boston  Transcript,  to  an  enormous  crowd  which  had 
assembled  in  the  street  below.  The  song  was  hailed  with  enthusiasm  by 
the  Harrison  party,  and  it  spread  like  wildfire  through  the  States,  where 
it  is  sometimes  sung  even  to  this  day. 

"Such  is  the  true  origin  of  this  at  one  time  popular  election  song. 
There  has  been  much  discussion  about  it  from  time  to  time  in  the  Amer- 
ican press,  and  while  I  do  not  claim  to  have  written  either  the  words  or 
the  music,  I  do  claim  to  have  adapted  the  one  to  the  other  —  wedded  them 
together,  as  it  were  —  and  giving  the  song  its  start  in  life  by  singing  it 
from  the  window  of  the  office  of  the  Boston  Transcript." 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  observe  that  the  song  had  become 
popular  before  it  was  printed,  that  it  was  written  to  the  tune  of 
Little  Pigs,  and  that  Russell  did  not  see  it  until  long  after  it 
had  been  sung.  It  will  be  noted  that  he  has  made  a  mistake  of 
one  year  in  the  date  of  the  campaign  and  that  he  is  very  indefi- 
nite in  regard  to  the  time  of  his  rendition*  of  the  song  in  Boston. 
He  does  not  state  the  occasion  of  the  assembling  of  the  ''enor- 
mous  crowd"  in  the  "street  below,"  so  opportunely  after  he  '*sat 
idly  turning  over  the  pages  of  some  of  the  numerous  exchange 
journals."     One  might  infer  that  the  people  just  happened  around 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  83 

in  order  to  be  convenient  when  the  song  was  sung.  It  is  entirely 
probable,  however,  that  on  some  occasion  Russell  sang  the  word^ 
to  the  melody.  The  peculiar  measure  would  naturally  suggest 
the  air. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  dwell  on  the  results  of  the  remarkable 
political  contest  that  called  forth  the  song.  The  thoroughly 
trained  Jacksonian  organization,  under  the  skilful  leadership  of 
the  "Little  Magician,"  was  overwhelmed  by  the  spontaneous 
uprising  of  the  country.  The  enthusiastic  hosts,  with  music  and 
song,  inducted  victorious  "Old  Tippecanoe"  into  office.  Shortly 
afterward,  the  new  President  was  laid  low  by  the  hand  of  death. 
There  was  mourning  throughout  the  land,  and  the  fruits  of 
triumph  turned  to  dust  on  the  lips  of  the  victors. 

Alexander  Coffman  Ross  continued  to  apply  himself  assid- 
uously to  the  jewelry  business  and  to  devote  his  leisure  to  sci- 
ence and  music.  He  composed  no  airs,  but  wrote  the  words  of 
a  number  of  songs,  some  of  which  were  published  in  the  local 

He  addressed  the  local  medical  society,  of  which  he  was 
an  honorary  member,  on  scientific  subjects;  lectured  on  the 
latest  applications  of  electricity  and  magnetism  before  the  stu- 
dents of  Putnam  Seminary;  corresponded  with  Louis  Agassiz 
and  Professor  Joseph  Henry.  He  was  an  ardent  admirer  of 
the  latter  and  insisted  that^to  him  rather  than  to  Morse  belongs 
the  honor  of  having  invented  the  electric  telegraph.  Among  his 
letters  is  one  from  Spencer  F.  Baird,  the  famous  naturalist  and 
secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  thanking  him  for  a 
contribution  on  "Flint  Ridge."  This  was  published  in  the 
Smithsonian  Report  for  1879.  As  an  early  contribution  to  this 
branch  of  Ohio  archaeology,  it  is  appended  to  this  sketch. 

One  of  his  daughters,  Elizabeth  B.  Ross,  was  a  good  singer, 
studied  harmony  and  wrote  the  words  and  music  of  a  number  of 
songs,  some  of  which  have  had  a  wide  sale.  We  here  reproduce 
the  words  of  two: 


Little  bird,  why  singest  thou, 

So  merrily,  so  blithe  and  gay, 
Hast  thou  ne'er  a  care  to  mar 

S4  Ohio  Arch,  and  Jiisi.  Society  Fublications. 

At  age  of  seventy  yeart. 

Song   Writers  of  Ohio.  86 

The  pleasure  of  the  passing  day? 
I  sing,  for  ah!  my  heart's  so  light, 

No  care  or  thoughts  oppress  me; 
And  this  my  song  from  morn  till  night, 

I  warble  free. 

Little  bird,  where  dwellest  thou. 

Thro*  chilling  winter's  icy  reign; 
Dost  thou  fly  from  bough  to  bough 

And  warble  forth  thy  glad  refrain? 
Oh  yes,  I  fly  to  warmer  climes, 

When  first  I  feel  cold  winter's  breath, 
And  there  amid  the  southern  pines, 

I  warble  free. 


Come,  come  with  me,  dear  one, 

Where  moonbeams  are  glancing 
And  stars  beaming  brightly, 

Oh!  come,  then,  with  me. 
Come,  then,  and  we'll  wander 

Where  waters  so  sparkling 
Are  laving  the  green  earth. 

Oh!  come,  then,  with  me. 
List,  to  the  nightingale  singing  o'er  meadow, 
Trilling  a  vow  to  the  one  that  he  loves. 

Then  come,  oh !  come,  my  dear  one, 

And,  like  the  bird  of  night. 
Give  thy  heart  to  the  one 

Who  now  sues  for  thy  love. 

Ross  was  very  popular  with  the  large  German  element  of 
Zanesville,  and  one  of  the  last  occasions  on  which  he  sang  in 
public  was  at  a  banquet  given  by  the  German  citizens  in  the 
autumn  of  1869  in  celebration  of  the  centennial  anniversary  of 
the  birth  of  X'^on  Humboldt.  He  requested  his  daughter  Ellen 
to  write  him  some  words  to  the  Marseillaise  Hymn.  These  he 
sang  to  the  delight  of  those  who  heard  him.  One  stanza  was  as 
follows : 

We  sing  to-day  a  nation's  glory, 

Germania  hails  her  honored  son! 
But  not  to  her  belongs  the  story, 

In  everv  land  his  fame  was  won. 

Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

From  Asia's  sunny  mountain  peaks 

To  Mexicana's  scorching  plain. 
His  natal   day  is  kept  again; 

O'er  all  the  world  his  voice  still  speaks. 


Then  swell  the  choral   song 

To  hail  Von  Humboldt's  name  I 
Rejoice!     Rejoice  I    The  nation's  throng 

To  celebrate  his  fame. 

The  author  of  the  famous  campaign  song  of  1840  passed  the 
allotted  three  score  years  and  ten.  He  was,  first  of  all,  a  public 
spirited  citizen  and  systematic  business  man.  His  recreations 
were  the  pursuits  that  brought  him  local  fame  along  tjic  lines 
already  noted.  Of  him  it  was  trnly  said.  "There  were  few  things 
that  he  had  not  done,  and  done  well,  and  fewer  that  he  cared  to 
do  except  as  a  pastime." 

After  a  brief  illness,  he  died  February  26,  1883.  His  loss 
was  keenly  felt  bv  the  citv  with  which  he  had  been  identified 

Song   Writers  of  Ohio.  87 

through  his  entire  life.  The  local  military  company  and  other 
organizations  expressed  a  desire  to  attend  the  funeral  in  a  body, 
but  the  family,  while  appreciating  the  kind  intentions,  obeyed 
the  wishes  of  the  departed  in  dispensing  with  all  parade  and 

Of  his  family,  his  wife  and  three  children.  Misses  Elizabeth 
B.  and  Ellen,  of  Zanesville,  O.,  and  Major  Charles  H.,  of  Mil- 
waukee, Wis.,  are  still  living. 

His  memory  is  fondly  cherished  by  those  who  knew  him. 
Though  not  endowed  with  what  is  called  "creative  genius,"  he 
wrote  a  song  that  became  national  in  celebrity  and  influence,  and . 
acquired  enduring  fame  in  his  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too. 


Flint  Ridge  lies  in  Licking  and  Muskingum  counties,  about  three 
tniles  south-eastward  from  Newark,  and  twelve  to  fifteen  miles  west- 
northwest  from  Zanesville.  It  extends  eight  miles  southwest  by  north- 
east and  is  from  one-fourth  of  a  mile  to  one  mile  wide.  The  ridge 
is  cut  by  hollows,  ravines  and  gorges.  Portions  of  the  Highest  land  are 
comparatively  level,  and  this  plateau  is  underlaid  by  a  stratum  of  flint 
rock  from  fifteen  inches  to  three  feet  in  thickness.  Besides  this  stratum 
are  numerous  flint  bowlders  standing  up  several  feet  above  the  surface 
of  the  ground.  On  the  exact  level  of  the  flint  are  the  "diggings"  hundreds 
of  which  may  be  seen,  which  range  in  depth  from  one  or  two  to  thirty 
feet,  their  depth  depending  upon  the  relation  of  the  flint  stratum  to  the 
surface  of  the  earth.  The  very  deep  diggings  are  from  the  top  of  a  hillock 
on  the  summit  of  the  Ridge.  The  trenches  are  from  a  few  feet  to  thirty 
feet  across  at  the  top,  all  sloping  so  gradually  that  it  would  be  easy  to 
walk  down  them.  From  the  deeper  cuts  the  earth  appeared  to  have  been 
carried  out ;  the  one  from  the  top  of  the  hillock  is  still  very  deep,  and 
was  about  forty  feet  in  perpendicular  when  completed,  with  proportional 
width.  In  one  portion  was  a  drift  sixty  to  eighty  feet  in  length,  six  to 
eight  feet  wide,  and  four  to  five  feet  high.  The  excavation  was  pursued 
with  the  same  diligence  when  there  was  no  flint  as  when  the  stratum 
was  found,  and  was  of  the  same  character,  to  the  same  level.  Of  course, 
when  the  earth  is  below  the  flint  level  there  is  no  evidence  of  digging, 
but  when  the  earth  is  above  that  level  the  work  extends  to  the  flint.  These 
works  follow  the  dip  of  the  flint  towards  east-northeast  until  the  hills 
became  too  high  al>ove  the  stratum.  In  a  meadow,  and  near  a  stream  of 
water  on  land  very  much  lower  than  the  ridge,  occurred  a  bed  of  crumbled 

88  Ohio  Arch,  and  'Hist.  Society  Publications. 

flint  and  sandstone.  This  bed  was  about  fourteen  inches  in  depth,  seven 
feet  across,  and  fifteen  to  eighteen  feet  in  length.  The  sandstone  was 
near  the  north  part  and  had  been  subject  to  great  heat.  A  quantity  of 
ashes  was  mixed  through  the  whole  bed.  Several  such  beds  are  re- 
ported in  that  vicinity,  and  were  generally  near  the  water.  No  arrow- 
heads or  other  objects  made  of  flint  occurred.  Old,  gnarly,  full-grown 
oaks,  some  of  them  three  hundred  years  old,  have  sprouted  and  grown 
since  these  excavation  were  made.  There  has  not  been  any  sign  of  a 
workshop  discovered  in  the  last  sixty  years,  but  at  the  point  usually 
sought  by  visitors  and  curiosity  hunters  flint  spalls  cover  the  ground  for 
acres.     Only  one  arrow-head  has  been  found  there  for  years. 

A.  C.  Ross  in  Smithsonian  Report  for  i8Z9,  P<^g^  440- 


Following  are  the  names  of  the  children  of  Elijah  and  Mary 
Ross  in  the  order  of  dates  of  birth :  Theodore,  Elizabeth,  Alex- 
ander Ccffman,  Mrs.  Anne  Fox,  Mrs.  Margaret  Boyd,  Mrs.  Ruth 
Hurd,  James,  Mrs.  Jane  Stewart,  George,  Mrs.  Harriet  Brown, 
Mrs.  Elvira  Keene  and  Thomas. 

Alexander's  immediate  family,  whose  names  occur  in  the 
preceding  sketch,  are  all  still  living. 

Mrs.  Ross  was  the  daughter  of  Oljver  Granger  who,  with 
his  brothers,  Ebenezer,  Henry  and  James,  came  to  Ohio  from 
Suffield,  Connecticut,  where  their  ancestors  had  lived  since  1640. 


VOL.  XIV.    No.  U  l^oHls-^  ^^^  JANUARY,  1905 


On  September  19,  1904,  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  of 
the  Trustees  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society 
was  held  in  the  rooms  of  the  society,  Page  Hall,  O.  S.  U.,  with  the  follow- 
ing members  present:  Mr.  George  F.  Bareis,  Col.  John  W.  Harper, 
Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter,  Prof.  B.  F.  Prince,  Secretary  E.  O.  Randall,  Hon.  D. 
J.  Ryan,  Hon.  S.  S.  Rickly,  Prof.  G.  F.  Wright  and  Mr.  E.  F.  Wood. 

The  Secretary  presented  the  resignation  of  Professor  J.  P.  MacLean 
as  Trustee  of  the  Society  and  also  as  a  life  member.  Professor  Mac- 
Lean  since  his  connection  with  the  Society  dating  back  to  the  annual 
meeting  of  April  20,  1901,  when  although  not  even  being  a  member  of 
the  Society,  he  was  elected  a  Trustee,  has  taken  great  interest  in  the 
progress  and  success  of  the  Society,  having  written  several  articles  of 
historical  value  which  have  appeared  from  time  to  time  in  the  Quarterly 
and  having  especially  devoted  himself  to  the  gathering  of  material  con- 
cerning the  history  and  literature  of  the  Shaker  Societies  particularly 
those  in  Ohio.  He  has  made  numerous  donations  to  the  Society  of 
books  published  by  or  pertaining  to  the  Shakers  and  has  also  collected 
for  and  delivered  to  the  Society  a  considerable  number  of  historical 
Shaker  articles  in  the  shape  of  household  utensils,  articles  of  dress, 
implements  of  farming,  manufacture  and  so  on.  All  this  material  the 
Society  received,  catalogued  and  prepared  to  properly  arrange  and  pre- 
serve. On  August  10th,  during  a  visit  to  the  museum  and  library  of  the 
Society,  Professor  MacLean  requested  one  of  the  assistants  in  charge  to 
send  him  a  complete  list  of  all  articles  and  books  delivered  by  him  to  the 
museum  and  that  receipts  of  all  donations  be  sent  to  the  various  donors. 
This  was  during  tlie  time  when  the  curator  of  the  museum  and  library 
was  absent  in  Saint  Louis  having  in  charge  the  exhibit  of  the  Society  at 
the  Louisiana  Exposition  and  unusual  duties  devolved  upon  the  assistants 
in  charge.  On  September  1st,  Professor  MacLean  wrote  the  Secretary, 
complaining  that  he  had  not  received  the  requested  list  from  the  museum. 
In  explanation  of  the  delay  the  museum  assistant  wrote  Professor  Mac- 
Lean  as  follows : 

"Columbus,  Ohio,  September  6,  1904. 

Prof.  J.  P.  MacLean,  Frankin,  Ohio. 

My  Dear  Sir: — 

The   list   of    Shaker   pamphlets    and   books   was    forwarded   to    you 
some  time  ago.     Mr.   Mills   has  not  been  home  in  the  meantime   and  I 


90  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

have  had  other  duties  besides  making  the  list  and  answering  receipt  of 
the  Shaker  material  so  that  the  delay  was  unintentional.  If  you  have 
not  received  the  list  please  let  me  know  and  I  will  make  a  duplicate  at 

Very  truly  yours,"  etc. 

To  the  expression  in  this  letter,  perfectly  harmless  and  proper^ 
"Shaker  material'*  Professor  MacLean  at  once  took  offense  and  in  the 
face  of  attempted  explanations  by  the  Secretary  to  the  effect  that  nothing 
was  farther  from  the  intention  of  the  writer  than  the  casting  of  any 
reflection  upon  the  Shaker  Society  in  the  term  "material,"  Professor  Mac- 
Lean  insisted  upon  an  immediate  resignation  of  his  Trusteeship  and  after 
waiting  only  a  few  days  for  action  upon  it  by  the  Executive  Committee 
which  had  not  yet  met,  he  followed  up  his  resignation  by  returning  his 
life  certificate  and  the  peremptory  demand  that  his  name  be  erased  from 
the  list  of  membership.  His  resignation  was  dated  September  13  and 
his  demand  for  removal  from  the  list  of  members  was  dated  September  17. 

The  Executive  Committee  after  making  itself  fully  acquainted  with 
the  facts  in  the  premises  unanimously  accepted  the  resignation  of  Pro- 
fessor MacLean  as  Trustee  and  also  by  the  same  formal  vote  ordered 
the  Secretary  to  remove  the  name  of  Professor  MacLean  from  the  list 
of  membership  as  per  his  request.  In  both  of  these  actions  the  expres- 
sions on  the  part  of  the  Committee  and  the  Secretary  were  general  that 
Professor  MacLean  had  rendered  admirable  and  valuable  services  to  the 
Society  in  his  studies  and  investigations  of  the  history  and  various  phases, 
of  Shakerism  in  Ohio  and  that  they  sincerely  regretted  that  he  felt  com- 
pelled to  discontinue  his  relationship  with  the  Society.  A  committee 
consisting  of  three  was  appointed  by  the  chair  to  present  at  the  next 
meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  a  name  or  names  of  candidates 
for  the  trusteeship  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation  of  Pro- 
fessor MacLean. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter  presented  to  the  Society  a  handsome  framed  pho- 
tograph of  the  medallion  of  Ohio's  first  Governor,  Edward  Tiffin.  The 
medallion  being  the  one  which  was  placed  in  the  Court  House  at  Chilli- 
cothe  with  fitting  ceremonies  at  the  time  of  the  Ohio  Centennial  held  in 
May,  1903.  The  photograph  was  accepted  by  the  Committee  with  thanks 
to  Mr.  Hunter  and  with  directions  to  the  Curator  that  it  be  hung  on  the 
walls  of  the  Society's  library. 

Secretary  Randall  and  Assistant  Treasurer  Wood  on  September  6-10 
made  a  trip  in  bclialf  of  the  Society  to  the  Saint  Louis  Exposition  to 
inspect  the  exhibit  being  made  by  the  Society  in  the  Anthropological 
Building.  They  found  the  same  in  every  respect  highly  creditable  to  the 
Society  and  the  management  and  efficiency  of  Curator  \V.  C.  Mills.  It 
was   the    favorite  quarter   of   visitation    for   the   thousands   of    spectators 

Editorialana,  91 

who  daily  sought  entrance  to  the  exposition.  During  their  visit,  in  com- 
pany with  a  party  of  archaeologists  including  Curator  Mills  and  Pro- 
fessor Starr,  the  eminent  archaeological  scholar  of  Chicago  University, 
Messrs  Wood  and  Randall  made  a  trip  to  the  famous  Cahokio  Mound 
located  in  Illinois  on  the  Mississippi  opposite  Saint  Louis.  This  is  the 
largest  mound  now  remaining  constructed  by  the  mound  builders.  The 
trip  proved  to  be  a  most  delightful  and  profitable  one  as  the  party  were 
the  fortunate  auditors  of  informal  dissertations,  by  the  various  scholars 
present,  upon  the  antiquity  and  purpose  of  the  great  mound,  and  the 
surrounding  ones,  of  which  there  are  more  than  one  hundred  in  number. 
On  nomination  of  Colonel  John  W.  Harper,  the  names  of  many 
prominent  gentlemen,  resident  in  Cincinnati,  were  elected  to  active  mem- 
bership  in   the    Society. 

On  November  28  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  was  held 
in  the  reference  rooms  of  the  Public  Library,  Columbus,  with  the  follow- 
ing members  present:  General  R.  Brinkerhoff,  Mr.  George  F.  Bareis, 
Col.  J.  W.  Harper,  Prof.  B.  F.  Prince,  Secretary  E.  O.  Randall,  and  Mr. 
E.  F.  Wood. 

Explanations  of  absence  were  received  from  Hon.  M.  S.  Greenough, 
Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter,  Hon.  D.  J.  Ryan  and  Hon.  S.  S.  Rickly. 

The  Secretary  submitted  for  the  consideration  of  the  Committee 
some  letters  which  had  passed  since  the  last  executive  meeting  between 
the  Secretary  and  Professor  MacLean  and  also  between  Professor  Mac- 
Lean  and  General  Brinkerhoff,  President  of  the  Society.  The  only  por- 
tion of  this  correspondence  worthy  of  attention  was  the  request  by  Pro- 
fessor MacLean  that  the  Society  return  to  the  Shakers  any  of  the  material 
which  it  had  received  through  Professor  MacLean  and  which  the  Society 
did  not  desire  to  retain.  Without  dissent  it  was  decided  by  the  committee 
that  the  Society  would  return  none  of  the  Shaker  gifts  as  these  donations 
had  come  properly  into  the  possession  and  ownership  of  the  Society  and 
there  was  no  legitimate  cause  for  the  return  of  any.  Indeed,  the  Society 
had  been  at  some  expense  in  their  reception ;  moreover  these  donations 
were  regarded  as  of  great  interest  and  value  by  the  Society  and  their 
acquisition  had  been  duly  appreciated.  Indeed,  the  Secretary  was  re- 
quested to  inform  the  Shakers  that  the  Society  would  be  very  much 
pleased  to  receive  further  donations  from  them  and  would  properly  place 
and  care  for  such  gifts  in  its  museum. 

The  committee  appointed  at  the  previous  meeting  of  the  Executive 
Committee  to  nominate  a  successor  to  Professor  MacLean  reported  in 
favor  of  Hon.  R.  E.  Hills  of  Delaware  and  he  was  unanimously  elected 
to  fill  out  the  unexpired  term  which  will  terminate  at  the  next  annual 
meeting  of  the  Society  to  be  held  in  the  Spring  of  1905. 

The  Secretary  reported  to  the  Committee  that  on  October  11,  he  had 
been  invited  as  a  representative  of  the  Society  to  be  present  at  the  dedi- 

92  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

cation  of  the  Soldiers*  and  Sailors*  Memorial  Hall  now  being  erected 
on  East  Broad  Street,  Columbus,  under  the  auspices  of  a  commission 
appointed  by  the  Governor.  He  had  accepted  the  invitation  and  was 
present  at  the  open  air  exercises  in  the  afternoon  when  the  cornerstone 
was  laid  with  fitting  ceremonies.  Captain  N.  B.  Abbott  presided.  Ad- 
dresses were  made  by  Governor  Herrick,  Ex-Governor  Nash,  both  life 
members  of  The  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society.  Gen- 
eral Eugene  Powell  on  behalf  of  the  commission  made  the  chief  address. 
In  the  evening  an  open  campfire  was  held  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Wells  Post  and  McCoy  Post,  G.  A.  R.  in  the  auditorium  of  the  Board 
of  Trade,  at  which  the  speakers  were  General  H.  A.  Axline,  Hon.  J.  Y. 
Bassell,  Hon.  D.  C.  Badger,  E.  O.  Randall,  Col.  W.  L.  Curry  and  others. 

Col.  John  W.  Harper  reported  to  the  Committee  an  account  of  a 
visit  made  by  Messrs.  Harper,  Martzolff  and  Randall  of  the  Executive 
Committee  to  Serpent  Mound  on  Saturday,  November  5,  1904.  The 
party  met  at  the  Pennsylvania  Depot  in  Cincinnati  on  the  morning  in 
question  and  proceeded  by  the  Norfolk  and  Western  train  to  Peebles 
whence  they  were  driven  by  private  conveyance  to  Serpent  Mound,  arriv- 
ing there  about  11  A.  M.,  and  remaining  till  2  P.  M.,  dining  at  the  custo- 
dian's house  in  the  park.  They  were  received  by  Daniel  Wallace  and 
xronducted  over  the  property  of  the  Society.  The  inspection  revealed 
that  the  park  and  the  serpent  were  in  most  excellent  condition;  Mr. 
Daniel  Wallace,  the  custodian,  having  continued  in  his  faithful  and 
efficient  care  of  the  property.  Various  suggestions  were  made  by  the 
members  of  the  com.mittee  to  the  custodian  in  regard  to  details  in  the 
method  of  his  protecting  the  property  and  preventing  any  injury  being 
done  by  improper  intruders.  Mr.  Wallace,  the  custodian,  petitioned  the 
visiting  committee  for  the  privilege  of  erecting  at  the  expense  of  the 
Society  a  summer  kitchen  and  a  chicken  coop,  the  cost  of  both  not  to 
exceed  $110.00.  The  visiting  committee  reported  in  favor  of  this  request 
to  the  Executive  Committee  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Society  was  in- 
structed to  notify  Mr.  Wallace  that  he  might  proceed  with  the  erection 
of  the  buildings  in  question. 

The  Secretary  reported  that  he  had  received  from  Professor  Mills, 
the  curator,  tlie  following  letter: 

"Saint  Louis,  U.  S.  A.,  October  19,  1904. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Mills: 

This  is  to  apprise  you  formally  of  the  action  of  the  International 
Jury  of  Awards  in  voting  The  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical 
Society  a  grand  prize  on  the  admirable  exhibit  in  this  building,  with  a 
gold  medal  to  yourself  as  collaborator.  The  certificates  of  award  will 
probably  be  issued  in  the  course  of  the  month,  though  the  medal  will 
not  be  ready  for  delivery  until  some  time  later. 

Yours  cordially,       W.    J.    McGee,    Chief." 

Editoricdana,  9S 

This  is  a  great  honor  to  our  Society  as  it  places  it  foremost  among 
the  various  competitors  at  the  exposition.  Several  of  the  states  and  some 
of  the  foreign  countries,  particularly  of  South  America,  having  made  very 
elaborate  archaeological  exhibits.  This  award  places  the  Ohio  Society  at 
the  head  of  the  list  in  so  far  as  its  exhibit  is  to  be  compared  with  the 
other  exhibits.  The  Jury  of  Awards  was  as  follows :  Prof.  M.  H.  Saville, 
Columbia  University,  Chairman;  Dr.  De  Lima,  Brazil,  Vice-Chairman; 
Dr.  George  G.  McCurdy,  Yale  University,  Secretary;  Madam  Zelia  Nuttall, 
Mexico;  Prof.  F,  W.  Kelsey,  University  of  Michigan;  Prof.  Mitchell 
Corral!,  Columbia  University. 

The  exposition  was  closed  at  noon,  December  1. 

Professor  W.  C.  Mills,  curator  of  the  Society  has  been  the  recipient 
of  many  complimentary  attentions  during  his  stay  at  the  exposition.  He 
was  invited  to  address  the  Congress  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  The  National 
meeting  of  Anthropologists,  The  Missouri  Historical  Society,  Central 
High  School  of  Saint  Louis  and  other  bodies. 

Prof.  Mills  was  also  made  honorary  Superintendent  of  Exhibits, 
as  the  following  letter  will  testify: 

St.  Louis,  U.  S.  A.,  November  15,  1904. 

Dr.  Wm.  C.  Mills,  Ohio  State  Exhibit,  Anthropology  Building. 

My  Dear  Sir: — With  the  approval  of  the  Director  of  Exhibits 
under  authority  vested  in  him  by  the  President  of  the  Louisiana  Pur- 
chase Exposition  Company,  and  in  recognition  of  the  confidence  reposed 
in  your  abilities  and  training,  I  have  the  honor  to  designate  you  Hon- 
orary Superintendent  of  Archaeology  in  this  department.  This  action  is 
inspired  largely  by  the  desire  to  convey  to  you  some  token  of  apprecia- 
tion not  merely  of  the  high  value  of  your  special  exhibit  in  the  An- 
thropology Building  but  of  the  scientific  and  scholarly  character  you 
have  constantly  aided  in  giving  to  this  Department. 

In  case  you  find  it  consistent  with  your  duties  toward  the  institu- 
tion and  state  you  have  so  efficiently  represented  to  prepare  a  general 
report-  on  the  archaeologic  exhibits  of  the  Department,  I  should  greatly 
appreciate  the  favor  and  should  take  much  pleasure  in  incorporating  the 
same  in  the  general  report  of  the  Department  for  publication  by  the 
Exposition   Company. 

With  assurances  of  consideration,  I  remain, 

Yous  respectfully. 

W.  J.   McGee,  Chief. 

Mr.  Mills  has  also  been  made  Consulting  Editor  of  the  Records  of 
the  Past,  of   which   Prof.   George   F.   Wright   is   editor-in-chief. 

The  Secretary  announced  that  he  had  received  a  communication 
froiti  Reuben  Gold  Thwaites,  Secretary  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical 
Society,   and   a   member   of   the    Executive    Committee   of   the    National 

94  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

American  Historical  Association,  requesting  that  our  Society  be  repre- 
sented at  the  forthcoming  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Historical 
Association  to  be  held  in  Chicago,  December  28-30.  The  Executive 
Committee  selected  Secretary  Randall  and  Mr.  A.  J.  Baughman,  life 
member  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  and 
Secretary  of  the  Richland  County  Historical  Society,  as  representatives 
of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  at  said  meeting 
in   Chicago. 

The  Secretary  reported  that  on  the  evening  of  Friday,  November 
18,  the  famous  Liberty  Bell  passed  through  Columbus  on  its  return  trip 
from  Saint  Louis  to  Philadelphia.  It  was  on  a  special  train  accompanied 
by  the  Mayor  of  Philadelphia  and  a  committee  of  fifty  citizens  as  its 
escort.  It  stopped  at  the  Columbus  Union  Depot  from  7 :00  to  7 :30  P.  M. 
Arrangements  had  been  made  by  Mayor  Jeffrey  and  Superintendent 
Shawan  of  the  public  schools  to  receive  the  bell  with  fitting  ceremonies. 
At  the  request  of  the  Mayor  a  committee  of  thirteen  each  was  selected 
to  represent  the  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution,  Sons  of  the 
American  Revolution,  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society, 
Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  Ladies'  Auxilliary  to  the  Grand  Army  of 
the  Republic  and  the  Schools  and  Universities  of  the  city.  The  follow- 
ing committee  from  the  Society  had  been  chosen  as  its  representatives 
on  that  occasion :  Hon.  C.  B.  Galbreath,  Mr.  O.  C.  Hooper,  Mr.  W.  A. 
Mahony,  Mr.  F.  B.  Pearson,  Mr.  A.  H.  Smythe,  Hon.  H.  C.  Taylor, 
Gen.  J.  L.  Vance,  Dr.  D.  H.  Gard,  Rev.  I.  F.  King,  Hon.  O.  A.  Miller, 
Dr.  G.  S.  Stein,  Miss  Anna  E.  Riordan,  and  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall. 

This  committee  met  at  the  Chittenden  Hotel  at  6:00  P.  M.  on  the 
evening  in  question  and  with  the  other  committees  proceeded  to  the 
depot  to  await  the  arrival  of  the  bell  train.  Thousands  of  school  children 
and  citizens  were  present.  There  were  appropriate  exercises  consisting 
of  music  by  the  Columbus  Glee  Club,  patriotic  tunes  by  the  G.  A.  R. 
drum  corps  and  a  speech  by  Mayor  Jeffrey  on  behalf  of  the  Columbus 
welcoming  committees. 

Dr.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  Pastor  of  Plymouth  Church,  Brooklyn, 
was  elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeologies  and 
Historical  Society  in  recognition  of  his  being  the  author  of  a  book  just 
published  by  the  Macmillan  Company,  being  a  story  founded  upon  the 
career  of  John  Chapman  known  as  "Johnny  Appleseed,"  one  of  the  unique 
and  original  characters  in  early  Ohio  history.  Dr.  Hillis  in  his  preface 
to  this  book  acknowledged  his  indebtedness  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Society 
for  valuable  assistance  in  securing  the  historical  material  upon  which  his 
book  was  founded.  There  were  elected  to  life  membership  in  the  Society, 
Hon.  Jeptha  Garrard,  Cincinnati;  Hon.  E.  V.  Hale,  Cleveland;  Prof. 
G.  A.  Hubbell,  Berea  College,  Berea,  Kentucky;  Prof.  John  D.  H.  Mc- 
Kinley  of  Columbus ;  Judge  James  B.  Swing,  Cincinnati ;  Dr.  C.  E. 
Slocum,  Defiance;  Miss  Martha  J.  Maltby,  Columbus,  and  Mr.  Stephen 
B.  Cone.  Hamihon. 

Editorialana.  96 


The  latest  and  one  of  the  best  encyclopedias  to  appear  is  that  known 
as  the  Encyclopedia  Americana,  published  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Scientific  American  Company  and  edited  by  Frederick  Converse  Beach 
and  a  corps  of  competent  assistants.  It  comprises  sixteen  large  volumes 
and  is  produced  in  the  best  mechanical  and  typographical  form  with 
copious  illustrations,  maps,  tables,  etc.  One  of  its  excellent  features  is 
that  the  articles  on  leading  subjects  are  written  by  well-known  and 
acknowledged  authorities  over  their  subscribed  names.  This  gives,  the 
topics  thus  treated  an  unusual  attraction  and  value.  The  article  on  Ohio 
is  contributed  by  the  Honorable  Daniel  J.  Ryan,  Ex- Secretary  of  State 
and  trustee  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society.  It 
goes  without  saying  that  Mr.  Ryan  has  produced  a  most  scholarly,  read- 
able and  comprehensive  chaptec  The  article  would  occupy  some  fifty 
pages  of  an  ordinary  12  mo.  book  and  treats  tersely  of  the  typography, 
hydrography,  and  geology  of  the  State,  its  natural  resources;  material, 
industrial,  agricultural  and  other  productions,  its  educational  and  charit- 
able institutions;  its  development  and  government.  The  portion  devoted 
to  the  history  of  the  Buckeye  State  from  earliest  pre-state  times  to  the 
present  is  a  recital  particularly  satisfactory  and  interesting.  Few,  if  any, 
students  are  better  versed  in  the  history  of  Ohio  than  is  Mr.  Ryan  and 
in  the  compass  of  a  few  thousand  words  he  has  given  in  clear  and  logical 
sequence  the  brief  events  in  the  remarkable  and  romantic  narrative  of 
the  emerging  of  the  great  and  powerful  Ohio  Commonwealth  from  the 
early  days  when  La  Salle  (1669)  on  his  journey  of  adventure  discovered 
the  Ohio  River  and  ascended  its  waters  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  site 
of  Louisville.  Mr.  Ryan's  chapter  is  the  best  sketch  of  Ohio  "in  a  nut 
^hell"  we  have  yet  seen  in  any  publication. 


The  Government  of  Ohio,  its  history  and  administration  is  a  new 
volume  just  issued  from  the  press  of  the  Macmillan  Company  of  New 
York  and  written  by  Wilbur  H.  Siebert,  professor  of  European  History 
at  the  Ohio  State  University;  author  of  the  Underground  Railroad  from 
Slavery  to  Freedom.  This  little  volume  is  an  admirable  and  reliable 
compendium  of  the  history  of  the  State  and  the  structure  and  machinery 
of  its  government.  It  deals  with  the  growth  of  the  government,  begin- 
ning with  Ohio  as  a  part  of  the  Northwest  Territory  and  following  the 
events  that  led  to  the  organization  of  Ohio  as  a  state.  Chapters  follow 
in  logical  order  concerDincr  the  character  of  the  state  constitution,  citizen- 
ship, suffrage,  local  governments  of  the  state,  the  administration  of  jus- 
tice, control   of  economic  interests,  management  of  public  finances  and 

96  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hiit,  Society  Publications. 

so  on.  Professor  Siebert  is  a  careful  and  painstaking  student  and  has 
exercised  discriminating  judgment  as  to  what  is  necessary  for  the  proper 
educidation  of  his  subject.  He  gives  under  each  chapter  the  list  of 
authorities  which  he  has  consulted  or  which  may  be  further  examined 
by  those  who  desire  more  exhaustive  study  of  the  various  topics.  The 
book  is  accompanied  by  an  excellent  appendix  giving  a  chronological 
outline  of  the  historical  events  incident  to  the  development  of  the  state, 
beginning  with  the  land  grant  of  King  James  in  1609  and  leading  through 
to  the  last  event  of  importance  in  1904  when  the  new  schodl  code  was 
enacted  by  the  legislature.  There  is  also  a  complete  text  of  the  ordi- 
nance of  1787  and  the  enabling  act  of  1802,  constitution  of  1851,  etc. 
The  book  is  thoroughly  indexed  and  will  be  of  incalculable  interest  not 
only  to  the  historical  and  economic  student  of  Ohio  but  particularly  to 
teachers.  It  comprises  one  of  the  series  of  handbooks  of  American  gov- 
ernment; 308  pages  with  map  of  Ohio  giving  counties,  railroads,  etc. 
Macmillan  Company.    75  cents. 


John  Chapman,  known  as  Johnny  Appleseed  was  an  eccentric  and 
unique  character  who  first  appeared  on  the  Ohio  River  about  1790  in  a 
boat  filled  with  appleseeds.  His  plan  was  to  go  in  advance  of  the  settlers 
planting  orchards  through  the  wilderness.  This  strange  and  philantropic 
vocation  he  followed  for  some  25  or  30  years.  His  earlier  career  is 
shrouded  in  mystery  but  is  made  romantic  with  the  tradition  that  he  was 
early  disappointed  in  love.  He  was  a  character  of  much  ability  in  some 
directions  and  exercised  in  his  peculiar  way  a  serviceable  influence  upon 
the  forest  pioneers  among  whom  he  wandered. 

Rev.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  the  eloquent  pastor  of  Plymouth  Church 
has  chosen  John  Chapman  as  the  hero  of  a  fascinating  and  beautiful 
narrative  entitled  "The  Quest  of  John  Chapman."  Says  Mr.  Hillis  in  his 
preface:  "Save  Col.  Clark,  he  (Chapman)  is  the  most  striking  man  of 
of  the  generation  that  crossed  the  Alleghanies."  Sir  Walter  Scott  thought 
it  a  matter  of  moment  to  his  countrymen  that  some  one  should  preserve 
the  story  of  that  old  man  who  went  through  the  cemeteries  rechiseling 
the  names  of  dead  heroes.  But  this  scarred  old  hero  of  our  republic  is 
a  thousand  times  more  fascinating  than  Old  Mortality  or  the  heroes  of 
the  Nibelungen  Lied."  Mr.  Hillis  with  a  vivid  and  artistic  imagination 
and  in  the  most  felicitious  and  charming  English  initiates  his  narrative 
in  the  Town  of  Redham,  New  England,  at  the  time  of  the  departure  of 
Mannasseh  Cutler  and  his  party  for  their  journey  to  the  Ohio  wilder- 
ness. John  Chapman  is  the  son  of  the  village  minister  and  has  given  his 
heart  to  Dorothy,  a  daughter  of  Col.  Durand.  The  latter  is  a  prowd, 
high-spirited,  influential  gentleman  who  objects  to  the  alliance  of  his  daugh- 
ter with  John.    Col.  Durand  and  Dorothy  arc  members  of  the  Ohio  Com- 

Editorialana.  97 

pany.  Subsequently  John  Chapman  seeks  in  adventurous  wanderings 
through  the  western  country,  the  home  of  his  plighted  love.  There  is, 
of  course,  a  rival,  fascinating  and  chivalrous,  but  unworthy.  Mr.  Hillis 
has  with  rare  gifts  of  pen  portrayal  pictured  the  simple  but  perilous  life 
of  the  New  England  pioneers  who  sought  their  fortunes  and  amid  the 
Indian  inhabited  fastnesses  beyond  the  Alleghanies.  It  is  a  beautiful 
story,  pure,  idyllic,  poetic  and  through  the  entire  volume  runs  a  delicate 
vein  of  moral  and  elevating  sentiment  such  as  renders  the  story  at  once 
a  prose  poem  and  an  eloquent  sermon.  Amidst  the  flood  of  trashy  and 
demoralizing  novels  of  the  day  Mr.  Hillis'  "Quest  of  John  Chapman"  is 
like  a  draft  of  sparkling  and  refreshing  water  from  some  mountain  spring. 
It  should  be  read  by  every  lover  of  a  thrilling  story  told  in  the  choicest 
language.    It  is  published  by  Macmillan.&  Company,  New  York. 


The  Van  Wert  Bulletin  of  October  1,  1904,  is  responsible  for.  the 
following : 

The  first  trial  of  arms  in  Ohio,  in  the  war  of  1812,  was  a  skirmish 
on  Marblehead  peninsula  between  Indians  in  the  employ  of  the  British 
and  early  white  settlers  in  the  Ottawa  County  firelands.  The  whites 
were  principally  from  Trumbull  and  Ashtabula  counties.  Among  them 
was  Joshua  R.  Giddings,  then  aged  sixteen  years,  and  who  later  stirred 
the  halls  of  Congress  as  one  of  Ohio's  senators. 

The  skirmish  resulted  in  the  flight  of  the  whites  across  Sandusky 
Bay.  After  going  but  a  short  distance,  however,  they  met  a  relief  party 
from  their  former  homes  bound  for  their  own  new  settlement.  The  entire 
party  returned,  and  succeeded  in  dispersing  the  erstwhile  successful  in- 
vaders. But  it  was  only  after  a  terrible  conflict,  and  after  many  whites 
lost  their  lives,  that  the  redskins  were  forced  to  retreat. 

A  number  of  years  after  this  memorable  conflict  the  survivors  of 
the  battle  met  on  the  spot  where  the  conflict  took  place.  It  was  agreed 
that  they  should  meet  at  stated  periods,  but  the  few  who  assembled  in 
later  years  dwindled  until  finally  in  1864,  but  one  was  left.  That  person 
was  Joshua  R.  Giddings,  and,  visiting  the  scene  of  the  conflict  for  the 
last  time,  as  fate  destined  it  to  be  the  last,  he  erected  a  monument  to  the 
memory  of  the  hundred  brave  men  who  fought  the  skirmish  and  resisted 
the  siege  which  was  Ohio's  debut  in  the  war  of  1812. 

A  short  time  after  the  placing  of  this  little  stone,  and  in  the  same 
year,  1864,  Giddings  died.  The  monument  was  placed  by  Giddings  at 
Meadowbrook,  a  beautiful  spot  near  Sandusky  Bay,  and  but  a  short  dis- 
tance from  Johnson's  Island,  another  place  which  became  a  location  of 
history  as  the  federal  prison  for  southern  prisoners  captured  in  the  War 
of  the  Rebellion. 

Vol.  XIV  — 7. 

96  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 


The  following  interesting  account  of  the  "Firelands"  is  taken  from 
the  West  Liberty  Banner-. 

Unnumbered  native  Ohioans,  not  to  speak  of  hundreds  of  thousands 
of  residents  of  the  state  from  foreign  lands  and  other  states  of  the  union, 
must  have  wondered  why  a  fertile  and  productive  tract  in  northern  Ohio, 
a  district  which  in  no  way  hints  of  the  ravages  of  fire,  should  be  called 
the  "Firelands."  Among  all  the  vicissitudes  of  Ohio's  early  history  great 
conflagrations  were  known  for  their  absence.  No  such  terrible  forest 
fires  swept  this  state  as  ravaged  large  areas  in  Michigan  and  Wisconsin 
seventy  or  eighty  years  later. 

The  fires  to  which  the  name  refers  raged  in  Connecticut,  not  Ohio, 
and  they  were  the  work  of  British  or  Tory  soldiers  instead  of  the  result 
of  accidents  or  natural  causes.  In  1781,  when  the  long  struggle  for  inde- 
pendence was  nearly  ended,  Benedict  Arnold  commanded  an  expedition 
which  ravaged  the  Connecticut  coast  of  Long  Island  Sound.  He  burned 
^Jew  London  and  other  towns  and  left  behind  misery  and  destitution 
afs  well  as  a  greater  hatred  himself  than  he  had  earned  before  the  outrage 
upon  his  native  state. 

This  and  other  cruel  and  senseless  attacks  upon  Connecticut's  towns 
left  so  strong  a  feeling  of  sympathy  and  injustice  behind  that  in  disposing 
of  Connecticut's  rights  in  lands  now  forming  part  of  Ohio,  781  square 
miles  in  the  extreme  western  edge  in  the  Western  Reserve  were  reserved 
to  reimburse  those  who  had  suffered  by  the  British  raids.  Five  ranges 
of  townships  running  north  and  south  were  included  in  this  tract. 

Sandusky  Bay  and  Lake  Erie  extend  so  far  southward  at  this  point 
thdt  the  five  ranges  of  townships  contained  only  about  500,000  acres  of 
land.  The  tract  measured  some  twenty-seven  miles  by  thirty.  The  Con- 
necticut sufferers  from  the  torch  of  the  enemy  lived  chiefly  in  New  Lon- 
don, Norwafk  and  Fairfield,  and  it  was  from  these  towns  that  many  of 
tlw  settlers  of  the  "Firelands"  came  to  build  in  the  Ohio,  wilderness 
settkments  bearing  the  same  names  and  having  like  civic  ideals  and 


On  November  25,  1904,  at  the  tenth  general  court  of  the  Society  of 
Colonial  Wars  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  held  at  the  Queen  City  Club,  Cin- 
cninati,  the  following  officers  were  elected: 
7       Governor —^  Perin  Langdon,   Cincinnati. 

Deputy  Governor  —  Charles  Theodpre  Greve,  Cincinnati. 

Lieutenant  Governor — Hiram   Harper   Peck,   Cincinrnti 

Editoridana,  &9 

Secretary  —  Harry  Brent  Mackoy,  Covington,  Ky. 

Deputy   Secretary  —  Murray  Marvin   Shoemaker,   Cincinnati. 

Treasurer  —  Howard  Sydenham  Winslow,  Cincinnati. 

Registrar  —  Robert  Ralston  Jones,  Cincinnati. 

Historian  —  John  Uri  Lloyd,  Norwood. 

Chancellor — Herbert  Jenney,  Cincinnati. 

Surgeon  —  Dr.  Phineas  Sanborn  Conner,  Cincinnnati. 

Chaplain —   Rev.  Henry  Melville  Curtis,  Cincinnati. 

Gentlemen  of  the  Council  —  Nathaniel  Henchman  Davis,  Cincinnati ; 
Edwin  C.  Gashorn,  Cincinnati;  Charles  Humphrey  Newton,  Marietta; 
Harry  Langdon  Laws,  Cincinnati ;  Dr.  Gilbert  Langdon  Bailey,  Cincin- 
nati; John  Sanborn  Conner,  Cincinnati;  James  Wilson  Bullock,  Williams- 
town,  Mass. ;  George  Merrell,  Cincinnati ;  Roderick  Douglass  Barney, 
Wyoming;  Benjamin  Rush,  Cowen,  Cincinnati. 

Committee  on  Membership  —  Achilles  Henry  Pugh,  Cincinnati; 
Charles  James  Stedman,  Glcndale ;  Ward  Baldwin,  Cincinnati ;  Howard 
Barney,  Wyoming;   Michael  Myers  Shoemaker,  Cincinnati. 

Committee  on  Collection  of  Historical  Documents  and  Records  — 
Rev.  Dudley  Ward  Rhodes,  Cincinnati ;  Prof.  Edward  Orton,  Jr.,  Colum- 
bus; Ethan  Osborn  Hurd,  Plainville. 

Following  the  election  a  banquet  was  held,  after  which  speeches 
were  made  by  the  retiring  officers  and  Gen.  B.  R.  Cowen. 

The  flowers  used  on  the  occasion  were  sent  as  a  remembrance  to  the 
-widows  of  the  two  members  who  have  died  in  the  last  3'ear,  Mrs.  W.  W. 
Scefy  and  Mrs.  John  Bailey. 


On  November  15,  1904,  the  Clark  County  Historical  Society,  in  its 
new  rooms  in  the  East  County  Building,  Springfield,  Ohio,  held  its  annual 
meeting  and  elected  the  following  officers  for  the  ensuing  year: 

President  —  Prof.  B.  F.  Prince. 

Secretary  —  William  M.  Harris. 

Treasurer  —  Charles  H.  Pierce. 

Trustees  —  Oscar  T.  Martin,  for  five  years;  L.  H.  Fahnestock,  for 
six  years. 

All  of  the  officers  elected  succeeded  themselves  except  Mr.  Fahne- 
stock, who  succeeded  Prof.  A.  H.  Linn.  The  Board  of  Trustees,  as  at 
present  constituted,  consists  of  seven  members.  An  amendment  to  the 
by-laws  was  proposed,  increasing  the  number  of  trustees  to  nine.  The 
meeting  was  well  attended  and  great  interest  was  manifested  in  the 
progress  of  the  Society.  Professor  Prince,  who  was  honored  with  the 
presidency,  is  a  trustee  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical' 
Society.  '\  '       '  - ,  • 

100  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


The  construction  and  voyage  of  Noah's  Ark  is  not  exactly  material 
pertinent  to  Ohio  history  or  archaeology;  but  as  a  matter  of  universal 
curiosity  we  herewith  republish  from  very  recent  popular  press  items  the 
following : 

M.  V.  Millard,  archaeologist  and  distinguished  excavator  along  the 
Nile,  who  was  recently  at  Indianapolis,  declared  that  he  had  discovered 
the  place  where  Noah  built  the  ark.  Millard  for  a  year  past  was  engaged 
in  excavations  at  various  places  on  the  Nile,  especially  at  Gizeh,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  great  pyramid  of  Cheops. 

"I  have  discovered  during  the  last  three  years,"  he  said,  "just  where 
Noah  lived,  where  the  ark  was  built,  and  that  Noah  built  the  great  pyra- 
mid of  Khufu,  known  as  the  pyramid  of  Gizeh.  Noah  was  the  greatest 
king  this  world  has  ever  seen.  He  was  the  greatest  of  the  Egyptian 
Pharaohs,  not  excepting  Rameses  the  Great. 

"Noah  was  a  millionaire.  The  biblical  account  of  the  flood  gives  no 
clew  as  to  where  Noah  lived  or  where  his  ship  carpenters  were  at  work 
for  120  years  constructing  the  ark.  Noah  was  600  years  old  when  the 
flood  came.  He  must  have  been  a  millionaire,  and  a  man  of  great 
authority.  He  built  the  ark  at  his  own  expense.  Such  a  boat  in  these 
times  would  cost  more  than  half  a  million  dollars. 

"Noah  built  the  great  pyramid  during  the  earlier  part  of  the  fourth 
Egyptian  dynasty,  and  not  more  than  1,200  years  after  God  had  expelled 
Adam  and  Eve  from  the  garden  of  Eden." 

King  Christian  of  Denmark  will,  in  the  near  future,  have  a  chance 
to  experience  the  feelings  of  Noah  during  the  flood. 

A  Danish  engineer,  M.  Vogt,  supplied  with  money  by  the  large 
Carlsberg  fund,  left  by  the  late  millionaire  brewer,  Jacobsen,  has  built 
an  exact  copy  of  the  ark  in  which  Noah  floated  around  until  he  stranded 
on  Mt.  Ararat.  The  new  ark  was  built  according  to  the  description  con- 
tained in  the  Old  Testament  and  an  ancient  representation  of  the  Biblical 
vessel  on  an  Apamean  coin,  dating  back  to  300  B*.  C,  which  is  on  exhibi- 
tion  in  a  museum  at  Stockholm. 

M.  Vogt's  ark  is,  however,  only  one  tenth  the  size  of  the  one  built 
by  Father  Noah,  but  a  number  of  Danish  University  professors  and  scien- 
tists declare  it  to  be  a  fine  craft,  which  behaves  spendidly  in  the  open 
sea,  as  they  had  an  opportunity  to  see  during  a  recent  trip  on  the  Oere- 

King  Christian  has  promised  to  make  a  trip  in  the  unique  vessel 
during  next  month,  and  later  the  builder  of  the  vessel  may  try  to  take  it 
across  th^- AtlwTtie*  •    I 


Oil  October  6,  1904,  the  Buckeyes  from  all  parts  of  the 
United  States  celebrated  Ohio  Day  upon  the  grounds  of  the 
Exposition,  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  The  exercises  were  held  in 
the  afternoon  and  evening  in  the  beautiful  Ohio  Building.  The 
Ohio  Commission,  appointed  by  Governor  Nash  under  authority 
of  au  act  passed  by  (he  75ih  General  Assembly,  consisted  of  Hon. 
William  F.  Uurdell,  President,  Columbus,  life  member  of  the  Ohio 

State  Arclia.'f)lof;ical  and  Historical  Society;  Hon.  L.  E.  Holden. 
Vice-President.  Cleveland;  Hon.  D.  H.  Moore.  Athens;  Hon. 
Edwin  Hapenbuch,  Urbana :  Hon.  M,  K.  Gantz.  Troy  :  Hon,  New- 
ell K.  Kennon.  St.  Clairsville;  Hon.  David  Friedman,  Caldwell. 
Hon.  S.  S.  Rankin.  South  Charleston,  was  the  Executive  Commis- 
sioner having  jjersonal  charge  of  the  building  and  the  affairs 
of  the  commission  during  the  period  of  the  exposition. 

After  an  opening  selection  by  the  Philippine  Band,  Reverend 
Kaphtati  Lnccock,  President  of  the  Ohio  Society  of  St.  Louis, 

102  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

was  introduced  by  Mr.  Burdell  and  asked  to  invoke  the  Divine 

Revereno  Naputali  Luccock: 

"Our  Father's  God  from  out  whose  hand, 
The  centuries  fall  like  grains  of  sand," 

We  Stand  in  this  sunUt  iiour  of  privilege  with  grateful  hearts  for 
the  splendid  inheritance  ihou  hast  given  us  in  the  midst  of  the 
years.  We  thank  thee  for  the  bappy  memories  which  crowd  our 
hearts,  and  for  the  great  opportunities  which  open  before  us. 
Put  thy  blessing  upon  the  commonwealth  which  we  honor  this 
day,  and  upon  all  the  commonwealths  of  our  Nation !  The  bless- 
ing of  the  Lord  our  God  be  upon  us  and  the  work  of  our  hands 
establish  thou  it,  through  Christ!     Amen. 


Ladies  and  Gentlemen  —  On  behalf  of  the  Ohio  Commission 
to  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  I  bid  you  welcome  to  these 

Ohio  day  exercises.     We  are  justly 

0  proud  of  our  state  and  we  like  to  get 
together  and  talk  about  her.  The 
Ohio  Commission  with  limited  re- 
sources has  done  the  best  it  could  to 
provide  a  comfortable  and  hospitable 
meeting  place  for  Ohio  people  visiting 
the  Fair.  I  am  delighted  that  such  a 
goodly  number  of  Ohioans  lend  their 
appreciative  presence  to  this  superb 
effort  of  this  most  progressive  city. 
To  mass  the  products  of  the  whole 
world  in  one  comprehensive  grouping 
F   [J  .  — ***   search   the   globe  and   find   its 

rarest  treasures  —  to  place  beside  the 
best  gifts  of  an  indulgent  Providence,  the  best  efforts  of  intel- 
lectual man,  is  a  work  of  stupendous  magnitude.  St.  Louis  has 
done  this  and  has  done  it  well.    We  look  upon  the  world's  eighth 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        103 

wonder,  and  the  people  of  Ohio  congratulate  you  of  St.  Louis 
upon  your  splendid  success. 

There  is  much  in  this  land  and  much  in  our  time  that  should 
make  us  grateful  contemporaries.  To  live  in  an  age  of  accumu- 
lated genius  —  to  have  the  work  of  man  transcend  man  and 
approach  the  unknowable  —  to  see  spread  out  before  us  this  grand 
panorama  of  man's  accomplishment,  is  a  privilege  we  do  not  fully 
appreciate.  By  some  propitious  accident  of  time,  we  rather  than 
our  fathers,  behold  civilization's  supremest  triumph.  I  do  not 
believe  that  those  of  our  day  will  witness  a  duplication  of  this 
magnificent  exposition.  You,  fortunate  men  and  women,  who 
visit  St.  Louis  in  this  year  1904,  see  with  your  own  eyes  and  feel 
with  human  senses  this  impressive  revelation  of  man's  highest 

Ohio  has  had  some  share  in  the  great  national  development 
which  this  exposition  reflects.  Ohio  and  her  sons  have  not  been  in 
the  rear  of  this  splendid  procession.  She  and  they  have  been 
making  records  for  political  and  industrial  America.  Some  pages 
in  our  country's  history  belong  to  her.  Even  now  the  tiller  of 
the  Ship  of  State  is  warm  with  the  hand  of  that  beloved  and  gentle 
McKinley  —  of  that  masterful,  yet  humane,  Napoleon  of  -modern 
politics,  Hanna  —  of  that  wise  pilot  of  bur  blackest  night  of  finan- 
cial stress,  John  Sherman  —  with  the  hand  of  Hay,  who  makes 
precedent  for  the  whole  world's  diplomacy,  and  Taft,  who  built 
out  of  chaos  a  government  for  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Yes,  Ohio  has  been  and  is  conspicuous  in  the  larger  affairs 
of  our  country.  There  were  times  when  she  seemed  to  dominate 
and  control  them.  Her  sons  were  forceful  leaders,  their  eloquence 
was  persuasive,  their  judgment  sound  and  stable.  If,  in  the  grow- 
ing power  of  this  great  West  —  in  the  mutation  of  our  national 
life  —  if,  in  the  future,  the  man  and  the  issues  of  another  state 
should  seem  ascendent  in  the  councils  of  the  nation  —  if  other 
men  of  other  states  nearer  the  great  heart  and  brain  of  this  grand 
republic,  should  seem  better  fitted  for  the  responsibilities  of  gov- 
errfment,  there  will  be  in  Ohio  no  resentment  —  no  heart  burnings. 
We  will  sustain  and  strengthen  them,  will  follow  on  with  them, 
the  splendid  highway  of  our  common  glory.  And,  in  the  tri- 
umphal march  of  which  this  exposition  is  but  a  halting  place,  the 

104  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

East  and  the  West,  the  North  and  the  South,  proud  of  each  other's 
attainments,  glorying  in  each  other's  triumphs,  will  go  on  together 
in  that  undying  love  of  a  common  country  which,  in  surpassing 
goodness,  justice  and  power,  is  the  central  sun  of  this  western 

We  will  go  cm  together,  not  content  with  this  splendid  expo- 
sition that  seems  today  the  acme  of  human  achievement,  but  with 
the  unsatisfied  longing,  the  unquenchable  desire  for  better  things, 
with  faces  towards  the  light,  with  hands  ever  guided  by  righteous 
hearts^  will  raise  stone  upon  stone  —  a  mighty  monum^t  of 
national  greatness. 

I  have  alluded  to  the  glories  of  this  great  exposition.  I  now 
have  the  pleasure  of  introducing  to  you  the  man  who,  more  than 
all  others,  is  responsible  for  the  success  of  this  fair  —  the  Honor- 
able David  R.  Francis,  President  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase 

Honorable  David  R.  Francis: 

Mr.  President,  Your  Excellency,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen  — 
The  exposition  management  is  more  than  pleased  to  see  this  repre- 
sentative outpouring  of  ( )hioans  on  Ohio  Day.  You  know,  the 
Government  at  Washington  has  not  been  able  to  run  for  years 
without  Ohio's  assistance ;  consequently,  no  great  exposition  could 
be  successfully  held  without  the  participation  of  Ohio.  We  are, 
therefore,  deeply  grateful  to  the  Buckeye  State  for  the  assistance 
rendered  to  this  international  or  universal  exposition. 

Ohio  has  a  history  of  which  every  citizen  of  the  state  should 
be  proud.  There  are  many  links  which  bind  Ohio  to  the  Louisiana 
Territory,  and  there  are  many  reasons  why  Ohio  should  participate 
in  this  exposition ;  why  the  people  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase 
should  feel  grateful  to  Ohio.  T  believe  it  was  the  same  La  Salle 
who  discovered  the  Ohio  River  and  went  down  that  stream  before 
he  went  down  the  Mississippi  and  reared  the  cross  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Father  of  Waters  and  named  the  territory  ^'Louisiana"  in 
honor  of  his  King  of  France.  From  that  time  on  the  hardy 
pioneers  who  blazed  the  way  in  that  country  have  constantly  forged 
their  way  westward.  They  were  instrumental  in  bringing  about 
the  purchase  of  this  Louisiana  Territory  and   have   been  very 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        10& 

potential  agents  in  building  it  up  from  the  time  it  was  brought 
tinder  the  dominion  of  the  United  States  Government. 

I  believe  that  Ohio's  organization,  as  a  state,  was  about  con- 
temporaneous with  the  coming  of  the  Louisiana  Territory  under 
the  control  of  the  United  States  Government.  I  remember  that 
when  this  movement  for  the  celebration  of  this  purchase  was  first 
thought  of,  at  the  inception  of  the  plan,  it  was  said  that  Ohio  was 
also  preparing  for  a  centennial  celebration  commemorating  the 
one  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  admission  of  Ohio  into  the 
Union.    I  think  this  was  planned  to  be  held  in  Toledo. 

The  people  of  that  state,  with  marked  and  memorable  mag- 
nanimity, when  they  heard  of  the  plans  made  to  commemorate 
this  Louisiana  Purchase,  abandoned  their  plans  for  a  centennial 
at  Toledo,  and  most  generously  united  with  the  people  of  the 
Louisiana  Purchase  territory  to  commemorate  its  transfer  from 
France  to  the  United  States  Government.  That  is  additional 
cause  for  gratitude  for  which  the  exposition  management  cannot 
make  too  frequent  acknowledgement. 

Not  only  that,  but  the  management  of  this  exposition  well 
remembers  the  very  efficient  aid  given  to  this  movement  by  a 
lamented  son  of  Ohio,  whose  influence  was  potent  in  the  national 
councils,  and  who,  from  the  time  this  celebration  was  first  men- 
tioned, gave  it  encouragement.  Upon  every  occasion,  whether 
in  the  Senate  of  the  United  States  or  in  the  councils  of  the  State 
of  Ohio,  he  spoke  a  good  word  for  this  exposition.  We  joined 
with  the  people  of  Ohio  in  lamenting  his  untimely  taking  off, 
and  upon  this  occasion,  we  desire  again  to  pay  our  tribute  of 
respect  and  affection  to  the  memory  of  Marcus  A.  Hanna! 

The  other  Senator  from  Ohio  was  likewise  friendly  to  this 
exjxDsition  movement  —  I  refer  to  Senator  Foraker  —  from  the 
time  the  suggestion  was  first  made  in  the  National  Congress.  In 
fact,  all  of  the  representatives  of  your  great  state,  if  I  remember 
rightly,  have  given  their  support,  in  critical  times,  to  this  work 
as  it  progressed. 

The  Chief  Executive  of  your  commonwealth,  who  favors  us 
with  his  presence  today,  and  whose  acquaintance  and  friendship 
I  have  been  proud  to  claim  for  a  longer  period  than  he  has  been 
your  Governor,  has  ever  been  a  friend  to  this  Exposition  from  the 

106  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

beginning  of  his  administration.  His  presence  here  to-day  is  the 
second  or  third  visit  he  has  made.  He  manifests  what  we  trust 
he  cherishes,  and  what  we  would  like  to  see  on  the  part  of  the 
Executives  of  all  the  states,  a  proprietary  interest  in  this  great 
Exposition.  It  does  not  belong  to  one  state  alone,  but  every  mem- 
ber of  the  sisterhood  has  contributed  to  this  international  cele- 

Here  Ohio  has  erected  a  home  in  which  her  sons  and  daugh- 
ters feel  as  much  "at  home"  as  they  could  if  they  were  upon  the 
soil  of  Ohio. 

Furthermore,  many  of  the  sons  and  daughters  of  Ohio  who 
left  the  state  of  their  nativity  and  came  West  years  ago  have  been 
associated  in  the  organization  of  this  celebration.  They  are  repre- 
sented on  its  Board  of  Directors,  and  as  I  stated  in  the  begin- 
ning, no  movement  of  a  national  character  in  this  country  can  be 
successful  without  the  aid  of  Ohio! 

The  exhibits  of  your  state  in  our  Exhibit  Palaces  demonstrate 
more  forcefully  than  I  can  explain,  the  resources  of  Ohio  and  the 
progress  that  your  state  has  made  in  wealth,  in  culture,  and  in 
everything  that  goes  to  make  a  great  commonwealth ! 

Your  state  has  contributed  Presidents  to  the  United  States! 
There  is  a  long  line  of  distinguished  sons  of  Ohio  to  which  every 
citizen  of  the  state  can  point  with  pride !  Their  descendants  are 
still  exerting  their  influence  throughout  the  land !  They  are  rep- 
resentatives of  that  composite  American  character  which  has  made 
this  country  what  it  is.  And  this  Exposition,  which  brings 
together  people  of  Ohio  and  people  of  Texas,  the  people  of  Wash- 
ington with  those  of  Maine,  serves  but  to  make  our  Union  the 

It  is  a  beautiful  sight  to  contemplate,  looking  at  these  state 
buildings,  forty  odd  of  them,  erected  upon  these  grounds,  the  loca- 
tions here  bearing  no  relation  to  the  locations  of  the  states  in 
the  country.  Here,  as  you  observe,  is  Ohio,  further  south  than  Mis- 
souri. It  is  but  a  step  from  Ohio  to  Mississippi !  The  strains  of 
the  music  participating  in  the  ceremonies  of  dedication  on  these 
sites  reminded  us  of  the  fact  that  no  differences  exist  between 
the  various  sections  of  our  country.     The  strains  of  *'Dixie*'  had 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        107 

hardly  died  out  on  the  Mississippi  site  when  we  were  saluted  with 
the  familiar  notes  of  *7ohn  Brown's  Body  Lies  Mouldering  in  the 
Grave''  from  the  Kansas  site.  This  Exposition  belongs  to  the 
people,  and  to  the  entire  people !  When  the  ''Star  Spangled  Ban- 
ner" is  played  upon  these  grounds  every  man  within  reach  of  the 
sound  rises  and  dojffs  his  hat !  It  is  such  practices  as  these  which 
deepen  and  quicken  the  patriotism  of  the  American  people ! 

Tht  educational  advantages  of  this  Exposition  are  not  con- 
fined to  any  one  section.  I  am  glad  to  say  that  your  state  has 
been  so  generously  represented  here.  We  ask  you  to  remain  with 
us  as  long  as  your  affairs  will  permit ;  to  give  the  exhibits  in  these 
palaces  as  thorough  an  inspection  as  your  time  will  allow ;  and 
upon  your  return  home  to  say  to  those  whom  you  left  behind  that 
there  is  installed  in  St.  Louis  an  Exposition,  held  in  celebra- 
tion of  a  great  event  in  our  country's  history,  which  every  Ameri- 
can should  patronize  and  which  will  be  of  great  benefit  to  all  who 
visit  it  because  it  here  brings  together  within  a  small  area  the  best 
products  of  all  the  civilized  countries  of  the  globe ;  because  it  is  the 
occasion  of  the  assembling  here  of  representatives  of  all  the  primi- 
tive races,  and  because  it  will  be,  in  the  judgment  of  most  men, 
the  last  universal  exposition  which  this  generation  will  see !  The 
only  criticism  has  been  that  it  is  too  big  for  any  one  individual  to 
properly  inspect  or  comprehend!  But  that  should  be  no  reason 
why  people  should  not  visit  it.  When  the  American  people  plan 
to  hold  an  exposition,  they  take  no  second  place  in  expositions, 
as  they  take  no  second  place  in  any  other  line ! 

Furthermore,  the  great  event  which  we  are  commemorating, 
and  which  was  the  greatest  transfer  of  territory  in  the  history 
of  the  world  by  peaceful  negotiations,  could  not  be  properly  cele- 
brated by  an  exposition  second  to  any  which  had  ever  been  held ! 

There  will  be  expositions  in  the  future,  but,  in  my  judgment, 
they  will  be  expositions  along  special  lines. 

Permit  me  to  thank  you  again  for  your  attendance  here ;  and 
on  behalf  of  the  Exposition  management,  I  desire  to  make 
acknowledgement  to  the  Chief  Executive  of  Ohio,  for  the  very 
able  and  faithful  labors  performed  by  his  Commission. 

This  characteristic  structure  has  not  only  been  a  home  for 
the  sons  and  daughters  of  Ohio,  hut  here  has  always  been  dis- 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

pensed  that  genuine  Ohio  hospitality  without  which  it  would  be  a 
misnomer  to  call  it  the  Ohio  building. 

The  exhibits  installed  by  the  Commission  in  our  Exhibit  Pal- 
aces speak  for  themselves.  This  Exposition,  if  it  did  nothing  more 
than  to  inculcate  into  the  people  connected  with  it,  —  not  only 
the  local  management  but  the  people  here  representing  the  differ- 
ent states  of  the  Union, —  if  it  did  nothing  more  than  inculcate 
in  them  that  patriotjc  spirit,  that  sense  of  national  duty  which 
prompts  them  to  sacrifice  personal  interest,  personal  convenience, 
and  also  personal  means,  to  promote  the  interests  of  our  common 
country,  that,  indeed,  would  be  compensation  enough  for  all  of  the 
time,  for  all  of  the  labor,  all  of  the  means,  all  of  the  sacrifice, 
which  this  International  Exposition  has  entailed. 

I  thank  yon  for  your  attention. 

Mh.   IU.'hiiki.i.: 

Ladies  and  Ccnllemcii  —  It  is  with  the  greatest  pleasure  that 
I  introduce  the  Honorable  Myron  T.  Herrick,  Governor  of  Ohio. 

GiivKHNuK  Hkhkick  : 

My  Fcllozii-Citizcns,  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Ohio,  and  Gov- 
ernor l-rancis  —  I  want  first  of  all  to  express  the  appreciation 
uf  this  audience,  made  up  largely  of 
Ohio  people,  for  the  kind  words  Gov- 
ernor Francis  has  said  of  Ohio,  We 
are.  indeed,  proud  of  the  history  of 
Ohio  —  prouder  than  we  dare  to  say  to 
yuii,  Governor  Francis! 

This  is  Ohio  Day  at  the  greatest 
uf  all  expositions.  We  are  assembled 
to  add  our  testimony  to  the  success  of 
this  wonderful  exhibit,  and  to  express 
onr  appreciation  and  devotion  to  the 
great  event  it  is  intended  to  signalize; 
and  to  pay  tribute  to  the  genius. 
MVH.iN  T.  FiKMHii  K.  energy,  and  superb  nerve  of  the  men 

and   women  of   St.   Louis   who   have 
AiXv  this  the  greatest  of  all  expositions.     Surely,  there  never 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        109 

Avas  gathered  in  one  place  such  an  array  of  proof  of  the 
world's  progress,  such  amazing  omens  of  the  triumphs  of  peace, 
as  are  seen  on  these  beautiful  grounds.  The  ancient  civilization  of 
the  East  is  here  in  touch  with  the  modern  life  of  the  West. 
Strange  people  from  strange  lands,  mingle  and  view  each  other's 
advancement  with  amazement  and  mutual  benefit. 

President  McKinley  designated  these  expositions  as  "mile 
stones  to  mark  a  nation's  progress!"  The  men  of  St.  Louis 
have  laid  this  "mile  stone"  to  the  everlasting  credit  of  their 
country  and  themselves.  We  Ohioans  extend  to  you  our  felici- 
tations upon  this  splendid  realization  which  is  possible  only  for 
our  country,  and  for  few  cities  beside  St.  Louis. 

The  evolution  of  the  race  toward  higher  planes  of  life  is  here 
pictured  in  stronger  lines  than  the  imagination  of  artist  or  writer 
can  portray.  Who  can  view  the  Philippine  exhibit  of  its  people 
and  its  products  without  a  better  understanding  of,  and  a  greater 
pride  in,  our  most  humane  work  in  the  Orient?  We  gaze  into 
each  other's  faces  with  hope  and  surprise  when  we  look  over  the 
magnificent  display  of  the  arts  of  peace,  and  recognize  the  victories 
of  intelligence,  skill,  and  purpose  that  characterize  every  advance. 
A  scene  like  this  marks  the  trend  of  a  fairer  destinv.  It  is  a 
promoter  of  optimism.  It  extends  the  horizon  wherein  human 
genius  does  its  real  work.  Think  of  the  former  days  of  crude 
endeavor  in  all  fields  of  human  effort,  and  then  of  this  exposi- 
tion of  inventive  genius,  and  mark  how  far  advanced  are  the 
standards  of  life.  Each  of  us  absorbed  in  his  own  "dav's  work," 
awakes  in  amazement  here  to  find  that  the  dream  of  yesterday 
is  the  realization  of  to-day,  the  hope  of  to-day  is  the  fact  of  to- 

Progress  is  harnessing  the  forces  of  nature  and  adapting 
them  to  the  desires  of  men.  The  air,  the  sea,  the  earth,  are  filled 
with  energies,  that  are  utilized  for  the  comfort  and  joy  of  the  race. 
These  forces  are  taken  from  their  primeval  relation,  ordained  by 
a  wise  Providence,  and  fitted  to  the  service  of  home,  of  shop,  of 
farm  and  every  avenue  of  human  activity.  "Behold  what  God 
hath  wrought !  "  heralded  the  first  message  of  electricity,  and 
now  again  behold.  There  in  the  laboratory,  there  the  engine, 
the  telephone,   the  trolley  cars,   the   phonograph,   these   Alladin 

110  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

palaces,  blazing  at  night  with  electric  Hghts,  everywhere,  a  step 
forward,  and  a  promise  of  loftier  triumphs  still  to  come,  and 
one  exclaims:  "Behold  what  God  hath  wrought,"  and  again 
behold  what  Governor  Francis  and  his  valiant  men  have  wrought. 

This  exposition  is  not  only  a  realization,  but  an  inspiration. 
Who  can  look  on  this  scene  and  not  catch  the  harmony  which  the 
Eternal  Goodness  has  reposed  in  all  things,  or  fail  to  recognize 
the  potencies  with  which  He  has  invested  all  matter.  Here  one 
sees  them  put  into  service,  so  perfectly,  so  grandly,  that  one  is 
sure  to  ascribe  it  all  to  a  Divine  purpose  from  the  very  beginning. 

Such  an  illustration  of  human  progress  as  we  have  here  is 
a  fit  demonstration  to  celebrate  the  event  for  which  it  was  so 
happily  conceived,  and  that  event,  the  Louisiana  Purchase,  was 
the  crowning  work  and  glory  of  a  great  Democratic  administra- 
tion, presided  over  by  a  great  Democrat.  It  was  men  like  him, 
whose  clear  vision  saw  that  an  untrammeled  democracy  was  abso- 
lutely essential  to  the  first  development  of  this  empire  of  freedom, 
and  who  thus  laid  the  firm  foundation  for  this  Republic's  future 

Within  a  century  an  empire  has  arisen  from  a  wilderness. 
The  tomahawk  and  scalping  knife  have  given  way  to  the  steam 
plow  and  self-binder.  Where  the  wigwam  stood  the  schoolhouse 
stands.  The  free  citizen  of  the  town  and  farm  has  taken  the 
place  of  the  red  man  of  the  chase.  No  area  on  this  planet  has 
taken  up  the  march  of  civilization  with  a  steadier  tread  than  that 
within  the  compass  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase.  In  civic  attain- 
ment, in  agricultural  advancement,  in  educational  outlook,  in 
whatever  adorns  Hfe  with  honor  and  duty,  this  populous  region 
has  stood  in  the  forefront  of  the  republic  in  its  onward  march. 
If  there  could  be  a  miracle  in  the  evolution  of  natural  destiny, 
this  great  transition  would  be  one. 

When  one  looks  into  the  future,  and  extends  the  progress 
of  the  past  century  forward,  his  mind  fails  to  comprehend  that 
were  he  to  appear  at  the  two  hundredth  anniversary  of  the 
Louisiana  Purchase  it  would  be  with  all  the  bewilderment  of  Rip 
Van  Winkle.  Here  is  the  center  of  the  republic,  and  it  will  be 
the  center  of  civilization  whence  mechanics,  invention,  science, 
art  and  philosophy  will  abide  for  countless  years. 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        Ill 

The  fact  that  there  are  one  million  eight  hundred  thousand 
square  miles  of  arable  land  west  of  the  Missisippi,  and  eight  hun- 
dred thousand  square  miles  east  of  the  Mississippi,  tells  us  that 
when  these  lands  which  are  becoming  so  rapidly  populated  are 
occupied,  the  center  of  the  voting  power  of  the  nation  will  be 
on  this  side  of  the  Father  of  Waters.  And  what  we  see  all  about 
us  is  an  earnest  that  those  foundation  principles  of  the  Republic 
will  nowhere  hold  happier  sway  than  in  this  region  beyond  the 

Ohio  has  not  the  honor  of  belonging  to  that  grand  galaxy 
of  states  born  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase,  but  it  comes  to  rejoice 
with  them  in  the  achievement  of  a  national  spirit,  which  has  made 
them  the  pride  of  the  Union.  We  do  not  come  as  a  neighbor,  but 
as  a  member  of  the  family,  to  exult  over  our  own  good  fortune 
as  well  as  yours.  First-born  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  dedi- 
cated to  freedom  by  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  imbued  with  the  first 
fresh  impulse  of  the  Republic's  highest  hope  and  devotion  to  the 
task  of  transforming  a  wilderness  into  a  commonwealth,  Ohio 
comes  to  you  proud  of  her  past  and  inspired  by  a  memory  that 
inaugurated  this  drama  of  national  glory. 

Ohio  is  the  most  cosmopolitan  of  states.  It  indulges  in  no 
provincial  whims.  It  is  proud  of  itself  for  the  same  reason  that 
it  is  proud  of  the  other  states.  Its  population  began  with  a  vigor- 
ous blend  of  Puritan  and  Cavalier,  happily  modified  by  the  Con- 
necticut Bourbon  and  Pennsylvania  Dutchman,  a  composite  that 
embraced  the  elements  of  sterling  manhood,  and  formed  the  basis 
of  self-reliant  and  aggressive  citizenship.  Thus  endowed,  and 
occupying  the  center  of  the  Union,  and  being  the  highway  between 
the  East  and  the  West,  Ohio  knows  no  section,  only  a  common 
country,  the  principles  of  whose  government  respond  to  all  the 
legitimate  aspirations  of  mankind. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  in  all  this  magnificent  empire  build- 
ing Ohio  should  look  on  with  a  feeling  of  pride  and  kinship?  I 
say  kinship,  for  Ohio  is  the  mother  —  and  a  mighty  mother  is  she, 
of  this  great  middle  west.  Why,  my  friends,  do  you  know  that 
there  are  living  in  Indiana  more  than  one  hundred  and  sixty  thou- 
sand Ohio  born  people,  more  than  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand 
in  Illinois,  ninety  thousand  in  Iowa,  ninety  thousand  in  Kansas, 

112  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

and  more  ,than  seventy  thousand  in  this  great  state  of  Missouri ! 
So,  when  I  claim  this  maternal  relationship  with  the  West,  I  speak 
of  recorded  facts.  I  have  no  fear  of  contradiction  when  I  say 
that  there  are  living  now  in  the  great  valley  of  the  Mississippi, 
more  than  three-quarters  of  a  million  Americans,  who  first  saw 
the  light  of  day  in  my  grand  old  State  of  Ohio.  Our  unusual 
diversity  of  resources  has  trained  Ohio  men  in  a  broad,  catholic 
imiversity  of  life.  She  has  sent  her  sons  out  into  the  world,  not 
trained  in  narrow  lines,  nor  with  the  idea  that  any  particular 
staple  is  king,  but  that  all  the  bounties  of  kind  Providence  are 
given  to  man  for  his  benefit  and  for  the  benefit  of  his  fellew  men. 

Nearly  two  centuries  ago  John  Law  located  here  his  visions 
of  wealth.  It  was  a  mirage  of  the  brain  spreading  over  the 
horizon  far  beyond.  Modern  spirit  has  pushed  through  that 
mirage  to  the  solid  shores,  and  changed  that  vaporous  scheme  into 
a  glorious  achievement.  No  longer  do  those  wild  and  desolate 
scenes  appeal  to  a  laggard  faith.  What  was  then  a  daring  vision 
is  now  a  civilization,  as  lasting  as  the  earth,  a  civilization  rich  with 
the  resources  of  the  soil,  with  the  victories  of  commerce,  with  the 
growth  of  cities,  with  the  increase  of  schools  and  churches,  and 
with  the  happiness  of  homes. 

Not  with  material  blessings  only  is  this  mighty  progress 
attended.  Here,  with  jocund  spirit  of  aggression  that  animates 
the  western  heart,  will  be  solved,  as  nearly  as  this  virile  pro- 
gressive race  is  capable  of  solving,  those  social  problems  that  rest 
on  the  bosom  of  society  like  a  frightful  dream.  It  is  to  be  the 
land  of  liberty,  of  opportunity,  and  of  brotherhood.  We  ])hiloso- 
phically  accept,  with  the  characteristic  of  light-hearted  Americans, 
conditions  as  we  find  them,  and  with  the  instruments  wliicli  we 
have  we  strive  earnestly  to  im])rove  them.  There  is  so  much  in 
American  life  of  materialism  mingled  with  our  higher  ideals  that 
inequalities  will  continue  to  exist.  Periods  of  depression  and 
discouragement  will  come  in  the  future  as  in  the  past,  when  our 
patriotism  will  be  severely  taxed  and  the  obligations  of  citizen- 
ship will  rest  heavily  upon  us;  but  the  man  of  today  gives  promise 
that  his  progeny,  like  himself  and  his  ancestors,  will  be  equal  to 
the  strain  ;  and  this  nation  will  not,  therefore,  die  of  material 
opulence,  as  did  Greece  and  Rome.    These  sentiments  of  equality 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        113 

and  justice,  these  ideals  of  opportunity  and  fraternity,  will  more 
strongly  direct  the  new  evolution,  and  make  rights  and  duties 

This  great  Jeffersonian  expansion  carried  with  it  more  than 
an  increase  of  territory ;  more,  too,  than  the  conversion  of  a  bar- 
barism into  a  civilization.  The  aggressive  spirit  of  the  republic 
required  an  outing  ground,  a  breathing  place,  where,  free  from 
dogma  and  social  bondage  of  the  Orient,  it  could  exploit  itself 
along  the  lines  of  ultimate  ideals.  Horace  Greeley's  advice  to 
the  young  man,  "Go  West,"  was  given  in  a  spirit  of  true  philoso- 
phy —  go  west,  grow^  evolve,  differentiate,  and  there,  upon  the 
broad  plains,  along  the  shining  rivers,  and  on  the  liberty-loving 
mountains,  set  up  the  standards  of  a  true,  self-reliant,  American 
manhood.  That  is  the  doctrine  of  the  West.  That  is  the  secret 
of  its  wonderful  development. 

This  is  the  first  centennial  in  honor  of  the  dedication  of  this 
vast  domain  to  the  cause  of  American  liberty.  The  whole  world 
comes  here  to  lay  down  its  tribute  to  the  progress  of  a  century. 
Our  theory  of  government,  instead  of  repelling  any  people,  has 
won  the  respect,  if  not  the  admiration,  of  all  nations.  This  has 
been  the  accomplishment  of  the  century  that  has  just  ])assed. 

The  rich  gifts  brought  here  from  all  lands  testify  to  an  alert- 
ness of  brain  and  a  deftness  of  hand  that  is  marvelous,  and  we 
rightly  pride  ourselves  on  these  things :  but  they  have  a  deeper 
meaning  —  they  tell  of  the  kinship  of  nations,  of  the  sympathy 
among  them,  of  a  generous  rivalry  in  those  things  that  raise  the 
standard  of  living;  and  they  tell  us  that,  in  different  ways,  we 
are  reaching  out  toward  one  object :  the  happiness  and  elevation  of 
the  race.  This  quest,  involving  the  exercise  of  the  brightest  intel- 
lects and  the  warmest  hearts,  moves  along  the  path  of  peace,  which 
it  ever  proclaims  as  the  trend  of  national  duty.  That  is  one  lesson 
oi  this  grand  demonstration ;  and  while  we  may  consistently  boast 
of  our  own  advancement,  we  do  not  forget  that  the  world  moves 
with  us  and  rejoices  in  our  splendid  development. 

The  mission  of  every  wheel,  fibre,  energy,  tint,  and  form, 
that  betters  itself  in  the  evolution  now  going  on,  increases  the 
lustre  of  national  life,  and  promotes  peace  among  nations.  There 
is  a  moral  advancement  in  every  triumph  of  mind  over  matter. 

Vol.  XIV-  8 

114  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

and  its  influence  is  felt  in  commerce,  industry,  politics,  social  and 
domestic  life.  This  exhibit  that  now  awakens  our  wonder  is  a 
protest  against  Goldwin  Smith's  prediction  of  gloom  and  ruin 
for  American  institutions.  Our  problem  may  not  be  completely 
worked  out,  but  the  omens  along  our  path,  like  those  we  see  all 
around  us,  fill  our  hearts  with  faith  and  hope  that  the  happiest 
and  grandest  days  of  this  republic  are  yet  to  come.  To  that  faith 
our  lives  are  devoted ;  in  that  hope  we  press  on. 

And  to  you,  men  of  Missouri  and  of  the  Sunny  South,  at 
whose  portals  we  are  standing,  speaking  for  the  jgreat  mother 
heart  of  our  dear  old  state,  which  lies  but  a  day's  journey  beyond 
your  great  river —  speaking  for  her,  and  for  these  Ohioans  gath- 
ered here  today  —  I  tell  you  that  not  only  have  all  the  old  wounds 
healed,  but  that  the  scars  have  been  obliterated.  We  meet  today 
in  this  border  state  of  that  gigantic  disagreement,  not  as 'friends 
merely,  but  in  a  closer,  holier  kinship,  under  that  flag  that  waves 
above  us ;  and  we  thank  God  that  it  represents  a  united  sisterhood 
of  states,  standing  as  it  does,  for  the  fairest  opportunity  that  the 
world  has  ever  known. 

Mr.  Burdell: 

During  the  panic  times  of  '93  and  '94,  there  was  one  thing 
that  always  flourished  in  the  West  —  The  Ohio  Society!  They 
tell  me  that  no  severity  of  weather,  no  discouraging  condition  of 
crops  or  business,  could  prevent  an  Ohio  Society  from  flourishing. 
I  have  the  honor  of  presenting  to  you,  a  representative  of  the 
Ohio  Society  of  St.  Louis,  a  man  who  has  rendered  distinguished 
service  to  his  country  in  both  civic  and  military  life.  I  name  the 
distinguished  and  honored  son  of  Ohio,  the  Honorable  John 
W.  Noble,  of  Saint  Louis. 

Hon.  John  W.  Noble: 

Ladies  and  Gentleman  —  The  purposes  for  which  this  man- 
sion was  erected  by  the  State  of  Ohio  are  being  satisfactorily  met 
in  all  ways,  but  its  use  at  no  time  will  be  more  important  or 
interesting  than  today.  The  presence  of  Ohio's  chief  magistrate, 
his  staflF,  its  civil  officers  and  multitudes  of  its  people  mark  this 

Ohio  Day  at  the  I 

Purchase  Exposition. 


event  as  one  gratifying  to  its  pride  and  destined  to  be  remem- 
bered in  its  annals. 

When  in  1901  the  Auxiliary  Committee  of  the  Louisiana 
Purchase  Exposition  Company,  which  was  composed  of  members 
of  the  Ohio  Society  of  St.  Louis,  was 
invited  by  the  legislature  to  Columbus, 
to  address  it  upon  the  proposition  of 
making  an  appropriation  for  such 
building,  the  opportunity  was  gladly 
accepted.  The  money  was  voted. 
Governor  N'ash  favored  the  measure, 
and  the  present  beautiful  house  is  the 
result.  The  site  is  also  fortunately 
good  and  is  due  in  great  measure  to 
the  earnestness  and  judgment  of  the 
Ohio  Executive  Commissioner  and  his 
associates  who  demanded  an  advanced 
and  prominent  location.  Indeed  Ohio 
has  received  from  the  President,"  archi- 
tect and  officers  of  the  Exposition  Company  as  to  its  buildings 
worthy  consideration  at  all  times. 

The  suggestions  made  at  the  time  the  appropriation  was 
urged,  that  seemed  to  be  most  germane  to  the  subject  and  persua- 
sive, and  which  are  now  being  proven  correct,  were,  that  this 
Exposition,  universal  in  name,  would  certainly  prove  to  be  all 
the  name  implied,  and  here  would  be  exhibited  the  products  of  land 
and  sea,  and  of  every  state  and  all  nations;  that  here  would  come 
in  vast  multitudes  the  people  of  all  sections  and  every  clime,  and 
among  them  all  there  would  be  none  prouder  of  the  land  of  their 
birth,  because  of  its  origin,  of  its  progress  and  of  its  worth  and 
.power  than  the  sons  of  Ohio;  and  none  who  would  more  enjoy 
meeting  together  on  Ohio's  ground,  as  it  were,  and  there  renew- 
ing old  ties  of  affection  and  loyalty  to  her  and  our  common  coun- 
try ;  that  Ohio  could  not  have  become  the  great  commonwealth 
she  has  grown  to  be,  but  by  having  bred  a  race  which  could  not 
all  be  content  to  remain  within  her  borders,  but  many  by  force  of 
character  had  to  seek  and  find  place  for  their  energy  and  intel- 

116  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

ligence  elsewhere ;  that  natives  of  Ohio  were  numerous  in  almost 
every  other  state,  and  nowhere  were  more  abundant,  proportion- 
ately  to  population,  than  in  Missouri,  the  locality  of  the  Exposi- 
tion and  the  states  adjacent  thereto ;  that  they  would  be  all  coming 
to  the  fair  and  quite  as  much  to  see  what  Ohio  was  doing  or  had 
to  show  and  to  say,  as  for  any  other  pleasure.  It  was  also  appar- 
ent, it  was  urged,  that  a  great  commercial  state  wcuild  find  it 
worth  while  to  secure  such  world-wide  notice  as  could  be  here 
obtained  for  the  products  of  her  fields  and  factories;  and  that 
such  an  enlightened  and  generous  people,  who  had  received  much 
from  the  early  pioneers  who  had  come  to  plant  the  state  and  sus- 
tain it  in  its  infancy  and  growth,  would  gladly  give  a  hand  to 
Ohio's  sons  and  daughters  struggling  elsewhere  with  less  advan- 
tage ;  and  that  she  would  be  pleased  to  set  forth  her  accomplish- 
ments in  the  arts,  in  her  educational  system  and  her  scholarship; 
and  present  her  worthy  and  ever  increasing  roll  of  men  and 
women,  distinguished,  and  many  pre-eminent  as  statesmen,  as 
teachers,  as  authors,  as  soldiers,  as  merchants  and  as  farmers, 
and  iu'every  vocation  and  station  of  life. 

These  were  the  purposes  advocated  for  the  establishment  of 
this  beautiful  house,  the  Ohio  headquarters.  Are  they  not  being 
most  gratifyingly  fulfilled?  What  Ohioan  can  pass  from  the 
palaces  of  this  Exposition  with  Ohio's  exhibits  of  her  manufac- 
tories, varied  industries  and  the  liberal  arts ;  of  her  mines,  of  her 
electrical  appliances,  machinery,  agricultural  products  and  fnie 
arts,  and  of  her  educational  system ;  or  view  the  names  of  the 
presidents,  statesmen  and  soldiers  in  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment Building,  and  not  turn  at  last  proudly  to  this  central  place^ 
to  this  high  seat  from  which  Ohio  seems  to  preside  over  all  the 
world  besides,  and  where  she  smilingly  welcomes  them,  as  she 
does,  today,  and  not  here  gladly  join  in  her  praise,  whether  he 
resides  in  Ohio  yet,  or  dwells  in  some  other  state?  We  feel  that 
''our  state"  holds  a  high  place  throughout  this  great  Exposition 
and  one  worthy  of  her  history  and  her  fame. 

It  is  also  peculiarly  appropriate  that  we  should  have  set  apart 
a  day  for  these  exercises.  The  history  of  Ohio  and  that  of  the 
domain  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase  are  closely  and  interestingly 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        117 

related,   and  indeed  the  settlement  of  Ohio  and   the  northwest 
caused  our  acquisition  of  the  Louisiana  territory. 

The  expeditions  to,  and  conquests  of,  Kaskaskia,  near  St, 
Louis,  and  the  British  post  of  Vincennes,  by  George  Rogers  Clark, 
aided  by  Governor  Patrick  Henry,  gave,  at  the  negotiations  for 
the  treaty  of  peace  at  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  .War,  the 
support  necessary  to  the  claim  of  the  United  States,  through  the 
charters  of  Virginia,  and  of  the  other  colonies,  to  obtain  the 
relinquishment  by  the  English  Crown  of  all  right  to  the  domain 
west  of  the  Ohio  River.  By  the  Ordinance  of  1787  this  was 
organized  into  the  Northwest  Territory  extending  to  the  Missis- 
sippi River.  Upon  the  adoption  of  that  ordinance  the  settlement 
begun  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum,  ("The  River  of  the  Elk's 
eyes"),  and  its  junction  with  the  Ohio,  ("the  beautiful  river"), 
on  April  7th,  1788,  was  so  rapid  that  the  wilderness  soon  was 
peopled  to  such  degree,  that  the  state  with  its  present  bound- 
aries was  admitted  to  the  Union  in  1802.  Its  people,  with  those 
of  the  other  portions  of  the  Territory  bordering  on  the  Ohio 
River  and  partly  on  the  Missisippi,  was  of  the  stock  of  those  who 
carried  to  a  successful  issue  the  war  of  Independence.  An  outlet 
for  their  products  by  the  great  waterways  was  essential  to  their 
prosperity,  and  they  demanded  in  unmistakable  terms  that  the 
National  Government  should  free  from  foreign  control  the  mouth 
of  the  Mississippi,  or  they  would  resort  to  any  means  within  her 
power  to  remove  all  barriers  there  and  enforce  their  natural 
claims  to  untrammeled  intercourse  with  all  parts  of  their  own 
country  and  with  other  nations.  There  was  no  one  more  con- 
versant with  the  needs  of  these  people  or  more  sympathetic  with 
their  sacrifices,  or  more  appreciative  of  the  justice  of  these  claims, 
nor  any  more  desirous,  both  from  principle  and  the  necessities 
of  the  younp;  Republic  to  avoid  war,  than  the  then  President  of 
the  Ignited  States,  Tliomas  Jefferson.  Washington  had  in  his 
early  military  career  been  engaged  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  and 
comprehended  as  well  as,  if  not  better  than,  any  of  his  fellow  citi- 
zens and  made  widely  known  the  beauty  and  exhaustless  resources 
of  the  great  region  so  secured  by  the  treaty  of  1783.  Jefferson 
had  himself  formulated,  in  great  part,  the  Ordinance  of   1787^ 

118  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

which  was  only  second  to  the  Declaration  of  Independence  in  its 
announcement  of  principles  essential  to  good  government  and 
to  the  peace  and  progress  of  a  free  people.  And  although  the  reso- 
lutions first  adopted  were  enlarged  and  advocated  by  Nathan 
Dane,  and  the  ordinance  was  passed  while  Jefferson s  was  absent 
abroad  in  the  service  of  the  country,  its  principles  had  his  hearty 
approval;  and  he  was  eager  upon  his  return  to  cooperate  in  their 
support  and  extension  by  all  means  within  his  control.  And  when 
he  became  President  and  the  West  demanded  free  navigation  of 
the  rivers,  commissioners  were  sent  to  France  to  negotiate  for  the 
free  passage  of  the  Mississippi,  and  succeeded,  even  beyond  their 
expectations,  in  obtaining  title  to  the  vast  region  of  which  that 
great  river  formed  the  eastern  border. 

As  the  success  of  George  Rogers  Clark,  the  pioneer  soldier, 
wrought  out  by  such  apparently  insufficient  means  had  secured 
to  our  country  the  great  Northwest,  so  now  the  necessities  of  the 
greatest  commander  of  European  armies,  Napoleon,  led  him  to 
grant  to  the  United  States  for  a  comparatively  small  pecuniary 
consideration  the  Louisiana  Purchase.  Thus  the  behest  of  the 
flatboatmen  of  the  Ohio  found  result  in  the  acquisition  of  the 
farther  west,  reaching  from  the  Father  Waters  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  The  Northwest  was  to  the  purchase  as  cause  to  effect. 
The  homogeneous  particles  of  the  whole  gathered  into  coherence, 
solidity  and  strength  as  a  star,  9  world,  from  nebulae.  The  fiat 
of  the  divinity  that  shapes  our  ends,  brought  the  two  great  regions 
of  the  west  together  at  the  Mississippi,  that  divides  but  does  not 
separate  them,  and  here  today  we  feel  the  heart  of  the  nation  pul- 
sating ;  beating  in  mighty  rhythm,  with  the  force  of  daily  increas- 
ing health  and  strength.  Ohio  comes  to  this  celebration  with 
the  consciousness  of  having  with  the  purchase  an  almost  coin- 
cident birthday,  and  certainly  a  united  interest  and  common  des- 
tiny with  the  states  that  have  arisen  and  the  one  that  is  soon  to 
come  from  this  vast  domain. 

Ohio  headed  the  column  when  the  young  Republic  began 
its  forward  march  to  broader  fields  and  greater  endeavor.  On 
each  day's  advance  her  force  has  been  effective  to  clear  the  way 
to  win  the  battles  for  the  right.  At  each  night's  bivouac  her  pre- 
sence has  given  assurance  of  response  and  safety,  and  her  bugles 

Ohio  Day  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.        119 

send  forth  today  no  uncertain  signals  of  her  purpose  to  keep  the 
faith  of  her  own  deliverance,  and  still  higher  advance  for  all  men 
the  principles  of  public  education,  religion,  liberty  and  justice  to 
which  she  even  before  her  birth  was  dedicated  by  the  wisdom  and 
virtue  of  the  fathers. 

The  history  of  the  realms  of  the  Northwest  and  of  the  Louis- 
iana Purchase  is  replete  with  adventure,  romance,  sacrifice  and 
success.  The  one  whose  soil  was  from  the  beginning  by  the  votes 
of  the  southern  states  themselves,  ordained  to  be  free  from  slavery, 
has  So  supported  the  cause  of  human  freedom  that  the  other  now 
likewise  enjoys  it ;  and  all  the  states  rejoice  that  they  are  united 
in  heart  and  hand,  and  stand  among  the  strongest  and  most  influ- 
ential of  the  nations. 

We  are  one  people,  from  New  England,  Virginia  or  Florida, 
the  State  of  Louisiana  and  Texas  to  the  Pacific,  and  Alaska  and 
the  lakes.  Each  succeeding  territory  that  has  been  formed,  each 
state  as  it  has  been  admitted  to  the  Union,  from  the  days  of  the 
Colonies  to  this  hour,  has  been  inhabited  and  filled  substantially 
with  the  same  stock  of  American  people.  The  Territorial  Acts 
and  the  State  Constitutions  have  each  been  molded  and  made  in 
all  essential  particulars  the  same  as  those  of  the  earliest  ones. 
And  the  means  of  communication  enable  the  Governor  of  Ohio  or 
of  the  State  of  Washington  to  visit  and  participate  in  services  such 
as  these  of  today  with  as  much  convenience  almost  as  to  go  from 
his  own  home  to  the  capital  of,  or  any  other  city  within  his  state. 
Alike  in  language,  in  the  constitutions,  the  laws  and  the  pursuits 
of  business,  the  customs  of  home,  and  the  love  of  our  common 
country,  when  now  a  new  territory  is  suddenly  thrown  open  as 
was  Oklahoma,  sixteen  years  ago,  or  the  other  great  states 
admitted  from  1889  to  1903,  the  population  begins  its  career,  it  is 
true,  with  hardships  and  sacrifices,  but  with  the  immense  advan- 
tages of  rapid  transportation ;  the  postoffice  at  hand,  the  tele- 
graph from  the  former  home,  and  all  the  aid  that  an  advanced 
experience  and  all  the  help  that  vast  improvements  in  the  means 
of  living  and  a  more  abundant  facility  of  education  can  bestow; 
and  above  all  with  the  protection  and  support  of  our  National  Gov- 
ernment, so  generous  and  so  powerful. 

120  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

As  a  citizen  of  Missouri  and  of  St.  Louis  it  is  a  great  per- 
sonal pleasure  for  mc  to  be  associated  with  the  representatives 
and  people  of  Ohio  this  day.  Missouri  welcomes  Ohio  as  sister, 
yes,  even  as  mother.  The  memories  of  my  life  embrace  an 
acquaintance  with  many  who  were  the  pioneers  of  these  now  great 
commonwealths,  Ohio  the  fourth  and  Missouri  the  fifth  in  the 
Union  in  population.  Let  us  not  now  forget  our  obligation  to 
those  brave  patriotic  men. 

The  pioneer,  as  has  been  written  of  the  greatest  of  them  all, 

*  ♦     *     went   forth   to    battle,   on   the   side 

That  he   felt  clear  was  Liberty's  and   Right's,     ♦    ♦    ♦ 

*  ♦    The  uncleared  forest,  the  unbroken  soil, 
The   iron   bark  that  turns   the   lumb'rer's  axe, 
The  rapid  that  o'erbears  the  boatman's  toil, 
The   prairie   hiding   the   mazed  wander's  tracks, 
The  ambushed  Indian  and  the  prowling  bear, 

Such  were  the  needs  that  helped  his  youthful  train : 
Rough   culture,   but   such  trees  large   fruit  may  bear, 
If  but  their  stocks  be  of  right  girth  and  grain." 

The  march  by  states  from  the  west  coming  successively  into 
the  line  of  the  Union  is  about  complete  and  the  advance  into  the 
field  where  nations  are  contending  has  begun,  not  for  war,  -nor 
with  jealousy,  nor  with  greed  for  wealth,  dominion  or  power,  but 
for  the  advocacy  of  the  liberty  of  the  individual,  the  practice  of 
humanity,  the  elevation  of  the  people  of  all  the  world  to  greater 
comfort  and  higher  thought,  and  to  hold  high  to  view  and  vindi- 
cate the  principles  of  our  American  Christian  Republic.  Let  us 
rejoice  that  to  the  duties  of  the  past  Ohio  has  been  ever  true,  and 
resolve  that  to  the  demand  of  the  future  she  will  bring  like  full 
measure  of  morality,  loyalty  and  justice. 



On  the  28th  of  June,  1904,  the  Columbus  Chapter  of  the 
Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution  did  themselves  and  their 
organization  great  honor  by  placing  in  Martin  Park  in  the  western 
part  of  the  City  of  Columbus,  a  large  bowlder  of  igneous  origin, 
bearing  a  very  handsome  designed  tablet  in  commemoration  of 
the  important  council  or  conference  which  General  William 
Henry  Harrison  had  with  the  chiefs  of  certain  Indian  tribes, 
near  that  spot  on  June  21st,  1813.  By  this  act  the  Daughters 
rescued  from  the  very  brink  of  oblivion  and  gave  a  permanent 
place  in  the  history  of  the  War  of  181 2  to  one  of  the  important 
and  controlling  incidents  of  that  war.  But  for  this  action  on 
the  part  of  this  organization,  that  event  would  probably  have 
soon  passed  into  entire  forgetfulness,  as  there  was  but  one 
co-temporary  report  of  the  proceedings  ever  published  of  that 
conference  or  council,  and  that  was  in  a  weekly  paper  then 
published  at  Franklinton,  called  "The  Freeman's  Chronicle," 
which  was  edited  and  owned  by  James  B.  Gardiner.  It  was 
the  first  weekly  paper,  or  paper  of  any  kind,  ever  published 
in  what  is  now  the  Citv  of  Columbus.  The  first  number  of 
this  paper  was  dated  Juno  24th,  181 2,  and  the  publication  con- 
tinued for  more  than  two  years,  covering  the  entire  period  of 
the  War  of  181 2.  Mr.  Gardiner  was  present  at  the  council  and 
in  the  issue  of  his  paper  of  June  25th,  181 3,  he  published  an  ac- 
count of  it.  Mr.  William  Domigan,  at  that  time  a  resident  of 
the  Town  of  Franklinton.  had  the  thoughtfulness  to  preserve  a 
full  file  of  that  paper  as  it  was  issued,  and  had  the  same  bound 
in  substantial  form,  which  sole  copy  has  been  preserved  to  this 
time  and  presents  the  best  picture  of  the  condition  and  life  of  the 
young  villajT^e  that  is  in  existence  to-day. 

Mrs.  lulward  Orton,  Jr.,  Regent  of  the  Columbus  Chapter 
of  the  organization  before  mentioned,  in  her  very  appropriate 
address  in  present  in  j^  the  memorial  tablet  to  the  City  of  Columbus, 


122  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

said:  "We  are  assembled  here  to-day  to  commemorate  an  event 
more  than  local  in  character,  far  reaching  in  its  results,  and  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  the  state  as  well  as  to  the  capital  of  Ohio." 
Mr.  Robert  H.  Jeffrey,  Mayor  of  Columbus.  In  his  remarks. 
accepting  the  tablet  on  behalf  of  the  City  of  Columbus,  said : 
"The  value  of  this  bowlder  lies  in  recalling  to  our  memory  the 
high  patriotism  of  our  forefathers.  In  its  ruggedness,  its  strength 
and  its  power  to  defy  all  time,  it  typifies  the  immutable  principles 

of  the  great  union  of  states,  which  ihcse  anccstnrs  l'>ui; 
died  tor." 

riencral    Mcnjamin    K.    Cnwen    then    dehvercd    ;i 
address  concerning  the  events,  the  nionnmeiu  anil  (lie 
intended  to  commemorate.     This  address  as  well  as 
ceeclings  of  the  day  have  been  published  in  bcmklct 
Regent.  Airs.  fJrton,  for  private  circnlaiion. 

In  order  to  give   further  pcnnannu-y  m  ihc  rci 
inijwrtant  event,  we  give  in  full  tlie  account  of  Mr.  ( 

tablet  we 
[lit  llic  iir 

Harrison-Tarhe  Peace  Conference.  123 

it  appears  in  the  issue  of  **The  Freeman's  Chronicle"  of  June 
25th,  1813: 

**()n  Monday  last  (^en.  Harrison  held  a  council  in  this  place 
with  the  chiefs  of  the  Delaware,  Shawanoe,  Wyandot  and  Seneca 
trihes  of  Indians,  to  the  amount  of  about  50.  In  the  General's 
talk,  he  observed  that  he  had  been  induced  to  call,  them  together 
from  certain  circumstances  having  come  to  his  knowledge,  which 
led  him  to  suspect  the  fidelity  of  some  of  the  tribes,  who  had 
manifested  signs  or  a  disposition  to  join»the  enemy,  in  case  they 
had  succeeded  in  capturing  Fort  Meigs.  That  a  crisis  had  arrived 
which  demanded  that  all  the  tribes,  who  had  heretofore  remained 
neutral,  should  take  a  decided  stand,  either  f(^r  us  or  against  us. 
That  the  President  wished  no  false  friends,  and  that  it  was  only 
in  adversity  that  real  friends  could  be  distinguished.  That  the 
proposal  of  Cien.  J  doctor  to  exchange  the  Kentucky  prisoners  for 
the  friendly  tribes  within  our  borders,  indicated  that  he  had  been 
given  to  understand  that  those  tribes  were  willing  to  raise  the 
tomahawk  against  us.  And  that  in  order  to  give  the  U.  S.  a 
guarantee  of  their  good  dispositions,  the  friendly  tribes  should 
either  move,  with  their  families,  into  the  settlements,  or  their 
warriors  should  acc()m])any  him  in  the  ensuing  campaign,  and 
fight  for  the  U.  S.  To  this  ])roposal  the  chiefs  and  warriors 
present  unanimously  agreed  —  and  observed,  that  they  had  long 
been  anxious  for  an  opportunity  to  fight  for  the  Americans. 

"We  cannot  recall  the  precise  remarks  that  were  made  by  the 
chiefs  who  spoke  —  but  Tar  he  (The  Crane)  who  is  the  principal 
chief  of  the  Wvandots,  and  the  oldest  Indian  in  the  western  wilds ; 
appeared  to  represent  the  whole  assembly,  and  professed,  in  the 
name  of  the  friendly  tribes,  the  most  indissoluble  attachment  for 
the  American  government,  and  a  determination  to  adhere  to  the 
^Treaty  of  Greenville. 

"The  General  promised  to  let  the  several  tribes  know  when 
he  should  want  their  services ;  and  further  cautioned  them  that 
all  who  went  with  him  must  conform  to  his  mode  of  warfare:  not 
to  kill  or  injure  old  men,  wOmen,  children  nor  prisoners.  That, 
bv  this  means,  we  should  be  able  to  ascertain  whether  the  British 
tell  truth  when  they  say  that  they  are  not  able  to  prevent  Indians 

124  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

from  such  acts  of  horrid  cruelty;  for  if  Indians  under  him  (Gen. 
H.)  would  obey  his  commands,  and  refrain  from  acts  of  barbar- 
ism, it  would  be  very  evident  that  the  hostile  Indians  could  be 
as  easily  restrained  by  their  commanders.  The  Gen.  then  informed 
the  chiefs  of  the  agreement  made  by  Proctor  to  deliver  him  to 
Tecumseh  in  case  the  British  succeeded  in  taking  Fort  Meigs; 
and  promised  them  that  if  he  should  be  successful,  he  would  de- 
liver Proctor  into  their  hands  —  on  condition,  that  they  should  do 
him  no  other  harm  than  to  put  a  petticoat  on  him  —  "for,"  said  he, 
"none  but  a  coward  or  a  squaw  would  kill  a  prisoner." 

"The  council  broke  up  in  the  afternoon ;  and  the  Indians  de- 
parted next  day  for  their  respective  towns." 

In  order  to  understand  and  appreciate  the  importance  and 
full  significance  of  this  conference,  it  is  necessary  to  recall  some 
of  the  chief  events  of  the  times  relating  to  the  war. 

The  battle  of  "Fallen  Timbers"  was  fought  August  26th, 
1794,  at  which  General  Wayne  obtained  a  complete  victory  over 
the  Indians  who  had  concentrated  in  the  region  of  the  Maumee. 
This  defeat  was  followed  the  next  summer  by  a  general  council 
held  by  General  Anthony  Wayne  at  Greenville,  Darke  county, 
Ohio,  with  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  northwest,  which  resulted  in 
the  celebrated  treaty,  known  as  the  "Treaty  of  Greenville,"  which 
was  concluded  August  3d,  1795,  and  was  in  its  result  the  most 
important  of  all  the  peace  treaties  made  between  the  United 
States  and  the  Indian  tribes  northwest  of  the  Ohio.  The  Wyan- 
dots,  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Pottawattomies, 
Miamis,  Eel  Rivers,  Weas,  Piankeshaws,  Kickapoos  and  Kaskas- 
kias,  became  parties  to  that  treaty. 

This  treaty  was  followed  by  comparative  peace  for  a  period 
of  sixteen  years,  and  until  about  the  year  181 1,  although  in  the 
meantime  turbulent,  revengeful  and  evil-disposed  Indians  fre- 
quently broke  away  from  the  different  tribes  and  from  the  con-* 
trol  of  their  principal  chiefs  and  formed  marauding  parties,  which 
from  time  to  time  committed  all  manner  of  murders,  thefts  and 
outrages  on  the  frontier  settlers  of  the  northwest. 

For  a  few  years  prior  to  the  declaration  of  the  War  of  1812 
between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  the  relations  be- 
tween these  two  ijovernments  had  been  very  much  strained  and 

Harrison-Tar  he  Peace  Conference,  125 

it  was  generally  considered  that  war  was  sure  to  ensue.  In  the 
meantime  the  British  maintained  numerous  active  and  powerful 
agents  among  the  Indians  of  the  northwest  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  them  with  munition  of  war  and  creating  discontent 
among  them  and  inciting  them  to  make  war  on  the  white  settlers. 
Thus  encouraged  there  was  assembled  under  Tecumseh  and  his 
brother,  the  Prophet,  at  their  camp  at  the  junction  of  the  Wabash 
and  Tippecanoe  rivers,  in  northwestern  Indiana,  a  large  number 
of  turbulent  and  desperate  Indians  draw»  from  most  of  the 
various  tribes  east  of  the  Mississippi.  It  was  the  purpose  and 
hope  of  Tecumseh  and  his  brother,  and  the  Indians  under  their 
influence,  by  a  united  effort  with  the  British  forces,  to  drive  the 
white  people  out  of  the  territory  of  the  northwest.  These  Indians 
thus  assembled  on  the  Upper  Wabash,  became  very  threatening 
and  endeavored  to  deceive  and  surprise  General  Harrison,  who 
was  then  governor  of  the  Territory  of  Indiana  with  headquarters 
at  Vincennes.  Their  actions  and  numbers  were  such  as  to  make 
it  prudent  and  even  necessary  that  General  Harrison  should  make 
a  demonstration  against  them  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  their 
purpose  and  strength.  This  resulted  in  the  Battle  of  Tippecanoe 
November  7th,  181 1,  at  which  battle  the  Indians  were  defeated, 
but  not  greatly  dispirited,  as  they  still  relied  greatly  upon  the 
looked  for  war  between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain 
when  they  would  have  the  powerful  aid  of  the  British  forces. 

Tecumseh  was  not  present  at  that  battle  and  the  Indians  were 
under  the  command  of  his  brother,  the  imposter  Prophet.  By 
this  defeat  the  power  which  the  Prophet  had  been  exercising 
over  his  Indian  followers  was  largely  destroyed,  and  he  was  never 
afterwards  in  much   favor. 

The  war  which  had  long  been  threatening  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain  suddenly  flamed  into  activity  and  war 
w^as  declared  on  the  part  of  the  United  States  against  Great 
Britain  on  June  i8th,  1812.  This  was  the  opportunity  the  dis- 
contented and  turbulent  Indians  of  the  northwest  had  long  been 
waiting  for.  Tecumseh  had  before  that  time  and  in  anticipation 
of  it,  concluded  his  alliance  with  the  British  forces,  and  the  forces 
under  him  were  already  well  prepared  to  join  in  active  warfare. 
He  was  at  the  head  of  all  the  Indian  forces  in  the  northwest,  and 

126  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

was  by  far  the  ablest  war  chief  of  his  times  and  the  ablest  war 
chief  which  the  Indian  race  has  produced  of  which  we  have  any 
accurate  knowledge,  unless  it  may  be  the  great  Pontiac  of  a  half 
century  before.  He  at  once  commenced  a  vigorous  onslaught  on 
the  frontier  military  posts  and  frontier  settlers,  and  with  terrible 

Affairs  went  badly  against  the  American  forces  for  the  first 
year  after  the  declaration  of  war.  On  July  17th,  1812,  Lieuten- 
ant Hanks,  in  command  of  Mackinac,  was  compelled  to  surrender 
the  garrison,  consisting  of  fifty-seven  effective  men,  to  the  forces 
under  the  British  commander  at  St.  Joseph's,  a  British  post  near 
the  head  of  Lake  Huron. 

On  August  15th  following,  the  massacre  of  the  garrison  at 
Fort  Dearborn  (Chicago)  occurred,  at  which  time  between  fifty 
and  sixty  United  States  soldiers  were  mercilessly  murdered  and 
the  fort  destroyed.  This  terrible  slaughter  in  which  the  treach- 
erous and  blood-thirsty  Black  Hawk  was  engaged,  was  followed 
the  next  day  (August  i6th)  by  the  cowardly  and  ignominious 
surrender  of  General  Hull  at  Detroit,  of  about  fifteen  or  sixteen 
hundred  troops,  to  a  greatly* inferior  number  of  British  and  In- 
dians under  General  Brock  of  the  English  army. 

l>y  the  first  of  September,  181 2,  the  entire  northwest,  with 
the  exception  of  Fort  Harrison  on  the  Wabash,  and  Fort  Wayne 
on  the  Maumee,  had  been  overrun  and  was  in  possession  of  the 
British  and  Jndians,  and  these  two  forts  were  both  besieged  by 
hordps  of  savages.  Fort  Harrison  with  but  fifty  or  sixty  men 
under  Captain  Zachariah  Taylor  (then  a  young  officer  in  the 
United  States  army  and  afterwards  President  of  the  United 
States)  was  heroically  defended  and  the  Indian  hordes  repelled.  A 
like  brilliant  defense  was  made  of  Fort  Wayne.  The  garrison 
was  small,  the  Indians  were  in  great  numbers,  the  captain  in  com- 
mand of  the  garrison  was  dissipated  and  incompetent,  and  was 
summarily  deposed  from  command,  which  then  devolved  upon 
one  Lieutenant  Curtis,  then  a  young  officer  in  the  United  States 
army,  who,  by  his  heroic  defense  of  the  fort  during  the  two  weeks 
of  unremitting  siege,  has  recorded  his  name  permanently  in  the 
annals  of  his  time. 

Ft  was  just  at  this  discouraging  and  perilous  time  that  General 
Harrison  was  appointed  commander  of  all  the  forces  in  the  north- 

Harrison-Tar  he  Peace  Conference.  127 

west.  He  at  once  took  most  heroic,  measures  to  raise  the  siege 
at  Fort  Wayne  and  strengthen  that  garrison,  and  also  to 
strengthen  the  garrison  at  Fort  Harrison  on  the  Wabash.  This 
he  accomplished  and  thereafter  was  able  to  maintain  the  lines 
of  the  Wabash  and  the  Maumee,  as  the  frontier  between  the 
American  forces  and  the  allied  British  and  Indians.  All  beyond 
to  the  northwest  was  in  the  possession  of  the  enemy. 

But  disasters  to  the  American  forces  were  not  yet  ended. 
On  the  2ist  of  January,  1813,  General  Winchester,  who  was  in 
command  of  the  forces  on  the  Maumee,  was  defeated  at  the 
battle  of  the  River  Raisin  by  the  combined  forces  of  General 
Proctor  and  Tecumseh,  and  about  700  of  his  troops  captured  or 
destroyed,  many  of  them  being  massacred  after  they  had  sur- 

General  Harrison  was  at  the  headquarters  of  the  army  at 
Upper  Sandusky  when  he  first  heard  that  General  Winchester, 
who  was  in  command  of  the  forces  on  the  Maumee,  intended  to 
make  an  important  military  movement,  the  nature  of  which,  how- 
ever, he  could  not  learn.  No  important  offensive  movement  was 
contemplated  by  him  at  that  time.  On  receiving  this  informa- 
tion he  at  once  ordered  forward  all  the  troops  then  at  Upper  San- 
dusky, about  300  strong,  and  took  a  horse  and  rode  to  Lower 
Sandusky  (Fremont)  in  all  haste.  Such  was  the  energy  with 
which  he  pushed  forward  over  the  tcrril)le  winter  roads  that  the 
horse  of  his  aid-de-camp  failed  and  died  under  the  exertion.  At 
Lower  Sandusky  he  learned  that  on  the  17th  of  January,  Colonel 
Lewis  had  been  sent  forward  from  the  Rapids  to  the  River  Raisni 
in  command  of  over  600  troops  which  was  almost  the  entire  avail- 
able force  on  the  Maumee.  General  Harrison's  mind  was  filled 
with  forebodings,  and  ordering  the  troops  at  Lower  Sandusky  for- 
ward to  the  Rapids,  he  again  pushing  forward  for  that  place, 
where  he  arrived  early  on  the  20th.  Here  he  learned  that  (leneral 
Winchester  had  gone  forward  to  join  his  command  at  the  river 
Raisin.  There  was  nothing  that  could  be  done  l)ut  wait  for  the 
troops  which  he  had  ordered  forward  from  the  Sanduskies,  which 
were  floundering  along  as  test  they  could  through  the  swamps 
of  the  wilderness.  He  did  not  have  to  wait  long  before  he  re- 
ceived the  appalling  news  of  the  battle  at  the  river  Raisin,  which 
was  CMie  of  the  most  disasterous  of  all  our  Indian  Wars. 

128  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

The  battle  was  fought  on  January  21st,  the  defeat  was  com- 
plete and  overwhelming  and  Winchester's  army  was  practically 
destroyed.  This  left  the  region  of  the  Maumee  entirely  open  to 
be  overrun  by  the  victorious  British  and  Indians,  and  it  was  ex- 
pected that  they  would  soon  make  their  appearance  at  the  Rapids. 
A  council  of  war  was  at  once  held,  and  it  was  determined  to  with- 
draw the  remaining  troops  to  Portage  river,  about  twenty  miles 
east  from  the  Maumee.  Here  a  camp  was  established  and  the 
troops  which  were  struggling  forward  as  well  as  the  rem- 
nant of  General  Winchester's  command  were  concentrated. 
Within  a  few  days  such  a  force  had  been  assembled  as  to  enable 
General  Harrison  to  move  back  to  the  Maumee.  He  did  not, 
however,  resume  possession  of  the  old  camp.  Fort  Miami,  which 
had  been  occupied  before  by  General  Winchester's  command,  but 
a  better  place  was  selected  some  distance  up  the  river  from  the 
old  camp,  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  where  a  strong  fort 
was  erected,  which  was  named  Fort  Meigs  in  honor  of  the  then 
governor  of  Ohio. 

It  was  the  intention  to  concentrate  a  force  at  Fort  Meigs 
sufficient  to  maintain  it  against  all  attacks  which  might  be  made, 
but  on  account  of  the  terrible  roads  through  the  wilderness,  the 
expected  recruits  from  Kentucky  and  Southern  Ohio,  did  not 
arrive  until  the  fort  was  besieged  by  the  entire  forces  under 
Proctor  and  Tecumseh. 

On  the  1st  day  of  April,  181 3,  the  fort  was  invested  on  every 
side  and  an  active  siege  was  at  once  begun.  The  siege  was  car- 
ried on  with  great  vigor,  the  Indians  being  incited  to  bravery  by 
the  promise  of  the  monster  General  Proctor  to  deliver  General 
Harrison  into  their  hands  should  the  siege  be  successful  and  the 
fort  taken.  However,  after  nine  days  of  constant  bombardment 
and  conflict  the  siege  failed  and  the  British  and  Indian  forces 

Immediately  after  the  British  and  Indians  had  withdrawn 
from  the  Maumee,  General  Harrison  hastened  in  person  to  south- 
ern and  central  Ohio  to  urge  forward  the  troops  that  were  being 
collected  to  meet  and  repel  the  British  and  Indian  forces  and 
drive  them  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  United  States. 

It  was  under  these  anxious  and  harassing  circumstances 
that  rjeneral  Harrison  came  to  Franklinton  and  held  the  confer- 

Harrison-Tarhe  Peace  Conference.  129 

ence  with  the  chiefs  of  the  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Shawanese  and 
Senecas.  The  principal  chiefs  of  these  tribes  had  remained  true 
to  their  obligations  of  neutrality  under  the  Treaty  of  Greenville, 
but  so  many  had  been  lured  away  from  their  tribal  obligations 
by  British  pay  and  British  bribes  and  promises,  and  such  was 
their  strength  when  commanded  and  guided  by  that  able  and 
energetic  warrior  Tecumseh  that  it  became  necessary  for  General 
Harrison  to  know  as  exactly  as  possible  what  proportion  of  the 
military  strength  of  the  powerful  tribes  would  remain  neutral, 
or  if  necessary  join  with  the  American  forces.  The  chiefs  assem- 
bled not  only  assured  him  that  they  would  remain  true  to  their 
obligations,  but  if  called  upon  would  join  with  the  American  forces 
against  the  British. 

They  were  not  called  upon  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  war, 
but  as  a  matter  of  fact  several  of  the  chiefs  of  these  four  great 
tribes  with  a  considerable  number  of  their  warriors  of  their  own 
volition  accompanied  General  Harrison  in  his  campaign,  which 
ended  in  the  decisive  battle  of  the  Thames.  Chief  Tar  he  (the 
Crane),  Grand  Sachem  of  the  Wyandots,  whose  village  was  then 
near  Upper  Sandusky,  Wyandot  county,  and  who  was  spokesman 
for  all  the  tribes  at  the  conference  at  Franklinton,  although  sev- 
enty-two years  of  age,  went  with  General  Harrison  on  foot  with 
a  number  of  his  warriors  to  Canada,  and  was  present  at  the  Bat- 
tle of  the  Thames,  ahhough  he  took  no  active  part  in  that  battle. 

This  conference  or  council  at  Franklinton  enabled  General 
Harrison  to  know  what  he  could  depend  upon  as  to  these  four 
neutral  tribes,  and  greatly  relieved  him  from  uncertainty  and 
anxiety  and  also  greatly  relieved  the  frontier  settlers  from  the 
apprehensions  and  fears  with  which  their  minds  and  hearts  were 

From  the  date  of  that  conference  the  tide  turned  strongly  in 
favor  of  the  American  forces.  The  English  and  Indians  were 
again  in  force  along  the  Maumee  and  in  July,  1813,  again  be- 
sieged Fort  Meigs,  but  it  had  been  so  strengthened  and  reinforced 
that  they  made  no  assault  upon  it  but  retired  after  a  few  days, 
TVoctor  by  water  to  Sandusky  bay,  and  the  Indians  through  the 
forest  to  Sandusky  river.  This  demonstration  was  quite  formida- 
ble both  by  land  and  water.    Fort  Stevenson  at  the  mouth  of  the 

Vol.  XIV-  9. 

130  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Sandusky  river,  where  the  City  af  Fremont  now  stands,  was  first 
besieged.  On  July  31st,  1813,  the  British  approached  Fort  Stev- 
enson by  water  and  landed  about  500  British  troops  with  some 
light  artillery,  while  Tecumseh  with  about  2,000  Indians  besieged 
the  fort  on  the  land  side. 

It  is  not  our  purpose  here  to  narrate  the  history  of  that  as- 
sault. Suffice  it  to  say  here  that  Major  Croghan,  in  command  of 
the  fort  with  but  160  men  in  the  garrison,  successfully  repelled 
the  assault  of  the  British  and  Indians  and  compelled  them  to  re- 
tire after  heavy  losses.  This  brilliant  victory  was  succeeded  on 
August  loth  by  the  celebrated  and  world  renowned  victory  of 
Commodore  Perry,  by  which  the  British  fleet  on  Lake  Erie,  was 
destroyed.  This  enabled  General  Harrison  to  move  his  army 
across  Lake  Erie  to  the  Detroit  river  and  to  invade  Canada. 

On  the  5th  of  October  he  was  able  to  bring  the  allied  forces 
under  Proctor  and  Tecumseh  to  issue  at  the  battle  of  the  Thames, 
where  a  complete  victory  was  gained  over  the  allied  forces.  Te- 
cumseh was  killed  in  that  battle  and  Proctor  ignominiously  fled 
the  field.  His  army  was  captured  or  destroyed.  The  battle  of 
the  Thames  and  the  death  of  Tecumseh  practically  ended  the 
war  in  the  northwest,  although  the  British  still  held  a  few  small 
forts  like  Mackinac  and  St.  Josephs  around  the  head  of  Lake 
Huron ;  but  these  were  powerless  of  any  offensive  operations. 

The  war,  however,  between  the  United  States  and  Great 
l^>ritain  continued  in  full  force  and  destructiveness  for  more  than 
a  year  after  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  during  which  time  the  com- 
merce of  l30th  nations  upon  the  high  seas  was  largely  ruined. 
In  August,  1 814.  the  British  gained  possession  of  the  City  of 
Washington  and  l^urned  and  destroyed  all  the  public  buildings 
and  threatened  further  serious  destructions.  A  year  had  now 
elapsed  since  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  during  which  time  quiet 
had  reigned  among  the  Indians  in  the  northwest. 

The  neutral  tribes  of  the  northwest  remained  favorable  to  the 
cause  of  the  United  States,  and  many  of  those  who  had  served 
under  Tecumseh  a  year  before  had  become  angered  and  embit- 
tered toward  the  British  for  want  of  their  fulfillment  of  their 
promises  so  lavishly  made  before  the  war,  and  were  anxious  to 
assist  in  the  war  against  their  former  allies. 

Harrison-Tar  he  Peace  Conference.  131 

In  this  situation  the  government  authorized  and  directed 
General  Harrison  and  General  Lewis  Cass  to  meet  the  Indian 
tribes  in  conference  at  Greenville,  Ohio,  where  the  "Treaty  of 
Greenville"  had  been  concluded  nineteen  years  before.  Accord- 
ingly the  commissioners  met  at  that  place  with  the  chiefs  of  the 
Wyandots,  Dela wares,  Shawanese,  Senecas,  Miamis,  Pottawat- 
tomies  and  Kickapoos  and  concluded  a  treaty  of  peace  as  follows : 

Article  2.  The  tribes  and  bands  above  mentioned,  engage  to 
g^ve  their  aid  to  the  United  States,  in  prosecuting  war  against 
Great  Britain,  and  such  of  the  Indian  tribes  as  still  continue  hos- 
tile, and  to  make  no  peace  with  either,  without  the  consent  of  the 
United  States. 

The  assistance  herein  stipulated  for,  is  to  consist  of  such  a 
number  of  their  warriors,  from  each  tribe,  as  the  president  of  the 
United  States,  or  any  officer  having  his  authority  therefor,  may 

Article  3.  The  Wyandot  tribe,  and  the  Senecas  of  San- 
dusky and  Stony  Creek,  the  Delaware  and  Shawanese  tribes,  who 
have  preserved  their  fidelity  to  the  United  States,  throughout  the 
war,  again  acknowledge  themselves  under  the  protection  of  the 
said  states,  and  of  no  other  power  whatever,  and  agree  to  aid 
the  United  States  in  the  manner  stipulated  for  in  the  former  arti- 
cle, and  to  make  no  peace  but  with  the  consent  of  the  said  states. 

Article  4.  In  the  event  of  the  faithful  performance  of  the 
conditions  of  this  treaty,  the  United  States,  will  confirm  and 
establish  all  the  boundaries  between  their  lands,  and  those  of  the 
Wyandots,  Delawares.  Shawanese.  and  Miamis.  as  they  existed 
previously  to  the  commencement  of  the  war."  Tims  the  Frank- 
linton  conference  was  embodied  in  treaty  form. 

No  call  was  made  for  Indian  help  under  this  treaty,  as  on 
December  24th,  18 14.  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States 
and  the  commissioners  of  Great  Britain  concluded  the  Treaty  of 
Ghent,  putting  an  end  to  the  war.  This  second  Treaty  of  Green- 
ville was  the  last  peace  or  war  treaty  ever  entered  into  between 
the  United  States  and  any  of  the  Indian  tribes  within  the  boun- 
daries of  the  State  of  Ohio:  and  with  the  exception  of  an  unim- 
portant treaty  concluded  at  Detroit  the  following  year,  the  last 
made  east  of  the  Mississippi. 



Probably  no  other  Indian  chieftain  was  ever  more  admired 
and  loved  by  his  own  race  or  by  the  outside  world.  He  was 
either  a  true  friend  or  a  true  enemy.  Born  near  Detroit,  Michi- 
gan, in  1742,  he  lived  to  see  a  wonderful  change  in  the  great 
Northwest.  Being  born  of  humble  parentage,  through  his  brav- 
ery and  perseverence,  he  rose  to  be  the  grand  sachem  of  the  Wy- 
andot nation.  This  position  he  held  until  the  time  of  his  death, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  Duonquot.  Born  of  the  Porcupine 
clan  of  the  Wyandots  and  early  manifesting  a  warlike  spirit,  and 
was  engaged  in  nearly  all  the  battles  against  the  Americans  untij 
the  disastrous  battle  of  Fallen  Timbers,  in  1794.  Tarhe  saw  that 
there  was  no  use  opposing  the  American  arms,  or  trying  to  pre* 
vent  them  planting  corn  north  of  the  Ohio  river.  At  that  disas- 
trous battle,  thirteen  chiefs  fell  and  among  the  number  was  Tarhe^ 
who  was  badly  wounded  in  the  arm.  The  American  generally 
believed  that  the  dead  Indian  was  the  best  Indian,  but  Tarhe  sadly 
saw  his  ranks  depleted,  and  at  once  began  to  sue'  for  peace.  Gen- 
eral Wayne  had  severely  chastised  the  Indians,  and  forever  broke 
their  power  in  Ohio.  Accordingly,  on  January  24,  1795,  the 
principal  chiefs  of  the  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Chippewas,  Otto- 
was,  Sacs,  Pottowattomies,  Miamis,  and  Shawnees  met.  The 
preliminary  treaty  with  General  Wayne  at  Greenville,  Ohio,  in 
which  there  was  an  armistice,  was  the  forerunner  of  the  celebrated 
treaty  which  was  concluded  at  the  same  place  on  August  3,  1795. 
A  great  deal  of  opposition  w^as  manifested  to  this  treaty  by  the 
more  warlike  and  turbulent  chiefs,  as  this  would  cut  off  their 
forays  on  the  border  settlements. 

Chief  Tarhe  always  lived  true  to  the  treaty  obligations  which 
lie  so  earnestly  labored  to  bring  about.  When  Tecumseh  sought 
a  great  Indian  uprising,  Tarhe  opposed  it.  and  awakened  quite 
an  enmity  amon^j;  the  warlike  of  his  own  tribe,  who  afterward 


Tarhe  —  The  Crane. 


withdrew  from  the  main  body  of  the  Wyandots  and  moved  to 
Canada.  The  Rev.  James  B.  Finley  had  every  confidence  in 
Tarhe.  as  evidenced  in  1800,  when  returning  from  taking  a  drove 
of  cattle  to  the  Detroit  mar- 
ket, he  asked  Tarhe  for  a 
night's  lodging  at  Lower  San- 
dusky, ■  where  the  Wyandot 
chief  then  Hved,  and  intrusted 
him  with  quite  a  sum  of 
money  from  the  sale  of  caitle, 
and  the  next  morning  every 
cent  was  forthcoming. 

From  1808  until  the  War 
of  1 81 2,  Tarhe  steadily  op- 
posed Tecuniseh's  treacherous 
war  policy,  which  greatly  en- 
dangered Tarhe 's  life,  and  it 
is  claimed  he  came  near  meet- 
ing the  same  fate  that  Leather 
He  even  went  so  far  as  to  offer 
with  fifty  other  chiefs  and  warriors  to  General 
Harrison  in  prosecuting  the  war  against  Tecumseh  and  the  Eng- 
lish under  General  Proctor.  He  was  actively  engaged  in  the  battle 
on  the  Thames.  So  earnest  was  he  in  the  success  of  the  American 
cause,  so  sincere  did  he  keep  all  treaty  obligations,  that  General 
Harrison  in  after  years,  in  comparing  him  with  other  chiefs,  was 
constrained  to  call  him  "The  most  noble  Roman  of  them  all," 

Tarhe  never  drank  strong  drinks  of  any  kind,  nor  used  to- 
bacco in  any  form.  Fighting  at  the  head  of  his  warriors  in  Har- 
rison's campaign  in  Canada,  at  the  age  of  seventy-two  years,  is 
something  out  of  the  ordinary.  Being  tall  and  slender,  he  was 
nicknamed  "The  Crane."  On  his  retiring  from  the  second  war 
for  Independence,  he  again  took  up  his  abode  in  his  favorite  town 
—  the  spot  is  still  called  "Crane  Town,"  about  four  and  one- 
half  miles  northeast  from  Upper  Sandusky,  on  the  east  bank  of 
the  Crane  run,  which  empties  into  the  Sandusky  river.  Here 
surrounded  by  a  dense  forest,  he  spent  his  old  age  in  a  Ic^  cabin. 

Lips  met  on  June    I, 

134  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

fourteen  by  eighteen  feet.  Just  south  of  the  old  cabin  site  are  a 
•number  of  old  apple  trees, likely  of  the  Johnny  Appleseed  origin — 
the  fruit  being  small  and  hard;  a  short  distance  south  of  the  cabin 
is  the  old  gauntlet  ground,  oblong  and  about  three  hundred  yards 
long ;  to  the  westward  from  the  village  site,  is  a  clearing  of  about 
ten  acres,  still  known  as  the  Indian  field,  and  still  surrounded  by  a 
dense  forest.  Here  Tarhe  died  in  his  log  cabin  home,  in  Novem- 
ber, 1818.  In  1850,  John  Smith,  then  owner  of  the  land,  had  most 
all  of  the  cabin  taken  down  for  fire-wood.  At  that  time  a  small 
black  walnut  twig,  about  the  thickness. of  a  man's  thumb,  was 
growing  in  the  northwest  corner  of  the  cabiii,  a,nd  is  quite  a  tree 
at  the  present  writing  —  a  living  and  growing  monument  to  the 
memory  of  the  great  and  good  Wyandot  chief. 

Aunt  Sally  Frost  was  Tarhe's  wife  when  he  died.  To  them 
one  child  was  born,  an  idiotic  son  who  died  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
five  years.  Sally  had  been  a  captive  from  one  of  the  border  settle- 
ments, and  refused  to  return  to  her  people.  After  the  death  and 
burial  of  Tarhe,  the  principal  part  of  Crane  Town  was  moved  to 
Upper  Sandusky,  the  center  of  the  Wyandot  reservation  twelve 
miles  square.  Here  the  government  at  Washington  paid  them  an 
annuity  of  ten  dollars  per  capita  until  the  reservation  reverted 
back  to  the  government  in  March,  1842. 

Cabin  sites  are  plainly  discemable  in  the  old  historic  town, 
which  was  usually  a  half-way  place  between  Fort  Pitt  and  De- 
troit. Here  in  the  early  days  Indian  parties  found  a  resting  place 
when  on  their  murderous  missions  to  the  border  settlements. 
This  was  one  of  the  "troublesome"  Indian  towns  on  the  Sandusky 
river  that  the  ill-fated  Col.  Wm.  Crawford  was  directed  against 
in  the  Spring  of  1782.  Traces  of  the  old  Indian  trail  may  be 
seen  meandering  southward  through  the  forest,  where  the  war- 
whoop  was  frequently  given  and  the  bloody  scalpincf  knife  drawn 
over  many  defenseless  prisoners.  The  springs,  just  westward 
from  the  town  site,  are  cattle  tramped,  but  still  bubble  forth  a 
small  quantity  of  water,  but  likely  not  nearly  so  active  as  when 
they  furnished  the  necessary  water  for  the  nations  of  the  forest 
a  century  and  more  a^o. 

On  June  it.  1902,  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall,  the  able  and  efficient 
Secretary  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society, 

Tarhe  —  The  Crane.  135 

in  company  with  the  writer,  gave  the  place  a  visit.  Numerous 
locusts  were  chirping  away  at  their  familiar  songs,  quite  loud 
enough  to  drown  out  the  voices  of  the  intruders. 

Jonathan  Pointer,  who  had  been  a  colored  captive  among  the 
Wyandots  and  who  was  a  fellow  soldier  with  Tarhe  in  the  Can- 
adian campaign  under  General  Harrison,  returned  with  that  cele- 
brated chieftain  to  his  home  and  stayed  with  him  until  the  time 
of  Tarhe's  death,  always  claiming  that  he  assisted  in  the  burial 
of  Tarhe  on  the  John  Smith  farm,  about  a  half  mile  southeast 
from  his  cabin  home.  Logs  were  dragged  over  the  grave  to  keep 
•the  wild  animals  from  disinterring  the  body.  Jonathan  Pointer 
was  engaged  as  interpreter  for  the  early  missionaries  among  the 
Wyandots;  he  died  in  1857.  No  memorial  marks  Tarhe's  resting 
place.  Red  Jacket,  Keokuk,  Leather  Lips,  and  other  chieftains 
have  received  monumental  consideration  from  American  civiliza- 
tion; but  Tarhe,  the  one  whose  influence  and  activity  helped  to 
wrest  the  great  Northwest  from  the  British  and  the  Indians, 
has  apparently  been  forgotten.     And  how  long  shall  it  be  so? 

Colonel  John  Johnson,  who  for  nearly  half  a  century  acted 
Indian  agent  of  the  various  tribes  of  Ohio  and  who  made  the  last 
Indian  treaty  that  removed  the  Wyandots  beyond  the  Mississippi, 
was  present  at  the  great  Indian  council  summoned  at  the  death 
and  for  burial  of  Tarhe.  The  exact  spot  where  the  council  house 
stood  is  not  known,  but  a  mile  and  a  half  north  from  Crane  town 
site  are  a  number  of  springs  bubbling  forth  clear  water  which  form 
Pointer's  run,  that  empties  into  the  Sandusky  river.  They  are 
still  called  the  Council  Springs  and  the  bark  council  house  was 
likely  in  this  vicinity.  Colonel  Johnson,  in  his  ''Recollections," 
gives  the  following  account  of  the  proceedings: 

"On  the  death  of  the  great  chief  of  the  Wyandots,  I  was  invited 
to  attend  a  general  council  of  all  the  tribes  of  Ohio,  the  Delawares  of 
Indiana,  the  Senecas  of  New  York,  at  Upper  Sandusky.  I  found  on  arriv- 
ing at  the  place  a  very  large  attendance.  Among  the  chieftains  was  the 
noted  leader  and  orator  Red  Jacket  from  Buffalo.  The  first  business 
done  was  the  speaker  of  the  nation  delivering  an  oration  on  the  character 
of  the  deceased  chief.  Then  followed  what  might  be  called  a  monody, 
or  ceremony,  of  mourning  or  lamentation.  Thus  scats  were  arranged 
from  end  to  end  of  a  large  council  h6use,  about  six  feet  apart,  the 
head  men  arid  the  aged  took  their  seats  facing  each  other,  stooping  down. 

136  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

their  heads  almost  touching.  In  that  position  they  remained  for  several 
hours.  Deep  and  long  continued  groans  would  commence  at  one  end  of 
the  row  of  mourners,  and  so  pass  around  until  all  had  responded,  and 
these  repeated  at  intervals  of  a  few  minutes.  The  Indians  were  all 
washed,  and  had  no  paint  or  decorations  of  any  kind  upon  their  persons, 
their  countenances  and  general  deportment  denoting  the  deepest  mourn- 
ing. I  had  never  witnessed  anything  of  the  kind  before,  and  was  told 
that  this  ceremony  was  not  performed  but  on  the  decease  of  some  great 
man.  After  the  period  of  mourning  and  lamentation  was  over,  the  In- 
dians proceeded  to  business.  There  were  present  the  Wyandots,  Shaw- 
neefi,  Delawares,  Senecas,  Ottawas  and  Mohawks.  Their  business  was 
entirely  confined  to  their  own  affairs,  and  the  main  topics  related  to 
their  lands,  and  the  claims  of  the  respective  tribes.  It  was  evident, 
in  the  course  of  the  discussion,  that  the  presence  of  myself  and  people 
(there  were  some  white  men  with  me)  was  not  acceptable  to  some  of 
the  parties,  and  allusions  w£re  made  so  direct  to  myself  that  I  was 
constrained  to  notice  them,  by  saying  that  I  came  there  as  a  guest  of 
the  Wyandots,  by  their  special  invitation;  that  as  the  Agent  of  the 
United  States,  I  had  a  right  to  be  there  as  anywhere  else  in  the  Indian 
country;  and  that  if  any  insult  was  offered  to  myself  or  my  people, 
it  would  be  resented  and  punished.  Red  Jacket  was  the  principal  speaker, 
and  was  intemperate  and  personal  in  his  remarks.  Accusations,  pro  and 
con,  were  made  by  the  different  parties,  accusin?  each  other  of  being 
foremost  in  selling  land  to  the  United  States.  The  Shawnees  were  par- 
ticularly marked  out  as  more  guilty  than  any  other;  that  they  were 
the  last  coming  into  the  Ohio  country  and  although  they  had  no  right 
but  by  the  permission  of  the  other  tribes,  they  were  always  the  foremost 
in  selling  lands.  This  brought  the  Shawnees  out,  who  retorted  through 
head  chief,  the  Black  Hoof,  on  the  Senecas  and  Wyandots  with  pointed 
severity.  The  discussion  was  long  continued,  calling  out  some  of  the 
ablest  speakers,  and  was  distinguished  for  ability,  cutting  sarcasm  and 
research,  going  far  back  into  the  history  of  the  natives,  their  wars,  alli- 
ances, negotiations,  migrations,  etc.  I  had  attended  many  councils,^ 
treaties,  and  gatherings  of  the  Indians,  but  never  in  my  life  did  I  witness 
such  an  outpouring  of  native  oratory  and  eloquence,  of  severe  rebuke, 
taunting  national  anl  personal  reproaches.  The  council  broke  up  later  in 
great  confusion  and  in  the  worst  possible  feeling.  A  circumstance 
occurred  toward  the  close  which  more  than  anything  else  exhibited 
the  bad  feeling  prevailing.  In  handing  round  the  wampum  belt,  the 
emblem  of  amity,  peace  and  good  will,  when  presented  to  one  of  the 
chiefs,  he  would  not  touch  it  with  his  fingers,  but  passed  it  on  a  stick 
to  a  person  next  to  him.  A  greater  indignity,  agreeable  to  Indian  eti- 
quette could  not  be  offered. 

The  next  day  appeared  to  be  one  of  unusual  anxiety  and  despondence 
among  the  Indians.  They  could  be  seen  in  groups  everywhere  near  the 
council    house   in    deep    consultation.      They    had    acted    foolishly  —  were 

Tarke  —  The  Crane. 


sorry  —  but  the  difficulty  -was,  who  would  present  the  olive  branch.  The 
council  convened  very  late,  and  was  very  full ;  silence  prevailed  for  a 
long  time;  at  last  the  aged  chieftain  of  the  Shawnees,  the  Black  Hoof, 
rose  —  a  man  of  great  influence  and  a  celebrated  warrior.  He  told  Ihe 
assernbly  that  they  had  acted  like  children,  and  not  men  yesterday ;    that 

c    pict 

re    of    Mr.    Schlup    shows    him 

tan  din  R    bes 

de    the    litlle    log 

nlly    prjKMed    lo    Ihc   Ohio    Suie 

1    and   Hislotical    :^ 

now  placed  in  its  museum  al   J'a 

e   H.ill.   Ohi 

Slate  University. 

n,    almost    loy-like   in  it,   size,    h 

as   great    hi? 

slrucled  of   fifty   difTertnt  and  di 

tinct  species 

of   forest   tree.  CO 

ne  of  the  bu 

d  bj 

le  Indians,  in  Crawford  iQwnsliip 

Wyandol  Co 

unty,  Jui«U,  n<.2 

11  is 

failhful  rrpfr«nuIion  of  the  cab 

in  Iht  Western  c 

the  pe 

riod  in   which  Colonel  William  C 

aw  ford  lived 

Mr.   Kmil  Schlup 

138  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

he  and  his  people  were  sorry  for  the  words  that  had  been  spoken,  and 
which  had  done  so  much  harm ;  that  he  came  into  the  council  by  the 
unanimous  desire  of  his  people,  to  recall  those  foolish  words,  and  did. 
there  take  them  back  —  handing  round  strings  of  wampum,  which  passed 
around  and  were  received  by  all  with  the  greatest  satisfaction.  Several 
of  the  principal  chiefs  delivered  speeches  to  the  same  effect,  handing 
round  wampum  in  turn,  and  in  this  manner  the  whole  difficulty  of  the 
preceding  day  was  settled,  and  to  all  appearances  forgotten.  The  In- ' 
dians  are  very  civil  and  courteous  to  each  other  and  it  is  a  rare  thiwg^ 
to  see  their  assemblies  disturbed  by  unwise  or  ill-timed  remarks.  I  never 
witnessed  it  except  upon  the  occasion  here  alluded  to,  and  it  is  more 
than  probable  that  the  presence  of  myself  and  other  white  men  con- 
tributed towards  the  unpleasant  ocurrence.  I  could  not  help  but  admire 
the  genuine  philosophy  and  good  sense  displayed  by  men  whom  we  call 
savages,  in  the  transaction  of  their  public  business,  and  how  much  we 
might  profit  in  the  halls  of  our  Legislatures,  by  occasionally  taking  for 
our  example  the  proceedings  of  the  great  Indian  council  at  Upper  San- 



[Portion  of  an  address  delivered  by  General  Cowen  on  llie  28lh 
of  June,  1904,  at  the  placing  of  the  tablet  in  commemoration  of  the  Har- 
rison-Tarhe  Peace  Conference.] 

We  have  heard  the  story  of  the  historic  incident  this  monu- 
ment is  designed  to  commemorate  eloquently  told  by  the  Regent 
of  the  Columbus  Chapter  of  the 
Daughters  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion. That  society  has  rendered  a 
valuable  service  in  the  erection  of  this 
unique  memorial  which  commemo- 
rates what  is  not  only  an  interesting 
incident  in  local  history,  but  an  import- 
ant epoch  in  the  history  of  the  great 
Northwest  Territory,  while  being  at 
the  same  time  an  enduring  landmark 
of  our  progress. 

I  have  heard  it  suggested  that  in- 
as  much  as  woman  has  ostensibly  little 
or  nothing  to  do  with  government 
functions  or  with  the  wars,  the  hard- 
ships and  the  sa(;rifices  of  the  race  under  primitive  conditions 
she  has  no  business  meddling  with  them  in  any  manner.  Never 
was  a  greater  error.  True,  war  and  border  struggles  and 
sacrifices  are  generally  regarded  as  peculiar  to  the  stronger 
sex  from  which  woman  is  exempt.  Yet  war  and  sacrifice 
and  hardship  have  been  woman's  burden  since  our  first  parents 
turned  their  backs  on  Eden.  So  that  the  women  who  have  erected 
this  memorial  were  strictly  in  the  line  of  duty,  and  privilege,  for 
women  should  have  a  place  of  honor  wherever  the  hardships  and 
the  sacrifices  of  the  race  are  held  in  grateful  memory. 

140  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

'Tis  said  the  doting  pyramids  have  long  forgotten  the  names 
of  their  builders.  Here  we  have  a  monument  eons  old  before 
those  buildiers  were  born,  yet  to  the  eye  of  science  the  glacial 
hieroglyphics  carved  thereon  tell  the  story  of  its  antiquity  and  its 
endurance.  We,  the  ephemera  of  a  day,  will  soon  pass  from 
memory,  but  let  us  hope  that  this  monument,  in  its  indestructible 
character,  may  prove  a  type  of  the  imperishable  recollection  of  the 
event  it  is  intended  to  commemorate  and  of  the  form  of  govern- 
ment to  the  establishment  of  which  that  event  contributed. 

In  the  mighty  changes  which  have  taken  place  since  Harrison 
erected  here  a  bulwark  against  a  threatening  barbarism  the  people 
of  Ohio  have  had  much  to  be  proud  of ;  much  to  be  thankful  for. 
In  the  intervening  years  Ohio  has  grown  from  40,000  population 
to  four  millions  and  the  Nation  from  eight  millions  to  eighty 
millions,  a  growth  so  remarkable  as  to  be  without  parallel  in  the 
world's  history. 

It  is  so  customary,  however,  to  give  thanks  for  visible  and 
tangible  mercies  and  blessings,  rather  than  for  the  escape  from 
possible  evils  which  have  been  averted  that  our  expressions  of 
gratitude  for  the  former  are  so  absorbing  as  to  leave  little  room 
for  thought  of  the  latter. 

We  are  all  proud  of  our  State  and  of  her  name  and  all  that 
it  implies  of  history  and  endeavor  and  achievem<^nt.  Could  we 
have  been  equally  proud,  think  you,  had  the  name  once  sought  to 
be  fixed  on  it  l)een  allowed  to  stand?    I  have  my  doubts. 

It  is  a  historic  fact  little  known,  to-day,  that  a  Committee  of 
the  Continental  Congress,  March  ist.  1784,  reported  a  scheme 
for  the  organization  of  the  Northwest  Territory  which  contem- 
plated its  division  into  nine  States  and  prescribing  the  boundaries 
and  the  names  of  each.  The  territory  now  embraced  in  the  State 
of  Ohio  was  to  be  niadc  into  two  states,  the  Northern  to  be  called 
Washington  and  the  Southern  Polysipia..  The  only  redeeming 
feature  of  the  last  name  was  that  it  was  less  objectionable  than 
some  of  the  other  names  pro])Osed.  Those  names  were :  Sylva- 
nia,  Michigania,  Cheronessus,  Asenisipia,  Metropotamia.  Illinoia, 
Saratoga,  Polypotaniia.  \\'ashington  and  Polysipia. 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian,  141 

In  reckoning  our  mercies  let  us  not  forget  to  return  thanks 
that  we  are  neither  Polypotamians  nor  Polysipians,  but  plain 
Ohioans.     The  name  Ohio  is  good  enough  for  us. 

Yet  I  have  no  doubt  the  wonderful  achievements  of  the  sons 
of  this  State  during  the  past  loo  years  would  even  have  popular- 
ized the  name  Polysipia  and  made  it  a  name  to  conjure  with  as 
the  name  of  Ohio  is  to-day. 

This  monument  is  intended  to  perpetuate  an  event  in  which 
both  white  men  and  Indians  took  part  on  a  plane  of  perfect  equal- 
ity. The  part  borne  by  the  Indians  was  not  only  highly  creditable 
to  them ;  it  was  of  great  advantage  to  the  whites  at  a  most  critical 
period  in  our  history.  So  that  it  seems  appropriate  to  the  occasion 
that  I  divide  my  time  between  the  two  races. 

As  the  Indian  has  disappeared  from  the  stage  of  action,  how- 
ever, we  can  only  tell  of  his  past.  As  the  white  man  —  the  Amer- 
ican —  the  Anglo-Saxon,  so  called,  approaches  the  zenith  of  his 
powers,  we  may  in  some  measure  speak  of  his  future. 

But,  through  the  glowing  story  of  our  pioneer  struggles  and 
successes  runs  a  dark  thread  of  shame  in  our  treatment  of  the 
Indians  which  cannot  be  ignored  in  any  fair  narration  of  the 
story  of  the  contact  of  the  two  races. 

It  was  long  an  accepted  maxim  on  the  frontier  that  "the  only 
good  Indian  is  a  dead  one/'  But  had  an  Indian  Thucydides, 
smarting  under  the  wrongs  of  his  people,  arisen  to  write  a  truthful 
stor\'  of  his  race  on  this  continent  I  imagine  the  verdict  of  his- 
tory might  be  different^ 

To  civilize  a  race  it  would  seem  a  wise  policy  to  offer  it  such 
models  as  are  pleasing  and  attractive  and  by  as  much  as  those 
models  are  superior  to  and  more  desirable  than  existing  methods 
in  so  much  will  they  be  accepted. 

The  three  civilizations  —  Spanish,  French  and  English  — 
which  first  came  in  contact  with  the  North  American  Indian  had 
respectively  bloomed  and  given  to  the  world  as  the  ripe  fruit  of 
their  culture  and  their  faith  the  Inquisition,  St.  Bartholomew 
and  the  Bloody  Assizes.  The  crimson  annals  of  Indian  warfare 
furnish  no  names  so  execrated  for  inhumanity  as  Torquemada, 
Catherine  de  Medicis  and  Lord  Chief  Justice  Jeffreys.  The  In- 
dian could  not  conceive,  much  less  execute  any  tortures  so  ex- 

142  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

quisite,  any  crimes  against  humanity  so  horrible  and  unnatural, 
as  were  perpetrated  under  the  forms  of  law  in  the  lands  of  the 
several  Christian  sovereigns  under  whose  broad  seals  of  authority 
those  pioneers  of  the  New  World  had  come  to  convert  and  to  save. 

Inflexible,  merciless  and  selfish,  and  little  adapted  to  attract 
simple,  primitive  natures  yet  it  was  those  forms  of  civilization  to 
which  our  aborigines  were  first  introduced  and  which  inaugu- 
rated the  Indian  policy  which  substantially  prevailed  on  this 
continent  ever  since. 

"Welcome,  Englishmen,*'  was  the  cordial  greeting  of  the 
pagan  Indian  Samoset,  as  with  the  open  hand  of  friendship  he  met 
the  discouraged  band  of  Christian  pilgrims  as  they  stepped  ashore 
at  Plymouth  one  bleak  December  day  in  1620.  For  nearly  300 
years,  with  mailed  hand  and  the  robber's  plea,  those  civilized 
Christian  Pilgrim-Puritans,  so  called,  and  their  descendants,  by 
robbery,  murder,  enslavement,  debauchery,  and  every  form  of 
wrong  which  the  devilish  ingenuity  of  perverted  religionists  could 
devise,  have  given  the  response  of  Christian  civilization  to  that 
pagan  welcome. 

Through  all  the  colonial  times  since  the  first  treaty  when  the 
Plymouth  governor  made  old  Massasoit  drunk  and  stole  his  land, 
Indian  treaties  were  made  but  to  be  broken,  and  from  the  first 
treaty  made  by  our  government,  that  with  the  Delawares  at  Fort 
Pitt  in  1778,  when  that  nation  was  cajoled  into  active  alliance 
with  the  infant  republic  by  the  promise  of  a  State  organization 
and  a  representative  in  Congress,  down  to  the  latest  treaty  with 
the  tribes  huddled  together  on  the  arid  lands  of  the  far  West  — 
in  all  over  900  treaties,  every  one  of  the  number  was  broken  in 
one  or  more  important  particulars  by  the  whites.  And  the  same 
is  true  of  all  the  contracts  made  with  our  predecessors,  the  French, 
the  Spanish  and  the  British. 

In  the  treaty  of  peace  of  1783  with  Great  Britain  no  mention 
was  made  of  the  native  tribes  and  their  rights  in  the  soil,  and 
no  demand  or  request  was  made  by  Great  Britain  in  their  behalf, 
though  she  had  been  greatly  aided  during  our  Revolutionary  War 
by  her  Indian  allies. 

Let  me  cite  some  authorities  on  the  subject  of  the  relative 
reliabilitv  of  the  two  races: 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian.  14Ji 

Gen.  Harney,  of  the  army,  said:  "I  never  knew  an  Indian 
to  break  his  word." 

Again  he  said:  "I  have  lived  on  this  frontier  fifty  years, 
and  I  have  never  yet  known  an  instance  in  which  war  broke  out 
between  the  tribes  and  the  governrnent,  that  the  tribes  were  not 
in  the  right." 

Bishop  Whipple  said :  "I  have  traveled  on  foot  and  on  horse- 
back over  every  square  mile  of  my  diocese.  I  have  known  every 
Indian  settlement  in  it.  I  have  watched  them  for  a  dozen  years. 
Some  of  them  will  drink  and  some  of  them  will  steal,  and  they 
are  of  our  race  for  they  have  our  vices,  but  in  every  difficulty 
that  has  occurred  in  the  twelve  years  of  my  residence  between  the 
Indians  and  the  government,  the  government  has  been  always 
wrong  and  the  Indian  has  been  always  right." 

In  1867  a  celebrated  council  was  held  with  the  Sioux  at 
which  were  Major  Generals  Sherman,  Terry,  Harney  and  Auger. 
The  report  of  that  council  contained  the  following  language : 

"In  every  case  of  complication  existing  with  the  Indians  at 
the  date  of  our  appointment  and  for  several  years  previous  to  that 
time  and  which  was  investigated  by  us  the  cause  of  the  difficulty 
was  traced  to  the  wrong  doing  of  our  own  people,  both  civil 
and  military." 

Thus  do  men  of  war  and  men  of  peace,  looking  at  the  subject 
from  different  standpoints,  reach  the  same  conclusion. 

All  that  the  Indian  ever  knew  of  the  justice  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  was  the  sharp  edge  of  its  sword;  the  equal  balance  of  its 
scales  he  never  saw. 

On  one  occasion,  while  visiting  the  Quaker  City  in  charge 
of  a  party  of  Ute  Indians,  the  gentleman  who  was  acting  as  our 
guide,  took  special  pains  to  illustrate  the  character  of  William 
Penn,  and  pointed  out  the  spot  where  his  historic  treaty  was 
made,  emphasizing  his  uniform  justice  and  fairness  to  the  In- 
dians. Ouray,  the  head  chief,  a  man  of  few  words,  listened 
quietly,  and  when  the  guide  had  finished  said  grimly :  "Yes.  Mr. 
Penn  seems  to  have  been  a  good  man,  and  you  say  treated  the  red 
man  right.  His  children  are  many  and  rich,  and  their  lodges  are 
crowded  like  the  leaves  of  the  forest ;  but  where  are  the  Indians?" 

144  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

The  battle  of  Little  Big  Horri  where  General  Custer  and  his 
command  were  exterminated  is  cited  as  an  evidence  of  Indian 
cruelty  in  war,  but  which  was  the  attacking  party,  and  where  was 
the  battle  field  ?  That  fight  was  in  broad  daylight,  and  far  within 
the  lines  of  the  Indian  reservation.  It  was  horrible  in  the  re- 
sult—  only  less  so  than  some  other  incidents  I  shall  cite.  The 
army  under  Custer  had  followed  the  Indians  to  their  homes  and 
made  the  attack,  resulting  in  the  total  destruction  of  the  army. 

"You  defend  yourselves  savagely,"  said  Alexander  to  the 
barbarians  of  India. 

"Sir,  if  vou  but  knew  how  sweet  freedom  is  you  would  defend 
it  even  with  axes.'*  was  the  reply. 

But  acts  of  cruelty  are  not  confined  to  the  red  men  in  their 
contact  with  the  whites. 

King  Philip,  of  Pokanoket,  was  killed  after  a  long  and  stub- 
born resistance.  His  body  was  quartered  and  his  head  exposed 
on  a  gibbet  at  Plymouth  for  twenty  years. 

In  the  rear  of  General  Hancock's  army  in  Kansas,  an  Indian 
woman  was  found  scalped. 
X'  I  have  myself  seen  Indian  scalps  displayed  as  trophies  of  war 

by  our  soldiers  and  frontiersmen. 

In  a  fight  l)ctween  our  soldiers  and  the  Cheyenncs  in  1878. 
one  man  and  thirteen  women  and  children  were  killed. 

In  the  same  year  a  great  many  horses  and  all  the  women  and 
children  were  killed  by  our  soldiers  in  a  fight  with  the  Bannocks. 

In  April.  1871,  at  Camp  Grant,  in  Arizona,  it8  women  and 
children  and  eight  men.  peaceable,  unarmed,  and  under  govern- 
ment protection  were  murdered  and  nnitilated  by  a  band  of  white 
men  from    Tucson. 

At  Sand  Creek.  Colorado,  in  1864.  Indian  men.  women  and 
children  were  butchered  in  cold  blood,  infants  were  scalped  in 
derision,  and  men  were  tortured  and  mutilated  in  the  most  horri- 
ble manner.  The  result  was  an  Indian  war  that  cost  us  30  mil- 
lion of  dollars. 

In  January.  1870,  173  men,  women  and  children  of  the  Pie- 
gan  tribe  in  Montana,  suffering  severely  with  the  smallpox,  were 
butchered  in  cold  blood  by  our  troops  under  Colonel  Baker,  of  the 
2(1   Cavalry.      P>ut    15  of  the  victims  were  men  of   fighting  age. 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian.  145 

This  disgraceful  affair  was  ostensibly  to  avenge  the  killing  of  a 
white  man  in  a  drunken  brawl  at  Fort  Benton,  some  time  before, 
but  the  murder  was  found  to  have  been  committed  by  an  Indian 
of  another  tribe. 

It  was  my  official  duty  to  investigate  some  of  these  cases, 
so  that  I  speak  as  one  having  knowledge.  Is  it  strange  that  In- 
dians should  imitate  such  example? 

*'The  villiany  you  teach  me  I  will  execute,"  said  Shylock, 
"and  it  shall  go  hard,  but  I  will  better  the  instruction." 

It  is  a  fact,  however,  that  the  origin  of  our  serious  troubles 
with  the  Indian  in  later  years  was  almost  uniformily  traceable  to 
the  encroachpients  and  the  impositions  of  the  white  settlers. 
After  the  trouble  was  precipitated  by  those  encroachments  the 
protection  of  the  army  was  invoked  and  the  natural  result  was 
that  the  punishment  was  swift  and  terrible.  But  the  army  was 
only  the  avenger  never  the  instigator. 

On  the  other  hand,  in  Minnesota,  in  1862,  during  the  mas- 
sacre, every  Christian  Indian  remained  friendly  to  the  whites. . 

One  Indian  conducted  a  large  party  through  the  worst  part 
of  the  massacre  to  safety.  Another  conducted  25  nien  and  42 
women  and  children  to  St.  Paul. 

During  the  hearing  of  the  celebrated  Cherokee  case  in  the 
U.  S.  Supreme  Court  Wm.  Wirt  made  use  of  the  following  lan- 
guage: "We  may  gather  laurels  on  the  field  of  battle  and 
trophies  on  the  ocean,  but  they  will  never  hide  this  blot  on  our 
escutcheon.  'Remember  the  Cherokee  Nation,*  will  be  answer 
enough  to  the  proudest  boast  we  can  make." 

Thus  did  the  Anglo-Saxon  civilization  manifest  itself 
through  the  passing  years  of  our  history.  It  has  been  the  same 
old  robber  plea,  that  — 

**f{e  shall   take  who  has   the  power, 
And  he  shall  keep  who  can." 

During  the  years  from  i86()  to  A^^yy  I  visited,  in  an  official 
capacity,  every  important  Indian  tribe  in  the  country,  both  in  the 
interior  and  on  the  Pacific  coast,  including  some  that  were  con- 
sidered hostile,  without  military  escort  or  armed  guard,  and  was 
never  disturbed  or  threatened.  I  passed  in  and  out  among  them 
Vol.  XIV— 10. 

146  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

with  impunity,  and  was  never  conscious  that  I  was  in  any  special 

If  I  have  dwelt  too  long  on  this  branch  of  my  subject  in  de- 
fence of  the  Indian  character  attribute  it  to  my  pronounced  con- 
viction derived  from  personal  contact  and  varied  experience,  and 
to  the  fact  that  there  are  few  left  to  say  a  word  in.  that  behalf. 

He  is  as  amenable  to  fair  treatment  as  any  race  of  which  I 
have  knowledge. 

It  was  a  stereotyped  phrase  in  Indian  treaties  for  many  years 
that  the  lands  named  therein  were  solemnly  guaranteed  to  thv^ 
Indian  to  be  his  home  "While  grass  grows  and  water  runs."  The 
ground  we  walk  to-day  was  thus  granted,  and  every  tender  blade 
that  meets  the  quickening  breath  of  spring  and  every  drop  in 
your  beautiful  river  as  it  runs  to  the  sea  are  silent  but  eloquent 
witness  of  our  perfiidy  toward  that  unfortunate  people. 

What  has  been  said  relates  to  events  and  policies  of  the  past 
which  may  not  be  changed.  The  story  of  the  vanished  race  can 
interest  us  now  chiefly  as  it  marks  our  progress.  We  are  too 
busy  striving  to  reach  "the  regions  beyond"  to  pause  beside  its 
dishonored  graves  long  enough  to  drop  a  tear. 

Barbarism  could  not  be  allowed  to  occupy  this  fair  domain 
forever.  My  criticism  on  the  policy  which  prevailed  in  respect 
of  the  Indian  is  that  it  was  a  war  against  barbarians  rather  than 
against  barbarism.  The  latter  has  no  rights  civilization  is  bound 
to  respect;  the  former  may  have. 

The  eflPort  to  elevate  and  assimilate  came  too  late,  and  never 
had  a  fair  trial.  Our  policy  and  our  contact  brutalized  and  de- 
graded the  race  before  any  real  eflFort  was  made  to  elevate  it. 

-  Ninety-one  years  ago  this  place  was  the  remote  frontier, 
the  skirmish  line  of  our  civilization.  Since  the  day  of  Harrison's 
council  that  frontier  has  been  pushed  westward  until  it  has  disap- 
peared from  the  continent.  With  it  have  gone  those  men  of 
blood  and  iron  who  conquered  the  wilderness.  Heroes  of  an 
heroic  age  were  they,  so  grim  and  stalwart  and  unyielding;-  they 
might  have  stalked  from  out  the  age  of  chivalry  and  romance; 
from  ancient  tombs  in  dusty  crypts  of  old  world  cathedrals,  to 
greet  the  sun  of  this  New  World  with  eager  eyes,  the  lurid  light 
of  battle  on  their  brows. 

The  Conquest  of  the  Indian.  147 

Yet  the  type  is  preserved  in  our  magnificent  youth  who  are 
battUng  on  other  frontiers.  Wherever  they  go  with  their  modern 
equipment  of  zeal  and  knowledge  and  skill  and  courage,  battling 
for  modern  ideas,  there  is  their  frontier,  and  there  they  are 
already  winning  new  victories. 

*      What  is  the  significance  of  this  progress  —  this  attitude  — 
these  conditions? 

Before  the  20th  century  shall  have  filled  out  its  first  decade 
this  continent  will  in  all  human  probability,  have  changed  front, 
so  to  speak,  and  the  busy  human  ambitions  which  now  make 
Europe  an  armed  camp  will  be  transiFerred,  or  at  least  duplicated 
in  the  Far  East  —  in  Asia  and  Africa.  Those  continents  are 
rapidly  breaking  to  pieces.  Their  long  centuries  of  stagnation 
are  to  be  replaced  by  a  healthier  and  more  vigorous  moral  atmos- 
phere. There  a  field  oflFers  for  the  wholesome  civilization,  the 
boundless  resources,  the  commercial  courage  and  the  high  moral 
purpose  of  the  Anglo-Saxon.  And  by  Anglo-Saxon  I  mean  that 
composite  product  which  controls  this  continent  to-day  and  which 
should  be  called  American. 

The  same  spirit  which  drew  our  forebears  to  the  fulfillment 
of  their  destiny  during  that  stirring  and  picturesque  era  as  they 
skirmished  and  battled  with  the  wilderness  and  the  savage,  writ- 
ing the  nation's  epic,  is  drawing  the  splendid  young  men  of  to-day 
to  other  and  far  distant  fields  where  they  find  something  to  con- 
quer —  that  is  their  Frontier. 


Some  Investigations  as  to  the  Authorship  of  the 

Famous   Sixth   Article. 


Senator  Roberts,  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  great  debate  over 
the  bill  for  the  admission  of  Missouri  to  the  Union,  in  1820, 
characterized  the  Ordinance  of  1787  as  "that  immortal  Ordinance 
which,  with  its  elder  sister,  the  Declaration  of  American  Inde- 
pendence, will  shed  eternal  and  inextinguishable  lustre  over  the 
annals  of  our  country." 

Daniel  Webster,  in  a  speech  upon  the  Foote  Resolution 
(1829),  said:  "We  are  accustomed  to  praise  the  law-givers  of 
antiquity;  we  help  to  perpetuate  the  fame  of  Solon  and  Lycur- 
gus;  but  I  doubt  whether  one  single  law  of  any  law-giver,  an- 
cient or  modem,  has  produced  effects  of  more  distinct,  marked 
and  lasting  character  than  the  Ordinance  of  1787." 

Salmon  -P.  Chase,  in  his  preface  to  his  Statutes  at  Large  of 
Ohio,  says  of  it :  "Never  in  the  history  of  the  world  did  a  meas- 
ure of  legislation  so  accurately  fulfill,  and  yet  so  mightily  exceeds 
the  expectation  of  the  legislators." 

"Whatever,"  said  Senator  George  F.  Hoar  in  his  magnificent 
oration  at  the  Marietta  Centennial  Celebration,  ''whatever  of 
these  gifts  nature  has  not  given,  is  to  be  traced  directly  to  the 
institutions  of  civil  and  religious  liberty  the  wisdom  of  your 
fathers  established;  above  all  in  the  great  Ordinance  of  1787. 
'The  spirit  of  the  Ordinance  pervades  all  these  States'  (of  the 
Northwest).  Here  was  the  first  human  government  under  which 
absolute  civil  and  religious  liberty  has  ah<vys  prevailecl.  Here, 
no  witch  or  wizard  was  ever  hanged  or  burned.  Here,  no  heretic 
was  ever  molested.     Here,  no  slave  was  ever  born  or  dweh. 

"When  older  States  and  nations,  where  the  chains  of  human 
bondage  have  been  broken,  shall  utter  the  pnnid  boast,   'with  a 


Ordinance  of  JjSj.  149 

great  sum  obtained  I  this  freedom' ;  each  sister  of  the  imperial 
group  —  Ohio,  Michigan,  Indiana,  Illinois  and  Wisconsin  —  may 
lift  her  queenly  head  with  the  yet  prouder  answer,  *but  I  was 
free-born  f*  " 

The  rays  of  the  resplendent  glory  of  having  originated  and 
pushed  into  legislation  the  Ordinance  of  1787  illuminate  many 
names,  but  chiefly  concentrate  upon  those  of  Thomas  Jefferson, 
of  Virginia,  Rufus  King  and  Nathan  Dane,  of  Massachusetts; 
and  in  lesser  degree,  William  Grayson,  of  Virginia,  and  Timothy 
lackering,  of  Pennsylvania.  To  make  a  just,  equitable  and  truth- 
ful partition  of  this  glory  is  the  object  of  this  paper. 

It  is  wonderful,  and  it  excites  curious  reflections  upon  the 
reliability  of  history,  that  there  has  been  so  much  and  such  vari- 
ous assertion  upon  a  matter  as  yet  but  a  little  over  a  century 
old,  and  which  concerns  fuiHonal  legislation ! 

Not  only*  have  JeflFerson,  King,  Grayson  and  Dane,  in  turn, 
in  Congress  and  otherwise,  been  glorified  as  the  one  to  whom  all 
the  honor  belongs  —  particularly  for  the  Vlth  Article  of  the 
Ordinance;  the  article  which  forever  prohibited  slavery  in  the 
Territory  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  and  the  States  to  be 
carved  out  of  it  —  but  Rev.  Dr.  Manasseh  Cutler  is  now,  in 
1888,  vehemently  asserted  to  have  been  the  great  benefactor  of 
all  the  Northwest,  in  that  he  wrote  that  article  and  secured  its 
passage  through  the  Old  Congress,  through  Dane. 

And  this  latest,  and  too  late  claimant  for  the  honor,  finds 
supporters  in  such  reputable  writers  as  Dr.  Hinsdale  (in  his  "Old 
Northwest").  Hon.  Daniel  J.  Ryan  (History  of  Ohio,  1888), 
and  Dr.  William  E.  Poole,  President  of  the  American  Historical 
As.s(H:iation.  (  Address  of  December  26,  1888.  at  the  Fifth  .Annual 
Meeting  of  the  Society),  and  a  number  of  others. 

Well  may  the  Hon.  Rufus  King,  of  Cincinnati,  in  his  recently 
published  volume  Ohio,  of  the  .American  Commonwealth  series, 
exclaim  :  "This  subject  seems  to  have  fallen  under  that  morbid 
infirmity  in  literature  which  delights  in  denying  Homer  and 
Shakespeare  their  works :  and  has  not  spared  even  the  Holy 
Scriptures !" 

Several  of  the  original  thirteen  States  claimed  ownership 
in  lands  outside  of  their  present  State  lines,  in  1780.     That  Con- 

150  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

gfress  might  legislate  for  the  government  of  these  Territories, 
it  was  necessary  these  States  should  quit  claim  them  to  the  Na- 
tional Government.    This  was  done  in  the  following  order : 

In  1 781,  New  York  limited  and  defined  her  northern  and 
western  boundaries  and  ceded  all  her  claims  to  lands  outside  of 
the  lines  so  established. 

In  1784,  Virginia  likewise  ceded  all  her  claims  to  territory 
northwest  of  the  Ohio  river. 

In  1785,  Massachusetts  ceded  all  her  claims  to  territory  to 
the  west  of  her  prescribed  boundaries. 

And  in  1786,  Connecticut  ceded  her  claim  to  a  portion  of 
the  territory  west  of  the  Ohio  river. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  subject  of  negro  slavery  was  so 
little  considered  in  those  times,  that  no  one  of  thesfe  deeds  of 
cession  contained  any  exclusion  of  that  domestic  institution,  or 
even  any  restriction  of  it  whatever.  Nevertheless,  there  were  in- 
dividual men,  both  North  and  South,  as  we  will  see,  whose  con- 
sciences were  awakened  and  impressed  by  the  moral  wrongful- 
ness and  political  impolicy  of  slavery,  and  the  inconsistency  of 
maintaining  it  in  this  country,  in  the  face  of  the  grand  demo- 
cratic doctrines  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

First,  in  point  of  time,  and  most  famous  of  these,  was 
Thomas  Jefferson,  of  Virginia,  himself  a  slave  owner. 

On  the  19th  of  April,  1784,  immediately  after  the  cession 
of  Virginia's  claims  to  the  territory,  he,  as  chairman  of  a  com- 
mittee appointed  for  the  purpose,  of  which  committee  Mr.  Chase, 
of  Maryland,  and  Mr.  Howell,  of  Rhode  Island,  were  the  other 
members,  reported  to  Congress  a  "Plan  of  Government"  for  the 
Territories.  In  this  plan  for  the  first  time  appeared  a  clause  in- 
tended, first,  to  limit  and  restrict,  and  then  extinguish  and  ex- 
clude negro  slavery  from  the  Northwestern  Territories  and  States 
to  grow  out  of  them.  It  has  always  been  accepted  as  a  fact  that 
JeflFerson  was  the  author  of  that  clause. 

Upon  the  motion  of  Mr.  Speight,  of  North  Carolina,  these 
words  were  stricken  out  of  the  reported  plan :  "That  after  the 
year  1800  of  the  Christian  era,  there  shall  be  neither  slavery  nor 
involuntary  servitude  in  any  of  the  States"  (to  be  organized 
thereafter  under  the  provisions  of  the  Tlan')  "otherwise  than  in 

Ordinance  of  lySy,  151 

punishment  of  crime  whereof  the  party  shall  have  been  convicted 
to  have  been  personally  guilty." 

Much  controversy  occurred  in  after  years  as  to  whether  the 
legislation  which  ultimately  excluded  slavery  from  the  North- 
west had  been  attained  despite  the  opposition  of  the  old  slave- 
holding  States,  or  by  their  willing  assent  and  co-operation.  There- 
fore L  give  the  vote  by  individuals  and  States  upon  the  motion  of 
Mr.  Speight  to  strike  out  the  above  clause,  noting  the  fact  that 
it  required  two  votes  to  have  a  State  counted,  and  therefore  New 
Jersey,  then  represented  on  this  vote  by  Mr.  Dick  only,  did  not 
count,  nor  did  North  Carolina,  whose  vote  was  divided. 

The  question  was  presented  by  the  formula  "Shall  the  words 
moved  to  be  stricken  out,  stand  ?"    And  the  vote  was  :* 

New  Hampshire  —  Foster,  aye ;  Blanchard,  aye.  The  State, 

Massachusetts  —  Gerry,  aye ;  Partridge,  aye.  The  State,  aye. 

Rhode  Island  —  EUery,  aye;  Howell,  aye.     The  State,  aye. 

Connecticut  —  Sherman,  aye ;  Wadsworth,  aye.  The  State, 

New  York  —  DeWitt,  aye ;  Paine,  aye.    The  State,  aye. 

New  Jersey  —  Dick,  aye.    Only  one  vote. 

Pennsylvania  —  Hand,  aye ;  Mifflin,  aye ;  Montgomery,  aye. 
The  State,  aye. 

Maryland  —  McHenry,  aye ;  Stone,  aye.    The  State,  aye. 

Virginia  —  Jefferson,  aye;  Hardy,  no;  Mercer,  no.  The 
State,  no. 

North  Carolina  —  Williamson,  aye ;  Speight,  no.  The 
State,  no. 

South  Carolina  —  Reed,  no  ;  Beresford,  no.     The  State,  no. 

And  so  the  necessary  number  of  States  (at  that  time  seven) 
not  having  voted  to  retain  the  clause,  it  was  stricken  out. 

It  is  only  fair  to  say  that  Southern  statesmen  always  insisted 
that  it  was  stricken  out  only  because  not  accompanied  with  a 
provision  for  the  rendition  of  fuq^itive  slaves,  as  provided  for 
afterwards  in  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

In  the  next  year  Timothy  Pickerin^^  wrote  to  Rufus  King, 
of  Massachusetts,  (March  8th,  1775),  "For  God's  sake,  then,  let 
one  more  effort  be  made  to  prevent  so  terrible  a  calamity" —  (f.  e.. 

152  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

as  the  introduc'tion  of  slavery).  "It  will  be  infinitely  easier  to 
prevent  the  evil  at  first  than  to  eradicate  it,  or  check  it  at  any 
future  time/' 

Moved  by  such  appeals,  and  his  own  opposition  to  the  insti- 
tutions of  slavery,  Mr.  King  accordingly  moved  to  commit  the 
consideration  of  the  subject  of  Jefferson's  rejected  clause  to  a  com- 
mittee for  report.  The  motion  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Ellery,  of 
Rhode  Island,  and  prevailed.  Mr.  King,  Mr.  Ellery  and  Mr. 
Howell  were  appointed  to  constitute  the  committee,  and  on  the 
6th  of  April,  1785,  made  their  report  to  Congress. 

This  report,  which  was  in  the  handwriting  of  Mr.  King, 
recommended  the  adoption  of  a  resolve  or  ordinance,  in  the  nature 
of  a  supplement  to  the  *Tlan  of  Government,"  by  Mr.  Jefferson 
—  which  had  passed  Congress  after  the  elimination  of  the  slavery 
restriction  clause  —  and  was  in  the  words  following :  "That 
there  shall  be  neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude  in  any 
of  the  states  described  in  the  resolve  of  April  23d,  1784,  other- 
wise than  in  punishment  of  crime  whereof  the  party  shall  have 
been  personally  guilty ;  and  that  this  regulation  shall  be  an  article 
of  compact,  and  remain  a  fundamental  principle  of  the  Constitu- 
tion betii*een  the  thirteen  original  staies,  and  each  of  the  states 
described  in  said  resolve  of  April  i»j.  1784.'^ 

This  proposition,  so  far  as  we  can  ascertain,  was  never  voted 
upon  by  Congress.  Bancroft's  History  of  the  Constitution  says 
that  it  was  never  called  up.  (Vol.  1,  pp.  179-180).  It  is  to 
be  noted  that  it  differed  from  the  clause  of  Mr.  Jefferson's  **Plan," 
in  that  it  made  the  exclusion  of  slavery  immediate  as  well  as  per- 
petual ;  and  asserted  the  regulation  to  be  a  compact  between  the 
future  states  and  the  original  thirteen. 

Southern  members  of  Congress  in  the  debate  on  the  Missouri 
Rill  afterwards  scouted  the  idea  of  a  compact  made  between  a 
tract  of  territory  having,  as  yet,  no  inhabitants,  with  the  thirteen 

Mr.  King's  motion  to  raise  the  committee  of  which  he  was 
chairman,  was  made  in  March,  and  upon  that  motion,  of  course, 
a  vote  was  taken ;  the  report  of  the  committee  was  made  on  April 
6th.  as  stated.  This  explanation  will  untangle  the  confusion  of 
statements  which  have  been  made  in  regard  to  the  "vote  upon 
King's  proposition,"  and  also  of  dates. 

Ordinance  of  lySy.  163 

But  although  Mr.  King's  report  was  not  acted  upon  at  the 
time,  the  subject  was  not  forgotten.  The  Indian  titles  to  parts 
of  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  river  were  being  rapidly 
e.xtinguished,  and  that  fair  region  was  being  made  ready  for  the 
occupation  of  white  settlers.  By  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  — 
1784  —  the  six  nations  quit-claimed  to  the  United  States  all  their 
right  to  territory  west  of  the  Ohio  river. 

In  January,  1785,  the  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Ottawas  and 
Chippewas  did  the  same,  as  to  all  the  lands  they  respectively 
claimed,  bordering  on  the  Ohio  river. 

And  finally,  the  warlike  and  dangerous  Shawnees  yielded  to 
the  United  States  all  their  claims  to  lands  lying  east  of  the  Great 
Miami  river. 

The  "Ohio  Company  of  Massachusetts"  was  organized  in 
Boston,  in  March,  1786.  A  year  was  allowed  within  which  to 
obtain  the  necessary  amount  of  subscriptions  to  the  stock  of  the 
company;  and  on  March  8th,  1787,  at  a  meeting  of  the  stock- 
holders held  in  Boston,  Samuel  H.  Parsons,  Rufus  Putnam  and 
Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler  were  chosen  to  be  directors  of  the  com- 
pany and  charged  to  make  application  to  Congress  —  the  "Old 
Congress"  —  for  the  purchase  of  lands  to  suit  the  purposes  of  the 

On  the  9th  of  May,  the  memorial  of  Mr.  Parsons,  bearing 
date  the  8th,  was  presented,  and  referred  to  a  committee  consist- 
ing of  Edward  Carrington,  Rufus  King,  Nathan  Dane  and  Egbert 
Benson.  From  the  i  ith  of  May  to  the  4th  of  July,  there  was  no 
quorum  of  Congress  present,  and  consequently  no  action  upon 
any  subject.  On  the  5th  of  July  Manasseh  Cutler  arrived  in  New 
York,  where  the  Congress  was  then  holding  its  session,  to  urge 
the  business  of  the  company.  On  the  10th,  the  report  of  the 
committee  appointed  on  the  Parsons  memorial,  on  the  9th  of  May, 
was  made,  submitting  a  plan  to  meet  the  wishes  of  the  Ohio 
Company,  and  it  was  made  the  "order  of  the  day"  for  the  nth. 
Tt  is  not  my  purpose  to  follow  the  history  of  the  Ohio  Company, 
but  havf*  stated  this  much  of  it,  firse  because  the  agents  of  that 
company,  by  their  urgence  of  its  business,  hastened  the  action  of 
Congress  in  passing  the  ordinance  of  1787;  and  secondly,  for  the 
purpose  of  in(|uiring  into  the  claim  now  made,  that  Manasseh 
Cutler  f)roposed  the  \'Ith  clause  of  that  ordinance. 

154  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

On  the  9th  day  of  July,  1787,  the  subject  of  forming  a  govern- 
ment for  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio  river  was  again  taken 
up.  It  must  be  remembered  that  Mr.  Jefferson's  "Plan  of  Gov- 
ernment" had,  except  the  slavery  clause,  been  adopted,  and  was 
still  an  ordinance  in  force;  and  that  Mr.  King's  report  of  April 
6th,  1785,  had  as  yet,  not  been  acted  upon.  On  the  9th,  when  the 
subject  was  again  taken  up,  the  whole  subject  was  referred  for 
report  to  a  new  committee,  or  reformed  Committee,  consisting  of 
Carrington,  of  Virginia;  Dane,  of  Massachusetts;  R.  H.  Lee,  of 
Virginia ;  Kean,  of  South  Carolina,  and  Smith,  of  New  York. 

They  were,  of  course,  familiar  with  all  the  precedent  discus- 
sions of  the  matter,  and  were  therefore  able  to  submit  their  report 
of  an  ordinance  as  early  as  the  nth,  upon  which  day  it  was  read 
for  the  first  time;  its  second  reading  on  the  12th;  and  its  third 
reading,  and  enactment  on  July  13th,  1787. 

It  repealed  the  Jefferson  "Plan"  of  1784.  There  were  eight 
states  present  —  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  all  voting  in  the  old 
Congress  was  by  states  —  and  the  vote  upon  the  passage  of  the 
bill  was  as  follows : 

Massachusetts  —  Holton,  aye ;  Dane,  aye.    As  a  State,  aye. 

New  York  —  Smith,  aye;  Harring,  aye;  Yates,  no.  As  a 
State,  aye. 

New  Jersey — ; Clark,  aye;  Sherman,  aye.     As  a  State,  aye. 

Delaware  —  Kearney,  aye;  Mitchel,  aye.     As  a  State,  aye. 

Virginia  —  Grayson,  aye;  R.  H.  Lee,  aye;  Carrington,  aye. 
As  a  State,  aye. 

North  Carolina  —  Blount,  aye;  Hawkins,  aye.  As  a  State^ 

South  Carolina — Kean,  aye;  Huger,  aye.     As  a  State,  aye. 

Georgia  —  Few,  aye ;  Pearce,  aye.    Asa  State,  aye. 

And  so,  "It  was  resolved  in  the  affirmative,"  says  the  annals 
of  Congress,  volume  4,  page  754. 

It  will  be  observed  there  were  four  states  from  the  north  of 
the  Potomac,  and  an  equal  number  from  the  south  of  it,  repre- 
sented by  this  vote.  Yet  every  state  voted  for  its  passage,  and 
every  dele|[^ate  but  one.  and  he  was  from  the  northern  state  ot 
New  York. 

Ordinance  of  1787.  156 

At  this  point  I  quote  from  the  journal  of  Rev.  Manasseh 
Cutler,  asking  that  the  dates  be  observed : 

"July  loth,  1787.  As  Congress  was  now  engaged  in  set- 
tling the  form  of  government  for  the  Federal  territory,  tor  which 
a  bill  had  been  prepared  and  a  copy  sent  to  me  with  leave  to  make 
remarks  and  propose  amendments,  I  thought  this  a  favorable 
opportunity  to  go  to  Philadelphia."  It  appears  from  this  journal 
that  he  did,  on  that  day,  leave  New  York,  (where  Congress  was 
in  session)  and  did  not  return  until  the  i6th,  three  days  after 
the  adoption  of  the  ordinance  as  it  now  stands. 

Now,  be  it  remembered,  also,  that  the  Vlth  Article  —  the 
anti-slavery  clause  for  which  the  credit  is  claimed  for  him  — 
was  not  contained  in  the  bill  until  it  was  actually  passed  on  the 
13th,  when  Mr.  Dane,  joyfully  astonished  at  the  unanimous  vote 
given  to  the  bill,  took  instant  advantage  of  the  magnanimous  >. 

mood  which  prevailed  among  the  delegates,  and  added  the  Vlth 
Article,  which  went  through  by  the  same  vote  by  which  the  bal- 
ance of  it  had  just  passed. 

Mr.  Cutler  was  then  in  Philadelphia. 

It  is  very  probable  that  Mr.  Cutler  had  suggested,  as  his 
journal  quite  plainly  asserts,  the  portion  of  the  Ilird  Article 
which  relates  to  "religion,  morality  and  l^nowledge  being  neces- 
sary to  good  government  and  the  happiness  of  mankind,"  etc.  As 
a  minister  of  the  Gospel,  he  would  be  likely  to  make  some  such 
suggestions ;  but  we  think  it  clear  that  he  was  not  the  author  of 
the  Vlth  Article. 

I  am  indebted  to  Hon.  Rufus  King,  of  Cincinnati,  (grandson 
of  Hon.  Rufus  King,  of  Massachusetts,  so  often  herein  men- 
tioned) for  leave  to  copy  and  use  the  following  interesting  letter, 
only  recently  discovered  by  Mr.  King,  in  which  Mr.  Dane,  writ- 
ing to  Mr.  King,  of  Massachusetts,  under  date  of  July  i6th, 
1787  —  only  three  days  after  the  adoption  of  the  Ordinance, 
says : 

"When  I  drew  the  Ordinance  (which  passed  as  I  originally 
formed  it,  a  few  words  excepted)  I  had  no  idea  the  states  would 
agree  to  the  \'Ith  Article,  prohibiting  slavery,  as  only  Massa- 
chusetts of  the  Eastern  states  was  present ;  and  therefore  omitted 
it  in  the  draft.     Rut  finding  the  House  favorably  disposed  on  this 

166  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

subject,  after  we  had  completed  the  other  parts,  I  moved  this 
article,  which  was  agreed  to  without  opposition." 

And  long  afterwards,  when  in  1830  he  published  the  IX 
volume  of  his  compilation  of  the  laws  of  the  various  states,  known 
as  "Dane's  Abridgement,"  in  an  appendix  to  his  volume,  he 
made  an  elaborate  defense  of  his  title  to  authorship  of  the  Ordi- 
nance, as  against  the  attacks  of  Benton,  of  Missouri,  and  Hayne, 
of  South  Carolina,  made  in  the  debate  upon  the  *'Foote  Resolu- 
tions," in  the  course  of  which  he  says:  "The  Vlth  Article  of  the 
compact  (the  slave  article)  is  imperfectly  understood.  Its  his- 
tory is,  that  in  1784  a  committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  Jefferson,  Mr. 
Chase  and  Mr.  Howell,  reported  it  as  a  part  of  *the  Plan'  of  1784. 
This,  (part)  Congress  struck  out;  only  two  members  south  of  ^ 
Pennsylvania  supported  it.  All  north  of  Maryland,  present,  voted 
for  it,  so  as  to  exclude  slavery. 

'*It  was  imperfect,  too,  first,  in  that  it  admitted  slavery  until 
the  year  1800;  second,  in  that  it  admitted  slavery  in  very  consid- 
erable parts  of  the  territory  forever;  as  will  appear  in  a  critical 
examination,  especially  in  the  parts  owned  for  ages  by  French 
Canadians  and  other  inhabitants.  *  *  *  Jn  thjg  ordinance  of 
'87  slavery  is  excluded  forever,  from  every  part  of  the  whole 
^territory  of  the  United  States,  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio/ 

*'The  amended  slave  article,  as  it  is  in  the  ordinance  of  '87, 
was  added  upon  the  author's  (Mr.  Dane's)  motion;  but  as  the 
journals  show,  was  not  so  reported. 

"In  the.  seventh  volume  (of  the  abridgment)  published  in 
1824,  full  credit  is  given  to  Mr.  Jefferson  and  Mr.  King  on  ac- 
count of  their  slave  articles."     *     *     * 

Further  on  in  Mr.  Dane's  statement,  from  which  I  am  now 
quoting,  he  says : 

"The  author  (Mr.  Dane)  took  from  Mr.  Jefferson's  resolve 
of  '84,  in  substance,  the  six  provisions  in  the  IVth  Article  of  the 
Compact.  He  took  the  words  of  the  slave  article  from  Mr.  King's 
'motion  made  in  1785,  and  extended  its  operation  as  to  time  and 
extent  of  territory  *  'i^  *  j^^  (/  ^  ^fr.  Dane)  furnished  the 
provisions  respecting  impairing  contracts,  the  Indian  security  and 
some  other  smaller  matters ;  and  the  residue  he  selected  from 
existing  laws." 

Ordinance  of  iy8/.  157 

Such  is  Nathan  Dane's  own  statement  as  to  the  history  of 
this  most  important  legislation.  He  says  he  took  the  Vlth  Article 
in  substance  from  Rufus  King  —  not  from  Manasseh  Cutler. 
He  claims  as  entirely  his  own,  the  provisions  that  neither  the 
Territorial  Legislature,  nor  the  Legislatures  of  any  of  the  states 
to  be  erected  on  the  soil  of  the  territory,  should,  by  ex  post  facto 
enactments,  impair  the  obligations  of  existing  contracts ;  securing 
to  the  Indians  their  rights  in  their  own  lands  and  other  property, 
and  guaranteeing  to  them  immunity  from  invasion  and  disturbance 
except  during  lawful  war,  "and  some  other  smaller  matters/'  He 
fully  admits  Mr.  Jefferson's  large  share  in  forming  or  suggesting 
its  most  important  provisions ;  and  that  much  of  the  balance  was 
selected  from  the  code  of  Massachusetts. 

Such  is  the  true  history  of  this  important  legislation.  Daniel 
Webster  was  mistaken  in  his  statement,  made  in  the  debate  on 
Foote's  resolution  in  1829  to  the  effect  that  "this  great  measure 
was  carried  by  the  North  and  the  North  alone,"  for  as  the  vote 
shows,  as  manv  Southern  states  voted  for  it  as  did  Northern  states. 

Thomas  Benton  was  disengenuous,  when  he  asserted,  in  the 
same  debate,  that  "that  ordinance  was  first  drawn  by  Mr.  Jeffer- 
son, two  years  before  Mr.  Dane  came  into  Congress;''  as  the 
foregoing  narration  fairly  proves.  ^ 

The  truth  is,  that  the  great  ordinance,  like  almost  every  im- 
portant and  permanent  legislative  enactment,  grew ;  gradually 
accreting  the  best  suggestions  of  Jefferson.  King,  Dane;  and 
doubtless  also  (irayson,  Carrington,  R.  H.  Lee,  Pickering,  and 
other  grand  men  of  that  day,  whose  noble  natures  would  not 
allow  them  to  claim  for  themselves,  as  (iod-given  natural  rights, 
"life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness ;"  and  yet  deny  that 
these  blessings  were  equally  the  rights  of  negroes  and  their  de- 

It  is  certain  that  the  Northwestern  states  first,  and  then,  con- 
sequently, the  Cnitcd  States  (^f  America  as  a  whole;  including  all 
the  future  commonwealth  yet  to  be  represented  by  stars  in  the 
blue  field  of  **(  )l(l  (ilory,"  have  reasons  —  abounding  and  ever 
increasing  reasons  —  to  be  grateful  to  the  statesmen  who  enacted 
the  ( )rdinance  of  1787;  and  so  "may  all  the  people  praise  them." 



The  Indian  Boundary  Line,  sometimes  known  as  the  Green- 
ville Treaty  Line,  or  Wayne's  Treaty  Line,  had  its  origin  in  the 
closing  events  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  As  an  historical  land 
mark  it  has  no  equal  in  the  early  history  of  this  country.'  Around 
its  history  cling  many  of  the  most  stubborn  and  sanguinary  con- 
flicts and  border  outrages,  that  so  distinctly  marked  the  closing 
of  the  eighteenth  century. 

On  every  good  map  of  Ohio  it  will  be  noticed  that  a  line 
starts  on  the  northern  boundary  of  Tuscarawas  county,  and  passes 
in  a  south  of  west  direction  through  the  county  of  Holmes  and  on 
across  the  State  to  the  counties  of  Shelby  and  Mercer.  What  is 
this  line?  Why  is  it  there?  Who  established  it,  and  when,  are 
the  frequent  inquiries  made,  and  which  have  not  been  heretofore 
answered  in  such  form  as  to  copie  within  reach  of  the  general 
reading  public.  To  briefly  answer  these  questions,  in  such  form 
as  w«ll  reach  the  general  public,  is  the  sole  apology  for  the  prep- 
aration of  this  article. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  by  the  treaty  of  Paris  com- 
pleted on  September  3,  1783,  Great  Britain  relinquished  all  her 
rights  to  the  territory  claimed  by  the  thirteen  original  colonies, 
and  recognized  the  sovereignty  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
The  treaty  of  Paris  did  not  extinguish  whatever  title  the  Indians 
claimed  to  have  within  the  colonies.  And  in  order  to  establish  per- 
petual peace  with  the  Indian  tribes  the  Continental  Congress 
appointed  Oliver  Wolcott,  Richard  Butler  and  Arthur  Lee  as 
commissioners  to  make  such  treaty  with  the  Indians  as  would 
extinguish  their  title  to  the  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory. 
The  commissioners  proceeded  to  Fort  Stanwix,  New  York,  and 
there  met  the  representatives  of  the  Iroquois  or  Six  Nations,  who 
claimed  to  have  conquered  all  the  western  tribes  and  on  October 
22,  1784.  entered  into  a  treaty  whereby  the  Iroquois  relinquished 


Indian  Boundary  Line.  159 

all  their  pretended  claims  and  titles  to  the  lands  north  and  west 
of  the  river  Ohio.  This  treaty  was  approved  by  the  Continental 
Congress,  but  it  was  learned  soon  thereafter  that  the  Iroquois 
had  falsely  made  claim  to  title  to  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory, 
and  that  their  intrusion  into  said  country  had  proved  fruitless 
to  them. 

Thereupon  the  Continental  Congress  appointed  George 
Rogers  Clark,  Richard  Butler  and  Arthur  Lee  as  commissioners 
to  meet  the  Indians  claiming  title  to  the  lands  in  the  western 
country,  and  make,  if  possible,  a  treaty  extinguishing  their  title 
to  the  same.  The  commissioners  at  once  proceeded  to  Fort  Mc- 
intosh, at  the  mouth  of  Big  Beaver  Creek,  in  western  Pennsyl- 
vania. Here  they  met  representatives  of  the  Delawares,  Wyan- 
dots  and  other  tribes,  who,  on  January  31,  1785,  entered  into  a 
treaty  with  said  commissioners  whereby  said  Indian  tribes  relin- 
quished all  their  right  and  title  to  all  the  lands  situated  south  and 
east  of  a  line  commencing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  River, 
thence  up  said  river  to  the  portage  between  the  Cuyahoga  and 
the  Tuscarawas,  thence  across  said  portage  and  down  the  Tus- 
carawas to  the  "Crossing  Place"  above  Fort  Laurens,  near  where 
Bolivar  now  stands ;  thence  in  a  westerly  direction  to  the  portage 
between  the  Great  Miami  and  Auglaize,  near  where  stood  Lora- 
mie's  store ;  thence  down  the  Auglaize  and  Maumee  to  Lake  Erie. 

This  treaty  was  afterward  confirmed  by  the  Continental 
Congress  under  the  mistaken  belief  that  the  Indian  title  to  the 
lands  had  been  completely  extinguished,  to  the  territory  covered 
by  the  treaty.  In  pursuance  to  this  l>elief,  on  May  20,  1785, 
Congress  passed  an  act  providing  for  the  survey  and  sale  of  the 
lands  northwest  of  the  Ohio  river,  to  which  the  Indian  title  had 
been  extinguished.  As  soon  as  this  work  was  commenced,  the 
powerful  Shawnee  tribes  appeared  on  the  scene  and  contested  the 
right  of  Congress  to  lay  claim  to  the  lands  in  which  they  had  an 
interest.  This  resistance  by  the  Shawnees  caused  Coni^ress  to 
appoint  another  commission  consisting  of  George  Roc^^crs  Clark, 
Richard  Bntler  and  Samuel  11.  Parsons,  who  met  the  Shawnee 
chiefs  at  Fort  Finney  near  the  mouth  of  the  (ireat  Miami,  where, 
on  January  31,  1786,  a  treaty  was  signed  by  the  terms  of  which 
the  Shawnees  relinquished  their  title  to  all  their  lands  lying  east 

160  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

and  south  of  the  line  established  by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh 
with  the  Delawares  and  Wyandots. 

Again  it  was  believed  that  peace  had  been  permanently  estab- 
lished between  the  western  tribes  and  the  United  States.  Emigra- 
tion commenced  to  move  rapidly  toward  the  Ohio  country,  only 
to  be  again  annoyed  by  Indian  resistance  and  merciless  butcheries. 
As  an  excuse  for  these  depredations,  the  confederate  tribes  of  the 
northwest  joined  in  a  powerful  remonstrance  to  Congress  in  De- 
cember, 1786,  wherein  it  was  claimed  that  the  treaties  above 
named  were  only  partial  treaties  and  did  not  bind  the  several 
tribes  which  took  no  part  in  the  several  conventions,  and  sought 
to  justify  their  right  to  the  whole  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio, 
by  virtue  of  the  old  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix,  made  in  1768  with 
the  British  Government. 

The  Continental  Congress  had  now  become  exasperated  at 
the  unfaithfulness  and  treachery  ^of  the  confederate  tribes,  and 
in  order  to  meet  the  remonstrances  squarely,  determined  to  estab- 
lish civil  government  in  the  Northwest  Territory  at  the  earliest 
time  possible.  The  ordinance  of  1787  was  passed  and  Arthur 
St.  Clair  was  appointed  Governor.  He  arrived  at  Marietta  on 
July  9,  1788,  and  on  July  2y  issued  his  proclamation  establishing 
Washington  county  with  the  following  boundaries :  Beginning 
at  the  Ohio  river  where  the  western  boundary  of  Pennsylvania 
crosses  the  same ;  thence  north  to  Lake  Erie ;  west  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga  river ;  thence  up  said  river,  across  the  portage  to 
the  Tuscarawas  and  down  that  river  to  the  crossing  place  above 
Fort  Laurens ;  thence  west  to  that  branch  of  the  Great  Miami  on 
which  stood  the  fort  taken  by  the  French  in  1752;  thence  south 
to  the  Scioto  river ;  thence  with  said  river  and  up  the  Ohio  to  the 
place  of  beginning.  Officers  were  appointed  by  the  governor 
and  an  attempt  to  establish  civil  government  in  the  county  was 

This  attempt  to  establish  civil  government  seemed  to  incite 
rather  than  allay  the  infractions  by  the  Indians.  And  (iovcrnor 
St.  Clair  found  it  necessary  to  make  a  further  attenii)t  to  estab- 
lish peace,  and  called  the  chiefs  of  the  various  confederate  tribes 
together  at  Fort  Harniar.  where  on  January  g,  1789.  he  succeeded 

Indian  Boundary  Line.  161 

in  obtaining  separate  treaties  confirming  the  treaties  made  at  Fort 
Mcintosh  and  Fort  Finney. 

These  separate  compacts  were  no  more  effective  than  those 
that  preceded  them.  Indian  depredations  continued,  even  more 
cruel  than  before.  Congress  now  realized  that  the  only  means 
left  by  which  peace  could  be  secured  and  the  settlers  protected, 
was  by  force  of  arms.  An  expedition  was  sent  against  the  treach- 
erous savages  in  1790  under  General  Harmar  which  met  with 
defeat;  and  another  was  sent  out  in  1791  under  Governor  St. 
Clair  which  met  the  same  fate.  General  Wayne  was  then  placed 
in  command,  and  in  August,  1794,  at  the  "Battle  of  Fallen  Tim- 
bers/' he  administered  such  a  stinging  rebuke  to  the  Indian  Con- 
federacy and  its  British  allies  that  they  never  recovered,  and 
Indian  conspiracy  in  the  northwest  came  to  an  end. 

As  a  direct  result  of  the  victory  of  General  Wayne,  he  re- 
paired to  Fort  Greenville  in  what  is  now  Darke  county.  There 
the  principal  chiefs  of  the  confederate  tribes  assembled,  and  on 
August  5,  1795,  a  treaty  was  consummated  which  extinguished 
forever  the  Indian  title  to  the  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory 
situated  south  and  east  of  the  boundary  line  described  as  fol- 
lows: Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  river;  thence 
up  said  river  to  the  portage ;  thence  across  said  portage  and  down 
the  Tuscarawas  branch  of  the  Muskingum  to  the  crossing  place 
above  Fort  Laurens ;  thence  in  a  westerly  direction  to  that  branch 
of  the  Great  Miami  at  or  near  which  stood  Loramie*s  store ;  thence 
northwest  to  Fort  Recovery ;  thence  in  a  southerly  direction  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky  river. 

President  Washington,  on  December  9,  1795,  reported 
Wayne^s  Treaty  by  special  message  to  the  United  States  Senate, 
which  afterward  confirmed  the  same. 

The  gateway  to  the  northwest  was  now  open,  and  on  May 
18.  1796,  Congress  enacted  a  law  providing  for  the  survey  of 
the  outlines  of  the  territory  recently  acquired  from  the  Indians, 
and  among  other  things  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  sur- 
veyor general,  who  was  given  power  to  appoint  the  necessary 
number  of  deputy  surveyors  and  administer  the  oath  to  them. 
Another  provision  in  said  law  was  that  the  cost  of  surveying  said 
outlines  should  not  exceed  three  dollars  per  mile. 

Vol.  XIV— 11. 

16if  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

The  surveyor  general  appointed  one  Israel  Ludlow  a  deputy 
surveyor  under  said  law,  and  he  was  assigned  the  task  of  survey- 
ing the  line  agreed  upon  by  Wayne's  Treaty,  and  which  had  been 
the  subject  of  contention  for  so  many  years. 

How  Ludlow  performed  this  task  is  herewith  given,  much  of 
which  has  been  taken  from  his  report  of  the  survey  to  the  gov- 

The  survey  was  under  the  personal  direction  of  Israel  Lud- 
low, Deputy  Surveyor  of  the  United  States.  The  chain  carriers 
were  William  C.  Schenck  and  Israel  Shreeve,  both  of  whom  were 
duly  sworn  by  the  deputy  surveyor. 

A  random  line  was  first  surveyed  in  order  to  ascertain  the 
true  course  of  the  Indian  Boundary.  This  random  line  was 
commenced  on  Sunday,  June  i8,  1797,  at  a  sycamore  tree  four 
feet  in  diameter  standing  at  the  fork  of  that  branch  of  the  Great 
Miami  rivet*  near  which  stood  Loramie's  store,  with  the  magnetic 
bearing  of  N.  4  degrees  and  S  minutes  E. ;  thence  due  east  131 
miles  and  50  chains  to  the  Muskingum  river,  which  was  8  chains 
wide;  thence  up  said  Muskingum  river  with  the  meanderings 
thereof  4  miles,  56  chains  and  50  links  to  the  confluence  of  the 
White  Woman  and  the  Tusciarawas;  thence  up  the  Tuscarawas 
branch  with  the  meanderings  thereof  to  a  point  opposite  Fort 
Laurens;  thence  across  said  river  to  said  fort;  thence  up  said 
river  about  two  miles  to  the  "crossing  place,"  above  said  fort, 
"which  was  the  place  named  in  the  late  treaty  by  General  Wayne 
as  a  place  from  where  a  line  is  to  run  to  that  fork  of  the  north 
branch  of  the  Great  Miami  at  or  near  where  stood  Loramie's 

The  courses  and  distances  up  the  Muskingum  and  the  Tus- 
carawas are  given  in  Ludlow's  notes.  From  the  survey  of  this 
random  line,  Ludlow  determined  that  the  bearing  of  the  line  con- 
necting the  crossing  place  above  Fort  Laurens  with  that  branch 
of  the  Great  Miami  at  or  near  which  stood  Loramie's  store  and 
which  is  near  the  western  line  of  what  is  now  Shelby  county  was 
S.  78  de£]:rccs  and  50  minutes  W. 

From  Ludlow's  report  of  the  actual  survey  of  the  Indian 
Boundary  Line  the  following  quotation  is  made:  "Sunday,  9th 
July,  1797,  bef^^an  a  survey  of  Indian  Boundary  Line  according 

Indian  Boundary  Line.  163 

to  treaty  of  Greenville  by  General  Wayne  of  August  5,  1795,  at 
the  crashing  place  of  the  Tuscarawas  branch  of  the  Muskingum 
river  above  Fort  Laurens  at  a  bottom  oak  10  inches  in  diameter 
standing  on  the  west  bank  of  said  fork,  which  tree  is  notched  with 
three  notches  on  the  north  and  west  sides  with  this  inscription : 
'Surveyed  according  to  Treaty  by  Gen.  Wayne,  a  line  to  Loramie*s 
S.  78  degrees  and  50  minutes  W.' " 

In  tracing  the  boundary  line  southwesterly  through  what  is 
now  Holmes  county,  Ludlow  entered  among  his  notes  the  follow- 
ing, "19  miles,  32  chains,  a  water  course  running  southwest,  where 
a  flat  ridge  divides  the  waters  of  Sugar  creek  and  Killbuck  creek," 
"26  miles,  30  chains  and  50  links,  Killbuck  creek  2  chains  wide, 
running  south,  20  east  current  gentle."  "40  miles,  17  chains  and 
50  links.  White  Woman  creek  (now  called  Mohican)  runs  south, 
20  east,  4  chains  and  50  links  wide." 

When  Ludlow  had  surveyed  the  line  to  the  distance  of  119 
miles  and  59  chains,  he  ran  a  line  south  480  chains  when  he  found 
the  trace  of  the  random  line  he  had  run  east.  He  returned  to  the 
camp  on  the  treaty  line  and  changed  the  course  of  the  same  from 
S.  78  degrees,  50  W.  to  S.  88  degrees,  50  W.  and  at  153  miles 
and  35  chains  from  the  starting  place,  he  came  to  a  post  23  chains 
and  50  links  above  the  forks  of  Laramie's  creek  on  a  course  S.  10 
W.  This  report  is  dated  August  29,  1797,  and  is  signed  by  Israel 
Ludlow,  D.  S. 

The  survey  of  the  line  from  Loramie's  to  Fort  Recovery,  was 
commenced  by  Ludlow  on  Saturday,  August  3,  1799,  at  Loramie's, 
and  bears  north  81  decrees,  10  minutes  west,  22  miles,  51  chains 
and  50  links  to  Fort  Recovery,  which  was  situated  in  what  is  now 
Mercer  county  near  the  Indiana  line. 

The  survey  of  the  line  between  Fort  Recovery  and  the  mouth 
of  the  Kentucky  river  was  commenced  by  Ludlow  on  Tuesday, 
10  o'clock,  August  8,  1799,  at  Fort  Recovery,  and  bears  S.  11 
degrees,  35  minutes  W.  Six  miles  of  this  part  of  the  line  only 
is  within  the  present  limits  of  the  State  of  Ohio. 



The  Anti-Slavery  agitation  of  the  nineteenth  century,  called 
out  the  heroic  quahties  in  many  a  quiet  man  in  whom  such  attri- 
butes had  never  been  suspected. 

In  no  part  of  the  country,  did  the  friends  of  the  fugitive 
slave  make  more  personal  sacrifices  than  those  residing  in  south- 
western  Ohio. 

It  was  during  this  period  that  the  name  "under-ground  rail- 
road" was  given  to  the  manner  by  which  the  negroes  were  piloted 
to  freedom. 

•  Regularly  routes  were  devised  over  which  hundreds  of  slaves 
were  sent  on  their  way  to  liberty.  These  routes  were  known  to 
but  few,  and  those  the  persons  actively  engaged  in  the  service. 

While  slaves  could  not  be  owned  north  of  the  Ohio  river 
the  owners  had  many  warm  friends  in  the  north,  who  would  have 
been  glad  to  assist  them  in  recovering  their  so-called  chattels, 
and  who  used  all  their  influence  in  making  it  uncomfortable  and 
even  dangerous  for  those  engaged  in  relief  work. 

The  phrase  "having  the  courage  of  one's  convictions"  so 
often  spoken  with  but  little  thought  as  to  its  meaning,  had  an 
intense  force  to  those  who  were  summoned  before  a  judge  who 
enjoyed  inflicting  the  utmost  penalty  of  the  law.     The  truth  of 


the  poet's  lines  was  unfelt  by  many. 

"Then   to   side   with   truth   is   noble 

When   we   share  her  wretched  crust. 
Ere  her  cause  bring  fame  and  profit 

And  'tis  prosperous  to  be  just. 
Then  it  is  the  brave  man  chooses. 

While   the    coward    stands   aside. 
Doubting  in  his  abject  spirit. 

Till    his   Lord   is   crucified. 
And    the    multitude    make    virtue 

Of    the    faith    they    had    denied." 

Added  to  the  penalties  of  the  law  were  the  discomforts  at- 
tending being  out,  always  at  night,  often  in  storm,  the  nervous 

•  (164) 

A  Station  on  the  Underground  Railroad.  165 

strain  attending  such  experiences,  and  the  enforced  neglect  of 
business.  Cincinnati  was  of  course  the  point  first  reached  by  the 
slaves,  from  there  they  were  taken  to  Glendale,  then  to  Foster's, 
on  the  Little  Miami,  and  from  there  they  were  brought  to  Spring- 
boro,  which  was  a  village  in  Warren  county,  settled  largely  by 
"Friends"  or  Quakers,  a  people  justly  celebrated  for  their  sym- 
pathy with  the  down-trodden.  These  stations  were  the  homes 
of  the  various  sympathizers  and  no  questions  were  asked  by  the 
house-wives  when  well  filled  pantry  shelves  were  mysteriously 
emptied.  From  Springboro  they  were  taken  to  the  home  of  a  Dr. 
A.  Brooks,  near  Wilmington,  Clinton  county,  and  from  there  to 
Oakland,  a  station  near  Xenia,  Ohio,  and  so  on  towards  Canada. 

Among  those  acting  as  conductor  was  a  Friend,  William  S. 
Bedford,  by  name,  who  had  probably  inherited  his  abhorrence  of 
the  system  from  his  father,  Thomas  Bedford,  who  as  early  as 
1786,  shortly  after  his  landing  from  England,  threw  up  a  lucra- 
tive position  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  because  his  conscience  would 
not  allow  him  to  direct  or  use  slave  labor,  thereby  so  incensing 
his  uncle,  by  whom  he  was  employed,  that  he  refused  to  pay  him 
anything  for  the  labor  already  done,  upon  which  he  started  to 
walk  to  Philadelphia,  stopping  in  Virginia  and  Maryland  to  teach 
school,  thus  helping  himself  forward.  It  is  not  surprising  to  find 
his  children,  later,  showing  strong  feeling  on  the  subject. 

Only  faint  echoes  from  the  past  come  to  us  now,  but  such  as 
they  are,  they  are  worthy  of  preservation. 

The  manuscript  containing  the  account  published  below  was 
found  among  the  papers  of  my  father,  the  William  S.  Bedford 
above  referred  to,  to  which  has  been  added  the  abstract  of  the 
court  record. 

In  1839  a  citizen  of  Rockingham  county,  Virginia,  by  name 
Hennet  Raines,  started  for  Missouri,  leaving  his  home  hurriedly, 
he  being  seriously  involved,  financially.  Accompanying  his  family 
were  four  slaves,  an  old  woman,  her  daughter  (a  woman  in  the 
prime  of  life)  and  two  small  children  belonging  to  the  latter, 
one  four  years  of  age  and  the  other  an  infant  in  arms.  They 
passed  through  Springboro,  Ohio,  and  pitched  their  tent  one  mile 
west.  Word  had  been  sent  to  the  Abolitionists  there  of  their  in- 
tended arrival,  and  a  hope  expres.sed  that  they  might  manage  to 

166  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

free  these  slaves,  —  Springboro  at  that  time  being  one  of  the  reg- 
ular stations  on  the  under-ground  railroad.  The  town  was  largely 
composed  of  Friends  or  Quakers,  most  of  whom  were  friendly 
to  the  cause.  We  held  a  hurried  counsel  and  agreed  to  meet  at 
his  tent  and  inform  him  that  he  was  violating  our  laws  by  passing 
slaves  through  our  state. 

A  goodly  number  appeared  according  to  programme,  Dr.  A. 
Brooks  being  appointed  speaker.  Raines  said  we  might  take  them 
if  they  were  willing  to  go,  the  elder  woman  soon  climbed  into 
our  carriage,  as  would  the  younger,  but  a  daughter  of  Raines  had 
secreted  the  boy,  no  doubt  thinking  she  could  sell  him  in  Mis- 
souri. We  felt  the  children  could  not  judge,  and  that  the  mother 
had  the  best  claim  to  them  so  the  search  was  continued  until  one 
cried  out:  "I  feel  its  kinky  head,"  and  within  the  next  twenty 
minutes  they  were  all  on  the  road  to  Canada.  Raines  was  much 
irritated  and  finally  pushed  his  gun  barrel  out  of  the  back  of  the 
tent  or  wagon,  some  one  told  him  "that  was  a  game  more  than 
one  could  play,"  and  at  once  the  noise  of  ramrods  and  gunlocks 
was  heard,  the  colored  members  having  brought  theirs  without 
our  knowledge  or  consent. 

Raines  was  shrewd  and  keen  and  found  many  sympathizers 
in  Franklin  —  a  town  near  by,  who  advised  him  to  prosecute. 
He  made  oath  that  we  had  robbed  him  of  $1,000.00  in  gold  and 
$500.00  in  paper.  Sixteen  of  us  in  consequence  were  cited  to  ap- 
pear before  the  court  then  in  session  in  Lebanon,  our  county  seat. 
We  engaged  four  eminent  lawyers,  Ex-Gov.  Bell,  Ex-Gov.  Cor- 
win,  R.  Schenck  (later  General)  and  Robert  G.  Corwin,  who 
agreed  to  see  us  through  all  the  courts  for  $500.00,  but  before  the 
case  was  reached  the  old  man  died,  and  his  son  took  it  up.  There 
were  three  counts  in  the  indictment:  Abduction,  grand  larceny 
and  riot.  The  abduction  would  not  bear  handling,  but  fell 
through  at  once ;  they  then  tried  grand  larceny.  The  mother  and 
son  being  examined  separately,  she  on  being  asked  from  what 
state  she  came,  said  she  did  not  know,  but  thouc^ht  it  was  Rock- 
ingham. She  said  the  gold  was  put  in  a  pasteboard  box  she  sup- 
posed, but  had  never  seen  it,  but  the  paper  was  in  $100.00  bills. 
The  son  then  said  there  were  no  $100.00  bills,  and  all  the  gold 
he  had  seen  turn  out  was  two  or  three  $5.00  pieces,  so  the  jury 
let  that  drop,  almost  without  leaving  their  seats ;  but  they  held  us 


A  Station  on  the  Underground  Railroad.  167 

on  the  last  count,  for  they  proved  there  were  guns  on  the  ground, 
and  the  unlawful  manner  of  doing  even  a  lawful  thing  was  held 
by  the  court  to  constitute  a  riot.  We  were  sentenced  to  five  days 
in  the  dungeon,  to  be  fed  on  bread  and  water  and  to  pay  a  fine, 
some  of  $20.00  and  some  of  $5.00.  The  dungeon  proved  too  small, 
being  but  8  feet  by  10  feet,  and  one  person  already  in  it.  They 
then  made  another  room  as  dark  as  possible  and  placed  us  there. 
There  were  four  of  our  company  who  were  reported  by  the  Grand 
Jury  who  were  not  tried  in  open  court,  but  condemned  with  the 
rest.  Our  lawyers  made  a  statement  of  the  case  and  we  sent  it 
by  a  trusty  messenger  to  the  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  who 
ordered  us  all  turned  out  by  giving  $500.00  bail  for  our  appear- 
ance before  the  court  when  it  should  set  in  our  county.  Some 
of  us  had  already  given  $3,000.00  bail  on  esquire's  docket. 

Judge  Hitchcock  cleared  us  in  the  Supreme  Court  in  about 
30  minutes,  for  he  said  we  had  a  right  to  use  as  much  force  as 
was  necessary  to  accomplish  the  object. 

We  learned  long  afterwards  that  the  negroes  settled  among 
Friends  and  did  not  go  to  Canada. 

William  S.  Bedford. 

COURT  record. 

"State  Record  No.  5.  Warren  Common  Pleas,  March  Term, 
1840.  The  Grand  Jury  was  impanneled,  viz. :  William  Crosson, 
Joseph  Smithers,  James  Hopkins,  Spencer  Hunt,  Richard  Taylor, 
Caleb  Saterthwaet,  William  Hamilton,  Joseph  Edwards,  William 
Miller,  Walling  Worley,  Patrick  McKinsey,  Samuel  Leonard, 
Amos  Kelsey,  Edward  Robinson,  and  John  M.  Snook. 

"Returned  an  indictment  signed  by  J.  M.  Williams,  Pros. 
Atty.  of  Warren  Co.,  Ohio,  and  indorsed  a  'true  bill,  William 
Crosson,  Foreman,'  against  Abraham  Brooks,  James  B.  Brooks, 
Edward  Brooks,  Joseph  Lukens,  David  Potts,  John  Potts,  Lindley 
Potts,  Perry  Lukens,  William  S.  Bedford,  Ezekiel  McCoy,  John 
T.  Bateman,  Nicholas  Archdeacon,  Clarkson  Bateman,  Cyrus  F. 
Farr,  Jonas  Wilson,  Peter  Lowe  and  Frederick  Wilson,  and 
divers  other  persons  whose  names  are  to  the  jurors  aforesaid  un- 
known, charging  by  the  first  count  of  said  indictment  that  said 
defendants  — 

168  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

"On  the  6th  day  of  November,  1839,  with  force  and  arms  at 
the  township  of  Franklin,  and  county  of  Warren,  aforesaid,  unlaw- 
fully did  conceal,  advise  and  entice  four  colored  persons,  namely, 
Molly,  Sarah,  Adam  and  Mary,  then  and  there  being,  and  who 
by  the  laws  of  the  State  of  Virginia  did  then  and  there  owe  labor 
and  service  to  one  Bennett  Raines  then  and  there,  being  then  and 
there  to  leave,  abandon  and  escape  from  the  said  Bennett  Raines, 
to  whom  the  said  labor  and  service  of  Aiolly,  Sarah,  Adam  and 
Mary,  according  to  the  laws  of  the  said  state  of  Virginia  was  then 
due  and  owing,  contrary  to  the  form  of  the  statute,''  etc.,  etc. 

The  second  count  charges  that  said  defendants  "did  unlaw- 
fully, did  conceal,  advise  and  entice  four  colored  persons,  etc.,  etc. 
They,  the  said  (defendants)  then  and  there  well  knowing  that  the 
said  Molly,  etc.,  etc.,  did  according  to  the  laws  of  Virginia,  use, 
etc.,  etc.  The  third  charges  that  said  defendants  did  "unlawfully 
furnish  a  conveyance,  to-wit :  a  carriage  and  two  horses  with  in- 
tent and  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  four  colored  persons,  viz., 
etc.,  etc.,  owing,  etc.,  etc.,  to  escape  and  elude  the  said  B.  R.  They 
the  said  (defendants)  well  knowing,  etc.,  etc.. 

The  fourth  count  is  the  same  as  the  first  except  it  charges 
that  Molly,  etc.,  etc.,  owed  labor  and  service  under  the  laws  of 

The  fifth  count  charges  that  the  defendants,  with  force  and 
arms,  to-wit,  with  clubs,  dirks,  stones,  guns,  pistols,  and  divers 
other  unlawful  and  offensive  weapons,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  unlawfully, 
notoriously,  riotously,  did  assemble  and  gather  together  to  dis- 
turb the  public  peace  and  with  the  intent  with  force  and  violence, 
to-wit,  with  clubs,  dirks,  etc.,  to  tear  down  a  certain  tent  the  prop- 
erty of  one  Bennett  Raines,  and  also  to  make  an  assault  upon 
said  Bennett  Raines,  Elizabeth  Raines,  Eliza  Raines,  and  a  colored 
person  by  the  name  of  Adam,  in  the  peace  of  the  state  of  Ohio, 
and  being  so  unlawfully  assembled,  etc.,  etc.  They  the  said  (de- 
fendants), with  clubs,  dirks,  etc.,  etc.,  riotously,  etc.,  did  disturb 
the  peace  and  also  unlawfully,  etc.,  and  with  great  force,  etc.,  did 
tear  down  the  aforesaid  tent  and  also  then  and  there  unlawfully, 
etc.  The  said  Bennett  Raines,  etc.,  did  strike,  beat,  bruise,  wound 
and  ill-treat  the  B.  R.,  etc.,  then  and  there  did  contrary,  etc." 

A  Station  on  the  Underground  Railroad.  169 

The  sixth  count  charges  the  defendants  assault  and  battery 
on  Bennett  Raines.  The  indictment  is  signed  J.  M.  Williams, 
Pros.  Att'y,  and  endorsed  a  "true  bill,  William  Crosson." 

The  defendants  were  arraigned  and  pleaded  "not  guilty.*' 
The  case  was  continued  to  August  term,  when  it  was  again  con- 
tinued to  November  term,  when  for  trying  the  case,  came  a  jury, 
viz.,  William  Holcraft,  Adam  Bone,  John  St.  John,  William  Hill, 
of  the  regular  jury,  and  from  the  by-standers  William  Gregg, 
William  Thompson,  David  Bone,  Berkley  S.  Brown,  Aaron  Van 
Note,  Robert  M.  Hull,  Samuel  Drake  and  John  Pauley. 

The  jury  being  sworn,  the  case  was  tried  before  a  full  court, 
Benjamin  Hinkston,  President  Judge,  James  Cowan,  John  Hart 
and  William  I.  Mickel,  associate  judges. 

The  jury,  by  their  verdict,  found  the  defendants  "not  guilty," 
as  they  stand  charged  in  the  first,  second,  third,  fourth  and  sixth 
counts  of  said  indictment,  and  guilty  as  charged  in  the  fifth  count 
of  said  indictment. 

The  motion  was  made  for  a  new  trial,  it  was  overruled  by  the 
court,  and  the  defendants  excepted.  A  bill  of  exceptions  was 
prepared,  signed  by  the  court,  but  no  proceedings  in  error  had, 
and  at  the  March  term,  1841,  "April  12th  the  defendants  being 
present  the  court  rendered  judgment,  viz.,  '^That  James  B.  Brooks 
pay  a  fine  of  $5.00  and  be  imprisoned  in  the  dungeon  of  the  jail 
of  Warren  county  until  8  o'clock  P.  M.  of  this  day. 

That  Joseph  Lukens,  Ezekiel  McCoy,  Cyrus  F.  Farr,  Jonas 
Wilson,  Frederick  Wilson,  John  T.  Bateman,  Peter  Lowe,  Nich- 
olas Archdeacon,  each  pay  a  fine  of  $5.00. 

That  Abraham  Brooks,  John  Potts,  Lindley  Potts,  William  S. 
Bedford,  each  pay  a  fine  of  $20.00. 

That  Abraham  Brooks,  Joseph  Lukens,  John  Potts,  Lindley 
Potts,  William  S.  Bedford,  Kzekial  McCoy,  Nicholas  Archdeacon, 
Cyrus  V.  Vthv,  Jonas  Wilson,  Frederick  Wilson,  John  T.  Bate- 
man. Peter  Lowe  and  Edward  Brooks,  "be  imprisoned  in  the 
dungeon  of  the  jail  of  Warren  county  for  the  term  of  5  days, 
that  is  to  say,  until  the  17th  day  of  April,  1841,  at  12  noon,  and 
that  durinjj:  said  imprisonment  they  be  fed  on  bread  and  water 
only."  and  the  state  recover  of  said  defendants.  17  in  number 
(again  naminti:  them),  the  costs  taxed  at  $261.38. 



If  all  the  men  who  have  been  so  fortunate  as  to  have  come 
under  the  benign  influence  of  Professor  McFarland  were  each  to 
pay  the  tribute  of  laying  one  stone 
in  his  honor,  no  towering  modem 
structure  would  overlook  the  pile. 
Such  would  be  a  fitting  memorial ; 
for,  while  indulgent  toward  many 
duller  minds,  patiently  helping  to 
mould  the  characters  of  boys  and 
men,  much  of  his  incessant  work 
has  been  among  the  stars. 

Reluctantly  I  comply  with  the 
request  to  present  a  brief  sketch 
of  his  busy  life;  not  from  unwil- 
lingness, but  from  a  sincere  feel- 
ing of  inability  to  do  justice  to  a 
polymathist  so  eminent.  In  an 
article  brief  as  this  must  be,  due 
measure  cannot  be  given  to  a  man 
so  broad,  a  life  so  untiringly  de- 
voted to  scientific  inquiry  and  to  the  temporal  and  eternal  wel- 
fare of  others. 

Astronomer  and  mathematician,  an  nndispuied  authority  in 
scientific  investigation,  he  has  ncvertlieless  ever  hoen  modest  in 
his  bearing,  and  at  all  times  ready  to  guide  and  help  the  vounj;. 
No  student  ever  found  him  impatient  or  tyrannical.  A  pnmiinent 
trait,  for  wliich  many  a  man  is  better,  has  distinguished  his  career 
as  instructor;  a  judicious  confidence,  ani]>ly  suslained  by  common 
sense,  that  developed  in  liis  pupils  honor  and  self-respect.  Karely 
was  this  trust  abused.  When  abused,  ihe  case  was  l«i]H'k"-s, 


Robert  White  McFarland.  171 

Not  lacking  in  the  dignity  required  by  his  position,  he  is» 
blessed  with  a  rich  and  kindly  sense  of  humor.  Many  a  time  the 
work  of  the  class-room  has  been  brightened  by  its  illuminative 
ray.  To  Professor  McFarland's  happy  sense  one  graduate  at  least 
of  Miami  University  probably  owes  his  diploma  from  that  insti- 
tution. Of  that  grave  and  reverend  Faculty  at  that  bygone  day 
all  others  were  fairly  rigid  with  hard  and  solemn  dignity,  a  veneer 
easily  cracked. 

Many  a  good  and  piquant  story  might  be  told  of  "Prof. 
Mac's"  affable  and  kindly  ways;  of  his  forbearance  under  pro- 
vocation; of  his  courage,  as  soldier  and  man  —  and  he  had  the 
rugged  physical  ability  to  back  it  —  but  I  must  forbear,  and  turn 
to  more  essential  lines. 

Doctor  R.  W.  McFarland  is  of  Scottish  descent;  the  family 
leaving  the  clan  site  on  the  west  side  of  Loch  Lomond,  Scotland, 
about  the  year  1690,  and  living  in  County  Tyrone,  North  Ireland, 
about  fifty  or  sixty  years.  About  1745,  the  great-grandfather, 
Robert,  came  to  America,  settling  in  Pennsylvania.  Not  liking  the 
style  of  land  tenure  there,  he  moved  to  Rockbridge  county,  Vir- 
ginia ;  bought  a  tract  of  land  on  Cedar  creek,  close  to  the  Natural 
Bridge,  and  lived  there  until  his  death,  at  the  age  of  ninety-three, 
in  1796.  Robert's  son,  William,  the  grandfather  of  R.  W.  Mc- 
Farland, lived  in  the  same  vicinity. 

Robert  McFarland,  the  father  of  Robert  W.,  was  born  there  in 
1782.  Just  one  hundred  years  ago,  December  27,  1804,  he  was 
married  to  Deborah  Gray.    His  death  occurred  in  1863. 

In  1796  the  family  located  about  two  miles  from  the  village 
of  Lexington,  Ky.  Our  Robert's  grandfather,  on  his  mother's 
side,  in  the  same  summer  was  killed  and  scalped  by  the  Indians; 
the  last  white  victim  slain  by  them  in  that  vicinity.  In  the  course 
of  two  or  three  years  the  family  moved  again  ;  settling  five  or 
six  miles  from  Cyntliiana,  Ky. 

In  1807.  with  several  other  families,  the  McFarlands  moved 
to  near  L^rbana,  Ohio,  under  the  leadership  of  the  celebrated 
Simon  Kenton.  Here  had  come,  shortly  before,  William,  Simon 
Kenton's  oldest  brother,  and  others  of  that  family;  opening  up 
several  farms  about  three  miles  west  of  that  village.  A  large 
pro|X)rtion  of  these  tracts  is  still  (^wned  by  their  descendants. 

172  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Subsequent  to  the  death  in  1814  of  the  elder  McFarland's 
first  wife,  the  present  McFarland's  father  married  a  daughter  of 
Philip,  oldest  son  of  William  Kenton.  Of  the  Kenton  half-sisters 
to  our  R.  W.  McFarland,  the  issue  of  this  marriage,  one  is  now 
living,  at  the  age  of  eighty-five. 

After  the  death,  in  1821,  of  the  Kenton  wife,  Robert  Mc- 
Farland was  married  the  third  time ;  this  time  to  Eunice,  daugh- 
ter of  Charles  Dorsey,  of  Baltimore,  Md. 

Of  these  parents  our  R.  W.  McFarland  was  born  near  Ur- 
bana  in  1825.  He  attended  the  district  school  in  the  county.  At 
the  age  of  fourteen  he:  received  a  document  that  shaped  his  life 
work  —  his  first  certificate  to  teach;  and,  two  months  later,  be- 
gan in  Miami  county,  Ohio,  his  career  of  fifty  nearly  consecu- 
tive years  as  instructor.  His  second  quarter  was  taught  in  the 
summer  of  1840  in  Palestine  (now  Tawawa),  a  village  in  Shelby 
county.  He  was  then  in  his  fifteenth  year.  By  March,  1843,  ^^ 
had  taught  eight  terms. 

Upon  the  solicitation  of  an  itinerant  Methodist,  he  then  went 
to  Westerville,  Ohio ;  which  proved  a  habitation  with  a  name  and 
one  building;  a  two-story  frame,  "The  Blendon  Young  Men's 
Seminary."    Years  afterward  this  became  Otterbein  University. 

While  at  Westerville,  in  June,  1843,  McFarland  and  four 
others  availed  themselves  of  a  five  days*  vacation;  and,  just  to 
see  a  College,  walked  over  to  Granville,  twenty-five  miles  away. 
Spurred  by  the  sight,  and  the  privilege  of  hearing  a  Latin  reci- 
tation, McFarland  and  his  roommate,  Stillings,  tramping  back 
with  the  others,  formed  the  resolution  to  go  to  college.  Six  weeks 
of  the  intense  study  of  those  days  were  put  into  Andrews's  Latin 
Lessons.  Algebra,  Geometry,  Trigonometry,  Grammar,  and 
Logic  had  been  carefully  studied. 

So,  in  July,  1843,  the  two  left  Westerville,  and  returned  to 
their  homes ;  not  by  the  rapid  transit  of  modern  days.  On  Sep- 
tember 4,  1843,  ^  brother's  farm  wagon  carried  our  younq^  aspi- 
rant and  his  modest  trunk  from  near  Urbana  twentv-two  miles 
to  the  Stillings  place,  near  Marysville.  From  there  another  simi- 
lar conveyance  brought  the  boys  twenty-eight  miles  to  Columbus. 
On  the  6th  the  adventurers  embarked  on  a  canal  packet  boat,  and 

Robert  White  McFarland,  173 

reached  the  old  town  of  Chillicothe  at  daybreak  of  the  7th.  Ports- 
mouth was  reached  on  the  morning  of  the  8th.  The  sternwheel 
steamboat,  boarded  here  in  the  afternoon,  reached  Augusta,  Ky., 
about  midnight.  Five  days  of  travel;  one  hundred  miles!  To- 
day we  execrate  a  change  of  cars  in  a  thousand  miles ! 

At  this  time  McFarland  was  eighteen ;  Stillings  twenty.  The 
latter  had  studied  Greek  and  Latin  six  months ;  McFarland  Latin 
a  few  weeks,  and  Greek  not  at  all.  But  McFarland  was  a  bom 
mathematician,  familiar  at  thirteen  with  Surveying,  and  at  this 
time  well  up  in  Algebra,  Geometry,  etc. 

Stillings  fitted  in  partly  with  the  Freshmen.  But  there  was  no 
class  down  to  McFarland*s  apparent  level;  so  he  was  put  in  the 
Caesar  class  with  the  other.  The  master  of  the  school  quickly  saw 
the  burning  earnestness  of  the  new  recruits,  and  asked  the  Faculty 
to  allow  them  to  enter  the  Freshman  class.  Proud  of  recognition, 
still  working  like  beavers,  the  two  sturdy  Ohioans  put  in  daily 
six  solid  hours  on  Greek ;  and  in  six  weeks  were  allowed  to  read 
with  the  Sophomores  as  well ;  McFarland's  absolute  knowledge  of 
mathematics  standing  him  in  good  stead.  At  the  close  of  the 
year  at  Augusta  they  were  passed  to  full  Junior  standing. 

After  teaching  at  Westerville,  near  Urbana,  Ohio,  in  the  fall 
and  winter  of  1844,  McFarland  went  to  Delaware,  Ohio,  in  the 
spring  of  1845,  ^^  the  opening  of  the  second  term  of  the  college 
at  that  place.  A  i)ublic  exhibition  at  the  close  of  the  term  gave 
McFarland  opportunity  to  deliver  the  first  public  address  of  this. 
The  Ohio  Weslevan  l^niversitv.  Mindful  of  her  sons,  this  insti- 
tution  has  since  conferred  upon  him  the  titles,  A.  B.,  1847;  A.  M., 
1850;  LL.  D..  t88i. 

Making  his  own  way,  alternating  teaching  with  college 
study,  Mcl^'arlaiul  graduated  August  4,  1847.  After  teaching  a 
select  school  near  Delaware  for  six  months,  he  held  an  important 
jxDsition  in  (jrecnficld  Seminary,  Highland  county;  remained 
there  from  1848  to  1851. 

At  Greenfield.  March  19.  1851,  he  was  married  to  Mary  Ann, 
second  daughter  of  the  late  Judge  Hugh  Smart  of  that  place ;  old 
time  Associate  County  Judge  —  an  office  abolished  by  the  New 
Constitution  about  1851.    Truly  esteemed  in  all  circles  refined  by 

174  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

the  charm  of  her  presence  Mrs.  McFarland  and  two  daughters^ 
Elizabeth  Eunice  and  Frances  Smart  (Mrs.  Llewellyn  Bonham), 
still  grace  the  Professor's  home  life. 

Judge  Smart,  having  a  nephew  about  to  embark  in  business 
at  Chillicothe,  induced  young  McFarland  to  join  in  the  undertak- 
ing. The  great  fire  of  April  i,  1852,  burned  out  the  establish- 
ment. After  having  charge  of  one  of  the  three  buildings  of  the 
new  Union  schools  at  that  place  for  some  time  after  September, 
1853,  McFarland  for  the  following  three  years  occupied  the  posi- 
tion of  Professor  of  Mathematics  in  Madison  College,  in  Guern- 
sey county,  Ohio. 

Elected  in  July,  1856,  to  the  chair  of  Mathematics  and  Astron- 
omy in  Miami  University,  Oxford,  Ohio,  his  work  there  was  espe- 
cially successful,  until  the  closing  of  that  institution,  in  1873. 

At  once,  indeed  in  the  same  week,  he  was  elected  to  a  similar 
position  in  the  Ohio  State  University  at  Columbus.  Here  he  re- 
mained for  twelve  years  in  charge  of  Mathematics,  Astronomy, 
and  Civil  Engineering;  having  most  of  the  time  an  assistant  in 
each  department.  (In  recognition  of  his  work  and  worth,  the 
catalogue  of  O.  S.  U.  bears  his  name:  "Robert  White  McFar- 
land, Emeritus  Professor  of  Civil  Engineering.") 

This  position  of  the  highest  consideration,  and  entirely  satis- 
factory, was  reluctantly  relinquished,  under  urgent  and  persist- 
ent solicitation,  for  the  presidency  of  Miami  University ;  to  which 
he  was  elected  in  1885.  After  about  three  years,  seeing  the  Uni- 
versity again  well  under  way,  McFarland  presented  his  resigna- 
tion as  President  to  resume,  as  agreed,  his  former  chair  of  Math- 
ematics and  Astronomy.  But  owing  to  differences  in  doctrine  and 
discipline,  of  which  compulsory  or  optional  attendance  at  prayers 
formed  a  part,  by  those  then  in  authority  a  reorganization  was 
effected,  under  which  McFarland  was  omitted.  This,  however, 
without  discredit  —  to  McFarland.  No  man  to-day  believes  that 
any  of  those  destroyed  long  ago  by  the  rabidly  good  people  of 
Puritanic  Salem   were  guilty  of  sorcerous  error. 

Later,  for  nearly  eleven  years,  Mcl^'arland  was  Surveyor, 
Mining  Engineer  and  Manaj^er  of  Real  Estate,  at  the  mint-s  in 
Hocking  \^allcy  of  the  Sunday  Creek  Coal  Company.  Concerning 
his  services  here,  or  rather,  part  of  them,  the  former  manager  says : 

Robert  White  McFarland.  175 

"To  be  accorded  the  privilege  of  sending  you  a  word  regard- 
ing our  good  and  honored  friend,  Professor  McFarland,  is  almost 
as  delightful  as  the  rare  man  himself. 

"The  Profesor  came  to  the  Sunday  Creek  Coal  Company  f^rst 
in  the  capacity  of  mining  engineer;  afterwards  taking  charge  of 
the  company's  real  estate  (about  16,000  acres),  also  its  500  houses. 

"Up  to  the  time  of  his  coming,  the  deeds  to  the  several  tracts 
of  land  had  not  been  examined  with  regard  to  their  accuracy  of 
description,  etc.  He  found  that  about  forty  were  defective,  in  one 
way  or  another;  indicating  that  the  old  time  cabalistic  'E.  &  O. 
E.,'  formerly  placed  at  the  bottom  of  statements  and  documents, 
really  meant  'Errors  and  Omissions  expected.'  But. his  usual  and 
correct  methods  soon  triumphed,  and  in  about  a  year  and  a  half 
every  tangle  had  been  unraveled  and  every  discrepency  reconciled. 

"I  mention  this  because  it  illustrates  the  Professor's  uncom- 
promising standard  of  exactness  and  precision.  These  errors, 
which  had  been  passed  over  by  attorneys  as  being  trivial,  were  to 
him  utterly  abhorrent ;  in  one  instance  a  certain  piece  of  land  was 
in  reality  situated  six  miles  from  the  location  given  in  the  deed. 

"Of  his  services  during  the  entire  ten  or  eleven  years  it  will 
suffice  to  say,  in  general  terms,  that  they  were  in  exact  conso- 
nance with  his  own  lofty  ideals  of  an  upright  and  righteous  com- 
mercial and  moral  life.  Language  offers  but  a  poor  and  halt 
means  of  bearing  witness  to  the  high  esteem  in  which,  by  his  every 
action,  he  enshrined  himself  in  the  hearts  of  all  who  were  for- 
tunate enough  to  be  associated  with  him.  J.  F.  Stone." 

In  1862  the  government  called  for  three  months'  men,  for 
positions  then  occupied  by  trained  soldiers,  to  allow  the  latter  to 
go  to  the  front.  The  boys  in  college  (Miami)  formed  a  company, 
of  which  McF'arland  was  made  captain.  This  company  organized 
in  May,  1862,  and  served  about  four  months,  in  West  Virginia, 
between  Clarksburg  and  Parkersburg. 

In  the  spring  of  1863  Ciovernor  Tod  wrote  to  the  captains  of 
the  disbanded  regiment  (86th  O.  \'.  I.)  to  reorganize  if  possible. 
McFarland  secured  thirty-eight  of  his  okl  company.  All  others, 
officers* and  men,  were  new  recruits.  Colonel  Burns,  of  the  old 
86th  not  intending  to  again  go  out ;  the  lieutenant  colonel  being 

176  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

then  in  Libby  Prison ;  and  there  being  no  other  captain  at  once 
available,  Captain  McFarland,  of  Company  A,  was  appointed 
lieutenant  colonel. 

This  second  86th,  mustered  in  about  the  middle  of  July,  1863, 
at  once  started  in  pursuit  of  John  Morgan,  then  on  his  celebrated 
raid;  and,  after  his  capture  in  Eastern  Ohio,  escorted  the  585 
Confederate  prisoners  to  Camp  Chase,  near  Columbus.  In  the 
escorting  detachment  McFarland  had  four  companies  of  the  86th. 

The  second  86th  proceeded  with  Burnside  to  East  Tennessee. 
The  capture,  September  9,  1863,  of  Cumberland  Gap  by  "Mac's" 
Brigade  —  to  use  soldier  and  student  parlance  —  in  which  about 
2,500  Confederates  yielded  to  800  on  the  Union  side,  the  latter 
short  of  rations  and  insufftciently  equipped,  but  under  Colonel 
DeCourcy  making  such  skillful  display  of  force  as  to  give  the 
impression  of  overwhelming  numbers,  is  ably  and  accurately  de- 
scribed by  Lieut.  Col.  McFarland,  in  a  pamphlet  published  in  1898. 
The  86th  was  finally  mustered  out  in  February,  1864. 

As  an  officer  his  relations  with  his  men  were  marked  by  the 
most  unfailing  solicitude.  Their  privations  and  exposure  he  gen- 
erously shared ;  as,  for  instance,  in  the  rain  and  mud  of  the 
trenches.  On  the  march  out  of  the  Gap,  the  care  of  the  regiment 
devolved  upon  McFarland.  Seventy  weary  miles  of  this  march 
were  humanely  plodded  by  the  Lieutenant  Colonel ;  his  horse  be- 
ing resigned  to  one  after  another  of  the  tired  boys  in  the  ranks, 
as  with  faltering  step  they  reached  the  limit  of  endurance. 

McFarland's  busy  pen  (the  time-honored  quill,  in  the  making 
of  which  he  was  an  expert  while  his  sight  was  good)  has  produced 
a  vast  number  of  historical  and  scientific  and  semi-scientific  arti- 
cles. Most  of  these  essays  have  been  for  special  occasions ;  and 
when  printed  usually  suflfered  the  fate  of  the  Sibylline  leaves  of 
the  Virgil  story ;  carried  away  by  the  winds,  they  are  not  now  to 
be  found.  A  few  are  attainable  in  the  valuable  volumes  of  the 
Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society;  such  as  (W^l. 
i)  "Ancient  Earthworks,  Oxford;"  (Vol.  VIII)  "Forts  Laramie 
and  Pickawillany :"  (Vol.  X)  (a)  "Notes,  (icographical."  (b) 
Historical  Notes,"  (c)  "The  Chillicothes ;"  (\'ol.  XITT)  (a) 
Simon  Kenton."  (b)  "Ludlow's  Line." 



Robert  White  McFarland.  177 

For  more  than  fifty  years  his  essays  on  astronomical  subjects 
have  found  place  in  various  periodicals,  chiefly  "Popular  Astron- 
omy." They  are  notable  for  clearness  and  accuracy.  His  edition 
of  Virgil  (1849),  six  books  of  the  Aeneid  and  three  Eclogues,  for 
many  years  was  a  valued  text  book  in  colleges  and  schools.  He 
aided  in  a  revision  of  Robinson's  text  books,  and  also- a  revision  of 
Loomis's  Algebra. 

One  of  McFarland's  widest  known  and  most  esteemed  labors 
was  during  the  four  years  of  1876-1880;  averaging  four  hours 
per  day,  six  days  in  the  week,  for  the  entire  period,  when  he  was 
engaged  in  the  computation  of  the  eccentricity  of  the  earth's  orbit, 
and  longitude  of  its  perihelion. 

Croll  had  used  the  form  of  the  earth's  orbit,  in  his  theory  of 
the  Ice  Age.  The  late  Dr.  Orton  asked  McFarland  if  Croll's 
astronomical  work  could  be  relied  on ;  if  so,  the  presence  of  boul- 
ders over  Ohio  and  other  states  could  be  fully  explained.  Croll 
had  computed  the  form  of  the  orbit  at  intervals  of  50,000  years, 
over  a  period  of  3,000,000  years.  Meanwhile  Newcomb,  the  As- 
tronomer, had  said  that  Croll's  work  could  not  be  trusted ;  but 
that  Stockwell's  could. 

McFarland  computed  the  form,  by  both  Stockwell's  and  Le- 
Verrier's  methods,  for  over  4,500,000  years ;  and  at  the  short  inter- 
vals of  10,000  years ;  and  showed  that  the  two  were  in  substan- 
tial agreement  for  the  entire  time.  When  the  two  curves  were 
platted  they  were  very  much  alike  —  no  difference  for  70,000 

To  us  on  the  back  seats  McFarland  thus  shows  that  the  Ice 
Age  repeats  itself  after  about  1,500,000  years.  We  can  forgive 
him  and  not  worry ! 

In  the  Smithsonian  Report,  (1889),  in  a  ti'anslation  by  W.  S. 
Dallas,  F.  L.  S.,  of  the  work  of  A.  Blytt  (Sweden)  "On  the 
Movements  of  the  Earth's  Crust,"  appears  in  this  connection  the 
following : 

"The  curve  of  the  eccentricity  of  the  earth's  orbit  has  been 
calculated  from  LeVerrier's  formulae  by  J.  Croll  ("Climate  and 
Time")  for  a  period  of  4,000,000  of  years;  3,000,000  of  years 
backward,  and  1,000,000  forward  from  the  present  time. 

Vol.  XIV  — 12. 

178  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  PubliccUions. 

"The  curve  is  also  calculated  according  to  the  same  formulae 
by  McFarland.  (Am.  Jour.  Sci.  1880-3,  Vol.  XX,  pp.  105-111.) 
His  calculation  extends  from  3,250,000  years  backward  to  1,250,- 
000  years  forward  in  time. 

"He  has  calculated  with  shorter  intervals  than  Croll,  (Croll 
50,000  McFarland  10,000)  which,  however,  has  had  no  particular 
influence  in  altering^  the  curves.  McFarland  has«  in  the  same 
place  calculated  the  curve  for  the  same  period  of  time  from  new 
formulae  of  Stockwell's. 

"The  two  curves  taken  in  the  gross,  show  a  uniform  course 
throughout  their  length,  but  as  regards  the  first  half  LeVerrier's 
curve  is  thrown  somewhat  backward.  StockwelFs  formulae  are 
considered  to  be  more  accurate  than  LeVerrier*s. 

"Both  curves  are  given  by  McFarland.  If  we  compare  these 
two  together  it  appears  — 

"  ( I )  The  curves  coincide  with  only  a  small  essential  differ- 
ence from  the  present  day  until  1,000,000  years  back. 


(3)  A  very  remarkable  consequence  proceeds  from  these 
calculations.  The  curve  repeats  itself  after  the  lapse  of  1,400,000 
years  when  it  is  calculated  according  to  Stockwell's  formulae. 
In  the  period  of  4,500,000  years  for  which  McFarland  has  calcu- 
lated it,  it  repeats  itself  in  this  way  with  remarkable  regularity  a 
little  more  than  three  times,  etc." 

James  Croll  (of  H.  M.  Geol.  Surv.  Scotland)  in  his  "Climate 
and  Cosmology,"  (1885)  — his  and  LeVerrier's  conclusions  hav- 
ing been  questioned  by  Newcomb, —  acknowledges  the  results  of 
McFarland's  justifying  computations,  and  says:  "I  may  here 
mention  that  Professor  McFarland,  of  the  Ohio  State  University, 
Columbus,  a  few  years  ago  undertook  the  task  of  recomputing 
every  one  of  the  hundred  and  fifty  periods  given  in  my  tables; 
and  he  states  that,  except  in  one  instance,  he  did  not  find  an  error 
to  the  amount  of  .001.     *     *     * 

"In  this  laborious  undertaking,  Professor  McFarland  com- 
puted by  means  of  both  formulae  the  eccentricity  of  the  earth's 
orbit  and  the  longitude  of  the  perihelion  for  no  fewer  than  485 
separate  epochs.    See  Am.  Jour.  Sci.,  Vol.  XX,  p.  T05,  1880." 

Robert  White  McFarland. 


Some  critical  reviews  now  under  preparation  under  McFar- 
land's  tireless  hands  are  to  appear  in  the  February  or  March  num- 
ber of  "The  Open  Court"  of  Chicago,  and  in  the  February  num- 
ber of  "Popular  Astronomy/'  Though  now  eighty  years  of  age, 
while  dimmed  are  the  keen  and  kindly  eyes  that  so  long  read  the 
most  illimitable  of  Nature's  books,  and  have  flashed  in  appreci- 
ative merriment  or  truly  penetrated  the  inner  soul  of  youth,  to-day 
our  revered  instructor  is  still  cheerfully  and  intently  busy;  still 
contributing  to  the  knowledge  of  mankind. 


Author  of  "Darling  Nelly  Gray." 

C.    B.    GALBREATH. 

A  plain  brick  structure  of  ample  size  and  pleasing  propor- 
tions, rising  on  firm  foundations  from  a  well-kept  campus;  a 
mute  array  of  sentinel  trees,  guarding  the  shady  silence  of  the 
place  and  leading  outward  along  the  avenue  in  two  noble  ranks 
that  stretch  forth  their  arms  in  salutation  to  the  passerby ;  a  beau- 
tiful stretch  of  lawn,  facing  the  afternoon  sun  and  sloping  gently 
toward  the  winding  stream  that  with  never  failing  current  mur- 
murs gladly  on  its  southward  journey;  and,  bordering  all,  the 
neat  and  orderly  village  of  Westerville,  —  such  is  the  seat  of 
Otterbein,  honored  preceptress  of  a  worthy  student  body,  beloved 
alma  mater  of  numerous  and  devoted  alumni,  typical  educational 
institution  of  the  middle  west,  in  the  strictest  sense  a  denomina- 
tional  college,  in  which  founders  and  faculty  built  broader  and 
better  than  they  knew.  In  glorifying  the  Master^  they  ennobled 
man;  in  advancing  the  interests  of  a  sect,  they  made  no  mean 
contribution  to  the  world  outside  of  the  church;  in  preparation 
for  the  hereafter,  they  achieved  something  ^of  immortality  here. 

The  visitor  entering  the  spacious  main  building  is  impressed 
with  the  fact  that  many  of  the  excellent  features  of  the  old 
time  Ohio  college  are  here  retained  unmarred  by  the  innova- 
tions of  later  years;  the  chapel,  where  students  and  instructors 
assemble  daily;  recitation  rooms,  where  the  traditional  curricu- 
lum, with  its  preponderance  of  pure  mathematics  and  ancient 
classics,  is  faithfully  taught;  the  halls  of  the  literary  societies, 
with  richly  carpeted  floors,  immaculate  tinted  walls  and  vari- 
colored windows,  admitting  a  softened  radiance  by  day  and 
transmitting  by  night  something  of  the  mellow  glory  that  glows 
within ;  below,  a  carefully  selected  library,  administered  in  accord- 
ance with  modern  methods  and  frequented  by  the  student  body, 
whose  clean-cut,  thoughtful   faces  are  at  once  a  study  and  an 


Song  Writers  of  Ohio. 




%^i''<^^^^  ^^Ly^^ZZZc, 

.  A^-^^    ^ 





^^^  •^'t-^-^^jj^t.-^'^^?'*^^  eyfi-^^Uc^    y^ytr/ucc^  /^H^t^^^^ 

/kP^cuuvy     /^^^t^^^-^    .^^.^^.^o^e^    ^^L,.a..d.4^o^    4^^i^i^ 




<^t.>^  ^^«  /^'^i: 

yfc^a^c^       x^^V"^ 


182  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

inspiration.  Even  the  modern  conveniences  of  life  enter  unob- 
trusively. Natural  gas  and  electricity  blaze  and  beam  silently, 
and  at  the  end  of  the  avenue  of  trees  the  interurban  cars  come 
and  go  without  a  rumble  to  disturb  the  student  as  he  bends 
over  his  books.  Athletics  are  not  excluded,  but  football,  with 
its  glorious  concomitants  of  stentorian  hilarity  and  broken  heads, 
is  still  subordinate  to  music  and  debate. 

But  why  dwell  upon  this  institution  unknown  to  fame  and 
unambitious  to  emerge  from  the  delightful  seclusiqn  peculiar  to 
numbers  of  its  kind?  Again,  we  repeat  that  the  founders  built 
broader  and  better  than  they  knew. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  in  passing,  that  one  of  the  great  univer- 
sities of  the  East  is  even  now  considering  the  raising  of  an 
endowment  fund  of  two  and  one-half  million  dollars  for  the 
avowed  purfx)se  of  greatly  increasing  the  teaching  force  and 
^'importing  into  the  university  the  methods  and  personal  con- 
tact between  teacher  and  pupil  which  are  characteristic  of  the 
small  college."  It  is  refreshing  to  know  that  a  great  university 
can  learn  something  from  such  a  source.  It  encourages  the 
hope  that  further  investigation  may  reveal  other  features  worthy 
of  imitation. 

That  the  denominational  college,  with  all  its  limitations,  has 
rendered  an  important  service  to  the  cause  of  education,  is 
attested  by  results  —  the  men  and  women  it  has  sent  into  the 

If  a  single  alumnus  of  this  particular  institution  should  be 
known  as  widely  as  his  work,  his  name  would  be  a  household 
word  in  America.  When  Otterbein  was  young,  from  her  classic 
shades  he  gave  to  music  and  to  human  liberty  that  sweetly  pathe- 
tic song.  Darling  Nelly  Gray. 

Occasional  comment  has  been  made  upon  the  fact  that  most 
of  the  southern  melodies  have  been  composed  by  northern  men. 
It  is  a  singular  coincidence  that  the  authors  of  Dixie  and  Darling 
Nellie  Gray  were  both  born  in  the  North  and  in  the  central  part 
of  the  same  state.  In  the  little  village  of  Rushville,  that  nestles 
among  the  picturesque  hills  of  Fairfield  County,  O.,  Benjamin 
Russel  Hanby  began  life  July  22,  1833.  The  same  county  gave 
to  Ohio  and  the  Union  Thomas  Ewing,  the  younger,  and  the 
famous  Sherman  brothers. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  183 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  the  eldest  son  of  Bishop 
William  Hanby,  a  prominent  minister  of  the  United  Brethren 
Church,  who  early  espoused  the  cause  of  universal  liberty  in 
America  and  by  word  and  deed  supported  the  anti-slavery  cause. 
His  humble  home  was  for  a  time  a  station  on  the  "underground 
railroad,"  and  in  the  family  the  wrongs  of  the  sable  bondman 
was  frequently  the  absorbing  theme  of  conversation. 

In  many  respects  the  childhood  of  young  Hanby  did  not 
differ  from  that  of  his  fellows  in  the  isolated  hamlet  of  that  day. 
The  boy  was  prophetic  of  the  man.  Blessed  with  a  happy  temper 
and  bubbling  over  with  good  humor,  the  pious  teaching  of. his 
parents,  to  whom  he  was  devotedly  attached,  usually  kept  him 
in  his  sportive  hours  well  within  the  limits  of  harmless  mischief 
and  innocent  fun. 

Of  a  teachable  nature,  he  early  found  engrossing  interest* 
in  his  books,  and  with  advancing  years  he  aspired  to  follow  in  the 
footsteps  of  his  father. 

The  salary  of  the  itinerant  minister  to-day  is  usually  far 
from  munificent.  Sixty  years  ago  it  was  meager  and  sometimes 
precarious.  Bishop  Hanby  was  a  power  in  the  pulpit  and  held 
in  high  esteem  throughout  his  circuit;  his  good  wife  was  careful 
and  frugal,  but  his  stipend  was  not  sufficient  to  provide  for  the 
family  of  children  and  give  to  each  a  collegiate  education.  Young 
Benjamin,  like  many  a  youth  of  his  time,  went  cheerfully  and 
resolutely  to  work  "to  earn  his  way,"  with  a  baccalaureate  degree 
and  the  ministry  as  his  goal. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  enrolled  at  Otterbein,  the  college 
of  his  church,  in  which  his  father  was  deeply  interested,  and  in 
a  short  time  was  commissioned  to  teach  in  the  common  schools. 
This  gave  him  thorough  drill  in  the  common  branches,  oppor- 
tunity for  study,  and  employment  to  earn  his  way  through  college. 
At  the  age  of  seventeen,  he  taught  his  first  school  at  Clear  Creek, 
in  his  home  county;  later  he  had  charge  of  the  schools  of  his 
native  hamlet.  He  formally  united  with  the  church  before  the 
close  of  his  first  term  in  college. 

From  childhood  he  manifested  a  fondness  for  music.  His 
genial,  sensitive  nature  found  soul-satisfying  expression  in  song. 
At  the  regular  church  service  on  the  Sabbath  day  and  through 
protracted  religious  revivals,  his  voice  was  heard  in  the  choir. 

184  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

In  his  first  school  teaching,  long  before  he  had  received  formal 
instruction  in  the  art,  he  taught  his  pupils  to  sing.  To  his 
other  gifts  were  added  the  graces  of  speech.  In  the  school  he 
was  at  once  teacher  and  comp>anion.  He  mingled  with  the 
children  on  the-  playground.  With  the  older  boys,  outside  of 
school  hours,  he  roamed  over  the  surrounding  hills,  through  the 
lonely  forests  and  along  the  murmuring  stream.  They  followed 
where  his  spirit  led,  and  many  at  that  early  day  through  his 
influence  united  with  the  church. 

An  event  of  first  imjx)rtance  in  the  history  of  the  family  and 
the  cause  of  general  rejoicing  among  the  children,  who  thor- 
oughly appreciated  the  opportunities  it  would  bring,  was  the 
choice  by  Bishop  Hanby  of  a  new  home  in  the  village  of  Wester- 
ville.  Thither  the  family  moved  after  many  farewells,  and  soon 
the  older  children  were  enjoying  the  advantages  of  higher  edu- 
cation in  the  little  colkge,  already  launched  on  an  auspicious 
career  under  the  ambitious  name  of  "Universitv  of  Otterbein." 

Here  the  natural  gifts  and  winning  personality  of  **Ben," 
as  he  was  familiarly  called,  made  him  a  leader  among  the  students. 
True,  he  did  not  have  the  advantages  of  physical  culture  enjoyed 
by  the  college  boy  of  to-day.  His  gymnasium  was  the  wood-pile : 
his  natatorium  was  Alum  Creek ;  his  stadium  was  chosen  at 
will  in  the  wide*  valley  of  meadow  and  woodland  that  stretched 
away  on  either  side.  In  spite  of  the  absence  of  trapeze  and 
arena,  he  excelled  in  athletics,  was  fleet  of  foot,  accurate  of  eye. 
a  lithe,  agile  wrestler  and  an  expert  swimmer.  On  one  occasion 
a  student  got  beyond  his  depth  in  the  stream  and  with  a  gurglini^ 
shriek  sank  from  sight. 

*'Hanby,  Hanby,"  shouted  the  aflFrighted  companions. 
Hanby  rushed  to  the  water's  edge,  leaped  in,  dived,  caught. 
raised  and  rescued  the  drowning  boy. 

In  the  college  literary  society  he  took  a  prominent  part,  par- 
ticipating in  debate  and  always  assisting  in  the  arrangement 
and  rendition  of  the  musical  program.  He  wrote  a  plav  that 
was  acted  with  great  success  by  a  selected  cast  of  amateurs. 
His  enthusiasm  in  these  diversions,  however,  did  not  cause  him 
to  neglect  his  regular  studies,  and  he  was  graduated  in  due  time 
with  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  185 


As  already  intimated,  the  convictions  of  the  father  were 
shared  by  the  son.  In  the  troublous  times  before  the  war,  Bishop 
Hanby  from  the  platform  and  the  pulpit  sternly  denounced  the 
slave  power.  His  milder  mannered  son,  through  the  avenue 
of  song,  rendered  more  effective  service  to  the  cause.  In  1856, 
two  years  before  graduation,  he  composed  Darling  Nelly  Gray. 

Definite  and  trustworthy  details  in  regard  to  the  composition 
of  a  popular  melody  are  usually  very  difficult  to  obtain.  Espe- 
cially is  this  true  when  the  witnesses  who  were  personally  com- 
petent to  bear  testimony  have  passed  away.  Even  when  those, 
who  knew  the  facts  are  still  living,  the  difficulty  is  not  wholly 
removed,  for  memory  is  treacherous.  Fortunately,  in  this  in- 
stance, while  the  composer  does  not  survive  to  relate  the  origin 
of  his  famous  lay,  friends  and  relatives  qualified  to  speak  with 
almost  equal  authority  are  still  living,  among  them  the  cousin  of 
the  author  who  was  present  when  the  song  was  sung  from  manu- 
script and  the  announcement  was  made  that  it  had  been  dedicated 
to  the  young  lady  who  was  then  teaching  music  at  Otterbein. 

The  song  had  its  origin  in  the  composer's  sympathy  for  the 
slaves  of  the  South.  The  immediate  inspiration,  if  such  it  had, 
is  not  definitely  known.  Among  the  stories  of  its  origin,  one  that 
gained  considerable  currency  is  to  the  effect  that  while  on  the 
cars,  Hanby  read  in  a  newspaper  an  account  of  the  separation  of 
a  slave  girl  from  her  lover  in  Kentucky.  A  planter  from  the 
far  South  bought  her  and  took  her  to  Georgia.  After  reading 
the  article,  Hanby  took  out  some  blank  paper  and  wrote  a  part 
of  the  song.  He  finished  it  and  composed  the  music  on  his 
return  home.  This  story  is  plausible,  but  careful  investigation 
has  failed  to  reveal  any  basis  for  it  in  fact.  It  is  quite  probable 
that  the  words  of  the  song  suggested  this  origin  to  the  imagination 
of  a  newspaper  correspondent  or  his  informant.^ 

*  Dr.  W.  C.  Lewis,  of  Rushville,  O.,  contributes  the  following  reminis- 
cence relative  to  the  writing  of  Darling  Nellie  Gray: 

"Ben  Hanby  and  myself  were  very  intimate  when  boys,  and  well 
along  into  our  young  manhood.  I  think  it  was  during  the  autumn  of  1855, 
when  he  taught  school  here.     His  assistant  was  a  young  man  he  brought 

186  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

This  much  seems  beyond  dispute.  A  number  of  young 
friends,  including  the  cousin  of  the  author,  Miss  Melissa  A. 
Haynie,  and  the  music  teacher,  Miss  Cornelia  Walker,  were 
invited  to  the  Hanby  home,  where  as  usual  on  such  occasions, 

with  him  from  Wester ville,  Samuel  Evers.  They  were  then  attending  the 
Otterbein  University,  of  that  village.  The  same  winter  I  taught  a  graded 
school  about  one  mile  from  Rushville,  but  lived  in  tow^n. 

"Mr.  Hanby  and  myself  frequently  spent  the  evenings  together.  We 
also  attended  a  singing  school,  taught  by  Peter  Lamb.  Even  at  that  early 
day  Ben.  Hanby  was  recognized  wherever  he  was  known  as  possessing 
musical  ability  of  a  very  high  order. 

"It  was  in  this  winter  when  he  first  composed  what  afterward  became 
the  noted  popular  song,  Darling  Nelly  Gray.  He  read  the  manuscript  to 
me,  and  said  at  the  time  that  when  he  was  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  com- 
position he  would  set  it  to  music.  I  am  not  able  to  say  how  long  it  was 
before  he  did  this,  or  how  many  changes,  if  any,  he  afterward  made ;  but  I 
very  well  know  that  I  caught  the  following  lines  from  his  reading  the 
manuscript : 

Oh,  my  Darling  Nelly  Gray,  they  have  taken  you  away. 
And  I'll  never  see  my  darling  any  more." 

A  well-known  local  historian  of  Hamilton,  O.,  gives  quite  a  different 
account.     In  a  recent  published  article  he  says : 

*'When  living  in  Sevenmile,  the  Rev.  Hanby  was  a  regular  subscriber 
to  the  Cincinnati  Gazette,  and  while  reading  this  paper  one  day,  on  the 
train  between  Sevenmile  and  Cincinnati,  his  attention  was  drawn  to  an 
account  of  a  slave  sale  in  Kentucky.  Nelly  Gray,  a  beautiful  mulatto  girl^ 
was  among  the  list  of  slaves  sold.  She  was  to  be  taken  to  Georgia,  far 
rway  from  home,  early  scenes  and  kindred.  This  incident  created  an 
impression  upon  the  mind  of  Rev.  Hanby,  and  suggested  the  theme  for  his 
world  renowned  southern  song.  My  Darling  Nelly  Gray.  He  drafted  a 
skeleton  sketch  of  this  familiar  air- on  the  train,  and  when  he  returned 
home,  that  same  night,  completed  the  song.  It  was  first  published  in  the 
Cincinnati  Gazette,  and  immediately  became  very  popular." 

In  a  letter  the  author  of  the  above  adds  that  he  personally  heard 
Hanby  relate  the  circumstances  under  which  the  song  was  written. 

It  may  be  observed  that  the  song  bears  the  copyright  date  of  June  17^ 
1856.  Mr.  Hanby  did  not  go  to  Sevenmile  until  about  four  years  after- 
ward. He  therefore  could  not  have  written  it  while  a  citizen  of  that  vil- 
lage. There  is  nothing  in  Mr.  Lewis's  statement  that  conflicts  with  the 
accounts  given  by  other  friends  and  relatives.  The  song  might  have  been 
commenced  at  Rushville.  It  was  certainly  completed  and  set  to  music  in 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio. 


singing  was  the  leading  feature  of  the  evening's  meeting.  Mrs. 
Corneha  (Walker)  Comings  of  Girarci,  Kansas,  distinctly  recalls 
the  evening  in  a  recent  letter  to  Mrs.  Hanby,  and  we  give  in 
her  own  words  her  statement  relative  to  the  initial  singing  of 
the  song  for  the  entertainment  of  guests.     She  eays: 

"I  well  remember  the  first  time  I  heard  it.     We  were  at  a  litllc  galh- 
erin?  at  the  Rev.  Mr.  Hanb/s  one  evening.     We  always  had  music  at  such 


\>  Ig: 

t      iiiinilntiiini  1 


|u,,„;..  J,j  114- 

'  H 1  iiii    niiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin  iii;:..:ii::.!iui 

1-    . 


i;;:"":""""E'' '  ""''^"■-''-=""'  

■'    1 

I   :idiniriil  it  very  mvdi.  [ind  then  Ben.  told  me  it 

.\s  explained  elsewhere  in  the  same  letter,  Mrs.  Comings 
niuant  to  say  thai  it  was  dedicated  to  her.  She  urged  the  young 
author  to  send  it  to  a  publisher,  which  he  did.  Mrs.  (Haynie) 
l''isher,  cousin  of  tiie  author,  recalls  that  on  this  occasion  Hanby 
niaile  a  -few  minor  changes  in  the  arrangement  of  the  song.     It 

188  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

is  her  impression  that  it  was  written  very  shortly  before  this 
gathering.  Collateral  testimony  sustains  this  view.  The  song 
was  composed  in  Westerville  early  in  the  year  1856. 

As  no  response  came  from  the  publisher,  the  young  composer 
supposed  that  the  manuscript  had  been  consigned  to  the  waste 
basket  and  oblivion.  He  gave  the  matter  no  further  considera- 
tion. He  had  written  it  without  a  thought  of  publication  and  he 
was  not  disappointed.  In  fact,  the  word  disappointment  had 
no  place  in  the  vocabulary  of  this  optimistic  youth.  He  and 
his  family  were  genuinely  surprised  some  months  later  on  learning 
that  it  had  been  published  and  was  already  on  the  road  to  popu- 
larity. He  procured  a  printed  copy  and  saw  that  it  bore  his 
name,  with  the  dedication  to  Cornelia  Walker.^  The  words, 
which  have  a  merit  peculiarly  their  own,  aside  from  the  melody, 
are  as  follows : 

There's  a  low,  green  valley,  on  the  old  Kentucky  shore. 

Where  I've  whiled  many  happy  hours  away, 
A  sitting  and  a  singing  by  the  little  cottage  door. 

Where  lived  niy  .darling  Nelly  Gray. 


Oh !  my  poor  Nelly  Gray,  they  have  taken  you  away, 

And  I'll  never  see  my  darling  any  more; 
I  am  sitting  by  the  river  and  I'm  weeping  all  the  day, 

For  you've  gone  from  the  old  Kentucky  shore. 

When  the  moon  had  climbed  the  mountain  and  the  stars  were  shining  too, 

Then  I'd  take  my  darling  Nelly  Gray. 
And  we'd  float  down  the  river  in  my  little  red  canoe. 

While  my  banjo  sweetly  I  would  play. 

One  night  I  went  to  see  her,  but  "She's  gone!"  the  neighboi^  >ay. 

The  white  man  bound  her  with*his  chain  : 
They  have  taken  her  to  Georgia  for  to  wear  her  life  away. 

As  she  toils  in  the  cotton  and  the  cane. 

My  canoe  is  under  water,  and  my  banjo  is  unstrung; 
I'm  tired  of  living  any  more; 

'All    printed   copies   bear    naiil)y'>    name.     Only    tin-    tir^l    idition    lias 
the  dedicatory  imprint. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  189 

jMy  eyes  shall  look  downward,  and  my  song  shall  be  unsung. 
While  I  stay  on  the  old  Kentucky  shore. 

My  eyes  are  getting  blinded,  and  I  cannot  see  my  way. 

Hark !  there's  somebody  knocking  at  the  door — 
Oh !  I  hear  the  angels  calling,  and  I  see  my  Nelly  Gray, 

Farewell   to  the  old  Kentucky  shore. 


Oh,  my  darling  Nelly  Gray,  up  ^  j^eaven  there  they  say 
That  they'll  never  take  you  from  me  any  more. 

I'm  a  coming,  coming,  coming,  as  the  angels  clear  the  way, 
Farewell  to  the  old  Kentucky  shore. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  apply  to  a  popular  song  the  rules  of 
literary  criticism ;  it  is  nevertheless  safe  to  affirm  that  the  fore- 
going verses  are  not  without  poetic  merit.  What  is  said  of 
Foster's  songs  is  true  of  Hanby's  first  successful  composition: 
'*There  is  meaning  inthe  words  and  beauty  in  the  air."  Indeed 
we  may  go  further  and  aver  that  the  author  of  Old  Folks  at 
Home,  first  though  he  be  among  the  writers  of  southern  melodies, 
never  wrote  verses  more  sweetly  simple,  more  beautifully  and 
touchingly  suggestive,  more  sadly  pathetic,  than  Darling  Nelly 
Gray.  Perfect  in  rhyme  and  almost  faultless  in  rhythm,  the  words 
flow  on,  bearing  their  message  directly  to  the  heart.  The  tragic 
climax  is  delicately  veiled  behind  the  picture  of  the  bondman 
pouring  forth  his  sorrow  for  his  lost  lady  love.  Her  vain  appeal 
to  the  slave  driver ;  the  insult  of  the  heartless  new  master ;  the 
burdens  of  the  cotton  and  the  cane  fields ;  her  comfortless  grief, 
wild  despair  and  pitiful  decline  to  the  merciful  release  of  death,  — 
these  were  too  awful  to  find  expression  in  song.  We  are  spared 
the  heart-rending  reality ;  even  the  pain  from  what  we  see  is 
relieved  by  the  vision  of  a  happy  reunion.  Darling  Xelly  goes 
to  her  cruel    fate  —  and  meets   her   lover  in  heaven. 

It  has  hrcn  urged  in  criticism  of  the  song  that  it  idealizes 
ilif  cohered  race.  The  sable  twain  are  clothed  with  the  refined 
>entinientality  of  the  Caucasian.  We  are  told  that  the  bondman 
AUi]  his  love  arc  creatures  of  the  imagination  without  counter- 
])arts  in  the  realm  of  reality;  that  death  from  the  pangs  of 
separation  is  about  the  last  thing  that,  inider  the  circumstances. 

190  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

would  have  occurred;  that  the  beautiful  Nelly  down  in  Georgia 
would  have  yielded  gracefully  to  the  new  situation;  that  her 
dusky  lover  would  soon  have  drifted  again  down  the  river  and 
twanged  his  banjo  to  the  delectation  of  another  "lady  of  color''; 
that  constancy  was  foreign  to  the  slaves  of  the  Southland. 

That  this  was  often  true  is  one  of  the  saddest  commentaries 
on  the  brutalizing  system  that  held  the  black  man  in  a  "debasing 
thraldom."  Despite  his  uidi^)py  condition,  however,  there  is 
abundant  evidence  that  hort^^as  held  dear  and  that  ignorance 
did  not  blunt  the  pain  whea  l6ve's  ties  were  ruthlessly  sundered. 

A  well  known  poetess,  now  a  resident  of  Ohio,  whose  father 
and  grandfather  were  slaveholders  in  Kentucky  before  the  war, 
and  who  recalls  vividly  and  relates  entertainingly  much  that 
occurred  on  the  old  plantation,  tells  a  story  from  real  life  that 
may  not  inappropriately  be  introduced  here.  Frederick  Brown 
was  the  name  of  a  slave  who  had  grown  up  on  the  Brown 
estate.  Physically  well  formed,  tall  and  commanding,  he  was 
a  natural  leader  among  the  slaves.  Though  gifted  with  a  high 
degree  of  natural  intelligence,  he  was,  with  his  less  favored 
fellows,  forbidden  the  privilege  of  acquiring  even  the  rudiments 
of  an  education.  Of  a  somewhat  fervid  religious  temperament, 
he  frequently  preached  to  the  slaves  on  the  Sabbath  day,  leafing 
over,  as  he  did  so,  a  Bible  in  which  he  could  not  read  a  word. 
Though  popular  among  his  people,  by  the  master's  family  he  was 
regarded  somewhat  impertinent.  He  had  married,  shortly  before 
the  events  we  are  about  to  narrate,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
gentle  slave  girls  on  the  plantation.  Filially  the  old  master 
died  and  the  slaves,  sharing  the  fate  of  other  property,  were 
divided  among  the  children.  "Rev."  Fred  fell  to  the  share  of 
a  daughter  whose  husband  did  not  appreciate  his  worth  and 
magnified  his  irritating  delinquencies. 

*'I  will  sell  the  impertinent  rascal,"  said  the  new  master.  "I 
will   sell   him  and   send    him   South." 

The  slave  buyer,  that  ubiquitous  person  of  shadowy  repute, 
detested  alike  by  the  poor  black  whom  he  drove  and  the  master 
with  whom  he  bargained,  hearing  of  the  threat,  presented  him- 
self one  day  and  made  an  offer  for  "Rev.  "  Vvvd,  wliicli  was 
j)romptl}   accepted. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  *      191 

Consternation  reigned  among  the  cabins  when  the  driver 
came  to  claim  his  purchase.  Fred  was  overpowered  and  chained. 
Into  the  midst  of  the  throng  rushed  the  poor  wife,  and  with 
pitiful  tones  pleaded  not  to  be  separated  from  her  husband. 
The  driver  laughed  at  her.  Fred  was  dragged  away  and  his  wife, 
shrieking  wildly,  was  carried  back  half  dead  to  her  broken  home. 
To  the  cabin  sleep  came  not  that  night.  At  frequent  intervals 
a  plaintive  moan  was  heard  and  then  piercing  shrieks  that  sent 
the  tremor  of  despair  through  the  darkness,  penetrated  the  stately 
mansion  and  broke  the  slumbers  of  luxury  and  pride. 

As  a  son  of  the  late  master  heard  the  cries,  he  muttered, 
"Slavery  is  an  accursed  institution." 

Day  brought  small  comfort  to  the  weeping  wife.  Nights 
came  and  went,  but  rest  and  dreamless  sleep  returned  no  more. 
For  a  time  the  stricken  soul  was  buoyed  up  with  the  hope  that 
Fred  would  find  some  one  to  write.  No  message  came.  In 
spite  of  kind  attentions  of  mistress  and  friends  • —  for  she  was 
a  favorite  with  all  —  her  sturdy  frame  succumbed  beneath  the 
weight  of  woe,  the  luster  faded  from  her  eye  and  after  a  few 
months  of  agony  she  sank  into  the  grave.  This  picture  was 
a  reality.     Witnesses  of  the  tragedy  still  live. 

Darling  Nelly  Gray  was  a  protest  against  a  wrong  that  was 
terribly  real.  The  characters  were  not  ideal ;  they  were  typical 
of  the  better  slave  element  on  the  "old  Kentucky  shore."  The 
song  rendered  a  distinct  service  in  the  great  movement  that  cul- 
minated in  the  emancipation  proclamation  and  gave  the  Republic 
"under  God,  a  new  birth  of  freedom." 

While  it  almost  immediately  became  a  great  favorite  in  the 
North  and  was  echoed  back  from  lands  beyond  the  sea,  it  brought 
neither  fame  nor  fortune  to  the  composer.  In  no  work  does 
the  author  so  completely  bury  himself  as  in  the  lay  that  gains 
a  measure  of  universality.  The  statesman  and  the  warrior  each 
goes  down  to  posterity  conspicuously  associated  with  his  immortal 
work.  The  world  accepts  the  melody  that  nurtures  the  noblest 
sentiments  of  the  human  heart  with  scarce  a  thought  of  him  who 
first  with  magic  touch  struck  the  chord  of  the  soul's  sweet 

192  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  PubliccUions, 

Whence  came  the  lullabies  of  childhood?  Who  first  called 
forth  the  familiar  strains  of  the  flute  and  the  violin?  What  was 
the  origin  of  the  repertoire  of  the  sable  knight  of  the  banjo? 
What  soldier  soul  launched  the  battle  hymn  ?  What  saintly  spirit 
framed  the  simple  words  and  music  that  on  the  lips  of  rural 
choir  and  cathedral  chorus  raise  the  mortal  into  the  visible  pre- 
sence of  the  Infinite?  The  throngs  that  are  moved,  upHfted  and 
inspired  know  not,  reck  not.     The  singer  is  lost  in  his  song. 

Darling  Nelly  Gray  was  copyrighted  and  issued  by  one  of 
the  largest  musical  publishing  houses  in  America.  The  author 
purchased  his  first  printed  copy  from  a  dealer  in  Columbus, 
Ohio.  He  wrote  to  the  publisher  and  asked  why  he  had  not 
been  notified  of  the  acceptance  of  the  manuscript.  The  reply  was 
to  the  eflFect  that  the  address  had  been  lost.  One  dozen  copies 
of  the  song  were  sent  to  the  composer  and  this  was  the  only  com- 
pensation that  he  ever  received.  The  credit  of  authorship,  how- 
ever, was  not  taken  from  him,  and  this  the  publisher  seemed 
to  consider  ample  reward.  In  reply  to  a  request  for  the  usual 
royalty,  Hanby  received  the  following: 

''Dear  Sir:  Your  favor  received.  Nelly  Gray  is  sung  on  both  sides 
of  the  Atlantic.  We  have  made  the  money  and  you  the  fame — that  bal- 
ances the  account.'.* 

The  song  had  a  phenomenal  sale.  It  was  published  in  many 
forms  and  the  tune  arranged  for  band  music.  The  publisher 
must  have  made  a  small  fortune  out  of  it ;  Hanbv  had  the  obscure 
notice  accorded  to  the  song  writer,  —  and  what  to  a  man  of  his 
taste  and  sensibility  must  have  been  far  greater  —  the  satisfac- 
tion of  knowing  that  he  had  reached  the  popular  heart  and  con- 
science in  the  support  of  a  worthy  cause.  This  consolation  was 
left  to  him  to  transmit  to  his  for  all  time. 

Of  the  many  songs  that  were  written  to  advance  the  anti- 
slaverv  cause.  Darlimy  NcU\  Gra\  alone  retains  a  measure  of  its 
old  time  popularity.  The  melody  and  words  survive  because  of 
their  intrinsic  beauty.  And  if  the  words  of  the  poet  are  true, 
the  song  shall  live  on,  for 

'*.\  thing  of  hcauty  i^  a  joy  forever." 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  193 


After  honorable  graduation  at  Otterbein,  in  1858,  Hani)y 
traveled  in  Pennsylvania,  Virginia  and  Maryland  as  agent  for 
the  institution.  He  married  Miss  Kate  Winter,  a  cultured  young 
lady  whom  he  met  in  college  and  who  as  a  member  of  the  first 
graduating  class  had  completed  her  course  one  year  in  advance 
of  her  husband. 

In  i860  he  published  Little  Tillies  Graven  a  composition 
that  was  well  received.^  It  did  not  rise  to  the  level  of  Darling 
Nelly  Gray,  though  intended  to  be  somewhat  similar  to  it  in 
character.     Following  are  the  verses  as  they  originally  appeared : 

'Tis  midnight  gliding  on  her  deep,  dark  wings, 

And  the  wind  o'er  my  gentle  Tillie  sighs. 
And  my  poor  heart  trembles  like  the  banjo  strings 

Ihat  I'm  thrumming  near  the  hillock  where  she  lies. 


Weep,  zephyrs,  weep  in  the  midnight  deep,  ♦ 

Where  the  cypress  and  the  vine  sadly  wave ; 

I  have  taken  down  my  banjo  for  I  could  not  sleep, 
And  I'm  singing  by  my  littb  Tillic's  grave. 

When  they  tore  my  Jennie  from  her  sweet,  sweet  child. 

And   her  heart   was  withering  with   mine. 
In  my  arms  I  bore  thee  to  this  island  wild. 

I^st  the  fate  of  thy  mother  should  be  thine. 

How  sweet   have  the  seasons  glided  by  since  then. 

How  happy  each  moment  of  the  year, 
Save  a  sigh  that  the  lov'd  one  might  come  back  .again 

We  have  known  not  a  sorrow  nor  a  tear.  , 

But  the  swamp  fever  lighted  on  thy  dark  brown  cheek. 
.\tid  I  knew  death  was  knocking  at  the  door; 

'A  correspondent  to  a  Hamilton.  O..  paper  says:  "The  Rev.  Hanby 
subsequently  wrote  and  "-et  to  nuisic  a  'catchy'  song  along  the  same  lines 
of  his  first  production,  entitled  Little  Tillic's  Grave.  This  he  dedicated 
to  an  old-time  friend,  Jacob  .A.  Zellar.  of  Oxford.  Butler  County,  O. 
Little  Tillie's  Grave  was  received  with  great  favor,  .ind  had  an  immense 

Vol.   XIV— 13. 

194  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

How  my  full  soul  trembled  with  its  bursting  grief 
When  I  saw  that  my  Tillie  was  no  more. 

Now  the  wildcat  is  wailing  and  the  night-hawk  screams 
And  the  copperhead  is  hissing  in  the  shade; 

They  shall  come  not  hither  to  disturb  thy  dreams, 
For  I'll  watch  where  thy  sleeping  dust  is  laid. 


Sleep,  Tillie,  sleep,  in  the  midnight  deep, 
Where  the  cypress  and  the  vine  sadly  wave; 

Let  my  fingers  keep  thrumming  and  my  fond  heart  weep 
Till  I  die  by  my  little  Tillie's  grave. 


Hanby  again  entered  upon  the  work  of  teaching.  He  was 
chosen  principal  at  the  academy  at  Sevenmile,  Butler  County,  O., 
a  position  that  he  held  for  two  years.  While  traveling  in  the 
South  he  had  opportunity  to  study  more  fully  the  character  of  the 
colored  people.  Darling  Nelly  Gray  and  Little  Tillie's  Grave 
represented  their  serious,  sentimental  characteristics.  He  now 
portrayed  their  exuberant  jollity  in  the  familiar  dialect  song, 
Ole  Shady.  There  is  humor  and  pathos  in  the  liberated  soul 
bent  on  breaking  for  "ole  Uncle  Aby/'  "an'  the  wife  an'  baby  in 
Lower  Canady." 

Oh !  yah !  yah !  darkies  laugh  wid  me, 
For  de  white  folks  say  Ole  Shady's  free, 
So  don't  you  see  dat  de  jubilee 

Is    a    coming,    coming, 

Hail  mighty  Day? 


Den  away,  away,    for  I  can't   wait  any   longer. 

Hooray,  hooray,  I'm  going  home. 
Den  away,   away,   for   I  can't  wait   any   longer. 

Hooray,  hooray,  I'm  going  home. 

Oh,  Mass'  got  scared  and  so  did  his  lady, 
Dis  chile  breaks  for  Ole  Uncle  Aby, 
"Open  de  gates,  out  here's  Ole  Shady 

A    coming,    coming." 

Hail  mighty  day. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  195 

Good-bye,  Mass'  Jeff.,  good-bye  Mis'r  Stephens, 
'Scuse  dis  niggah  for  takin'  his  leavins'. 
'Spect  pretty  soon  you'll  hear  Uncle  Abram's 

A  coming,  coming, 

Hail  mighty  day. 

Good-bye  hard  work  wid  never  any  pay, 

Ise  a  gwine  up  North  where  the  good  folks  say 

Dat  white  wheat  bread  and  a  dollar  a  day 

Are  coming,  coming, 

Hail  mighty  day. 

Oh,  I've  got  a  wife,  and  I've  got  a  baby. 
Living  up  yonder  in  Lower  Canady, 
Won't  dey  laugh  when  dey  see  Ole  Shady 

A  coming,  coming. 

Hail  mighty  day. 

The  title  in  full  of  this  song  as  originally  published  in  1861, 
was  Ole  Shady,  the  Song  of  the  Contraband.  It  antedated 
the  emancipation  proclajnation  and  anticipated  the  freedom  of  the 
slave,,  "de  jubilee/'  and  "white  wheat  bread  an'  a  dollar  a  day/' 
It  was  introduced  by  the  Lombards  and  soon  attained  great 
popularity  with  the  negro  minstrel  troupes. 

That  it  was  a  great  favorite  in  the  northern  armies  is 
attested  by  the  reminiscences  of  many  who  wore  the  blue.  The 
soldier's  appreciation  finds  generous  expression  in  an  article* 
by  General  Sherman,  published  in  the  North  American  Review. 
In  describing  an  incident  connected  with  the  siege  of  Vicksburg, 
he  says : 

"\  great  many  negroes,  slaves,  had  escaped  within  the  Union  lines. 
SijnK"  were  employed  as  servant <  by  the  officers,  who  paid  them  regular 
wages,  sfjnie  were  employed  by  the  (iiiarterniaster,  and  the  larger  nimiber 
went  North,  free,  in  the  (lovernment  chartered  steamhf)ats. 

"Among  the  first  clas^  named  was  a  fine,  hearty  'darkey.'  known  as 
'Old  Shady.'  who  was  employed  by  General  McPherson  as  steward  and 
cook  at  his  headcpiarters  in  Mrs.  Edward's  house,  in  Vicksburg.  Hun- 
dreds still  living,  among  whom  I  may  safely  name  General  W.  E.  Strong, 
of  Chicag<^),  General  Hickenlooper.  of  Cincinnati.  Mrs.  General  Grant, 
Fred  Grant.  Mrs.  Sherman  and  myself,  well  remember  'Old  Shady.'     After 

*  Old  Shady,  with  a  Moral.  North  American  Review,  October,   1888. 

196  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

supper  he  used  to  assemble  his  chorus  of  'darkies'  and  sing  for  our  pleas- 
ure the  songs  of  the  period,  among  them  one  personal  to  himself,  and,  as 
I  then  understood,  composed  by  himself.  It  was  then  entitled  the  Day  of 
Jubilee,  but  is  now  recorded  as  simply  Old  Shady;  and  I  do  believe  that 
since  the  Prophet  Jeremiah  bade  the  Jews  *to  sing  with  gladness  for 
Jacob  and  shout  among  the  chief  of  the  nations,'  because  of  their  deliver- 
ance  from  the  house  of  bondage,  that  no  truer  or  purer  thought  ever 
ascended  from  the  lips  of  man  than  did  at  Vicksburg  in  the  summer  of 
1863,  when  *01d  Shady'  sang  for  us  in  a  voice  of  pure  melody  his  own 
song  of  deliverance  from  the  bonds  of  slavery. 

"After  the  war  I  met  'Old  Shady'  on  a  steamboat  on  the  upper  Mis- 
sissippi, when  he  sang  for  us  on  the  hurricane  deck  that  good  old  song, 
which  brought  tears  to  the  eyes  of  the  passengers ;  and  more  recently  I 
heard  of  him  far  up  in  I>akota,  near  'Lower  Canady,'  toward  which  he 
.seemed  to  lean  as  the  coigfne  of  safety,  where  his  wife  and  baby  had  sought 
and  obtained  refuge.  I  believe  him  nOw  to  be  dead,  but  living  or  dead,  he 
has  the  love  and  respect  of  the  old  army  of  the  Tennessee  which  gave  him 
freedom.  *Good-bye,  Mass'  Jeff.,  good-bye  Mis'r  Stephens,'  was  a  beautiful 
expression  of  the  faithful  family  servant  who  yearned  for  freedom  and  a 
'dollar  a  day.' " 

After  paying  a  glowing  tribute  to  the  colored  people  in  the 
article  qitoted,  General  Sherman  adds: 

"What  more  beautiful  sentiment  than  that  of  my  acquaintance,  'Old 
Shady':  'Good-bye,  Mass'  Jeff.,  good-bye,  Mis'r  Stephens.  'Souse  dis  nig- 
gah  for  takin'  his  leavins' — polite  and  gentle  to  the  cud.  Burns  never  said 
anything  better." 

Old  Shady  seems  to  have  derived  his  name  from  the  song. 
He  was  not  the  author  of  either  the  words  or  the  music,  as 
General  Sherman  learned  and  freely  admitted  soon  after  the 
publication  of  his  article.  When  Mrs.  Hanby  read  it,  she  wrote 
to  the  General,  sending  him  a  copy  of  the  song  which  was  duly 
credited  by  the  publisher  to  her  husband.  She  received  promptly 
the  following  courteous  reply: 

"Mrs.  Kate  Hanby :  Dear  Madam — I  have  received  yoiir>,  with 
enclosure,  and  note  the  exception  you  take  regarding  an  article  from  my 
pen  in  the  October  (1888)  number  of  the  .V.  A.  Rci'icw.  Shortly  after  the 
publication  of  that  article  I  received  a  long  letter  from  the  subject  of  your 
husband's  song,  'Old  Shady,'  then  living.  I  believe,  at  Grand  Forks.  Dak., 
in  which  he  disowned  the  authorship  of  the  song  hut  claimed  tlie  distinc- 
tion of  the  title.  Should  I  ever  have  occasion  to  refer  to  the  subject  in 
a   future   article.   I   shall   certainly  correct  the   misstatement.     The  expres- 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  197 

sion,  'Good-bye,  Mass'  Jeff.;  good-bye,  Mis'r  Stephens,*  was  surely  most 
appropriate  for  a  run-away  slave,  and  led  me  to  the  conclusion  that  such  a 
one  was  the  author,  but  you  are  perfectly  right  in  claiming  it  for  your 
husband.     With  best  wishes  to  you  and  yours,  I  am, 

"Very  truly  yours," 

"W.  T.  Sherman," 

The  real  name  of  "Old  Shady/'  as  he  was  called,  was  D. 
Blakely  Durant.  After  the  war  he  worked  on  the  upper  Missis- 
sippi. The  letter  to  Mrs.  Hanby  explains  that  he  was  not  dead 
in  1888,  as  the  General  had  supposed.  He  moved  to  Grand 
Forks,  Dakota,  where  he  acquired  a  comfortable  home  and  where 
one  of  his  children  afterwards  was  a  student  in  the  North  Dakota 
State  University.     He  died  in  1896. 

NOW  DEN  !  NOW  DEN  ! 

Darling  Nelly  Gray  aroused  sympathy  for  the  slave;  Ole 
Shady  portrayed  his  practical  ideal  of  home  and  freedom,  and 
inspired  him  to  seek  both  in  the  North;  another  song  entitled 
Now  den!  Now  denlj^  for  years  after  the  war  heard  in  many  a 
cabin  of  the  South,  and  still  a  favorite  in  some  sections,  held 
up  to  the  vision  of  the  freedman  an  ideal  of  joyful  labor  and  its 
sure  reward  in  the  land  of  corn  and  cotton,  which  in  the  dawn 
of  the  new  era  of  liberty  was  to  be  to  him  indeed  the  "Land  ob 
Canaan.*'  A  recent  writer,^  as  he  glides  down  the  Chesapeake 
and  cruises  along  the  shore  where  verdant  and  fruitful  undula- 
tions of  valley  and  hill  put  him  into  a  reminiscent  and  poetic 

'  On  the  second  page  of  this  song  occurs  the  following  note :  "The 
object  of  Ole  Shady  was  to  encourage  the  contrabands  to  escape  from 
their  masters  to  the  Union  lines,  and  was  suggested  by  the  correspondence 
between  General  Butler  and  the  authorities  at  Washington,  with  regard  to 
the  status  of  escaped  slaves.  The  song  in  a  very  short  time  became  known 
all  over  the  South  as  the  'Contraband  Song,*  and  was  sung  by  the  slaves 
everywhere,  though  very  few  at  the  North  had  as  yet  heard  it.  In  like 
manner  it  is  hoped  that  this  song,  while  furnishing  amusement  to  the 
social  circle,  may  subserve  the  further  and  more  important  purpose  of 
mducing  the  freedmen  to  return  to  their  homes  and  labor." 

*  In  "By  the  Waters  of  Chesapeake,"  The  Century  Magasitie,  Decem- 
ber.  1893. 



198  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

mood,  recalls  other  days  when  the  freedman,  in  the  first  joy 
of  his  release,  poured  forth  his  soul  in  these  words,  and  listens 
with  delight,  for  the  colored  laborers  on  deck  are  still  singing: 

De  darkies  say  dis  many  a  day, 

We's  far  from  the  land  ob  Canaan. 
Oh,  whar  shall  we  go  from  de  white-faced  foe, 

Oh !  whar  shall  we  find  our  Canaan  ? 


Now  den  !    Now  den !  into  de  cotton,  darkies. 

Plow  in  de  cane  till  ye  reach  the  bery  bottom,  darkies. 

Ho !  we  go  for  de  rice  swamp  low , 

Hurrah  for  de  land,  ob  Canaan. 

Oh  happy  day  de  darkies  say. 

For  at  last  we've  found  our  Canaan. 
Old  Jordan's  flood  rolled  red  with  blood. 
But  we  march'd  right  ober  into  Canaan. 


No  driver's  horn  calls  de  slave  at  morn. 

Jordan  swamp'd  him  crossing  into  Canaan. 
But  at  break  ob  day  we're  away,  we're  away, 

For  to  till  the  fertile  fields  ob  Canaan. 


Come,  ye  runaways  back,  dat  underground  track 

Couldn't  neber,  neber  lead  you  into  Canaan, 

Here  your  fathers  sleep,  here  your  loved  ones  weep; 

O  come  home  to  de  happy  land  ob  Canaan. 

(To  be  sung  after  chorus  to  last  stanza.) 

Oh !  Canaan,  sweet  Canaan, 
We's  been  hunting  for  the  land  ob  Canaan. 
Canaan  is  now  our  happy  home, 
arrah  for  de  land  ob  Canaan. 


This  song  was  written  in  honor  of  the  young  lady  who  aided 
fleeing  Union  prisoners  to  escape  from  the  South. ^  One  of 
these  afterward  related  the  incident  U])on  which  it  was  based  sub- 
stantially as   follows : 


^  In    January,    1S<)5.      The    "nameless    heroine"     was    Miss    Mtlvina 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  199 

**She  led  us  for  seven  miles.  Then,  while  we  remained  in  the  wood, 
she  rode  forward  over  the  long  bridge  which  spanned  the  Nolechucky 
River,  to  see  if  there  were  any  guards  upon  it;  went  to  the  first  Union 
house  beyond,  to  learn  whether  the  roads  were  picketted;  came  back,  and 
told  us  the  coast  was  dear.  Then  she  rode  by  toward  her  home.  Had  it 
been  safe  to  cheer,  we  should  certainly  have  given  three  times  three  for. 
the  nameless  heroine,  who  did  us  such  vital  kindness.  'Benisons  upon  her 
dear  head   forever  !*  " 

As  will  be  noticed,  the  words   and  measure  are  modeled  after 
Tennyson's  Charge  of  the  Light  Brigade: 

Out  oi  the  jaws  of  death, 
Out  of  the  mouth  of  hell. 

Weary  and  hungry,  and   fainting  and   sore, 
Fiends  on  the  track  of  them, 
Fiends  at  the  back  of  them. 

Fiends  all  around  but  an  angel  before. 


Fiends  all  around,  but  an  angel  before,  , 

Blessings  be  thine,  loyal  maid,  evermore! 

Out  by  the  mountain  path, 
Down  through  the  darksome  glen. 

Heedless  of  foes,  nor  at  danger  dismayed, 
Sharing  their  doubtful  fate. 
Daring  the  tyrant's  hate. 

Heart  of  a  lion,  though  form  of  a  maid. 


Hail  to  the  angel  who  goes  on  before. 
Blessings  be  thine,  loyal  maid,  evermore! 

"Nameless,"  for  foes  may  hear, 

But  by  our  love  for  thee. 
Soon  our  bright  sabers  shall  blush  with  their  gore, 

Then  shall  our  banner  free, 

Wave,  maiden,  over  thee : 
Then,  noble  girl,  thou'lt  be  nameless  no  more. 


Then  wc  shall  hail  thee  from  mountain  to  shore. 
Bless  thy  brave  heart,  loyal  maid,  evermore ! 

200  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

It  was  quite  natural  that  he  should  manifest  an  appreciative 
interest  in  the  best  literature  of  the  day.  He  was  much  im- 
pressed with  Holland's  "Bitter  Sweet/'  A  congratulatory  letter 
to  the  author  called  forth  the  following  response: 

"Springfield,  Mass.,  September  3,  1860. 

"B.  R.  Hanby,  Dear  Sir:     If  my  book  has  done  you  and  yours  any 

measure  of  good,  I  am  glad,  for  I  should  not  like  to  be  indebted  to  you  for 

the  whole  of  the  deep  satisfaction  your  letter  has  given  me.     I  thank  you 

for  your  thoughtfulness,  and  I  thank  you  for  spending  so  much  time  in 

its  demonstration.     Such  letters  pay  better  than  money.     I  was  glad  when 

Mr.  Scribner  paid  me  a  generous  copyright,  but  I  didn't  cry ;  and,  next  to 

laughing,  I  think  crying  is  the  most  satisfactory  exercise  of  a  man's  lungs. 

May  God  bless  you  and  your  wife,  and  all  whom  you  hold  dear. 

"Yours  truly, 

"J.  G.  Holland." 


Endowed  with  a  deeply  religious  nature,  which  was  developed 
and  confirmed  by  home  environment  and  education,  Hanby  had 
looked  forward  to  the  time  when  he  should  enter  upon  the  real- 
ization of  his  life's  work  in  the  ministry.  His  eldest  sister,  still 
a  zealous  worker  in  the  church,  bears  loving  testimony  to  his 
conversion,  his  disinterested  service  in  bringing  others  to  the 
Master,  and  the  fidelity  with  which  he  responded  to  the  call 
to  preach  the  Gospel  of  Christ. 

'*The  foremost  business  of  his  life,  from  conversion  to  the 
end,"  says  she,  "was  the  salvation  of  souls.  .  .  .  One  day 
in  church  he  rose  and  with  ])allid  face,  which  none  who  saw  it 
can  ever  forget,  calndy  said,  'Brethren,  God  is  preparing  me 
either  for  the  charnel  house  or  for  greater  service  to  Him.* 
After  that  all  knew  without  further  words  that  God  had  set  his 
seal  upon  him."  He  had  heard  the  call,  and  only  awaited  the 
opportunity  to  enter  fully  upon  the  great  work  of  man's  re- 
demptton.  At  the  close  of  his  second  year  at  the  head  of  the 
academy,  he  realized  his  fondly  cherished  ho])e  and  donned  the 
clerical  robes. 

He  entered  upon  his  labors  in  the  village  of  Lewisburg.  O. 
Young,  scholarly  and  eloquent ;  kind,  genial  and  o])timistic ;  direct, 
ingenuous  and  sincere :  blest  with  a  refined  and  intelligent  face 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio 

202  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

and  a  poetic  soul  that  found  expression  in  song,  it  is  needless 
to  say  that  he  became  the  idol  of  the  little  flock  that  gathered  and 
grew  around  the^  pulpit  under  the  spell  of  his  personality  and 

As  a  minister,  according  to  the  testimdny  of  an  old  time 
friend  and  companion,  he  had  many  excellent  qualities.  He  was 
enthusiastic  without  being  pedantic,  full  of  emotion  but  calm  and 
earnest.  He  never  read  his  sermons,  nor  did  he  permit  himself 
to  write  them.  It  must  not  be  presumed,  however,  that  he 
entered  the  pulpit  without  thorough  preparation.  The  theme 
of  his  text  was  thoroughly  thought  out,  and  even  the  sentences, 
as  he  once  remarked  to  this  friend,  were  carefully  formed  before 
delivery.  While  at  college  he  often  served  as  critic  in  his  liter- 
ary society,  where  the  ability,  just  discrimination  and  kindly  spirit 
evident  in  the  discharge  of  the  delicate  duties  of  that  post  made 
him  a  general  favorite.  His  analytic  and  well  worded  report 
at  the  conclusion  of  the  evening's  exercises,  was  awaited  with 
pleasure  alike  by  performers  and  audience.  He  thought  out  his 
sermons  with  critical  exactitude,  after  weighing  with  great  care 
synonymous  expressions  to  determine  which  most  nearly  expressed 
his  idea.  If  from  a  doctrinal  point  these  sermons  were  not  pro- 
found, they  were  never  dogmatical,  always  natural,  sweet  in 
spirit,  messages  from  the  Master. 

His  chief  interest  was  in  the  young  people  of  his  congregation 
and  the  community.  He  mingled  freely  with  them  socially,  and 
entered  with  zest  into  their  innocent  recreations  and  amusements. 
The  sleigh  rides  of  winter  —  usually  taken  in  a  large  sled  — 
the  outing  in  quest  of  the  first  wild  flowers  of  spring,  and  the 
harvest  home  picnic  with  all  its  simple  but  delightful  and  ele- 
vating attractions  were  dear  to  the  young  clerical  friend  of  the 
children.  He  taught  them  drawing  and  music,  and  delivered 
special  sermons  and  lectures  for  them.  Xo  wonder  that  they 
were  affectionately  fond  of  him  and  referred  to  him  with  fervor 
as  "our  preacher." 

It  followed,  as  a  matter  of  course,  that  his  church  was  the 
center  of  attraction  to  the  youn^  and  that  many  should  find  their 
way  to  the  Christian  life  under  his  inspiration  aifd  f^uidance. 
Of  that  number,  one  relates  how  after  she  and  nianv  others  had 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  203 

united  with  the  church,  the  good  minister  planned  a  pleasant 
surprise.  He  and  the  parents  quietly  contributed  to  a  fund  with 
which  there  was  purchased  for  each  new  member  a  neat  and 
substantially  bound  copy  of  the  Bible,  with  the  name  of  the 
recipient  stamped  on  the  back  in  gold.  In  many  families  these 
precious  gifts  are  still  fondly  treasured  in  loving  memory  of 
the  long  ago  and  the  dear  teacher  who  was  a  beneficent  part  of 
it  all.' 

His  love  of  children,  of  course,  antedated  his  entrance  into 
the  ministry.  Mrs.  Hanby,  speaking  of  this  characteristic,  re- 
cently said : 

"If  *to  be  a  good  story  teller  is  to  be  a  king  among  children,'  h  •  cer- 
tainly deserved  the  title.  His  ideal  life  was  the  child  life.  He  loved  it  for 
its  unconscious  sweetness.  All  the  children  who  knew  him  were  his 
friends,  and  would  hasten  to  greet  him  when  they  met  him  on  the  street. 
Nothing  was  too  difficult  if  it  was  for  the  little  ones.  He  would  go  miles 
to  entertain  them.  While  he  was  with  the  John  Church  Company,  the 
Friends  of  Richmond,  Ind.,  collected  into  a  school  several  hundred  of  the 
poorest  children  of  the  city.  Although  no  singers  themselves,  they  fully 
realized  the  sweetening  and  refining  influence  of  music,  and  invited  Mr. 
Hanby  to  come  and  sing  for  them  whenever  he  could.  He  was  glad  of 
the  opportunity,  and  frequently  gave  up  other  things  for  the  sake  of  pleas- 
ing those  poor  little  children.  He  taught  them  many  little  songs,  and 
among  others  was  Chich-a-dcc-dec,  which  they  particularly  liked.  By  and 
by  those  good  Friends  rented  the  largest  hall  in  the  city  and  gave  these 
children  and  their  friends  a  banquet.  It  was  in  the  evening,  and  the  hall 
was  beautifully  lighted  and  decorated.  Mr.  Hjjnby  was  invited  to  sing.  I 
isccompanied  him  Xo  the  hall,  and  never  shall  I  forget  the  greeting  given  him 
by  the  children.  Their  faces  lighted  up,  tliey  clapped  their  little  hands  and 
exclaimed  :  'Oh,  here  comes  Chick-a-dee-dce  !'  He  sang  to  them,  told  them 
itories,  and  was  a  child  with  them  all  evening.'' 

His  advent  was  a  distinct  stimulus  to  the  aesthetic  develop- 
ment of  the  little  village.  The  local  schoolmaster  found  him 
companionable  and  helpful.  There  was  a  new  interest  in  public 
entertainments,  in  which  of  course  nuisic  was  given  a  prominent 
place.  Pianos  and  Organs  began  to  appear  in  the  homes  of  the 
well-to-do,  and  much  was  added  to  the  sum  of  happiness  in 
the  community. 

To  a  careful  observer  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  say,  however, 
that  Rev.  Benjamin  Hanby  was  treading  dangerous  ground.     The 

204  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

church  of  the  middle  west  forty  years  ago  was  not  the  church 
of  to-day.  The  austere  element  of  the  Puritan  spirit  was  then 
still  dominant.  This  was  not  in  any  measure,  be  it  said,  due 
to  the  peculiar  doctrines  of  the  United  Brethren  Church.  For 
its  day  it  was  progressive,  even  liberal.  It  early  took  advanced 
ground  against  the  institution  of  slavery,  and  within  comparatively 
broad  limits  it  gave  conscience  free  range. 

The  barrier  that  loomed  up  in  Hanby's  way  was  not  so 
much  the  spirit  of  his  church  as  it  was  the  spirit  of  the  times. 
There  was  among  the  religious  folk  of  almost  every  community 
a  somewhat  clearly  defined  opinion  as  to  the  minister's  place 
and  proper  attitude  toward  the  people.  They  had  little  faith 
in  the  conversion  of  those  who  joined  church  "because  they 
liked  the  preacher."  An  impression  prevailed  that  the  minister 
should  hold  himself  somewhat  aloof  from  his  people;  as  a  pious 
soul  once  expressed  it,  they  should  feel,  when  they  approached 
him,  that  they  were  "in  the  presence  of  a  superior  being."  Public 
entertainments,  with  attendant  features  that  even  remotely  sug- 
gested the  stage,  were  objects  of  suspicion  and  alarm.  And  as 
for  music  —  well,  there  were  many  among  the  devout  and  right- 
eous who  thoroughly  believed  that  it  was  one  of  the  insinuating 
devices  of  Satan  himself.  These  good  people  would  naturally 
assume  the  interrogatory  attitude  toward  the  innovations  of 
Rev.  Hanby.  That  his  affable  manner  and  the  genial  sunshine  of 
his  smile  melted  away  •much  of  this  incipient  opposition  there 
can  be  no  doubt ;  it  perhaps  would  be  too  much  to  expect  that  it 
should  wholly  silence  criticism. 

The  leaders  of  the  conservative  element,  however,  had  mis- 
givings of  a  more  serious  character.  They  noticed  tliat  the 
vicarious  atonement  and  the  resurrection  had  been  somewhat 
slighted  and  that  the  doctrine  of  eternal  punishment  had  been 
wholly  eliminated  from  his  sermons.  Worse  than  all,  the  report 
gained  currency  that  he  had  privately  declared  that  he  did  not 
believe  in  the  last  of  these.  Matters  moved  quietly  but  promptly 
to  a  crisis.  There  was  no  dramatic  scene.  No  outward  struggle 
marked  his  progress  at  the  ])arting  of  the  ways.  Without  a 
word  of  complaint  or  a  plea  to  shake  the  faith  of  any  mortal, 
with  a  heart  full  of  tenderness  and  love  and  hope,  without  an 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  206 

intimation  of  the  new  light  that  was  leading  to  the  broader  way, 
he  left  the  pulpit  and  soon  afterward  severed  his  connection  with 
the  conference.^ 

That  the  change  of  his  views  did  not  sh^ke  the  foundations 
of  his  religious  faith  is  attested  by  his  subsequent  life  and  the 
large  number  of  sacred  songs  he  composed  and  published  after 
he  left  the  ministry.  He  did  not  formally  sever  his  connection 
with  the  church,  to  which  he  was  bound  by  many  happy  asso- 
ciations. His  experience,  like  that  of  Emerson,  seems  to  have 
prepared  him  for  larger  service  in  a  sphere  for  which  he  was 
peculiarly  fitted. 


He  entered  at  once  the  employ  of  the  John  Church  Music 
Company  of  Cincinnati,  O.,  and  remained  with  the  firm  about 
two  years.  He  continued  to  compose  occasionally,  but  the  de- 
mands of  the  business  in  which  he  was  employed  did  not  leave 
him  much  leisure  for  other  work. 

He  was  a  temperance  advocate  and  wrote  some  songs  dedi- 
cated to  the  cause,  among  which  were  Revelers'  Chorus  and 
Crowding  Awfully.  He  contributed  to  Ohio  political  literature 
at  least  one  effusion,  with  the  refrain 

Oh,  Governor  B  rough, 
It's  terrible  tough. 

He  was  next  transferred  to  the  well  known  music  house  of 
Root  &  Cady,  of  Chicago,  111.  He  regarded  this  change  as  in 
every  way  most  fortunate.  Here  at  last  he  seemed  to  have  found 
the  work  for  which  he  was  especially  equipped.  He  was  employed 
to  write  Sunday  and  day  school  songs.  This  brought  him  again 
into  contact  with  children.  The  echo  of  his  soul  might  have 
found  expression  in  the  words  of  Dickinson : 

Oh,  there's  nothing  on  earth  half  so  holy 
As  the  innocent  heart  of  a  child. 

'  In  the  proceedings  of  the  conference  of  18(16  occurs  the  following 
minute : 

"On  motion,  the  credentials  of  B.  R.  Hanby  were  received  back  by 
the  conference  at  his  request,  and  his  connection  with  the  conference 

206  Ohio  Arch,  mid  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Of  his  work  here,  Mrs.  Hanby  says: 

"He  loved  to  write  children's  songs  because  he  loved  children. 
Teaching  them,  singing  with  them,  and  writing  songs  for  them,  was,  I 
think,  his  real  work..  He  was  happier  in  it  than  in  anything  else  that  he 
ever, did.  His  relations  with  George  F.  Root  were  of  the  most  pleasant 
character.  Mr.  Root  regarded  him  almost  as  a  son,  and  their  intercourse 
was  that  of  very  dear  friends  rather  than  that  of  employer  and  employed." 

The  two  edited  Our  Song  Birds,  in  which  a  number  of 
Mr.  Hanby 's  songs  appear.  These  were  days  of  joyful  labor. 
He  composed  over  sixty  tunes  and  wrote  the  words  for  about 
half  of  them.  At  the  same  time  he  was  preparing  for  publication 
a  work  in  which  he  developed  his  system  of  teaching  music.  It 
included  most  of  his  songs  and  numerous  selections  from  other 
composers.  He  was  enthusiastic  over  the  book  and  confidently 
expected  it  to  yield  him  an  ample  return  for  his  labor.  The 
manuscript  was  almost  ready  for  the  printer  when  business  called 
him  to  St.  Paul  in  the  summer  of  1866.  He  took  the  work 
with  him  in  order  that  he  might  employ  the  leisure  hours  of 
travel  in  putting  on  the  finishing  touches.  Soon  after  reaching 
his  destination,  he  was  taken  seriously  ill  and  returned  home  at 
once.  He  checked  and  shipped  the  trunk  containing  his  manu- 
script, but  it  never  reached  its  destination.  All  efforts  to  locate 
it  were  unavailing.     No  trace  of  it  was  ever  found. 

He  reached  his  home  with  a  hectic  flush  on  his  cheek.  His 
lungs  were  seriously  affected.  But  hope,  so  native  to  his  buoyant 
nature  and  characteristic  of  his  malady,  bore  him  on,  his  former 
self  in  everything  but  waning  strength.  Though  confined  to 
his  home  most  of  the  time,  mind  and  pen  were  still  active.  Our 
Song  Birds  claimed  his  especial  interest,  l^^ollowing  are  the 
words  of  a  few  of  his  contributions : 


How  sweet  the  holy  hour. 

When  at  the  throne  of  grace ; 
The  friends  of  Jesus  bend  the  knee, 

And  angels  fill  the  place. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  207 

Oh,  haste,  my  willing  feet, 

To  join  the  happy  throng; 
Confess  thy  sins,  my  trembling  lips. 

Or  raise  the  grateful  song. 

The  gentle  Shepherd  flies, 

(Oh,  wealth  of  love  untold!) 
To  hear,  and  help,  and  heal  and  bless 

The  hiunblest  of  His  fold. 

Oh,  Shepherd,  Savior,  King, 
Come,  make  this  heart  Thy  throne; 
Drive  out  Thy  foes.  Thou  Mighty  One, 
And  make  me  all  Thine  own. 


We  come  in  childhood's  joy  fulness, 

We  come  as  children,  free! 
We  offer  up,  O  God !  our  hearts. 

In  trusting  love  to  Thee. 
Well  may  we  bend  in  solemn  joy, 

At  Thy  bright  courts  above. 
Well  may   the  grateful  child   rejoice, 

In  such  a  Father's  love. 

We  come  not  as  the  mighty  come ; 

Not  as  the  proud  we  bow. 
But  as  the  pure  in  heart  should  bend. 

Seek  we  Thine  altars  now. 
"Forbid  them  not,"  the  Savior  said; 

But  let  them  come  to  Me ; 
Oh,  Savior  dear,  we  hear  Thy  call, 

We  come,  we  come,  to  Thee. 

To  Thee,  Thou  Lord  of  life  and  light. 

Amid  the  angel  throng, 
We  bend  the  knee,  we  lift  the  heart, 

And  swell  the  holy  song. 
How  blest  the  children  of  the  Lord, 

Who  wait  around  His  throne, 
How  sweet  to  tread  the  path  that  leads 

To  yonder  heavenly  home. 

208  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


Come  from  the  hill-top,  the  vale,  and  the  glen; 
Lights  now  the  Sabbath  the  landscape  again ; 
Little  feet  patter  like  rain  o'er  the  sod. 
On  in  the  path  to  the  temple  of  God. 


On  to  the  •temple,  on  to  the  temple. 
On  to  the  temple,  on  to  the  temple. 
Little  feet  patter  like  rain  o'er  the  sod, 
On  in  the  path  to  the  temple  of  God. 

Who  to  the  fields  or  the  forests  would  stray, 
Seeking  their  pleasure  at  work  or  at  play? 
Who,  when  that  banner  of  love  is  unfurlM, 
Turn  to  the  bubble-like  joys  of  the  world? 

We  from  the  service  of  Sin  would  depart, 
Heeding  Thy  mandate  of  "Give  me  Thine  heart ; 
Suffer  the  children  to  "come  unto  me. 
Savior,  behold  at  Thy  feet  here  are  we. 

ic  ncan  /* 

Thus  when  our  Sabbaths  on  earth  are  no  more, 
We  shall  be  with  Thee,  and  love  and  adore : 
Singing  in  heaven,  that  bright  world  of  bliss. 
Songs  that  wc  learned  on  the  Sabbaths  of  this. 


Now  to  the  Lord  on  high, 

Ye  saints  your  voices  raise. 
Let  little  children  throng  His  court, 

And  sing  the  Savior's  praise.  • 

Here  on  this  holy  day, 

Ye  multitudes,  repair, 
And  pour  your  swelling  souls  in  song, 

Or  lift  the  humble  prayer. 

Rejoicing,  or  in  grief. 

Come,  sit  and  hear  His  Word ; 
And  thro'  your  smiles,  or  thro'  your  tears, 

Look  up  an(>  see  your  I^rd. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  209 

His  ear  is  quick  to  hear, 
His  hand  is  open  wide; 


Each  trusting  soul  shall  surely  find 
His  ev'ry  want  supplied. 



We  are  coming,  sang  the  robins, 

For  the  woods  and  groves  are  gay; 
Will  you  give  us  kindly  greeting, 

Little  Jessie,  little  May? 
We  will  join  your  matin  carols. 

We  will  chant  your  vesper  lay, 
While  we  wait  your  sweeter  echoes, 

Little  Jessie,  Little  May. 


We  are  coming,  sang  the  robins, 
For  the  woods  and  groves  are  gay; 

Will  you  give  us  kindly  greeting, 
Little  Jessie,  little  May? 

There's  a  tree  beneath  your  window, 

With  a  paradise  of  leaves, 
We  will  build  our  robin  homestead 

In  the  branches  'neath  the  eaves ; 
There   will    be    the    sweetest    chirping, 

In  the  garden  by  and  by. 
When  our  pleasant  toil  is  ended. 

And  the  nestlings  learn  to  fly. 

You  will  scatter  crumbs,  it  may  be, 

On  your  friendly  window  sill, 
For  each  darling  robin  baby, 

Has  an  empty,  gaping  bill. 
We  will  give  our  farewell  concert. 

When  the  flowers  pass  away. 
But  will  come  again  as  they  will, 

Little  Jessie,  little  May. 

Vol.   XIV— 14. 

210  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 


Ho!  ho!  ho! 

Out  to  the  beautiful  groves  we  go; 
This  is  our  holiday  now,  you  know. 
Sweet  shall  our  melodies  float  and  flow, 

Out  on  the  balmy  air: 
Bear  them,  ye  breezes  that  gently  blow. 

Scatter  them  everywhere. 

Sing !   sing !   sing ! 

Heaven  shall  smile  at  the  praises  we  bring. 
Forest  and  meadow  with  music  ring, 
Echo  the  cadences  gracefully  fling, 

Out  on  the  balmy  air: 
Bear  them  aloft  on  her  silv'ry  wing. 

Scatter  them  everywhere. 

Play!  play!  play! 

Run,  oh,  ye  happy  ones  while  ye  may ; 
Roam  thro*  the  forests  at  will  to-day. 
Pouring  your  shouts  and  your  laughter  gay, 

Out  on  the  balmy  air: 
Sylvia  beckons,  oh,  speed  away, 

Scatter  them  everywhere. 


Row  !  row !  row ! 

Over  the  beautiful  blue  we  go ! 

Row !  row !  row  !row ! 

Over  the  waters  we  go. 
Lightly  every  heart  is  bounding, 
Gay  the  voice  of  song  is  sounding. 
Sweet  the  light  guitar  resounding. 

Ihus  we  gaily  row. 

Row  !  row  !  row  ! 

Over  the  beautiful  blue  we  go! 

Row  !  row  !  row !  row ! 

^ver  the  waters  we  go. 
Starry  vaults  above  us  beaming, 
Starry  depths  below  us  seeming, 
Silver  wavelets  'round  us  gleaming. 

Thus  we  gaily  row. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,      ^  211 

Row  !  row  !  row ! 

Over  the  beautiful  blue  we  go ! 

Row !  row !  row !  row ! 

Over  the  waters  we  go. 
Heart  to  heart  we'll  sail  together, 
Hand  in  hand  for  aye  and  ever. 
Naught  shall  change  us,  naught  shall  sever. 

Thus  we  gaily  row. 


Down  in  that  cottage  lives  Weaver  John, 

And  a  happy  old  John  is  he; 
Maud  is  the  name  of  his  dear  old  dame, 

And  a  blessed  old  dame  is  she. 


Whickity,  whackity,  click  and  clack. 

How  the  shuttles  do  glance  and  ring! 
Here  they  go,  there  they  go,  forth  and  back, 

A  staccato  song  they  sing. 

Close  by  his  side  is  his  gentle  wife, 

And  she's  twirling  the  flaxen  thread; 
Sweet  to  his  ear  is  the  low  wheel's  hum. 

It  was  purchased  when  they  were  wed. 

Pussy  is  frisking  about  the  room, 
With  her  kittens,  one,  two,  three,  four; 

Towser  is  taking  his  wonted  nap 
On  the  settle  behind  the  door. 

Soft  as  the  hum  of  the  dame's  low  wheel, 

Does  the  music  of  time  roll  on; 
Morning  and  noon  of  a  useful  life 

Bring  a  peacefully  setting  sun. 

Our  Song  Birds  was  a  musical  periodical,  each  number 
named  after  someJt)ird  whose  picture  appeared  on  the  cover.  The 
last  issue  to  which  Hanby  contributed  was,  by  a  touching  coinci- 
dence, called  "The  Dove."  Among  the  selections  from  this  num- 
ber are  Come  front  the  Hill-top  and  Weaver  John,  with  the 
beautifully  suggestive  closing  stanzas : 

212  Ohio  jj}.rch.  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Thus  when  our  Sabbaths  on  earth  are  no  more, 
We  shall  be  with  Thee,  and  love  and  adore. 
Singing  in  heaven,  that  bright  world  of  bliss. 
Songs  that  we  learned  on  the  Sabbaths  of  this. 

Soft  as  the  hum  of  the  dame's  low  wheel, 

Does  the  music  of  time  roll  on. 
Morning  and  noon  of  a  useful  life 

Bring  a  peacefully  setting  sun. 

His  life  had  not  reached  the  zenith  of  the  allotted  three  score 
years  and  ten  when  it  swiftly  but  silently  declined,  and  the 
twilight  shadows  began  to  gather.  One  day  in  March,  Mr.  Cady^ 
one  of  his  employers,  visited  him  and  found  him  weak  but 
cheerful  and  sanguine  as  of  old.  He  said  little  about  his  con- 
dition; his  conversation  was  all  in  the  hopeful  vein;  his  mind 
was  full  of  plans  for  the  future.  His  illness  by  subtle,  painless 
stages  bore  him  through  waning  strength,  while  the  evening  star 
to  his  raptured  eye  was  radiant  with  the  promise  of  the  years 
stretching  peacefully  before.  Behind  were  the  snows  of  winter. 
From  the  frozen  streets  and  blackened  air  of  the  great  city,  he 
turned  in  thought  to  the  glories  of  reviving  nature,  as  with 
enfeebled  hand  he  had  drawn  them  in  his  latest  verse : 

The  morning  is  beaming,  the  morning  is  beaming; 

Oh,  hasten  the  sight  to  behold! 
The  mountains  are  gleaming,  the  mountains  are  gleaming, 

With  tintings  of  purple  and  gold. 

The  brooklets  are  dashing,  the  brooklets  are  dashing 

O'er  pebbles  of  crimson  and  white; 
The  rivers  are  flashing,  the  rivers  are  flashing, 

Their  arrows  of  silvery  light. 

Gone  were  the  wintry  blasts.  He  looked  forward  with  eager 
anticipation  to  the  coming  of  spring.  While  balmy  south  winds 
were  whispering  of  her  approach,  he  fell  asleep  and  woke  not 
with  the  coming  day.^ 

'  He  ditd  March  16,  1867. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio. 

214  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

"He  was  just  beginning  to  make  a  name  for  himself  in  the 
musical  world,"  declares  a  writer,  "when  he  was  stricken  down 
in  the  prime  of  young  manhood." 

"He  was  educated  for  the  ministry,"  says  Mr.  Root,  in  his 
autobiography,  "but  was  so  strongly  inclined  to  music  that  he 
decided  to  try  to  make  that  his  life's  work.  But  he  died  almost 
at  the  commencement  of  his  career." 

Backward  to  the  old  home  in  the  college  town  were  borne 
the  mortal  remains  of  this  dear  interpreter  of  the  melodies  of 
the  human  heart.  On  the  campus,  at  the  corners  of  the  streets 
and  in  the  study  room,  there"  was  the  pall  of  sadness  that  only 
the  alma  mater  of  that  day  could  feel  at  the  obsequies  of  such  a 
son. .  Professors,  students  and  citizens  moved  in  silent  procession 
to  the  little  cemetery  by  the  winding  stream,  and  in  the  quiet 
southwest  corner,  where  sunshine  and  shadow  weave  changing 
figures  on  the  sward  the  whole  year  round,  the  bard  was  gently 
laid  to  rest. 

He  yearned  for  the  return  of  the  season  dear  to  poetic  souls. 
With  warmth  and  fragrance  and  music,  spring  came  to  open 
buds  and  spread  the  living  green  above  his  grave. 

Nor  poet,  nor  minstrel  in  all  this  middle  west  has  found  in 
place  more  fitting  his  lowly  mansion  of  dreamless  repose.  Among 
the  little  mounds,  the  dark  cedar  and  the  arching  elm  stand 
guard,  while  at  the  edge  of  the  sharp  declivity  beyond  the  grave 
and  shading  it  from  the  declining  sun,  rises  a  sturdy  oak, 
that  has  stood  through  cahn  and  storm  while  generations  have 
passed  away.  Not  far  distant  and  seen  distinctly  through  the 
intervening  branches,  the  stream  with  circling  sweep  moves  on- 
ward as  of  old.  Around  is  the  music  of  nature,  pleasantly 
broken  at  intervals  by  the  college  bell  as  it  calls  the  students 
to  the  lessons  of  the  day. 

Fair  Ottcrbcin !  Blest  are  thy  classic  shades  and  hallowed 
thy  memories,  l^'roni  these  walls  high-minded  sons  have  gone 
forth  to  win  laurels  in  the  fields  of  honorable  endeavor.  Mini- 
sters and  educators  and  jurists  have  acquired  more  than  local 
fame,  and  one'sweet  sin.i;er  found  his  way  to  the  universal  heart. 
The  great  world,  in  its  mad  rush  for  gain,  may  care  hut  little 
who  and  what  he  was.     But  a  belter  day  will  dawn  —  is  dawning. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  215 

When  vulgar  wealth  yields  to  intellectual  culture;  when  to 
sway  thousands  through  the  magic  power  of  song  to  the  support 
of  a  righteous  cause  is  as  great  as  to  move  men  by  eloquent 
appeal  or  to  lead  them  forth  to  battle ;  when  to  add  to  the  world's 
happiness  is  to  be  the  world's  benefactor;  when  to  touch  and 
refine  the  heart  iis  to  be  a  savior  of  mankind;  when  greed  shall 
not  outweigh  the  things  of  the  spirit;  when  self  is  less  and  love 
is  more,  the  fame  of  this  son  of  song  shall  have  a  wider  range, 
and  for  his  memory  there  shall  be  a  resurrection  in  the  land  he 
loved  so  well. 


VOL.  XIV.    No.  2. 



A  philosophical  essayist  on  the  study  of  history  tritely  remarks  that 
.  historian  should  be  possessed  of  industry,  conscience  and  imagination. 
Industry  and  patience  to  faithfully  exhume 
the  facts,  conscience  lo  truthfully  and  im- 
partially exploit  them,  and  imagination  to 
vividly  portray  the  scenes  and  evenrs  in- 
volved that  the  reader  in  his  mind's  eye 
may  perceive  ihem  realistically  reproduced. 
Such  is  the  ideal  historian.  Such  an  one 
to  a  rare  degree  is  Mr.  Elroy  M.  Avery, 
author  of  "A  History  of  the  United  States 
and  Its  People,"  published  by  the  Burrows 
Brothers  Company,  Cleveland,  Ohio — to  be 
completed  in  twelve  octavo  volumes.  The 
first  volume  is  before  us.  As  the  proof  of 
the  pudding  is  in  the  eating,  the  test  of  the 
book  is  in  the  reading.  It  has  long  been 
our  notion  that  the  history  of  the  United 
States  has  not  yet  been  written.  To  be 
sure,  many  so-called  histories  have  been  put 
;n  by  eastern  authors — provincial  scholars, 
iped  by  local  pride  or  prejudices— a  narrow 
I  bright  and  clear  often  till  it  reached  the 
but  beyond  that  lost  in  the  vista  of  the  great  and 
cverwhelming  West.  The  vast  and  vital  part  played  in  the  Ohio  and 
Mississippi  Valleys  and  beyond,  in  the  formative  period  of  our  country, 
has  usually  been  slightingly  treated  or  practically  ignored.  The  true  his- 
tory of  the  United  States  must  be  written  by  a  Westerner;  the  entire 
sweep  of  the  historian's  realm  can  only  be  had  from  the  center  and  not 
from  one  side  of  our  vast  domain.  Mr.  Avery  was  properly  born,  located 
and  educated  for  this  work.  All  hail  to  a  recital  of  the  origin  and  growth 
of  the  American  Republic  by  a  Westerner — an  Ohioan.  Mr,  Avery  is 
a  typical  American.  Bom  in  Erie,  Monroe  County.  Michigan  (1844),  of 
the  best  New  England  stock  and  tradition,  the  best  blood  of  our  fore- 
fathers, and  the  best  brawn  and  brain  of  our  western  self-made  manhood. 
A  descendant  of  Puritan  ancestry,  a  son  of  the  American  Revolution,  a 

forth,   but   in   thi 
whose  pens   have 
range  of  hisl 
Alleghany  Mountain. 

Editoriahna.  217 

country  farm  boy,  ambitious,  industrious,  indefatigable  in  his  efforts  for 
the  development  of  all  that  was  best  in  him,  an  improver  of  opportunities, 
a  student  in  the  school  of  experience  and  the  academic  course,  a  school 
teacher,  a  printer  and  newspaper  writer,  a  brave  soldier  boy  in  the  war 
for  our  nation's  unity  and  preservation,  college  graduate  (Michigan,  '71), 
professor,  litterateur,  scientist,  lecturer,  principal  of  high-school,  author 
of  many  standard  text-books  in  scientific  and  literary  subjects,  a  politi- 
cian of  the  higher  order  and  statesman  in  the  Ohio  Senate  (1894-1898). 
Rare  combination  of  natural  and  acquired  fitness  for  the  work  lyhich  has 
engaged  his  attention  for  the  past  twenty  years. 

This  first  volume  covers  the  period  of  the  geologic  formation  of  the 
land,  the  first  Americans,  paleolithic  and  neolithic  Americans,  the  North- 
men, voyages  of  the  early  navigators,  Columbus,  Da  Gama,  the  Cabots, 
Vespucius,  the  Spanish,  English  and  French  pioneers,  the  American 
Indians,  etc.  The  chapters  on  the  first  Americans,  the  paleolithic  the 
neolithic  man,  are  especially  interesting  and  satisfactory.  They  deal  with 
subjects  fascinating  because  somewhat  nebulous — on  the  border  between 
myth  and  history.  Mr.  Avery  has  been  unusually  happy  in  treating  these 
topics — concisely  and  comprehensively  giving  what  is  known  and  what  has 
been  guessed  by  the  leading  knowers  and  chief  guessers.  After  stating 
the  geologic  hypothesis  of  the  formation  of  surface  of  our  land,  he  says: 

"In  the  earliest  archean  age  (Azoic),  only  dead  matter 
existed  on  earth.  Then  life  appeared :  first  the  unconscious  life 
of  the  plant,  then,  the  conscious  and  intelligent  life  of  the  animal. 
After  almost  countless  ages,  man  appeared.  Upon  matter,  life 
had  been  imposed ;  now,  mind  was  to  crown  the  structure,  stand- 
ing upon  matter  and  life  and  dominating  both.  'And  the  even? 
ing  and  the  morning  were  the  sixth  day.'  At  what  stage  in  this 
scene  of  development  did  man  first  appear  in  the  world  that 
Columbus  found,  and  what  sort  of  a  being  was  he?" 

he  then  discusses  the  earliest  evidences  of  man's  appearance — the 
glacial  man — the  original  "ice-man" — the  paleolithic  man,  so-called  because 
of  the  "rudeness  of  the  relics  found  in  the  quaternary  gravels."  He  was 
followed  by  the  neolithic  gentleman  (?),  also  pre-historic,  but  of  a  higher 
grade  of  intelligence  and  skill,  residing  in  the  stone  age,  but  whose  imple- 
ments were  ground  or  polished  in  a  manner  that  set  him  above  his  paleo- 
lithic predecessor  in  the  scale  of  civilization.  The  evidences  of  the  neo- 
lithic race  are  very  abundant  and  widely  distributed.  The  third  period 
was  called  the  ethnographic,  lying  partly  before  and  partly  within  historical 
times.  "It  began  with  our  first  knowledge  of  the  red  man,  and  is  now 
fading  from  the  screen  like  a  dissolving 'view  that  has  been  held  up  for 
study  for  four  hundred  years."  Then  follow  descriptions  of  prehistoric 
monuments.  The  shell  heaps,  the  bone  heaps,  graves,  village  sites,  and 
the  innumerable  and  interesting  remains  of  the  cliff  dwellers,  mound 
builders,  and  peoples  who  left  their  indelible  and  often  vast  and  wonderful 

218  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

works  but  no  written  records  or  continuing  traditions.  Fort  Ancient, 
Serpent  Mound  and  the  incomparable  and  inscrutable  earth  structures 
near  Newark  and  Chillicothe  are  described  and  faithfully  diagramed  The 
researches  and  conclusions  of  the  archaeologist  and  ethnologist  are  admir- 
ably summarized.  The  testimony  of  the  prehistoric  remains  as  to  the  art, 
mode  of  life  and  warfare  of  the  strange  and  lost  race  is  set  forth,  briefly 
of  course,  but  with  skillful  marshalling  of  facts  and  fancies. 

"There  are  two  widely  held  and  antagonistic  opinions  con- 
cerning the  builders  of  these  mounds.  One  school  of  archaeol- 
ogists insists  that  the  mound  builders  were  far  more  cultured 
than  any  known  North  American  Indians,  that  their  earthworks 
were  more  complicated  and  better  finished,  that  their  arts  of  fash- 
ioning and  polishing  stone  and  of  fabricating  pottery,  their  agri- 
culture and  their  architecture,  were  more  advanced,  and  that  their 
social  and  religious  systems  were  of  a  higher  order  than  were 
those  of  their  successors.  This  theory  leads  up  to  the  concept  of 
an  extinct  civilization  and  a  vanished  race.  The  more  modern 
school  confidently  insists  that  'there  is  nothing  found  in  the  mode 
of  construction  of  these  mounds  nor  in  the  vestages  of  art  they 
contain  to  indicate  that  their  builders  had  reached  a  higher  cul- 
ture-status than  that  attained  by  some  of  the  Indian  tribes  found 
occupying  the  country  at  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  first 

"At  no  time  in  the  history  of  any  of  the  older  nations  of  the 
world  has  the  whole  population  been  removed  to  give  place  to 
another  altogether  different.  Continuity  is  the  law  of  history, 
and  it  is  difficult  to  believe  that  that  law  has  been  vioUted  here. 
It  is  hardly  conceivable  that  a  race  should  come  upon  the  stage, 
act  its  part,  and  go  away  to  give  place  to  another  company  of 
players  with  whom  the  first  had  naught  to  do." 

The  chapter  on  the  Indians  of  North  America  deals  with  the  "red 
man"  of  our  earliest  historic  knowledge.  His  origin,  extent  of  h^'s  habi- 
tations at  time  of  Columbian  discoveries,  his  racial  separation  into  tribes 
and  groups  of  tribes. 

"At  the  end  of  the  nineteenth  century,  there  were  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  officially  recognized  tribes  in  the  United  States, 
exclusive  of  Alaska,  gathered  upon  more  than  fifty  reservations, 
besides  others  that  occupied  state  reservations  or  were  scattered 
among  the  whites.  We  have  no  sufficient  data  for  ascertaining 
the  aboriginal  population  at  the  time  of  the  discovery,  but,  after 
making  all  allowances  for  exaggeration  in  the  early  estimate, 
there  can  be  no  question  that  it  has  greatly  diminished.  The 
popular  impression  that  the  eastern  tribes  have  simply  been  re- 
moved to  the  west  is  true  in  but  a  few  cases.    In  most  instances 

Bditofiatana.  219 

they  have  been  exterminated  by  war,  disease,  and  failure  of 
accustomed  food  supply,  consequented  upon  the  advent  of  the 

The  simple  and  primitive  existence  and  the  peculiar  characteristics 
of  these  children  of  the  forest  are  entertainingly  depicted.  This  chapter 
is  followed  by  a  valuable  and  full  appendix  of  statistics  concerning  the 
Indians — treaties  of  the  United  States  with  the  tribes,  the  cost  to  the 
government  in  the  case  of  these  aboriginal  wards,  the  reservations,  their 
area,  number  of  Indians  in  each,  etc. 

Mr.  Avery's  style  is  most  felicitous.  We  know  of  no  historian  more 
readable  in  manner  or  more  elegant  in  rich  but  simple  English.  One 
could  easily  be  persuaded  to  read  these  pages  for  entertainment,  no  less 
than  for  information.  Mr.  Avery  has  the  true  historic  temperament  as 
well  as  the  scholarly  intellect;  there  is  nothing  mechanical,  dull  or  com- 
mon place  in  the  pages  of  this  recital ;  once  entered  upon  the  opening  of 
this  volume,  the  reader  is  borne  along  with  an  interest  as  unflagging  as 
that  imparted  by  the  shifting  scenes  of  some  pliay. 

The  author  has  selected  the  material  for  his  readers  from  an  almost 
limitless  store-house,  with  exact  discrimination.  The  work  is  popular  in 
form,  it  is,  as  the  author  declares,  for  the  reader  of  general  culture,  rather 
than  the  professional  student.  The  latter,  however,  is  partially  provided 
for  by  having  placed  at  his  disposal  a  bibliographical  appendix,  in  which 
are  given  for  this  volume  alone  a  list  of  over  five  hundred  authorities 
arranged  alphabetically  and  under  topical  heads,  so  that  sources  of  infor- 
mation on  any  given  subject  may  be  readily  found.  The  work  is  profusely 
illuminated  with  maps  and  illustrations.  The  mechanical  execution  of  the 
work  surpasses  that  of  any  history  we  have  seen.  The  publishers  have 
given  the  production  of  Mr.  Avery's  graphic  and  fascinating  pen  a  setting 
worthy  the  theme  and  treatment.  The  volumes  are  most  perfect  and 
attractive  specimens  of  the  modern  "art  of  arts."  No  history  of  the 
United  States  has  been  honored  with  such  royal  encasement.  It  is  worthy 
the  shelves  of  a  sovereign. 


The  twentieth  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Historical  Associa- 
tion was  held  in  Chicago,  Wednesday,  Thursday  and  Friday,  December 
28,  29  and  30,  1904.  Members  were  present  from  nearly  every  State  in 
the  Union,  representing  nearly  all  the  leading  historical  societies  and  the 
historical  departments  of  the  leading  colleges  and  universities.  The  Ohio 
State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  was  officially  represented  by 
the  secretary,  E.  O.  Randall,  Columbus,  and  Mr.  A.  J.  Baughman,  Mans- 
field, life  member  of  the  society  and  also  secretary  of  the  Richland  County 
Historical  Society.  There  were  also  present  Miss  Martha  J.  Maltby, 
Columbus,  Mr.  Nelson  W.  Evans,  Portsmouth,  and  Dr.  C.  E.  Slocum, 

220  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

Defiance,  all  life  members  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical 

The  meetings  of  the  association  were  held  in  the  Mandel  Assembly 
Hall  and  the  Reynolds  Club  Rooms  of  the  University  of  Chicago.  The 
first  session  of  the  association  was  held  Wednesday  afternoon,  and  was 
opened  with  a  felicitous  address  of  welcome  by  President  William  A. 
Harper,  of  the  University  of  Chicago.  During  the  several  sessions  that 
followed,  various  phases  of  historical  work,  both  American  and  foreign, 
were  presented  and  discussed.  Among  the  topics  x:onsidered  were  meth- 
ods of  collection  of  materials,  the  best  means  of  organizing  historical 
societies,  mutual  calendaring  of  manuscript  collections,  and  the  possibility 
of  co-operation  among  societies  in  the  matter  of  publications.  Also  the 
relation  of  state  historical  societies  to  the  state  government,  the  work  of 
American  historical  societies,  the  historical  congress  at  St.  Lx>uis,  the 
material  of  American  history  in  the  English  archives,  and  the  teaching  of 
history  in  the  elementary  schools  and  other  kindred  topics. 

The  names  of  some  fifty  professors  of  history  in  the  colleges  of  the 
country  were  on  the  published  program.  Three  foreign  universities  were 
also  represented.  Ettore  Pais,  professor  in  the  University  of  Naples,  gave 
an  address  on  Roman  History;  Paul  Milyoukov,  professor  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Sofia,  spoke  on  the  subject  of  "Russian  Historiography,"  and 
Friedrich  Keutgen,  professor  in  the  University  of  Jena,  gave  a  very  useful 
and  interesting  talk  on  the  necessity  in  America  of  the  study  of  the  early 
history  of  modern  European  nations. 

Especially  interesting  was  the  "Round  Table"  conference,  held  by  the 
representatives  of  the  various  state  and  local  historical  societies,  at  which 
Mr.  Reuben  G.  Thwaitcs,  Secretary  of  the  State  Jlisturical  Society  of  Wis- 
consin, presided.  At  this  conference  formal  papers  wore  read  on  the 
following  subjects:  "Forms  of  Organization,  and  Relation  to  the  State 
Government,"  Thomas  M.  Owen,  director  of  the  department  of  archives 
and  history,  Alabama ;  Warren  Upham,  secretary  of  the  Minnesota  His- 
torical Society.  '"The  Possibilities  of  Mutual  Co-operation  Between  the 
Societies,  State  and  Local,"  C.  M.  Burton,  president  of  the  Michigan  Pio- 
neer and  Historical  Society;  Benjamin  H.  Shambaugh,  State  Historical 
Society  of  Iowa.  Director  McLaughlin,  of  the  Bureau  of  Historical 
Research,   Carnegie   Institute,  gave  an  account  of  the   indexing  of  manu- 


.scripts.  W.  C.  Ford,  chief  of  the  division  of  Manuscri|)ts,  Library  of  Con- 
gress, read  a  paper  on  "Government   Archives  in  Our   New   Possessions." 

Many  topics  and  phases  of  historical  rescarcli.  collection  and  collation 
were  presented  and  considered.  Reports  show  that  there  is  a  growing 
interest  in  the  history  of  the  country,  and  the  consensus  of  opinion  was 
that  more  work  upon  the  lines  indicated  should  be  taken  up  by  the  colleges 
and  other  institutions  of  learning,  and  to  this  the  two  hundred  professors 
and    teachers    present    enthusiastically   assented. 

Among  the  social  features  of  the  meeting  were  a  luncheon  in  Hutch- 
inson Hall,  Wednesday  at  1  p.  m.;  a  reception  by  the  Chicago  Historical 

Editorialana.  221 

Society  Wednesday  evening,  and  a  reception  Thursday  afternoon  by  Presi- 
dent and  Mrs.  Harper,  at  their  residence,  corner  of  Fifty-ninth  street  and 
Lexington  avenue.  President  Harper  is  an  Ohio  man,  and  was  formerly 
connected  with  Muskingum  College,  at  New  Concord.  His  wife  is  also 
a  Buckeye,  and  when  a  girl  lived  in  Mansfield.  She  is  the  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  David  Paul,  who  was  the  pastor  of  the  Mansfield  United  Presbyterian 
Church  from  1858  until  1864,  when  he  resigned  to  accept  the  presidency  of 
the  Muskingum  college. 

The  American  Political  Science  Association  and  the  American  Eco- 
nomic Association  held  their  annual  meetings  at  the  same  time,  in  the 
halls  of  the  Chicago  University  buildings. 


Apropos  of  the  need  for  a  building  for  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological 
and  Historical  Society,  we  note  with  much  interest  and  not  a  little  envy 
the  announcement  that  the  New  York  Historical  Society  is  erecting  a 
building  for  its  future  home  on  Seventy-sixth  Street,  opposite  Central 
Park,  New  York.  The  site  of  the  building  was  bought  in  June,  1891,  at  a 
cost  of  $300,000.  Some  difficulty  was  experienced  in  raising  the  additional 
money  necessary  to  begin  the  work  of  the  construction.  Dean  Hoffman, 
father  of  the  present  president  of  the  society,  was  the  leader  and  director 
of  this  undertaking.  He  induced  several  prominent  New  Yorkers — ^among 
them  Archer  M.  Huntington,  Miss  Matilda  Wolf  Bruce,  J.  P.  Morgan, 
F.  Robert  Schell,  the  late  John  Alsop  King,  Cornelius  and  George  W. 
Vanderbilt — to  contribute  large  amounts. 

The  building  committee  was  appointed  in  June,  1901,  to  receive  and 
report  upon  plans  for  the  proposed  building.  This  coi?imittee  decided  to 
erect  the  central  portion,  135  x  115  feet,  on  the  lines  of  American  colonial 
architecture,  from  the  plans  of  Messrs.  York  &  Sawyer,  at  an  estimated 
cost ,  of  $400,000.  The  cornerstone  was  laid  by  ex-Mayor  Seth  Low, 
November  17,  1903.  The  work  has  been  going  on  with  more  or  less  inter- 
ruption, but  it  is  expected  that  the  building  will  be  completed  as  far  as  the 
first  story  this  spring.  The  building  when  completed  will  be  the  finest 
of  its  kind  in  the  country.  It  will  be  of  pink  Milford  granite,  three  stories 
high,  affording  ample  shelf  space  for  nearly  500,000  volumes  and  several 
special  rooms  for  exhibits  of  various  sorts,  and  will  contain  an  auditorium 
on  the  main  floor,  capable  of  seating  400  persons,  a  lecture  room,  reception, 
lounging  and  committee  rooms.  On  the  second  floor  will  be  a  large 
museum,  two  large  lecture  galleries  and  a  reading  room.  The  plan  of  this 
central  portion  of  the  building  is  so  drawn  that  at  some  future  time  exten- 
sive wings  of  the  same  general  style  of  architecture  may  be  added. 

The  New  York  rHis tor ical  Society  was  founded  on  November  ,20, 
1804,  on  which  date  ]^gb«rt  Benson,  Dc  Witt  Qinton,  Rev.  Dr.  William 
Linn.  Rev.  Dr.  John  N..  Abeel;  R-ev.  Dr.  John  M.  Mason,  Dr.  David  Hoo- 

222  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

dack/ AnthoDy  Bleecker,  Samuel  Bayard,  Peter  G.  Stuyvesant  and  John^ 
Pintard  met  in  the  picture  room  of  the  old  city  hall,  in  Wall  Street,  ta 
organize  this  society,  whose  principal  object  should  be  to  collect  and  pro- 
tect materials  relating  to  the  natural,  civil  and  ecclesiastical  history  of  the 
United  States  in  general  and  the  State  of  New  York  in  particular.  The 
society  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  legislature  of  February  9,  1809. 
It  is  now  one  of  the  richest  historical  societies  of  the  country  in  its  accu- 
mulation of  books,  pictures,  manuscripts  and  objects  of  art.  Its  library 
comprises  over  100,000  books,  pamphlets  and*  manuscripts.  At  present  the 
society  is  housed  in  its  own  property,  a  small,  unpretentious  building, 
which  it  has  occupied  for  a  century,  which  is  literally  packed  with  the 
invaluable  collections  which  the  society  has  purchased  or  from  time  to 
time  have  been  bequeathed  to  it  by  distinguished  donors. 

The  securing  by  the  New  York  Historical  Society  of  such  worthy 
quarters  as  it  will  soon  possess  is  an  object  lesson  which  it  is  hoped  the 
Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  may  be  able  to  follow  at 
no  distant  date.  With  a  home  such  as  the  life  and  work  of  our  society 
now  deserves  it,  too,  would  be  the  beneficiary  of  innumerable  collections 
of  books,  manuscripts  and  archaeological  relics  and  endowment  funds. 
Provided  with  proper  permanent  quarters  the  Ohio  State  Society  would 
soon  occupy  the  same  relation  to  Ohio  archaeology  and  history  that  the 
New  York  Society  now  bears  to  the  Empire  State. 



The  Maumee  Valley  Pioneer  and  Historical  Association  held  its 
annual  meeting  at  the  court  house,  in  Toledo,  on  February  22.  The  asso- 
ciation is  comprised  of  earnest  pioneers  and  other  loyal,  patriotic  citizens, 
living  along  the  historic  Maumee.  They  are  endeavoring  to  keep  alive 
the  fires  of  patriotism  and  preserve  the  historic  landmarks  of  the  eventful 
locality  in  question.  There  was  a  good  attendance  of  gentlemen  and  lady 
members.  Mr.  D.  K.  Hollenbeck,  of  Perrysburg,  the  president,  called 
the  meeting  to  order,  and  the  Rev.  N.  B.  C.  Love,  trustee  of  the  Ohio 
State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society,  delivered  the  invocation.  The 
report  of  the  treasurer  showed  a  balance  of  $38.96  on  hand.  The  follow- 
ing members  were  elected  as  trustees  for  thee  years:  D.  K.  Hollenbeck, 
J.  L.  Pray  and  C.  O.  Bringham.  A  committee  of  three,  consisting  of 
Julius  Lamson,  David  Robinson,  Jr.,  and  J.  Kent  Hamilton,  was  appointed 
to  confer  with  the  electric  roads,  with  a  view  of  their  contributing  toward 
the  fund  for  buying  the  unpurchased  portion  of  Fort  Meigs,  which  the 
association  hopes  to  obtain  entire,  and,  without  destroying  its  historic 
character,  transform  into  some  sort  of  a  public  park.  The  association 
already  owns  nine  acres,  which  is  about  one-fourth  of  the  entire  fort  tract 
The  committee  on  Fort  Miami  reported  that  the  association  should  no 

longer  contemplate  buying  that  property,  as  it  had  been  purchased  by  Mr, 
A.  M.  Woolson,  who  they  were  ^lad  to  learn  proposed  to  preserve  the 
landmark,  and,  it  was.  understood,  would  set  off  a  portion  to  the  Daugh- 
ters of  the  American  Revolution.  There  was  also  some  discussion  con- 
cerning the  proposition  that  the  association  acquire  possession,  of  the  old 
court  house  at  Maumee,  which  building  is  located  on  the  spot  of  the 
iamous  Dudley  massacre.  The  court  house  would  be  a  most  fitting  build- 
ing for  a  museum  of  the  relics  of  the  pioneer  days. 

Rev.  N.  B.  C.  Love  pronounced  a  fitting  eulogy  upon  Mr.  J.  R.  Tracy, 
i«  deceased  member  of  the  association.  Upon  adjournment  of  the  associa- 
tion, the  board  of  directors  held  a  meeting  and  re-elected  the  old  officers, 
as  follows:  President,  D.  K.  Hollenbeck;  Vice-President,  William  Cor- 
lett ;  Secretary,  J.  L.  Pray,  and  Treasurer,  A.  F.  Mitchell. 



The  Cleveland  Plain  Dealer,  of  late  date,  in  announcing  that  a  move- 
ment is  in  contemplation  of  raising  the  Niagara  from  its  watery  g^ave, 
in  Lake  Erie,  says : 

"Whatever  may  be  the  objections  to  raising  the  hull  of  the  battleship 
Maine  from  the  mud  of  Havana  harbor,  none  of  them  can  hold  in  the  case 
of  Commodore  Perry's  flagship,  the  Niagara,  which  it  is  now  proposed  to 
raise  from  the  bottom  of  Misery  Bay,  in  Erie  harbor,  where  she  has 
reposed  for  three-quarters  of  a  century.  The  ship  was  built  in  Erie,  and 
when  her  day  of  usefulness  was  over  was  sunk  out  of  sight,  and  for  a 
long  time  almost  out  of  memory.  The  house  committee  on  naval  affairs 
has  ordered  a  favorable  report  on  the  bill,  providing  money  for  raising 
the  Niagara  and  turning  her  over  to  the  state  home  for  disabled  soldiers 
and  sailors. 

"The  Niagara  was  the  flagship  of  the  man  who  performed  off  Put- 
in-Bay in  September,  1813,  the  unprecedented  feat  of  compelling  the  sur- 
render of  an  entire  British  squadron,  and  as  such  she  should  fairly  share 
that  affection  and  veneration  which  the  American  people  have  long  lav- 
ished on  the  Constitution  and  one  or  two  other  historic  ships,  none  of 
which  really  performed  such  a  glorious  part  in  naval  war  as  fell  to  the 
share  of  Perry's  flagship. 

"This  national  neglect  can  be  attributed  in  great  part  to  the  fact  that 
no  gifted  lyrist  like  the  author  of  "Old  Ironsides"  has  embalmed  the 
Niagara's  achievement  in  deathless  verse  and  in  part,  perhaps,  to  the 
American  tendency  to  forget  the  day  of  small  things.  The  Niagara  was 
little  if  any  larger  than  one  of  the  boats  which  a  modem  16,000-ton  battle- 
ship carries  on  her  deck.  In  these  days  a  2,500-ton  war  vessel  is  not  con- 
sidered worthy  of  a  place  in  a  line  of  battle,  and  is  used  chiefly  for  sea 
police  duty,  yet  the  combined  tonnage  of  Perry's  squadron  did  not  exceed 
2,500  tons.    An  ordinary  lake  freighter  is  larger." 

224  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 



It  is  a  most  interesting  but  generally  unknown  fact  (which  we  haye 
verified  by  a  letter  from  Mr.  William  Loeb,  secretary  to  the  President) 
that  the  brother  of  the  grandfather  of  President  Roosevelt  was  the  first 
man  to  navigate  a  steamboat  on  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Rivers »  says 
Mr.  Charles  C.  Allen.  Captain  Roosevelt  was  a  warm  personal  friend  of 
Robert  Fulton,  the  inventor  of  steam  craft,  and  soon  after  Fulton's  suc- 
cessful voyage  on  the  Hudson  conceived  the  idea  of  launching  such  a 
vessel  on  the  Western  rivers.  A  good  deal  of  doubt  was  expressed  as  to 
the  practicability  of  the  undertaking,  but  Captain  Roosevelt  was  enthusi- 
astic, and  along  about  1810  made  a  personal  survey  of  the  Ohio  and  Lower 
Mississippi  to  determine  its  feasibility  beyond  all  peradventure.  The 
result  of  his  survey  was  entirely  to  his  satisfaction  and,  returning  to  Pitts- 
burg, he  began  the  construction  of  a  steamboat  from  plans  furnished  him 
by  Fulton  and  Livingston.  In  the  spring  of  1811  the  vessel  was  launched, 
and,  accompanied  by  his  wife,  who  had  the  true  pioneer  spirit  and  refused 
to  be  left  behind,  the  President's  grandfather  began  his  voyage  down  the 
Ohio.  He  entered  the  Mississippi  during  the  throes  of  the  earthauakc 
which  devastated  so  much  of  southeastern  Missouri,  but  weathered  the 
tumult  successfully  and  continued  his  trip  to  New  Orleans,  where  he 
arrived  a  short  time  after,  the  first  man  to  build  a  steamboat  west  of  the 
Alleghanies  and  the  first  to  navigate  one  on  western  waters. 


Since  the  issue  of  the  January  Quarterly  the  following  have  qualified 
as  life  members  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society: 
Mr.  Frank  S.  Brooks,  Columbus,  Ohio. 
Hon.  Ross  J.  Alexander,  Bridgeport,  Ohio. 
Mr.  George  W.  Vanhorn,  Findlay,  Ohio. 


On  February  23,  1905,  Governor  Myron  T.  Herrick  re-appointed 
Professor  B.  F.  Prince,  Springfield,  and  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall,  Columbus,  as 
trustees  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  for  the 
term  of  three  years  ending  February.  1908. 




A  woman's  way  of  writing  History,  differs  essentially  from 
the  conventional  style  and  methods  approved  by  great  historians. 
It  is  well  that  this  is  so,  for  the  student  of  history  obtains  thus 
now  and  then,  a  lighter,  more  transparent  atmosphere;  a  more 
sympathetic  view  of  a  life,  than  could  be  presented  by  the  mas- 
sive outlines  of  the  great  scholars,  who  strive  for  the  philosophy 
of  life  as  well  as  the  presentation  of  facts. 

Several  years  ago  while  in  Washington  City  visiting,  we 
were  taken  by  our  kind  hostess  to  the  National  Cemetery  as  we 
had  expressed  a  wish  to  find  the  grave  of  our  great  uncle, 
William  Allen  Triml)le.  It  was  found  to  be  near  the  entrance 
marked  by  a  generously  proportioned  gray  slab,  whether  sup- 
ported by  a  low  brick  foundation  or  four  short  pedestals,  we 
cannot  now  recall.  The  inscription  was  still  clear  and  easily 
read  —  as  clear  as  the  inscription  we  find  to-day  in  the  old 
Trimble  Bible,  —  written  by  Jane  Allen  Trimble,  the  noble  pio- 
neer mother  of  this  worthy  son.  She  wrote  in  honest  Conti- 
nental chirography  "William  A.  Trimble,  bom  April  4th,  1786, 
departed  this  life  on  the  12th  day  of  December,  1821,  at  the 
City  of  Washington.  His  death  was  occasioned  by  a  wound 
he  received  in  the  lungs  during  the  late  war  from  which  he 
never  recovered.     He  was  in  the  36th  year  of  his  age." 

Just  above  one  reads  in  this  same  record  in  the  same  hand 
writing,  "J^^^s  Trimble,  our  honored  and  beloved  husband  died 
on  the  Lord's  day  at  i  o'clock  October  14th,  1804."  Captain 
James  Trimble,  father  of  William  Allen  Trimble,  had  been  a 
soldier  of  the  Virginia  line  in  1776,  who,  after  the  Revolutionary 
war  removed  to  Kentucky  and  settled  in  Woodford  county  in 
1784.  He  had  participated  in  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant,, 
VoL  XIV.— 16.  (226) 

226  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

(1774),  and  was  a  captain  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  His  father, 
John  Trimble,  was  killed  in  the  Mountains  of  Virginia  by  the 
Indians.  John  Trimble  with  three  brothers  emigrated  from  the 
north  of  Ireland  to  America  in  the  early  part  of  the  17th  century. 
Their  ancestors  were  of  Scotch  descent,  disciples  of  the  great 
reformer,  John  Knox.  This  John  Trimble  settled  in  Viriginia, 
the  other  brothers  in  Pennsylvania.  The  ancestors  were  of 
Scotch-Irish  descent  also  on  the  maternal  side.  Aliens,  Ander- 
son, Christies ;  Trimble,  Trumbull,  Turnbull  and  Pringle,  on  the 
father's  side.* 

The  parents  of  William  Allen  Trimble  lived  near  Staunton 
until  1784,  when,  as  we  have  stated,  they  removed  to  Kentucky 
where  they  liberated  their  slaves.  The  woman  who  inscribed 
so  carefully  in  her  Bible  tlie  inevitable  facts  of  her  family  his- 
tory,  was  the  oldest  daughter  of  James  and  Peggy  Allen.  Hei 
father  had  two  brothers,  Jobiv  the  eldest  was  in  the  Virginia 
regiment  that  marched  under  General  Vv'asliington  in  1758, 
against  the  French  and  Indians,  at  Fort  Duquesne,  now  Fort 
Pitt.  In  the  battle  called  "Grant's  Defeat,"  fought  near  this 
place,  John  Allen  was  killed.  Hugh  Allen  the  yonnger  brother, 
fell  at  the  bloody  battle  fought  at  the  inontli  of  the  Great  Ka- 
nawha, now  Point  Pleasant.  The  \'irgii:ia  dctacliment  was  led 
by  General  Lewis,  and  tl:e  Wyandot  Indians,  by  that  celcl)ratc(l 
warrior,  —  Cornstalk.  She  thus  knew  ho^y  much  fortitude,  en- 
ergy, and  endurance,  how  much  industry  and  economy  the 
life  the  pioneers  had  undertaken,  required ;  and  as  one  of  a 
party  of  five  hundred  emigrants,  from  X'irginia  and  North  Caro- 
lina to  Kentucky,  she  consented  to  travel  on  horseback,  with 
one  child  wraj)ped  in  homespun  blanket,  clasped  in  her  arms 
and  another  placed  on  a  "pillion"  holding  fast  to  her  waist,  Mrs. 
Erwin  carried  two  negro  children  in  a  wallet  thrown  over  her 
horse.  These  were  washed  away  by  the  force  of  the  current  in 
Clinch  river.  Mrs.  Trimble  now  in  the  midst  of  this  "deep 
and  dashing"  stream,  showed  a  decision  which  characterized  her 
and  her  family.     She  turned  her  horse,  but  gave  him  the  rein, 

*  The  motto  on  the  coat  of  arms  is  Servavi  Rcgem  —  heads  of  ani- 
mals and  helmet.  A  young  Yeoman  turned  the  head  of  the  animal  who 
was  about  to  gore  the   King.  —  Turnbull. 

IVilliam  Allen  Trimble.  22? 

—  then  grasping  firmly  the  bridle,  and  mane  with  her  right 
hand,  holding  her  infant  son  Allen  in  her  left  arm,  and  calling 
to  her  little  boy  behind  to  t&e  snre  hold,  she  committed  herself 
to  God's  mercy.*  When  she  sirnck  the  opposite  shore  loud 
shouts  went  up  from  all  who  had  beheld  the  danger.     General 

Knox  called  out   "henceforth  she  should  be  his  Aid-de-Camp, 
and  lead  the  women,  as  Captain  Trimble  led  the  men," 

Allen  Trimble  always  called  himself  a  child  of  Providence, 
because  of  this  incident,  and  William  Allen  Trimble  the  subject 

■  Sec  Lift  of  Jane  Allen  Trimble,  by  Rev.  J.  M.  Trimble. 

228  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

of  this  sketch,  who  was  born  two  years  later  often  heard 
through  his  boyhood  of  the  perilous  experiences  of  both  father 
and  mother.  They  gave  their  son  William  a  liberal  education 
at  Transylvania  College,  Lexington,  Kentucky,  and  allowed  him 
to  study  law  at  Parfs,  Ky.,  under  the  late  Judge  Robert  Trimble, 
Unit-ed  States  Supreme  Court,  then  one  of  the  leading  lawyers 
of  the  State. 

John  the  oldest  son  died  soon  after  the  arrival  in  Kentucky. 

In  1805  the  Trimble  family  moved  to  Ohio,  —  at  which 
time  "William'*  was  about  nineteen  years  of  age.  He  and  his 
elder  brother,  Allen,  had  made  a  previous  trip  to  Ohio,  on  horse- 
back, toward  Yellow  Springs.  As  they  journeyed  through  Cin- 
cinnati the  beautiful  black  Kentucky  horses  upon  which  they 
rode,  were  observed,  and  Allen  was  offered  the  city  lot  where 
stood  later  Judge  Burnet's  home,  for  one  of  these  horses,  but 
he  deliberately  declined  what  would  afterward  have  made  for 
him  a  splendid  speculation  in  real  estate.  As  Captain  James 
Trimble  the  father,  died  in  1804,  just  after  his  reconnoitering 
trip  to  Ohio,  where  he  purchased  land,  and  determined  to  bring 
his  family,  —  the  care  of  the  family  now  fell  upon  Allen,  the 
oldest  son.  William,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  had  aided  his 
brother  in  opening  up  a  farm  near  Ilillsboro,  Highland  county, 
Ohio,  —  before  settling  as  he  did,  in  Chillicothe,  then  the  cap- 
ital of  the  State,  where  he  entered  the  law  office  of  Hon.  William 
H.  Creighton,  member  of  Congress  from  that  district. 

In  the  summer  of  the  year  1810,  a  Swiss  gentleman  at  the 
head  of  a  large  boarding  school,  —  Major  Joseph  Xeef ,  —  in- 
vited him  to  be  his  assistant.  The  school  was  situated  at  the 
Falls  of  the  Schuylkill  near  Philadelphia.  Two  of  his  younger 
brothers  "Cary  Allen,"  and  **John  Allen,"  af^cd  fifteen  and  nine,* 
rccompanied  him  ''crossing  the  mouhtairs  in  a  strong  single 
frig,  —  constructed  for  the  rough  and  fatii^uing  jonrney  of  five 
hundred  mile*;.''  He  remained  one  year  with  Mr.  Xcef.  and 
then  visited  Litchfield,  Connecticut,  to  complete  his  law  studies, 
under  Judge  Story.  He  there  met  the  late  Judge  Storer  of 
Ohio  —  as  a  classmate.    The  brothers,  Cary  and  John,  remained 

*  The  mother  named  the  youngest  son  John  in  memory  of  the  son 
who  died. 

William  Allen  Trimble.  229 

at  Mr.  Neef's  school.  He  wrote  to  Carey,  the  older,  **to  ascer- 
tain if  he  did  not  desire  to  study  Medicine."  He  replied:  "It 
may  sound  louder  to  be  a  Doctor,  but  I  have  about  decided  to 
be  a  School-master.  The  school  here  is  flourishing,  thirty-one 
pupils.  The  system  is  approved  by  the  most  literary  people. 
Governor  Clairborn  has  promised  to  lay  a  bill  before  the  Legis- 
lature of  Louisiana,  to  send  ten  boys  of  good  capacity  at  the 
expense  of  the  State  and  have  them  educated  as  teachers  for 
that  country.  H  similar  plans  were  adopted  by  the  several  states 
of  the  Union  it  would  be  a  means  of  establishing  a  system  that 
would  be  of  infinite  importance.  If  I  have  it  in  my  power  I 
shall  establish  a  school  in  the  Western  country  on  the  same 
principles.  It  will  be  a  great  pleasure  to  help  some  of  my  hardy 
countrymen  i:p  the  hill  of  Science."     Falls  of  Schuylkill,   i8i  i'. 

Like  all  young  men  the  recital  in  letters  to  their  brothers 
was  not  confined  to  the  facts  that  they  were  learning  French, 
Science  anrl  Mathematics,  but  the  tailors'  bills,  and  the  watches, 
etc.  had  to  be  written  of,  and  the  bills  reported.  Boots,  $12.00; 
Vests,  S5.00;  Coat,  $28.00;  Hat,  $10.00;  Watch,  $40.00;  the 
watch  had  to  be  purchased  Carey  remarked,  because  he  was 
asked  to  assist  !Mr.  Xeef,  and  he  must  have  a  watch,  and  a  seal 
and  key,  $15.00  extra.  John  stood  high  in  his  classes,  and  be- 
came lattr  in  life  the  Historian  of  the  faniilv.  Carey  was  musi- 
cal,  played  tlie  flute,  spoke  French,  was  very  handsome,  chestnut 
hair  and  ])rown  eyes  and  a  great  favorite.  When  thinking  ot 
establishing  a  scliool,  on  the  Pestalozzian  svstem  as  soon  as  he 
could  learn  the  value  of  his  property  in  Ohio,  he  heard  that  his 
brothers.  William  and  Allen,  were  in  Military  service,  —  and  he 
writes  from  Falls  of  Schuylkill,  July  7th,  1812:  —  Dear  Brother: 
—  I  received  your  letter  dated  Fort  McArthur.  which,  confirmed 
the  report  I  had  heard  that  you  on  your  return  V.)  Ohio  joined 
the  Army.  It  was  mentioned  in  the  papers  that  a  WiTiam  Trim- 
ble was  appoined  Major  in  the  neighborhood  of  Chillicothe.  Pub- 
lic sentiment  seems  to  he  much  divided  in  the  North  Eastern 
States,  concerning  the  late  measures  of  government,  the  people 
called  federalists,  (but  who  do  not  deserve  the  name),  are  loudly 
declaimin^:  against  the  government,  and  late  accounts  say  that 
the  governors  of  Massachusetts,  Rhode  Island,  here  refused  to 

230  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

raise  the  quota  of  Militia  required  from  their  states.  Great* 
enconiums  are  passed  on  the  people  of  Ohio,  for  their  patriot- 
ism." Later,  Sept.  27th,  1812,  "The  surrender  of  Hull  has 
caused  considerable  anxiety.  Popular  opinion  is  very  much 
divided :  some  impute  it  to  cowardice,  others  to  treachery,  —  yet, 
it  seems  to  have  been  because  of  bad  management.  Many  are  ask- 
ing me  what  you  write  on  the  subject?"  —  "I  say,  nothing  at 
all."  But  young  Carey  did  not  know  that  his  brother  William 
had  kept  his  oldest  brother,  Allen ^  informed  of  all  his  opinions 
and  movements." 

Foot  of  the  Rapids,  Head  Quarters,  July  1st,  1812. 

Dear  Brother  Allen  :  — 

The  Army  arrived  here  day  before  yesterday  evening,  having  opened 
a  road  from  Maiden  block  house  and  built  three  block  houses.  General 
Hull  has  chartered  a  small  Schooner  to  take  the  heavy  baggage  round 
by  water.  The  Army  commences  the  March  for  Detroit,  by  land,  in  ten 
minutes,  leaving  twenty-five  mcMi  at  this  place  to  build  a  blockhouse. 
General  Hull  received  letters  from  Detroit,  dated  the  29th  inst.  The 
Indians  are  assembled  at  Maiden,  to  the  number  of  about  two  thousand. 
They  draw  rations  and  every  necessary  accoutrements  from  the  British. 
The  British  force  is  not  accurately  known.  If  we  do  not  have  a  fight, 
we  will  get  to  Detroit  about  the  7th  inst.  Captain  Barrerer  and  Captain 
Jones'  companies  are  more  healthy  than  any  in  the  Regiment.  I  have 
tolerable  health  and  much  fatigue. 

Your  affectionate  brother, 

William  A.  Trimble. 

General  Harrison's  orders  for  raising  a  Company  of  mount- 
ed volunteers  ,  21st  of  September,  18 12  (St.  Mary's),  addressed 
to  Major  William  Allen  Trimble,  reads  : 

"You  are  hereby  requested  to  proceed  through  that  part  of  the  State 
of  Ohio  lying  in  the  direction  of  the  mouth  of  Scioto  and  endeavor  to 
prevail  upon  some  of  the  organized  Companies  of  Militia  in  that  part  of 
the  State  to  join  me  as  mounted  Volunteers,  with  as  much  expedition 
as  possible  under  the  permission  heretofore  given  by  Governor  Meigs. 
Companies  serving  during  the  Expedition,  which  is  not  calculated  to  ex- 
ceed 30  days  and  will  not  extend  bey«Mid  40,  will  be  considered  as  hav- 
ing performed  a  tour  of  duty.'' 

I  am  respectfully, 

Your  Humble  Servant, 

Wm.  H.  Harrison. 

William  Allen  Trimble.  231 

Postscript  —  Those  who  have  any  disposition  to  accept  the  very 
favorable  proposition  contained  in  General  Harrison's  letter,  will  meet  at 
Hillsborough  on  Monday  the  28th  inst.,  prepared  to  March  to  St.  Mary's, 
where  they  will  be  supplied  with  bread,  fresh  provision,  and  forage,  each 
man  will  carry  as  much  bacon  or  salted  meat  as  will  last  the  Campaign, 
clothing,  blankets,  etc.  Those  who  cannot  conveniently  furnish  them- 
selves with  rifles,  can  draw  market  at  Dayton  or  Urbana,  Horses,  guns, 
and  equipage,  and  will  be  appraised  and  paid  for  at  the  rate  of  50  cents 
per  day  for  each  horse.  Wm.  A.  Trimble." 

The  men  in  Hillsboro  doubtless  remembered  how  Major 
Trimble  had  left  his  other  ambitions  on  his  return  from  Litchfield, 
Conn.,  in  i8ii,  and  while  on  this  trip  to  attend  Court  in  West 
Union,  met  the  first  rider,  the  herald,  with  an  order  from  General 
McArthur,  calling  on  Highland  County  for  a  quota  of  one  hun- 
dred volunteers ;  how  he  turned  aside  from  his  cherished  profes- 
sion, the  law,  and  turning  his  horse  toward  Hillsboro,  made  his 
first  speech  the  next  day,  in  the  public  square.  In  two  days  .two 
full  companies  were  raised.  That  little  army  of  the  4th  United 
States  Infantry  with  the  brigade  of  General  Finley,  took  up  its 
toilsome  march  through  the  dense  forests  of  four  hundred  miles 
through  Ohio  and  Michigan,  and  shared  the  inglorious  fortunes 
of  Hull  in  his  surrender  of  four  thousand  men  to  General  Brock, 
at  Detroit.  Major  Trimble  as  a  prisoner  of  war,  was  paroled  and 
returned  to  Ohio.  He  was  ordered  to  attend  the  Court-martial 
for  the  trial  of  General  Hull,  at  Albany.  General  Henry  Dear- 
born  as  president  of  that  Court.  Major  Trimble  returned  by  way 
of  Washington  City,  soliciting  and  procuring  the  appointment 
of  Major  for  the  26th  Infantry  to  be  recruited  in  Ohio.*  His 
younger  brother,  Carey,  from  whose  letters  we  have  quoted,  then 
seventeen  years  of  age,  received  the  appointment  of  Lieutenant  in 
the  same  Regiment.  This  young  brother  writes  from  near  Fort 
George,  Deputy's  House,  9th  of  January,  18 14,  **I  was  taken 
on  the  morning  of  the  surrender  of  Fort  Niagara  in  attempting 
to  make  my  escape  from  the  garrison.  I  saved  nothing  except 
some  money,  which  I  luckily  tied  in  my  cravat ;  all  my  clothing 
and  other  luggage  was  taken.  The  garrison  was  completely  sur- 
prised, was  not  in  a  state  of  defense,  and  its  commandant  absent. 

*  See    r^iographical    Encyclopedia   Ohio. 

2lij.  ^^iio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

which  I  hope,  the  U.  S.  will  bring  him  to  strict  account."  Then 
the  particulars  are  given  with  great  care,  and  a  postscript  added, 
^*The  General  will  please  seal  this  and  send  it  by  the  first  flag,  to 
the  United  States  and  oblige 

Your  obedient  servant, 
Carey  Allen  Trimble.  " 

But  to  return  to  the  record  of  William  Allen  Trimble  :  In 
the  Spring  of  1813,  he  was  superintending  the  recruiting  depart- 
ment, while  General  Harrison  was  at  Dayton,  Ohio,  making  prep- 
aration for  a  campaign  to  recover  Detroit,  and  obliterate  the  in- 
glorious Hull's  surrender.  Major  Trimble  was  not  yet  ex- 
changed as  prisoner  and  was  not  eligible  to  active  duties  in  the 
field  against  the  British.  At  Dayton,  he  waited  on  General  Har- 
rison, and  procured  for  his  brother  Allen  Trimble,  a  commission 
of  Colonel.  Allen  Trimble  was  to  raise  a  battalion  of  five  hundred 
mounted  men,  armed,  equipped  for  the  relief  of  I^'ort  Wayne,  on 
the  Maumee,  then  besieged  by  the  Indians,  under  Tecumseh. 
Major  Trimble  gave  the  pledge  and  riding  all  night,  fifty  miles 
to  Hillsboro,  handed  his  brother  the  commission,  and  instruction 
from  General  Harrison.  The  march  of  Harrison  to  Fort  Meigs, 
was  protected  by  these  brave  Spartans,  —  the  Indians  were  dis- 
persed. Allen  Trimble,  later  twice  Governor  of  the  State  of  Ohio, 
before  starting  on  this  trip,  went  into  the  "loom  room,"  above  the 
spring-house,  where  yards  and  yards  of  blankctin::^  hung  on  ropes, 
woven  by  the  weaver  em])loyed  by  him  for  such  work.  He  cut  off 
yard  after  yard  and  handed  to  the  men,  and  then  went  down 
into  the  room  of  the  spring-house,  where  on  a  swinging-shelf 
was  placed  some  twenty  cheese,  the  product  of  liis  wife's  indus- 
try. He  quartered  these,  giving  one-foarth  to  eacli  man.  then  bade 
his  wife  farewell,  handing  her  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 
When  he  returned  she  handed  him  two  hiuulrcd  and  seventv-five 
dollars,  as  she  was  appointed  Clerk  of  tlie  Court,  regularly  sworn 
in — the  young  man  fell  ill  who  had  been  appointed — there  being 
no  one  left  to  fill  the  office.  This  woman  v/as  Rachel  Woodrow 
Trimble,  different,  as  we  shall  see,  from  Jane  Allen  Trimble,  but 
each  perfect  in  type  and  nobility.  Rachel  W.  Trimble  was  an 
ideal    wife,    mother,   airl    daughter-in-law.     She    had    charming 

William  Allen  Trimble.  233 

tastes  and   was   known  throughout  Governor  Trimble's   pubHc 
career,  as  the  beautiful  home-keeper. 

Thomas  McArthur  Anderson  said  in  his  Ohio  Centennial  ad- 
dress on  the  Military  History  of  Ohio :  "Hull  was  fifty-nine  years 
of  age  at  the  time  of  his  surrender.  His  age  and  Revolutionary 
service  saved  him  a  sad  fate.  He  was  the  same  age  as  Major 
Robert  Anderson,  when  he  defended  Fort  Sumpter.  He  was  just 
the  age  of  Admiral  Dewey,  when  he  sank  the  Spanish  fleet,  in 
Manila  Day." 

W'lieii  McArthur,  Major  General  of  the  Ohio  Militia,  was 
directed  by  Governor  Meigs,  to  call  out  all  men  capable  of  bear- 
ing arms,  under  the  flag,  of  thirteen  stripes  and  seven  stars, — the 
last  star  being  that  of  GMiio,  —  which  from  that  time  on,  has  led 
men  of  tlie  Ihickcye  Slate  from  victory  to  victory. 

Wc  have  before  us  letters  from  Cjeneral  Harrison  to  Col. 
Allen  Trimble,  Commander  of  the  Ohio  Volunteers,  St.  Mary's, 
one  dated  Head  (Juarters  Fort  Mary's,  6th  Oct.,  1812.  Another 
from  Franklinton.  Nov.  18th,  181 2,  and  one  from  Brig.  Gen'l 
Foos,  4tli  r»rg(l,  &  Commandment  of  the  2d  Division  Ohio 
Militia;  General  Harrison  says:  "Your  exertions  on  this  occas- 
ion, Sir,  as  well  as  those  belonging  to  your  Command  who  were 
willing  to  do  their  duty,  merit  my  thanks,  and  I  beg  you  to 
communicate  it  to  them  in  such  manner  as  you  may  see  proper.*' 
In  fact  they  had  not  the  least  reason  to  complain  against  Major 
Trimble.  They  fared  as  well  in  every  respect,  as  the  six  and 
twelve  month  Dragoons  of  the  Army." 

With  great  regard  and  respect, 
I  am,  Sir^ 

Your   Hum.   Servant, 

William  Henry  Harrison. 

Again  in  a  letter  of  October  6th,  "proceed  immediately  from 
r'ort  Wayne  to  the  Potawatimee  Towns  about  seventy-five  or 
eighty  miles  beyond  and  about  twenty  or  thirty  beyond  the  towns 
on  ICIk  Hart,  lately  destroyed  by  a  Detachment  of  the  Army 
under  my  c(^mmand,'"  etc..  etc.. 

William  Henry  Harrison. 

234  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

In  the  Spring  of  I814,  Major  William  A.  Trimble  received 
his  exchange  and  joined  his  regiment,  which  had  consolidated 
with  another  and  was  the  19th,  known  so  well  at  Chippewa, 
Lundy's  Lane  and  Niagara.  He  commanded  at  the  post  of  Buf- 
falo and  Black  Rock,  both  considered  very  important. 

On  the  Canadian  side.  General  Gaines  occupied  the  defense 
of  old  Fort  Erie.  The  night  of  the  14th,  1814,  history  gives  the 
following  facts  :  '*  Under  General  Gaines,  the  whole  British 
Army  assaulted  the  American  forces.  Major  Trimble,  antici- 
pating a  battle,  waited  upon  General  Gaines  and  was  permitted  to 
take  the  command  at  Buffalo  and  his  own  regiment,  the  19th,  was 
taken  charge  of  by  another  officer  stationed  in  the  bastions  and 
block-houses  of  the  fort.  Major  Trimble  examined  by  lamp- 
light all  the  positions  of  his  regiment,  and  its  exposed  situation. 
The  night  was  stormy.  The  enemy's  veterans,  led  by  Col.  Drum- 
mond  and  Scott,  approached  the  parapets  of  the  Fort,  and  with 
scaling  ladders  and  great  charge  of  bayonets,  they  carried  the 
principal  batteries  of  the  Townson  and  Douglas,  then  pushed  for- 
ward toward  the  19th,  under  Major  Trimble.  Drummond  start- 
ed the  watchword,  which  in  these  days  of  Arbitration  and  Peace, 
we  decline  to  repeat.  Drummond  fell  within  six  feet  of  Major 
Trimble,  Col.  Scott,  of  the  103rd  Royal  Regiment  was  also  killed 
and  his  sword,  a  fine  Damascus  blade.  Col.  Trimble  secured  and 
wore  during  his  subsequent  military  career.'* 

General  Brown  took  command  of  the  army.  Fort  Erie  was 
commanded  by  the  British  position,  but  on  the  17th.  the  in- 
trenched camp  was  assaulted.  Major  Trimble  was  in  Miller's 
brigade  and  in  the  advance  and  after  storming  and  carrying  two 
redoubts,  fell  mortally  wounded  it  was  thought,  within  the  Brit- 
ish lines,  shot  through  the  lungs. 

At  the  kind  home  of  his  friend,  General  Peter  B.  Porter,  of 
Black  Rock,  he  was  cared  for,  for  many  weeks — after,  he  was  re- 
moved from  Fort  Erie  and  the  following  letter  to  liis  brother. 
Col.  Allen  Trimble,  tells  of  his  Avound  in  his  own  di,c:nific(l,  sim- 
ple language  : 

Dear  Brother:  Buffalo.  18  Oct..  1814. 

"After  storming  the  Center  Battery,  of  the  enemy,  on  the  17th  ultimo 
and  near  the  close  of  the  action,  I  received  a  musket  ball  under  my  left 

William  Allen  Trimble.  236 

arm  which  passed  out  near  by  back  bone,  where  it  fractured  a  rib.  After 
dressing  my  wound  bled  freely,  which  in  addition  to  about  a  gallon  of 
blood  the  Surgeons  drew  from  me,  reduced  me  very  low.  I  have  now 
been  some  time  on  the  recovery,  have  had  a  good  appetite  and  am  gaining 
strength  as  fast  as  could  be  expected. 

I  can  walk  about  my  room  and  my  surgeon  tell  me  I  am  out  of 
danger.  I  am  now  situated  with  a  very  agreeable  family,  who  take  very 
good  care  of  me,  and  William  has  always  been  very  attentive. 

(This  was  Bill  Hackett,  the  colored  man,  in  his  service  as  body- 
guard many  years.  The  surgeons  thought  he  saved  the  life  of  Col.  Trim- 
ble, for  seeing  there  was  no  time  to  be  lost,  he  drew  a  ram-rod  from  the 
Colonel's  musket,  and  wrapping  it  with  a  large  silk  handkerchief,  probed 
the   wound,    thus   relieving   it   of  the   clot   of   blood.) 

"You  can  hardly  imagine  the  pleasure  I  enjoy  in  meeting  brother 
Carey,  whom  I  had  not  seen  for  more  than  a  year.  He  stayed  with  me 
two  days  and  then  went  back,  took  command  of  the  19th  Regiment, 
with  which  there  was  in  consequence  of  wounds,  sickness,  resignation,  etc., 
no  officer  but  Lieut.  Nixon.  Gen.  Izard's  army  arrived  here  on  the 
r2th,  and  crossed  the  Niagara  at  Black  Rock,  on  the  13th.  where  it  was 
joined  by  the  left  Division  under  General  Brown,  the  whole  proceeded 
that  evening  toward  Chippeway.  From  the  lateness  of  the  season  and 
some  other  reasons  which  I  shall  not  now  explain,  I  do  not  expect  much 
will  be  done.  The  army  amounts  to  more  than  7.000  effective  men  and 
is  perhaps  the  handsomest  that  was  ever  formed  in  the  United  States. 

**The  Army  had  not  crossed  the  Chippeway  on  yesterday.  On  yes- 
terday evening  I  heard  from  brother  Carey  who  is  with  the  Army.  He 
desired  his  respects  might  be  presented  to  the  family. 

"Tell  Mother  when  I  was  not  expected  to  live  an  hour  that  I  was 
not  afraid  but  perfectly  willing  to  die.     Give  my  respects  to  all  the  family. 

Your  affectionate  brother, 

William  A.  Tri.mble. 

The  paper  upon  which  this  letter  was  written,  now  ninety- 
one  years  ago,  has  turned  almost  as  yellow  in  hue  as  the  cloth 
waist-coat,  through  which  the  dreadful  bullet  went,  on  that 
awful  night,  at  Lake  Erie.  It  was  our  duty  rot  lor.^  ago  to 
destroy  the  time-honored  waist-coat.  Rcnrn-ing  the  buttons, 
and  putting  them  aside  as  a  memento,  the  white  cloth  vest,  so 
yellowed  by  time,  had  finally  found  '*the  moths  to  corrupt."  It 
lay  in  the  trunk,  covered  with  sheepskin,  and  fastened  with  brass 
tncks,  amid  other  relics,  of  the  War  of  1812-1813,  —  but  the 
day  for  the  burial  came ;  and  the  fumes  which  went  up  from  its 
ashes  were,  indeed,  solemn  to  our  minds.     We  turned  in  con- 

236  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

templation  to  the  portrait  of  the  handsome  face,  regular  features, 
olive  complexion,  dignity  of  pose,  brilliant  epaulettes,  dark  blue 
uniform,  —  and  we  promised  ourselves  to  make  a  copy  of  the 
portrait  for  our  own  especial  collection ;  but  instead  of  the 
brush,  the  pen  has  been  at  work  building  up  the  life  again  from 
fragmentary  MSS. 

Erie  Pennsylvania  4th  October,  1814. 
Dear  Brother  Allen  : 

Brother  William  left  Buffalo  about  the  17th  November  for  Wash-, 
ington  City.  His  wound  has  not  yet  healed  on  one  side,  but  he  intended 
travelling  only  in  good  weather  by  very  easy  journeys.  He  will  go  as 
far  as  Albany  on  horseback,  from  where  he  will  go  principally  by  water. 
I  expect  to  be  ordered  on  to  Albany,  or  New  York. 


Gary  A.  Trimble. 

Perhaps  the  digression  can  be  made  here  as  well  as  else- 
where to  the  import  that  Jane  Allen  Trimble  had  seven  sons,  and 
two  daughters,  the  oldest  son  died  young,  the  others  were  Allen. 
William,  James,  Cyrus,  Cary,  John,  —  daughters,  ]\Iary  and  Mar- 
garet, (Mrs.  Nelson  and  Mrs.  McCue).  Allen  was  not  only  a 
statesman,  but  an  Agriculturist ;  William  not  only  a  Soldier, 
hut  a  Senator ;  James  an  owner  and  cultivator  of  land  ;  Cyrus  a 
Doctor;  Cary  a  Soldier;  John  a  historian  and  merchant.  It  was 
to  the  Hillsboro  home  that  tliey  all  returned  at  intervals  of  time, 
—  the  mother  lived  to  the  age  of  ci.q;lity-scven.  resj^cctcd  and  be- 
loved; the  father,  as  we  have  seen,  died  in  1804.  The  Trimbles 
were  men  of  integrity,  industry,  intellij^ence.  and  soliriety. 

Major  William  A.  Trimble,  after  his  recoverv.  wliicli  was  a 
great  surprise  to  his  Surgeon,  Dr.  Trowl)ri(l_<^<',  "w.'is  rLSi^red  t() 
active  duties  in  the  field."  His  friend  and  conirad-',  i:i  tli-.'  sortie 
at  Lake  Eric.  General  Peter  !».  Porter  of  lUack  Rock."  was 
sorry  indeed,  to  have  him  leave  his  home.  In  i.^i-j,  Sept.  i/lh. 
he  was  breveted  10  the  rank  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  t  ;r  his  t^allant 
services  and  was  retained  in  the  Army  with  ih-  same  rank  in 
the  8th  Infantry,  Colonel  Xichols  of  Kentucky.  A  short  letter 
from  Cary  A.  Trimble  of  the  2()th  Infantry  written  from  Beau- 
post,  "a  village  in  full  view  of  Quebec."  March  J/th,  1814.  says. 
*'he,  Cary,  had  the  choice  of  remaining  at  Montreal  or  coming  to 

William  Allen  Trimble.  237 

Quebec,  when  the  general  exchange  took  plaice;  he  had  located 
himself  in  a  French  family  to  learn  still  more  of  the  language, 
had  subscribed  to  a  circulating  library  in  Quebec  and  so  on. 
When  Fort  Erie  was  demolished  by  our  troops,  he  remarks, 
the  Batteries  blew  up  with  a  terrible  explosion.  General  Q's 
division  was  encamped  on  the  sand  beach  opposite.  All  the  move- 
ments of  this  great  last  man  of  the  Alphabet  show  an  unpardon- 
able want  of  energy." 

In  1815  Gary  writes  from  Philadelphia  to  his  brother  Allen, 
—  "Western  paper  is  at  7%  discount.  Baltimore  at  3^,  Vir- 
ginia and  District  of  Golumbia  notes  at  4  below  par.  There 
are  many  brokers  who  will  not  discount  Western  notes  at  any 
price,  Silver  fell  from  i/i  to  7,  on  the  receipt  of  the  news  of 
Bonaparte's  fall.  Feb.  loth,  1806,  he  advises  his  brother  Allen, 
"as  to  the  Militia  claims,  not  to  purchase  any  more  until  it  is 
ascertained  the  appropriations  will  be  made  this  session  for  pay- 
ing them  off.  They  arc  pretty  hard  pushed  for  funds  at  Wash- 
ington, and  the  Militia  will  always  be  served  last." 

Lieut.  Gol.  William  Trimble  had  been  with  his  regiment  in 
181 5  in  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  and  had  established  the  post  at 
Fort  Des  Moines.  He  had  also  ascended  the  Red  River  in  keel- 
boats  and  barges,  with  his  men  when  ordered  to  Xatches. 
On  the  30th  April,  181 7,  he  writes  from  there  to  Allen  Trimble: 
"The  first  regiment  of  Infantry  is  at  Baton  Rouge;  the  8th,  is 
at  Pass  Christian.  In  a  most  Inisiness  like  letter  to  his  brothers, 
interested  in  the  purchase  of  goods,  he  says :  "  I  have  taken 
the  liberty  of  forwarding  two  crates  of  queensware  assorted  and 
300  bis.  of  cop|)eras,  —  invoices  will  l)e  forwarded  by  next  mail. 
I  have  made  arrangements  with  l>arl)our  Dent  and  McGlelland, 
commission  nierchants  of  this  city,  to  furnish  you  with  anything 
you  may  want  from  this  qrarter,  which  you  may  obtain  by 
writing  to  them  at  any  time.  These  gentlemen  have  sent  a  quan- 
tity of  British  Iron  to  Suniati  Limestone.  It  will  be  delivered 
at  that  place  to  al)out  185  dollars  per  Ton  french  weight.  They 
sold  the  Iron  here  at  no  dollars  per  Ton,  and  engaged  the 
freight  at  3^  cents  per  pound.  I  agreed  for  two  Tons,  but  as 
the  Iron  had  been  put  on  board  the  boat  and  could  not  be  con- 
veniently assorted   and   weighed   they   say  that  when  the   Iron 

238  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

arrives  at  Limestone  you  may  have  any  quantity  you  want  at 
no  dollars,  per  Ton,  and  carriage.  This  arrangement  will  be  to 
your  advantage  as  you  will  be  at  no  risk  in  the  freight. 

There  are  some  vessels  in  the  river  loaded  with  coffee  should 
it  sell  low  I  can  send  you  two  or  three  barrels.  Coffee  of  first 
quality  is  not  easy  to  obtain  and  sells  for  31  cents,  —  Sugar  is 
from  II  to  12J  cents  and  cotton  has  fallen  from  32  to  27  cents 
and  will  probably  fall  to  25  cents.  There  is  now  no  demand  for 
the  produce  of  the  western  country;  tobacco,  beef,  pork  ex- 
cepted, and  beef  and  pork  are  so  badly  put  up,  and  brought  in 
such  wretched  order  to  this  market  that  the  sales  are  very  much 
injured.  Flour  cannot  be  sold  for  six  dollars.  From  the  best 
information  I  can  obtain  beef  and  pork,  if  properly  put  up  are 
the  best  articles  which  can  be  brought  to  this  market.  In  my 
next  letters  I  shall  inform  you  how  salt  may  be  clarified.  Pure 
salt  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to  preserve  from  jnitre faction 
of  animal  and  vegetable  substances.  The  Salt  manufactured  in 
the  Western  country  is  very  impure.  Give  my  love  to  the  family 
and  rememl^er  me  to  mv  friends. 

William  A.  Trimble. 

This  letter  shows  the  unselfishness  of  his  life :  always 
trying  to  help  his  brothers.  From  the  time  he  rose  before  break- 
fast, at  the  school  where  Cary  and  John  were  taken,  by  him- 
self, to  be  educated,  in  order  to  aid  them  in  acquiring  their 
lessons,  that  they  mi^ht  succeed  the  better,  and  so  on,  until  the 
night  he  rode  without  rest  to  carry  to  his  brother  Allen  —  Gen- 
eral Harrison's  Commission,  —  nobility  of  |)urpose,  was  ever 
present  with  this  man.  I  Ms  brotl'.er  Cyrus  wrote  from  No. 
201  Walnut  Street.  Thiladelphia,  Pennsylvania.  December  25th, 
1818  :  **  I  have  just  been  admitted  a  member  of  the  Phila 
delphia  Medical  Society,  to  which  all  the  first  Medical  men,  in 
tl:e  United  States  belong,  and  of  which  Dr.  Chapman  is   President. 

In  1 81 8.  Col.  Trimble  co-operated  with  General  Jackson  in 
the  celebrated  Florida  campaign  and  the  capture  of  St.  Marks 
and  Pensacola.  But  although  only  now  thirty-two  years  of  age. 
he  became  weary  of  the  life  of  tlie  army,  in  times  of  Peace,  and 
<lecided  to  resign  and  return  to  Hillsborough,  Highland  countv. 

William  Allen  Trimble.  239 

Ohio  an  ascending  series  in*  its  arrangement  of  names :  town, 
county,  state  were  rising. 

The  Trimbles  had  located  much  land  in  this  part  of  the 
state,  and  the  land  Warrants  on  Parchment,  signed  by  the  early 
Presidents,  remain  to  this  day  relics  of  interest  in  Governor  Allen 
Trimbles'  old  Secretary,  where  all  of  his  important  letters  and 
papers  were  carefully  filed  away. 

The  Senatorial  Contest,  was  on  when  Col.  Trimble  returned 
to  Highland  county.  A  letter  dated  Nov.  25th,  181 8,  from  an 
influential  man  in  Washington  City  says:  —  "Col.  Jessup  is  in 
the  City,  and  I  have  had  a  conversation  with  him.  The  Claims 
of  William  Allen  Trimble  are  superior  to  any  man's  in  your 
State :  (///  things  considered,  and  I  am  almost  sure,  would  be 
elected.  You  may  rest  assured,  that  the  members  of  your  state, 
would  l)e  c^^Iad  to  have  him  associated  with  them  here.  If  he 
can  name  any  office  which  is  at  the  disposal  of  the  Executive, 
I  am  sure  he  co;:!d  <::^ct  it.  —  Because  it  is  impossible  for  him  to 
stand  better  than  l.e  does  at  Head  Quarters,  or  ])e  more  respected 
than  he  is  already.  While  others  were  working  for  him,  he  was 
acting  the  same  unselfish  part  towards  his  brotliers ;  to  Dr. 
Cyrus  Washington  Trimble,  at  this  date  he  desires  his  ''regards 
to  the  ladies  of  Philadelphia,  of  their  acquaintance  in  closing 
his  letter,  he  remarks,  'that  his  brother  Allen  has  gone  to  Rich- 
mond, \'a.  to  purchase  land.  James  will  purchase  100  Spanish 
hides,  at  Philadelphia,  but  best  Buenos  Ayrean  would  be  |)referre(I. 
I  enclose  copies  of  the  entries  in  the  name  of  Samuel  Bradford, 
Xo.  260  for  900  acres.  Nine  warrants  of  the  Virginia  state  line. 
I  was  pleased  to  read  in  the  National  Intelligence  Doctor 
Mitchel's  address  to  the  Agricultural  Society,  in  which  he  recom- 
mends an  investigation  of  the  Medical  properties  of  indigenous 

The  Senatorial  Contest  full  of  mettle,  high-spirited  and 
animated,  for  ( Governor  Worthington  and  his  adherents  and 
friends,  desired  to  see  him  continued  in  office ;  a  man  who  had 
served  his  State  so  a])ly  and  was  so  highly  informed  on  all  the 
internal  issues  of  the  day,  so  that  the  success  of  Col.  Trimble  was 
the  more  surprising.  The  Civil  Service  idea  had  not  permeated 
the  minds  of  the  people  to  the  same  degree  it  now  has ;  they  felt 

240  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

that  although  Governor  Worthington  was  undoubtedly  highly  in- 
formed about  the  interests  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  yet  Chillicothe 
had  had  sufficient  eclat  and  Hillsborough  would  now  like  to  see 
one  of  her  worthy  sons  brought  forward.  Personally,  Col. 
Trimble  was  greatly  admired  and  trusted,  he  had  served  his  coun- 
try more,  perhaps,  than  his  State,  but  for  this  very  reason,  Wash- 
ington City  would  receive  him  gladly — so  unselfish  a  man  in  his 
personal  interests  as  he  !   so  gallant  a  soldier  ! 

We  find  among  his  papers  a  small  package  of  visiting  cards, 
from  the  following  gentlemen:  Mr.  Stratford  Canning,  "His 
Britannic  Majesty's  Envoy  Extraordinary,''  etc.,  "The  Minister 
Plenipotentiary  de  La  Majeste  tres  Chretienne,"  the  Russian  En- 
voy's card,  Le  Baron  de  Mallitz,  the  Secretary  of  the  Russian 
Embassy ;  cards  of  all  the  representatives  of  the  French  Embassy, 
and  the  Consul  General  of  France,  Mr.  Petry,  General  Jesup, 
George  Towers,  Engine'  Vail,  Mr.  Ogle  Tayloe,  W.  A.  Duer,  S. 
Ruggold;  with  many  others  and  invitations,  one  of  which  reads 
as  follows  : 

"Gen.  Van  Renssalaer,  requests  the  Honor  of  Col.  Trimbles*  Company 
to  Dinner  on  Monday  next  at  4  o'clock. 
"Saturday,  27." 

These  are  all  addressed  to  Col.  Trimble,  66  Broadway,  and 
with  them  is  placed  the  receipted  bills  for  board  at  Mrs.  Peyton's, 
$i2.oo  per  week,  with  extra  charges  for  coach  and  horses. 

While  we  are  on  the  social  side  of  life  in  Washinc^ton,  1820, 
an  extract  from  one  of  Col.  Trimble's  letters  will  he  of  interest  : 

"We  have  lost  Janies  Burrel  Jr.  from  Rliod-.-  I^lmd  —  in  my  opinion 
one  of  the  most  able  and  useful  members  of  tlic  Stnato.  Tlie  question  of 
relative  rank  in  Society,  seems  to  be  of  parent  importance.  If  I  were 
competent  to  decide  this  question  I  should  decline  to  cnf^api-  in  it.  I  claim 
only  the  position  of  a  stranger  glad  to  receive  calls,  rather  reluctant  to 
make  them." 

General  Jessup  tells  him  in  a  letter  while  he  is  al)scnt  from  Wash- 
ington for  a  few  weeks,  that  gossip  says,  he  is  engac^cd  to  a  certain  lady 
whose  name   he   does  not  give. 

The  family  had  evidently  persuaded  him  about  this  time  to  have  their 
cousin,  Mr.  Matthew  Jewett,  of  Lexington,  Ky.,  paint  his  portrait,  for  he 
says,  Dec.  23,  1820:  "I  have  sent  Jewett  one  hundred  dollars  for  my 

William  Allen  Trimble,  241 

There  are  letters  to  Col.  Thos.  Aspinwall,  U.  S.  Consul,  and  replies 
dated  from  Bishop  Gate  Church  Yards,  21st  Feb.  1820,  London,  England. : 

**We  have  sent  the  Maine  and  Missouri  bill  to  the  other  house,"  Col. 
Trimble  writes  to  his  brother  on  the  21st  Feb.,  1820,  "where  it  has  been 
postponed  until  tomorrow.  I  suspect  the  Amendment  of  the  Senate  will 
be  struck  out  and  the  bill  for  the  admission  of  Maine  sent  back  to  the 
Senate,  where  it  will  be  rejected.  The  Southern  people  are  determined 
if  possible  to  prevent  the  admission  of  Maine  without  Missouri  is  admitted 
at  the  same  time  without  restriction.  The  Amendment  attached  to  the 
Bill  to  prohibit  slavery  in  the  Territory  North  of  Latitude  36"  30'  I  con- 
sider of  little  importance — because  without  any  probability  very  few  slaves 
would  be  taken  North  of  that  line.  If  the  Senators  of  Indiana  and  Illi- 
nois would  concur,  slavery  could  easily  be  prohibited  in  the  uninhabited 
territory  of  the  United  States.  My  time  is  so  entirely  occupied  in  my 
official  duties  and  in  attending  to  the  private  business  of  numerous  cor- 
respondents that  I  have  seldom  a  chance  to  write  to  you.  It  is  reported 
here  that  the  Spanish  Government  has  refused  to  receive  a  note  from 
Mr.  Forsythe  our  Minister. 

Your  affectionate  brother, 

William  A.  Trimble. 
General  Allen  Trimble. 

Later:  "There  will  probably  be  a  compromise  to  admit  Missouri 
without  restriction  and  prohibit  slavery  in  the  whole  or  much  the  largest 
part  of  the  territory.  I  shall  not  vote  for  the  Bill  in  any  shape  while 
connected  with  Maine. 

12  Feb,,  1820. 

I  have  succeeded  in  getting  an  able  Canal  Committee  appointed  in 
the  Senate  on  Roads,  etc.  He  writes  in  Jan.  1821,  from  the  Senate  Cham- 
ber :  —  "My  health  continutes  delicate,  but  I  have  not  missed  one  day  in 
attending  to  my  duty  in  the  Senate.  The  Canal  bill  came  up  when  I  was 
much  indisposed.  I  defended  it  while  I  was  able  to  speak,  and  I  hope 
not  without  success.  The  Sketch  of  the  debate  in  The  Intelligencer  does 
not  by  any  means  do  justice  to  my  remarks  or  even  to  ground  upon 
which  I  supported  the  bill.  Its  fate  in  the  Senate  will  probably  be  de- 
cided day  after  to-morrow."  He  sends  a  printed  copy  to  Governor  E.  A. 
Brown,  of  the  bill  reported  by  Mr.  King  of  New  York,  twice  read  by 
unanimous  consent  in  the  Senate  —  the  bill  to  authorize  the  appointment 
of  Commissioners  to  lay  out  a  Canal  in  the  State  of  Ohio.  April  22, 
1820.  We  got  the  bill  through  the  Senate  with  great  difficulty,  giving  the 
State  the  right  of  premption,  a  quarter  Section  of  land  in  each  of  the  new 

3rd  May,  1820. 

The  Senate  has  just  passed  to  a  third  reading  by  a  large  majority  a 
bill  for  laying  out  a  road  through  the  states  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  and  Illi- 

V0I.XIV.— 16.  (241) 

242  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

nois,  and  the  committee  of  roads  and  canals  of  the  Senate  have  just 
reported  a  bill  to  provide  for  laying  out  a  canal  through  the  lands  of  the 
United  States,  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  navigable  waters  of  the  Scioto,  or 
great  Miami  of  Ohio.  You  can  have  no  idea  of  the  envy  of  the  At- 
lantic and  Southern  countries  of  the  rising  prosperity  of  the  North-western 
states.  We  shall  probably  have  to  rely  upon  our  own  resources  and 
expect  little  from  the  federal  government. 

"A  joint  resolution  has  just  passed  both  houses  to  adjourn  on  the 
15th.  The  Tariff  was  reported  this  morning  by  the  committee  —  with 
some  amendments  to  reduce  the  duties  on  iron,  hemp,  and  some  other 

Three  letters  from  Gov.  Lewis  Cass,  dated  March  31st,  1821,  May 
26th,  and  June  17th,  to  Senator  Trimble  containing  earnest  invitations 
for  him  to  attend  the  treaty  with  the  Indians.  "The  jaunt  would  be 
pleasant  and  useful  to  you,  and  through  your  exertions  useful  to  the 

The  time  of  holding  the  treaty  shall  be  regulated  as  much  as  possible 
by  your  convenience.  A  journey  on  horse-back  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Sandusky  Bay  is  nothing.  Five  days  from  Chillicothe  in  Steam  boat 
will  bring  you  here.  I  trust  you  will  come  to  my  house  and  stay  with 
me  until  your  departure. 

Ever  your  friend, 

Lewis  Cass. 

May  26th. 

We  have  fixed  upon  Chicago  as  the  place  and  upon  the  (15.),  fifteenth 
of  August.  I  shall  be  greatly  disappointed  if  anything  prevents  your  at- 
tending.   I  am,  my  dear  sir. 

Ever  your  friend, 

Lewis  Cass. 

June  17th. 

The  Steamboat  will  touch  Sandusky  the  5th  of  August,— the  treaty 
is  fixed  for  the  15th.  I  shall  give  such  instruction  at  Fort  Wayne,  as  will 
ensure  you  a  companionable  escort,  in  case  you  should  travel  the  whole 
distance  by  land.  I  hope  nothiftg  will  occur  to  prevent  you  from  coming. 
I  am  my  dear  sir, 

Ever  your  friend 

Lewis  Cass. 

There  is  a  brightness  to  these  letters  because  of  the  big  red 
seal,  and  they  look  remarkably  well  cared  for  —  the  Governor 
wrote  a  fine  hand,  which  is  still  beautiful.  Col.  Trimble  writes 
to  his  brother  Allen  as  usual,  telling  him  how  well  the  journey 

William  Allen  Trimble.  243 

went.  The  Indian  agent,  Mr.  Hayes,  furnished  me  with  a  guide 
at  Fort  Wayne.  If  you  go  to  Kentucky  soon,  I  will  join  you 
in  the  purchase  of  some  of  Mr.  Mason's  sheep  and  Clay  cattle. 
Remember  me  to  Mr.  Clay  and  all  my  friends.  Chicago  is  a  flat 
Village  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  miles  from  Ft.  Wayne.  It 
is  btiilt  around  a  basin,  in  the  rear  of  which  a  bluff  rises  abruptly 
on  the  summit  of  which  stands  old  Fort  Mitchel,  —  recently  re- 
paired,  —  from  this  we  get  a*  prospect  of  the  whole  Island.  The 
surface  is  Limestone  and  gravel.  Chicago  is  a  small  Indian 
Village.  The  white  fish  are  said  to  appear  in  going  down  the 

Mr.  Stuart  gave  us  a  horse-back  ride,  —  The  Indians  as- 
sembled in  Council  about  One  o'clock.  Governor  Cass  told  them 
that  tl.ey  had  been  invited  to  assemble  at  this  place  to  receive 
a  message  from  the  Great  Father,  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  which  message  would  be  delivered  to  them  tomorrow; 
that  Mr.  Sibley  had  been  associated  with  him,  and  that  I  was  a 
member  of  their  father's  council.  The  next  day  they  assembled 
and  the  commissioners  delivered  their  message:  that  their  Great 
Father  desired  to  purchase  the  St.  Joseph  country,  for  which 
he  would  give  them  in  goods  which  would  be  worth  more  to 
them  than  all  the  lands  and  game.  One  of  the  war  chiefs,  Mitia, 
answered  for  them,  that  they  had  sold  to  their  Great  Father^ 
the  greater  part  of  their  lands  and  that  they  had  reserved  little 
upon  which  to  lay  the  bones  of  their  fathers,  and  that  it  was 
necessary  to  support  their  chief's  women  and  children,  and  that 
they  did  not  expect  their  Great  Father  would  have  asked  them 
to  sell." 

"After  this  we  took  quarters  with  Mr.  Ramsey  and  A.  D. 
Stuart,  Esq.  the  Collector.  Many  more  details  are  given  in  this 

In  September,  sad  news,  indeed,  reached  Col.  Trimble.  His 
brother,  Lieut.  Cary  A.  Trimble,  so  much  beloved  by  the  entire 
family,  now  just  28  years  of  age,  accomplished  as  a  Flutist,  as 
Linguist,  as  Soldier,  betrothed  to  one  of  the  loveliest  young 
women  in  Philadelphia  society,  fell  ill  and  suddenly  died  at 
Hillsboro,  September  loth,  1821. 

244  '    Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Senator  Trimble  evidently  tried  to  distract  his  mind  from 
this  grief,  for  on  his  return  trip  to  Washington,  in  October,  he 
writes :  —  "I  stopped  at  General  Porter's  at  Black  Rock.  The 
Breckenridges  were  there,  Robert,  the  son,  and  the  Mother. 
Then  I  went  to  Niagara  Falls,  Lewistqn,  Rochester,  Auburn, 
and  seven  miles  north  to  Weeds  basin  on  the  Grand  Canal  now 
completed  from  Utica  as  far  West  as  Montaganna,  on  Cayuga 
Lake.  They  leave  Weeds  Basin  8  A.  M.,  arrive  at  Ithaca  the 
same  hour  next  morning,  (92  miles),  I  also  went  to  Schenectady, 
Albany,  West  Point.  But  the  week  at  Saratoga  did  not  agree 
with  me.  I  have  not  been  well  since  my  return.  I  took  cold 
on  the  return  trip  from  Chicago.  This  little  Indian  bowl  I  send, 
is  for  Eliza*. 

It  was  a  year  of  great  anxiety  for  the  Trimble  family, — 
General  Allen  Trimble  who  had  been  Speaker  of  the  House,  at 
Columbus,  now  since  181 8,  began  to  feel  that  not  alone  must  he 
experience  the  grief  of  his  brother  Gary's  death,  but  that  Will- 
iam's health  was  fast  failing. 

Letter  addressed  to  Dr.  Cyrus  W.  Trimble,  by  Dr.  Powell, 
of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Washington  City,  loth  Dec'r.,  1825. 
My  Dear  Friend: — 

You  no  doubt  have  heard  ere  this,  of  ilic  death  of  your  gallant  and 
accomphshed  brother.  His  decline  was  gradunl,  and  steady,  and  he  was 
conscious  long  before  his  confinement,  that  his  death  was  not  far  distant. 
He  looked  forward  to  his  approaching  dissol  iiion,  with  all  the  firmness 
cf  a  hero,  and  cahnness  of  a  philosopher:  and  during  the  whole  course 
of  his  confinement,  not  a  sigh,  or  murmur  oca'x'd   liis  lip^. 

The  funeral  Ceremonies  were  p^rand,  and  imposing  beyond  de- 
scription. The  body  was  removed  from  Mrs.  Payton's,  I'^.e  late  resi- 
dence of  the  deceased,  by  the  Commili.e  (f  .\rrangement>.  avaI  placed  in 
th'j  Senate  Chamber,  directly  fronting?  the  President's  Clnir.  The  House 
<f  Representatives  then  entered  the  Se:\'.:c  Cli:'.!ii')vr  • —  rtc'ding  them. 
Speaker,  Mr.  Ryland,  the  Chaplain  to  the  Scn^:-.  t'-  '  r'lisvd  his  voice 
and  in  a  peculiarly  eloquent  and  pathetic  mnm^er.  dJivered  an  address 
upon  the  occasion  and  concluded  by  an  afTec  i  >  -.''te  :!ppeal  to  the  rela- 
tives  of  the  deceased. 

The  body  was  then  conveyed  from  the  Setnt^  p*id  plnced  upon  the 
Hearse,  which  was  drawn  by  four  elegant  blac'^'  ]y^r>-e<.  fiis  coffin  was 
covered  with  fine  black  velvet,  elegantly  trimmed  with  silver.  Fr(Mn  one 
side  to  the  other  was  a  plate  handsomely  formed,  placed  directly  over  the 

William  Allen  Trimble.  245 

breast,  on  which  his  name,  age,  and  time  of  decease,  were  engraven.  He 
was  buried  with  the  honors  of  war  which  were  eminently  due  to  so  gallant 
and  distinguished  an  Officer. 

The  Procession  then  moved.  It  as  exceedingly  splendid,  and  solemn. 
There  were  at  least  One  hundred  private  Carriages, — besides  an  im- 
mense concourse  of  citizens  and  strangers.  The  Marine  Corps,  com- 
manded by  Gen.  Henderson,  marched  in  front  of  the  Procession,  with 
full  band  playing  those  melancholy  airs,  which  are  calculated  to  suffuse 
cheeks  with  tears.  Next  came  the  Senators  and  Representatives  from 
Ohio,  as  Mourners:  then  the  Senate,  preceded  by  their  Sergeant-at- Arms: 
next  the  head  of  departments,  foreign  ministers,  etc.  The  Procession 
then  closed  with  a  prodigious  concourse  of  Citizens  and  strangers  suc- 
ceeded by  a  long  line  of  two-hundred  splendid  carriages.  When  the  body 
of  the  gallant  man  was  consigned  to  the  silent  tomb,  solemn  silence  reigned 
throughout  this  innumerable  multitude,  and  the  bosom  of  every  individual 
seemed  to  heave  with  a  sigh  of  regret  for  his  untimely  fate.  To  close 
the  scene,  the  neighboring  hills  were  made  to  reverberate  by  the  marine 
corps  firing  volleys  of  funeral  salutes  with  double  charged  cartridges, 
which  at  every  heavy  discharge  seemed  to  say :  "This  tells  the  knell  of  a 
Hero !" 

I  beg  you  to  believe  that  I  sincerely  sympathize  with  you  upon  the 
heavy  sorrow  which  you  have  sustained. 

Your  brother's  friends  here  are  very  numerous.  In  fact,  he  had 
no  enemies,  except  they  were  enemies  to  his  sterling  honor,  and  integrity 
of  character.  Yours  most  affectionately, 

Wm.  L.  Powell. 
To  Dr.  Cyrus  W.  Trimble. 

THE     FUNERAL     OF     COL.     TRIMBLE. 

Late  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States  from  the  State  of  Ohio. — 

His  body  they  bore  to  a  warrior's  grave  — 

The  morning  sun  splendidly  beaming ; 
The  hearse  mov'd  slow,  and  the  War-plumes  wav'd. 

And  sabers  and  muskets  were  gleaming. 

The  cold  winds  blew,  but  he  heeded  them  not  — 

The  sleep  of  the  grave  he  was  sleeping ; 
The  wise  and  the  great  of  the  Nation  were  there, 

And  his  country  around  him  was  weeping. 

The  trumpets  peal'd  loud,  and  the  death-drums  beat  — 

And  the  March  was  the  March  of  devotion ; 
And  deep  as  the  musketry  ml  I'd  o'er  his  grave, 

Not  a  heart  btit  throbb'd  high  with  emotion. 

246  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

For,  Oh !    he  died  in  the  glow  of  his  years, 

In  the  pride  and  the  bloom  of  his  glory; 
But  long  shall  his  memory  emblazon  with  fame, 

The  bright  pages  of  our  martial  story. 

The  winter  shall  pass,  and  the  Spring-flowers  bloom, 
By  the  banks  and  the  groves  of  his  own  native  river,  — 

Weep,  Parent  of  Trimble  !     He  ne'er  shall  return ! 
By  the  wave  of  Potomac  he's  sleeping  forever. 

But  he  sleeps  with  the  great ;    and  sweet  be  his  sleep. 
And  hush'd  be  the  requiem  of  sorrow ; 
His  star  has  gone  down,  like  the  Sun  hid  in  storms. 
To  arise  in  new  glory  to-morrow. 

In  Ohio's  Centennial  address  of  ''Ohio  in  the  Senate,'^ 
by  the  Hon.  J.  B.  Foraker,  the  following  reference  was  made 
to  Col.  William  A.  Trimble.  ''Harrison  and  Garfield,*'  said  Mr. 
Foraker  "were  so  conspicuous  as  soldiers  that  all  are  familiar 
with  their  achievements  in  that  respect,  while  Trimble  was  noted 
among  the  men  of  his  time  for  chivalric  deportment  and  daunt- 
less bravery.  He  died,  when  he  had  only  fairly  entered  on  what 
promised  to  be  a  most  brilliant  and  distinguished  career  in  the 
Senate,  from  the  effects  of  a  wound  received  in  action  at  Fort 
Erie.  He  was  the  only  one  of  all  Ohio's  Senators  who  died  while 
holding  office.  He  was  buried  in  the  Congressional  Cemetery 
at  Washington,  and  his  untimely  death  was  mourned  universally 
by  the  people  of  Ohio  and  all  his  colleagues  in  public  life." 



It  is  as  Ohio's  first  historian  that  Caleb  Atwater  is  best 
known.  But  had  he  never  written  his  History  of  Ohio,  his 
efforts  to  provide  an  educational  system  for  the  state  and  the 
record  he  made  in  Archaeology  might  in  themselves  be  sufficient 
reason  for  placing  his  name  in  "Ohio's  Hall  of  Fame." 

Caleb  Atwater  was  a  versatile,  peculiar,  eccentric  and  vis- 
ionary individual.  From  the  world's  material  point  of  view 
his  life  might  not  be  reckoned  a  success.  He  never  accumu- 
lated any  property.  He  lacked  that  power  of  concentration 
which  alone  gives  success  in  a  pursuit.  But  he  was  not  lazy. 
He  worked  hard  on  things  that  were  congenial  to  him.  He 
was  a  close  observer  of  nature.  He  had  his  ideas  and  theories 
and  it  seems  he  spent  much  time  in  formulating  them. 

His  versatility  expressed  itself  in  his  being  a  minister,^ 
lawyer,  educator,  legislator,  author  and  antiquarian.  He  was  a 
pioneer  in  more  senses  than  one.  And  since  a  pioneer  is  ever 
a  brave  man  we  can  forgive  Mr.  Atwater  his  inclination  to  be  a 

It  was  on  Christmas  day  in  1778  at  North  Adams,  Massa- 
chusetts, that  Caleb  Atwater  was  born  to  Ebenezer  and  Rachel 
(Parks)  Atwater.  He  was  a  direct  descendant  of  David  Atwater 
one  of  the  original  settlers  of  Xew  Haven.  On  the  maternal  side 
he  inherited  Welsh  blood.  His  mother  died  when  he  was  five 
years  old.  The  child  was  placed  in  the  home  of  a  Mr.  Jones  in 
North  Adams,  where  he  remained  until  his  eighteenth  year. 
About  this  time  Williams  College  was  founded  and  young  At- 
water was  sent  by  his  guardian  to  this  school.  He  completed 
his  studies  here  and  received  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts. 

I  wish  to  express  my  thanks  to  Miss  May  Lowe,  Librarian  at  Cir- 
clcville;  Miss  Wilder,  Assistant  Librarian;  Mrs.  L.  G.  Hoffman,  of 
Circicville,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Brown,  of  Indianapolis,  for  courtesies  extended 
in  the  preparation  of  this  article.  C.  L.  M. 


248  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Upon  his  graduation  he  went  to  New  York  City  and  opened 
a  school  for  young  ladies.  While  thus  engaged  he  studied 
theology  and  in  due  time  entered  the  Presbyterian  ministry.  He 
now  married  a  Miss  Diana  who  lived  only  about  a  year.  On 
account  of  his  health  he  gave  up  the  ministry  and  began  the 
study  of  law.  His  preceptor  was  Judge  Smiley  of  Marcellus, 
New  York.  After  a  few  months  reading  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar.  He  married  a  second  time.  His  wife  was  Belinda,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Judge  Butler. 

It  seems  that  now  he  entered  into  some  business  arrange- 
ments that  proyed  disastrous.  What  this  business  was  is  un- 
known but  it  left  him  impoverished. 

He  had  determined  to  go  West.  It  could  hardly  be  said  that 
he  wished  to  "grow  up  with  the  country"  for  he  was  now  thirty- 
seven  years  old.  He  came  to  Circleville,  Ohio,  in  1815,  and 
there  made  his  home  until  his  death  fifty-two  years  afterward. 

The  first  six  years  of  his  residence  in  Circleville  was  de- 
voted to  tl.e  practice  of  law.  In  i8ji  he  was  elected  to  repre- 
sent the  Pickaway-Hocking  District  in  the  Ohio  Legislature.  One 
of  the  great  issues  before  the  American  people  at  that  time  was^ 
the  question  of  "internal  improvements.''  Governor  De  Witt  Clin- 
ton of  New  York  had  begun  his  Eric  Canal.  Roads  were  de- 
manded. Better  facilities  to  get  the  produce  of  the  land  to 
market  were  asked  for.    As  usual  the  people  were  divickul. 

Mr.  Atwator  upon  his  entrance  into  the  General  Assembly 
aligned  himself  with  the  friends  of  "improvement."  He  had 
not  been  a  member  long  until  he  had  an  opportunity  to  defend 
his  |)osition.  A  bill  bad  been  introduced  to  abandon  for  a  year 
the  usual  road  tax.  Mr.  At  water  opposed  the  measure  in  the 
follow iiii^  speech. 

"The  people  of  (  )1  i  ^  r:rc  an  cnterpri.^inc:^  people  and  they  are 
as  patriotic  as  they  are  cnterprisini^  and  will  not  thank  you 
for  giving  up  the  road  tax.  Does  the  public  voice  call  for  the 
abandonment  of  the  road  tax  ?  Sir,  the  s|)irit  of  the  aj^e  remon- 
strates against  this  bill  in  the  strongest  language  and  he  nnist 
be  deaf  indeed  who  does  not  hear  its  voice  and  perverse  indeed 
who  disobeys  it.  There  is  not  a  single  state  over  the  mountains 
that  is  not  no  and  doi-ic:.    In  \cw  ^'ork  besides  a  vast  number  of 

Caleb  Ativater.  249 

turnpikes  running  in  all  directions  through  the  state  the  patri- 
otic Clinton  and  his  friends  are  cutting  a  canal,  three  hundred 
and  fifty-eight  miles  in  length  connecting  the  Great  Lakes  with 
the  ocean.  Virginia  and  North  Carolina  have  each  their  Boards 
or  Public  Works  busily  and  successfully  engaged  in  these  improve- 
ments. Shall  this  young  State  lose  all  the  benefit  of  example  so 
praiseworthy?  'But  the  pressure  of  the  times.'  Great  minds 
rise  under  every  pressure.  The  sages  who  on  the  Fourth  of  July, 
1776,  declared  us  an  independent  nation  did  not  sit  down  to 
inquire  where  our  armies  were,  wl:erc  was  our  navy,  where  our 
money  was  to  be  obtained,  to  carry  on  a  war  with  the  most 
powerful  civilized  nation  in  the  world.  Had  they  done  so  we 
had  not  been  as  now,  here  legislating  for  a  respectable  state. 

"Shall  we  throw  dollars  and  cents  into  one  scale,  against  a 
great  system  of  internal  policy  in  the  other?  From  such  legisla- 
tion I  devoutly  pray  to  be  delivered  on  this  and  all  other  occa- 

Mr.  At  water  was  a  friend  to  the  Canal  System.  He  was  a 
great  admirer  of  Governor  Clinton  of  New  York.  That  fact  is 
evidenced  when  it  is  noted  that  he  named  a  son  after  the  great 
Xcw  York  champion  of  canals.  Many  Ohioans,  including  Mr. 
Atwater,  had  kept  in  close  touch  with  Governor  Clinton  during 
the  years  the  Erie  Canal  was  building.  His  advice  to  the  Ohio 
people  was  valuable.  Accordingly  when  the  friends  of  ''in- 
ternal improvements"  were  ready  to  strike  they  were  not  entirely 
ignc^rant  of  the  best  methods  to  be  followed.  It  is  significant 
that  the  friends  of  roads  and  canals  were  also  friends  of  public 

( )n  the  6th  of  December,  182 1,  the  initial  canal  bill  was 
introduced  in  the  Ohio  House  of  Representatives.  Mr.  Atwater 
suppnrtcd  the  bill  as  a  member  of  the  Legislature  but  he 
(lid  nmrc  than  that.  There  was  a  po|)ular  opposition  to  overcome. 
Thi'  p<^)ple  had  to  l)e  echicated.  During  these  years  of  debate 
iv.v\  at^itation  the  |)en  of  Caleb  Atwater  was  busy  in  writing  for 
the  pTL^s.  The  files  of  the  Circleville  news|)aper  of  the  time  show 
many  articles  that  are  evidently  his.  While  they  are  signed,  usu- 
ally, as  was  the  custom  of  the  time  by  a  high  sounding  Latin 
pseudonym,  yet  to  a  person  who  is  but  meagerly  acquainted  with 

250  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Mr.  Atwater's  style,  but  little  difficulty  is  found  in  recognizing  the 

These  articles  are  vigorous  and  the  arguments  are  telling. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  they  had  considerable  influence  in  molding 
the  public  opinion  of  the  section. 

But  it  is  in  the  cause  of  popular  education  that  Mr.  Atwater 
deserves  to  be  held  in  fond  memory  by  the  people  of  Ohio. 
Coming  from  the  halls  of  an  eastern  college  as  he  did  he  soon 
saw  the  need  of  an  educated  proletariat.  In  expressing  his  views 
of  the  stability  of  our  Republic  he  said,  **To  effect  this  object 
universal  education  is  the  only  remedy.*'  He  had  full  confidence 
in  the  function  of  the  school  master.  He  did  not  doubt  the  po- 
tency of  an  efficient  system  of  education. 

On  the  same  day  that  the  Ohio  Canal  Bill  was  mtroduced 
in  the  General  Assembly,  Mr.  Atwater  set  the  educational  wheels 
revolving  by  presenting  a  resolution  asking  for  a  committee  on 
*' schools  and  school  lands." 

The  part  taken  by  Mr.  Atwater  is  best  told  in  his  own  words 
which  are  taken  from  his  History  of  Ohio. 

**The  congress  of  the  United  States,  by  several  acts,  usually 
denominated  *the  compact,'  gave  the  people,  of  all  the  territory 
northwest  of  the  Ohio  river,  one  thirty-sixth  part  of  the  land, 
for  the  support  of  common  schools.  No  small  portion  of  these 
lands  were  occupied,  at  an  early  day,  by  persons  who  settled 
on  them,  without  any  title  to  them,  than  what  mere  occupancy 
gave  them.  These  occupants,  made  no  very  valuable^,  improve- 
ments, on  these  lands,  but  they  contrived  in  time,  to  obtain  various 
acts  of  our  general  assembly,  in  favor  of  such  squatters.  Such 
acts  increased  in  number  every  year,  until  they  not  only  had  cost 
the  state  large  sums  of  money  for  legislating  about  them,  but 
some  entire  sessions  were  mostly  spent,  in  such  unprofitable  legis- 

''In  the  meantime,  scarcely  a  dollar  was  ever  paid  over  to  the 
people,  for  whose  benefit  these  lands  had  been  given,  by  congress. 

''Members  of  the  legislature,  not  frequently,  got  acts  j)assed 
and  leases  granted,  either  to  themselves,  to  their  relntions,  or, 
to  warm  partisans.     One  senator  contrived  to  n^ct,  by  such  acts. 

Caleb  Atwater.  251 

seven  entire  sections  of  land  into,  either  his  own,  or  his  chil- 
dren's possession! 

*'Froni  1803- 1820,  our  general  assembly  spent  its  sessions 
mostly,  in  passing  acts  relating  to  these  lands ;  in  amending  our 
militia  laws;  and  in  revising  those  relating  to  justice's  courts. 
Every  four  or  five  years,  all  the  laws  were  amended,  or  as  one 
member  of  the  assembly  well  remarked  in  his  place,  'were  made 
worse/  At  a  low  estimate,  this  perverse  legislation,  cost  the 
people,  one  million  dollars.  The  laws  were  changed  so  frequently, 
that  none  but  the  passers  of  them,  for  whose  benefit  they  were 
generally  made,  knew  what  laws  were  really  in  force.  New  laws 
were  often  made  as  soon  as  the  Old  ones  took  effect. 

^'During  these  seventeen  years,  there  were  a  few  persons,  in 
different  parts  of  the  state,  who  opposed  this  course  of  legis- 
lation. And  here  we  introduce  to  the  reader,  Ephraim  Cutler, 
of  Washington  county,  near  Marietta,  who  was  one  of  the 
framers  of  our  state  constitution.  He  had  succeeded  in  his 
motion,  so  to  amend  the  original  draft  of  that  instrument,  as  to 
make  it  the  imperative  duty  of  the  general  assembly,  to  support 
^religion,  morality  and  knowledge,  as  essentially  necessary  to 
good  government.'  And  the  constitution  goes  on  to  declare 
'that  schools  and  the  means  of  instruction,  shall  forever  be  en- 
couraged by  legislative  provision.'  This  provision  remained 
a  dead  letter  until  in  December  18 19,  Judge  Cutler,  its  author, 
being  then  a  member  of  the  general  assembly,  introduced  a 
resolution  for  that  purpose,  and  was  appointed  chairman  of  a 
committee  on  schools.  He  introduced  a  bill  into  the  house  of 
representatives,  for  regulating  and  supporting  common  schools. 
This  bill  after  being  much  injured  by  amendments,  passed  the 
lower  branch  of  the  legislature,  but,  was  either  not  passed  in 
the  senate,  or  so  modified  as  to  render  it  useless.  This  state  of 
things  continued,  until,  in  December,  1821,  the  house  of  repre- 
sentatives appointed  five  of  its  members,  to  wit :  Caleb  Atwater, 
Lloyd  Talbot,  James  Shields,  Roswell  Mills,  and  Josiah  Barber, 
a  committee  on  school  lands.  To  that  committee  was  referred 
a  great  number  of  petitions  from  occupants  of  school  lands, 
in  almost  every  part  of  the  state.    This  committee  devoted  nearly 

252  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

all  its  time  to  the  subjects  submitted  to  its  charge.  All  the  acts 
of  the  legislature,  relative  to  the  school  land  were  carefully 
examined,  and  this  committee  came  to  the  conclusion,  that, 
inasmuch  as  the  legislature  were  the  mere  trustees  of  the  fund 
set  apart  by  congress,  for  the  support  of  common  schools,  not 
a  few  of  these  acts  were  void,  because  they  were  destructive 
to  the  interests  of  the  people  whose  children  were  to  be  educated 
by  this  grant.  The  trustee,  the  committee  believed,  had  the  power 
to  so  manage  this  fund  as  to  increase  its  value ;  but,  the  trustee 
had  no  power  to  destroy  the  fund.  The  committee  saw  all  the 
difficulties  which  surrounded  the  object  of  their  charge ;  as  well 
as  the  delicacy  of  their  own  situation,  sitting  as  members  with 
those  who  had  possession  of  more  or  less  of  the  school  lands. 
They  weighed  in  their  minds  all  these  things  and  finally  adopted 
a  plan  and  the  only  one  which  to  them  seemed  feasible,  which 
was,  to  recommend  the  adoption  of*  a  joint  resolution,  authoriz- 
ing the  governor,  to  appoint  seven  commissioners  of  schools  and 
school  lands,  whose  duty  it  should  be,  to  devise  a  system  of  law. 
for  the  support  and  regulation  of  common  schools.  Their  chair- 
man who  writes  these  lines,  immediately  after  this  decision, 
drew  up,  and  presented  to  the  house  of  representatives,  the 
followinje:  report. 

'The  committee  to  whom  was  referred  so  much  of  the  gover- 
nor's message,  as  relates  to  schools  and  school  lands,  have  had 
these  subjects  under  their  consideration,  and  now  beg  leave  to 

'That  in  the  opinion  of  the  committee,  the  education  of  our 
youth,  is  tlie  first  care  and  highest  duty  of  every  parent,  patriot 
and  statesman.  It  is  education  which  polishes  the  manners, 
invigorates  the  mind  and  improves  the  heart.  If  it  has  been 
encouraged  even  by  despotic  trovernnients.  how  nmcii  stronger 
are  the  motives  held  ont  to  induce  the  Rcpul)lican  statesman  to 
])r()motc  this  object  of  prime  importance?  Sliall  Louis  XX'III 
of  France,  support  from  the  national  treasury,  learned  professors, 
in  every  branch  of  science  and  learninc^,  in  all  the  celebrated 
schools  in  his  kingdom  ;  and  will  the  legislature  of  this  young, 
rising  and  respectable  state,  neglect  to  provide  for  the  education 
of  her  ycHith?     The  committee  presume  not. 

Caleb  Atwater.  263 

"It  will  be  recollected  by  the  house,  that  many  of  the  best 
scholars,  warriors,  philosophers,  and  statesmen,  whom  this  nation 
has  produced  —  men  who  have  shone  as  lights  in  the  world ; 
who  have  been  blessings  to  their  own  country  and  the  world  at 
large;  who  have  been  applauded  by  the  whole  civilized  world, 
for  their  learning,  their  genius,  their  patriotism  and  their  virtues 
in  public  and  private  life,  were  many  of  them  when  Vounc:,  poor 
and  destitute  as  to  property,  and  yet  tlirough  their  own  exer- 
tions, under  the  genial  influence  of  the  Republican  institutions  of 
our  elder  sister  states,  were  enabled  to  raise  themselves  from  the 
lowest  circumstances,  to  the  heights  of  fame  and  usefuhiess. 

"The  name  of  the  illustrious  Franklin  will  occur  to  everv 
mind.  Are  there  no  Franklins,  no  Monroes,  no  Wirts  in  the  log 
cabins  of  Ohio,  who  possess  not  even  a  cent  of  property,  who 
have  no  knowledge  of  the  rudiments  of  a  common  education, 
and  are  deprived  of  a  father's  advice  and  protection,  and  even 
without  the  benefit  of  a  mother's  prayers?  Is  it  not  the  (hity 
of  the  legislature,  to  lay,  in  season,  a  foundation  on  which  to 
build  up  the  cause  of  education?  Ought  not  a  system  of  echi- 
cation  to  be  founded,  which  would  embrace  with  equal  affection 
the  children  of  the  poor  and  the  rich? 

"It  has  been  said  that  'a  little  learning  is  a  dangerous  thing/ 
This  may  be  true  in  monarchical  governments,  where  the  extremes 
of  wealth  and  poverty,  power  and  weakness,  exist,  but  never 
can  be  true  in  a  republic  like  ours.  Where  universal  suffrage 
is  the  birthright  of  every  citizen,  learning  enough  to  enable  the 
elector  to  become  acquainted  with  his  own  rights  and  his  ruler's 
duty  is  necessary  for  him  to  possess.  In  a  moral  point  of  view, 
learning  enough  to  enable  every  rational  being  to  fully  under- 
stand his  duty  to  himself,  his  neighbor  and  his  Creator,  is  abso- 
lutely necessary.  Without  education  and  morality,  can  a  republic 
exist  for  any  length  of  time?     The  committe  presume  not. 

"A  great  philosopher  has  said  that  'knowledge  is  power.' 
It  is  that  power  which  transforms  the  savage  into  civilized  man» 
surrounds  him  with  a  thousand  comforts,  unattainable  through 
any  other  medium,  and  exhibits  man  as  he  ought  to  be,  at  the 
head  of  this  lower  creation,  and  the  image  of  his  Maker.  It  is 
an  acquaintance  with  letters  which  enables  man  to  hold  a  corre- 

254  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

spondence  and  become  acquainted  with  his  fellow  man,  however 
distant  they  may  be  from  each  other.  Through  this  medium 
all  the  ideas  of  the  warrior,  the  statesmen,  the  poet,  the  philoso- 
pher and  the  patriot  are  conveyed  from  age  to  age  and  from 
country  to  country.  Through  this  medium  the  treasures  of 
learning  and  science  are  brought  down  to  us,  from  the  remotest 
ages  past.  Through  this  same  medium,  these  treasures  are  accu- 
mulating, as  they  are  borne  along  down  the  stream  of  time,  will 
be  conveyed  to  the  remotest  ages  yet  to  come. 

**Gratitude  to  those  who  have  gone  before  us,  for  their  labors 
in  the  field  of  learning  and  science,  duty  to  ourselves  and  to  those 
who  are  to  come  after  us,  call  on  us  for  a  system  of  education 
for  common  schools,  so  framed  that  genius,  to  whomsoever  given, 
by  the  all-wise  and  beneficent  Author  of  our  existence  may  be 
drawn  forth  from  its  abode  however  exalted  or  however  humble 
it  may  be  to  enlighten  mankind  by  a  divine  radiance. 

"Full  many  a  gem  of  purest  ray  serene, 
The  dark,  un  fathomed  caves  of  ocean  bear, 
Full   many  a   flower   is   born   to   blush   unseen. 
And  waste  its  sweetness  on  the  desert  air." 

"Is  it  not  the  duty  of  the  legislature  to  explore  the  recesses 
of  the  ocean  of  distress  and  poverty  and  to  draw  forth  the  gems 
of  genius  and  place  them  before  the  public  eye?  Ought  not  the 
field  of  learning  to  be  so  far  extended  as  to  enclose  within  its 
limits,  those  beautiful  wild  flowers  of  genius  which  are  now 
wasting  their  sweetness  on  the  desert  air? 

"But  it  may  be  asked,  how  shall  we  effect  this  desirable  ob- 
ject? Where  are  our  means  of  doing  it?  The  committee  answer, 
that  nearly  one-thirty-sixth  part  of  our  territory  has  been  granted 
by  congress,  (for  a  fair  equivalent  it  is  true)  to  the  state  in  trust 
for  the  support  of  common  schools.  Had  this  fund  been  prop- 
erly managed,  the  committee  are  of  the  opinion,  that  a  great 
permanent  one  would  have  been  created,  the  interest  of  which 
would  have  done  much  toward  the  support  of  common  schools. 
The  committee  deeply  regret  that  the  school  lands  have  been 
in  many  instances,  leased  out  for  diflferent  periods  of  time,  to 
persons  who  in  numerous  instances  seem  to  have  forgotten  that 

Caleb  Atwater.  256 

these  lands  were  granted  to  the  state  (for  a  fair  equivalent  by 
congress),  for  the  support  of  education  and  for  the  benefit  of 
the  rising  generation. 

**Froni  all  the  committee  have  been  able  to  learn  it  would 
seem  that  more  money  had  been  expended  by  the  state  in  legis- 
lation concerning  these  lands,  than  they  have  yet  or  ever  will 
produce,  unless  some  other  method  of  management  be  devised 
than  any  hitherto  pursued.  The  committee  refer  the  house  to 
acts  concerning  these  lands  on  the  statute  books  and  to  the  fact 
in  numerous  instances,  the  lessees  are  destroying  all  the  valuable 
timber  growing  in  these  lands.  The  committee  are  impressed 
with  the  belief  that  unless  these  lands  are  soon  sold  and  the 
proceeds  thence  to  be  derived  invested  in  the  stock  of  the  United 
States,  or  in  some  other  permanent  and  productive  stock,  no 
good  and  much  evil  will  accrue  to  the  state  from  the  grant 
of  these  lands  by  congress.  Shall  we  proceed  on,  legislating 
session  after  session,  for  the  sole  benefit  of  lessees  of  school  lands, 
at  the  expense  of  the  state?  Or  shall  we  apply  to  the  general 
government  for  authority  to  sell  out  these  lands  as  fast  as  the 
leases  ex])ire  or  arc  forfeited  by  the  lessees?  Or  shall  we  en- 
tirely surrender  these  lands  to  present  occupants,  with  a  view 
to  avoid  in  future  the  perpetual  importunity  of  these  trouble- 
some petitioners?  The  committee  are  of  opinion  that  in  order 
to  collect  information  on  subjects  committed  to  their  considera- 
tion, commissioners  ought  to  be  appointed  to  report  to  the  next 
general  assembly,  a  bill  to  establish  and  regulate  common  schools, 
accompanied  by  such  information  on  the  subject,  as  they  may 
be  able  to  collect.  Should  the  general  assembly  authorize  the 
governor  to  appoint  such  commissioners,  a  judicious  selection 
would  doubtless  be  made,  with  a  reference  to  the  local  interests 
of  the  state,  as  well  as  to  the  cause  of  learning  among  us. 

**Such  commissioners  ought  to  take  into  their  consideration 
the  propriety  or  impropriety  of  obtaining  leave  cT  the  general 
government,  of  making  such  a  disposition  of  the  school  lands 
of  the  state,  by  sale  or  otherwise  as  may  best  comport  with  the 
original  intention  of  the  grantors. 

**It  is  our  sincere  wish  to  incite  into  activity  the  learning, 
the  talents  and  patriotism  of  the  state,  so  that  the  attention  of 

256  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

our  constituents  may  be  immediately  turned  toward  the  subjects 
committed  to  us. 

"The  following  resolution  is  respectfully  submitted  to  the 
consideration  of  the  house : 

"Resolved  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Ohio : 
That  the  governor  shall  be  authorized  to  appoint  seven  com- 
missioners whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  collect,  digest  and  report 
to  the  next  general  assembly,  »  system  of  education  for  com- 
mon schools,  and  also,  to  take  into  consideration,  the  state  of  the 
fund  set  apart  by  congress  for  the  support  of  common  schools, 
and  to  report  thereon  to  the  next  general  assembly. 

"This  report  and  this  resolution  being  read,  at  the  clerk's 
table,  were  ordered  to  be  printed  and  on  the  30th  day  of  Jan- 
uary, 1822,  they  passed  the  house  without  a  dissenting  vote. 
The  joint  resolution  for  the  appointment  of  commissioners  passed 
the  senate,  January  31st,  1822,  without  opposition. 

"In  the  month  of  May  following,  Allen  Trimble,  Esquire,  the 
then  governor  of  the  state,  appointed  seven  commissioners  of 
schools  and  school  lands,  to-wit :  Caleb  Atwater,  the  Rev.  John 
Collins,  Rev.  James  Hoge,  D.  D.,  N.  Guilford,  the  Honorable 
Ephraim  Cutler,  Honorable  Josiah  Barber,  and  James  M.  Rcll, 
Esquire.  The  reason  why  seven  persons  were  appointed,  was  be- 
cause there  were  seven  different  kinds  of  school  lands  in  the 
state,  viz :  section  number  sixteen  in  every  townshij)  of  con- 
gress lands ;  the  \irginia  military  land ;  I'nitcd  States  mili- 
tary lands;  Synimes'  purchase,  in  the  Miami  comitry  :  the  Ohio 
company's  purchase,  on  the  Ohio  river ;  the  refu<;cc  lands,  ex- 
tending from  Columbus  to  Zanesville ;  and  tlic  Connecticut  West- 
ern Reserve  land. 

"Caleb  Atwater  was  appointed  for  congress  lands;  John  Col- 
lins, for  the  X'irginia  military  lands;  Jantes  Hoge,  for  the 
refugee  lands ;  James  M.  Bell,  for  the  I'nited  States  military 
district ;  Ephraim  Cutler  for  the  Ohio  company's  lands,  X.  Guil- 
ford, for  Synmies'  purchase,  and  Josiah  Barber  for  Connecticut 
Western  Reserve  school  lands. 

"All  the  persons  appointed  commissioners,  accepted  of  their 
offices,  as  it  appears,  by  referring  to  Governor  Trimble's  mes- 
sage to  the  legislature,  in  December,  1822.     Five  of  these  com- 

Caleb  Attvater.  257 

missioners,  to-wit:  Caleb  Atwater,  John  Collins,  James  Hoge, 
Ephraim  Cutler  and  Josiah  Barber,  entered  on  the  duties  of  their 
appointment  and  assembled  at  Columbus  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment, in  June  1822.  They  organized  their  board,  appointed 
Caleb  Atwater  chairman,  and  inasmuch  as  N.  Guilford'  and 
James  M.  Bell  did  not  appear  nor  act,  the  five  who  were  present 
and  acting  informally  appointed  Caleb  Atwater,  to  perform  the 
duty  assigned  to  N.  Guilford ;  and  James  Hoge  was  appointed 
to  supply  the  place  of  James  M.  Bell. 

"This  board,  thus  organized,  ordered  their  chairman,  to  ad- 
dress a  circular  letter,  to  all  such  persons  as  had  the  charge 
of  the  school  lands  in  the  state  soliciting  information  as  to  those 
lands;  what  was  their  value,  how  they  were  managed,  how, 
and  by  whom  occupied,  and  finally,  all  the  information  necessary 
to  be  possessed  by  the  commissioners. 

"Each  commissioner  agreed  to  exert  himself  in  obtaining  all 
the  information  in  his  power  relating  to  these  lands.  After  an 
active  session  of  seven  days,  the  board  adjourned  to  meet  again 
in  August  the  next. 

"Five  hundred  letters  were  addressed  to  persons  in  various 
parts  of  the  state  and  fearing  that  unless  the  postage  were  paid, 
these  letters  would  not  be  attended  to,  by  those  to  whom  they 
were  addressed,  the  author  of  them  paid  the  postage.  His 
time  was  devoted  almost  wholly  to  this  business,  until  in  August 
following,  the  board  met  again  at  Columbus.  At  this  meeting, 
which  lasted  seven  days,  the  chairman  was  directed  to  prepare 
three  pamphlets  for  the  press :  first,  a  pamphlet  showing  the 
actual  condition  of  the  school  lands;  second,  a  bill  proposing 
a  system  of  law,  regulating  common  schools;  and  thirdly,  an 
explanatory  one,  of  the  school  system  to  be  proposed. 

"The  chairman  was  directed  to  collect  all  the  school  svstems 
in  use  in  all  the  states;  and  to  consult  by  letter  or  otherwise, 
all  our  most  distinguished  statesmen,  scholars,  teachers  and 
jurists  on  this  matter.  In  pursuance  of  this  order,  he  opened 
a  correspondence  with  not  a  few  such  men,  in  all  the  old,  and 
many  of  the  new  states.  This  correspondence  occupied  nearly 
all  his  time,  during  the  three  following  months  of  September, 
October  and  November,  and  until  early  in  December  1822,  the 

Vol.  XIV.— 17. 

^Jb8  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

board  again  assembled  at  Columbus.  During  all  this  time  not 
a  dollar  had  been  advanced  by  the  state  to  this  board,  nor  was 
there  a  dollar  in  the  state  treasury  to  spare  for  any  object. 

"Two  of  the  commissioners  had  been  elected  members  of 
the  general  assembly,  to-wit:  Ephraim  Cutler  and  Josiah  Bar- 
ber. The  other  three,  Messrs  Atwater,  Collins  and  Hoge  de- 
voted up  their  whole  time  to  this  service.  Occupying  a  room  in 
a  public  house,  it  became  a  center  of  attraction  for  all  the  lovers 
of  learning  who  visited  the  seat  of  government,  during  that  ses- 
sion of  the  state  legislature.  In  this  legislature  were  many  in- 
fluential men  who  were  opposed  to  a  school  system;  to  a  sale 
of  the  school  lands;  and  to  internal  improvements.  Calling 
occasionally  at  the  commissioners'  room,  these  enemies  of  all 
improvement,  discovered  the  commissioners  discussing  the  merits 
of  the  different  school  systems  which  they  had  collected.  These 
opposers  as  it  now  appears,  with  the  intention  of  swindling  the 
commissioners  out  of  what  would  be  justly  due  them  for  their 
expenditures  of  time  and  money,  requested  the  chairman  to 
let  them  see  what  the  postage  on  his  official  correspondence 
amounted  to,  and  they  would  pay  it.  This  being  acceded  to, 
and  that  being  found  to  be  seventy  dollars,  these  legislators 
framed  a  report  in  the  senate  that  it  would  appear  that  all  the 
services  had  been  finished  and  paid  for,  nine  weeks  before  the 
commissioners  concluded  their  session. 

"The  board  proceeded  in  their  labors,  day  after  day,  and 
week  after  week,  and  prepared  for  the  press  and  printed  the  three 
pamphlets  aforesaid,  at  the  expense  of  printing  and  paper  —  paid 
for  by  the  chairman,  and  never  fully  remunerated  to  this  day  by 
the  state!  Fifteen  hundred  copies  of  each,  or  four  thousand 
five  hundred  copies,  after  an  absence  from  home  on  that  business, 
of  eighty-two  days,  were  printed  and  done  up  in  handsome 
covers.  They  were  circulated  over  the  whole  state  in  the  spring, 
summer  and  autumn  of   1823. 

"On  the  assembling  of  the  legislature  in  December,  as  soon 
as  that  body  were  properly  organized  the  report  of  the  com- 
missioners was  presented  to  the  general  assembly  which  they 
accepted,  thanking,  but  not  paying  anything  for  their  labors  and 
expenditures.     This  session  had  a  majority  in  both  houses,  op- 

Caleb  Atzvater.  269 

posed  to  the  school  system  and  the  sale  of  the  school  lands, 
and  all  that  was  done  by  them,  was  to  quarrel  about  these  sub- 
jects. They  finally  broke  up  in  a  row  and  went  home.  During 
the  next  summer  and  autumn,  the  contest  about  the  sale  of  the 
'  school  lands,  the  school  system,  the  canal,  and  an  equitable  mode 
of  taxation,  was  warm  and  animated,  but  the  friends  of  these 
measures,  triumphed  over  all  opposition  at  the  polls  in  the  Octo- 
ber election  of  1824.  Large  majorities  were  elected  in  both 
houses,  friendly  to  these  highly  beneficial  measures.  These  meas- 
ures were  carried  through  the  general  assembly  and  the  greatest 
revolution,  politically,  was  eflfected  that  our  history  oflfers  to 
the  reader.  That  legislature  was  the  ablest  in  point  of  talents 
and  moral  worth  that  we  ever  had  in  the  state. 

"They  gave  us  a  system  of  education  for  common  schools; 
changed  the  mode  of  taxation;  created  a  board  of  fund  com- 
missioners who  were  authorized  to  issue  stock  and  borrow 
money  on  it,  wherewith  to  make  canals.  They  passed  many  other 
wise,  morally,  healthful  and  useful  acts.  These  measures  effected 
more  for  us  than  all  others,  ever  originating  with  the  people, 
and  carried  out  into  execution  by  the  legislature. 

"Our  domestic  policy  thus  established,  has  never  varied 
since  that  time,  and  this  new  state  has  as  fixed  a  policy  as  any 
other  state  in  the  Union." 

In  Mr.  Atwater's  term  as  a  legislator  a  bill  for  the  education 
of  the  deaf  and  dumb  was  introduced.  Mr.  Atwater  opposed  the 
measure  in  no  uncertain  terms.     He  said: 

"When  we  have  established  a  system  of  schools  throughout 
the  state;  when  we  have  respectable  academies  in  every  county 
and  one  college  at  least,  well  endowed  and  supplied  with  the 
necessary  qualified  instructors,  then  our  means  could  not  per- 
haps be  better  applied.  But  until  provision  is  made  for  the 
proper  education  of  those  not  deaf  and  dumb  it  would  be  divid- 
ing our  attention  and  diminishing  the  means  necessary  for  this 
object  by  applying  them  to  other  objects  of  much  less  import- 

In  1822  Mr.  Atwater  was  a  candidate  for  Congress.  He  was 
defeated  bv  Duncan  McArthur  for  whom  he  had  a  warm  friend- 
ship.     It  was  this  friendship  that  prompted  him  to  dedicate  one 

260  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  his  books  to  McArthur,  who  had  in  the  meantime  been  elected 

Mr.  Atwater's  ideas  of  education  were  not  theories  alone 
but  he  aimed  to  put  them  into  practice.  Naturally  he  began  in 
his  own  town,  Circleville.  In  1823  he  presided  at  a  meeting  of 
the  citizens  who  had  met  to  elect  school  trustees.  He  himself  was 
elected  to  the  board  and  it  is  to  be  expected  that  he  was  the  most 
active  member.  The  duties  devolving  upon  these  trustees  were 
multiform.  They  included  the  examination  and  employment 
of  teachers,  erection  of  buildings  and  the  supervision  of  the 

It  was  about  this  time  that  Mr.  At  water  conceived  the  idea 
of  editing  a  paper  of  his  own.  It  was  to  be  published  in  Chilli- 
cothe  under  the  name  of  "The  Friend  to  Freedom."  In  a  notice 
published  in  a  Circleville  paper  the  editor  advanced  his  platform. 
The  paper  was  to  promote  the  best  interests  of  the  country,  in- 
ternal improvements  and  a  good  system  of  education  for  common 
schools.  It  would  contain  nothing  "unfriendly  to  religion  or 
morality,  and  modesty  will  find  in  it  nothing  to  condemn."  There 
were  to  be  essavs  both  literarv  and  scientific.  For  the  benefit  of 
the  people  living  beyond  the  mountains,"  the  editor  himself  who 
has  for  several  years  been  collecting  a  mass  of  information  on 
the  antiquities  and  natural  history  of  the  Western  states  will 
present  his  essays  on  these,  topics.  But  three  numbers  of  "The 
I'riend  to  Freedom"  were  ever  published.  It  failed  for  lack  of 
support.  For  this  failure  Mr.  Atwater  was,  to  use  his  own 
words,  "maligned  by  evil  disposed  persons."  His  financial  con- 
dition was  certainly  not  the  best,  for  in  a  short  time  the  sheriff 
levied  upon  his  personal  property  to  satisfy  a  creditor. 

The  presence  of  many  prehistoric  earthworks  at  Circleville 
was  partly,  at  least,  responsible  for  Mr.  At  water's  interest  in  that 
class  of  Antiquities  which  he  is  ])lcased  to  call  them.  Already 
in  1820  he  contributed  to  the  American  Antiquarian  Society  his 
observations.  In  1833  he  produced  a  volume  on  "Western  An- 
tiquities." This  book  contained  all  he  had  previously  written 
with  much  additional  matter.  There  is  no  doubt  that  he  knew 
more  on  this  subject  thian  any  other  man  of  his  time.  His  per- 
sonal knowledge  extended  over  many  years  of  investigation  from 

Caleb  Atu^ater.  261 

New  York  to  the  Tennessee  valley.  Many  of  the  places  he  per- 
sonally visited,  others  he  knew  only  by  what  he  could  glean 
secondhand.  Of  course  his  methods  would  not  bear  the  criticism 
of  modern  scientific  investigation.  Yet  his  theories  of  the  use 
for  which  the  various  earthworks  were  designed  tallies  very  well 
with  those  of  our  "up-to-date'*  archaeologists.  In  comparing  the 
generalized,  superficial  statements  of  Atwater  with  what  has 
more  recently  been  produced  we  find  that  many  who  followed 
him  in  point  of  time  have  also  trod  in  the  **beaten  paths.''  Be- 
sides the  descriptions  of  the  principal  earthworks  at  Newark, 
Glenford,  Marietta,  Circleville,  Paint  Creek,  Portsmouth,  Fort 
Ancient,  etc.,  maps  of  the  inclosures  are  also  presented.  They 
were  evidently  not  surveyed  yet  they  show  a  decided  degree  of 
accuracy.  Throughout  ^Ir.  Atwater's  descriptions  he  draws 
his  conclusions  from  his  knowledge  of  Roman  customs.  For 
instance  the  parallel  walls  at  Fort  Ancient  suggest  the  probability 
of  their  use  for  foot  races.  One  thing  Mr.  Atwater  did  do  for 
archtTologists  and  that  is  he.  furnished  descriptions  of  many 
mounds  that  were  destroyed  before  a  more  systematic  study 
of  them  began.  It  is  singular  that  the  Serpent  Mound  in  Adams 
county  is  not  mentioned.  Certainly  Mr.  Atwater  had  never 
heard  of  it  or  he  w^ould  have  included  it  in  his  descriptions. 
Yet  before  he  published  the  last  edition  of  his  work  it  is  definitely 
known  that  he  passed  within  a  few  miles  of  the  famous  "Snake." 
This  was  on  the  occasion  of  his  journey  to  Prairie  Du  Chien 
which  was  the  next  important  event  in  his  life. 

It  was  in  May,  1829,  that  President  Jackson  commissioned 
Caleb  Atwater  as  one  of  three  commssioners  to  treat  with  the 
Winnebago  Indians  concerning  some  land  near  the  junction  of 
the  Wisconsin  and  the  Mississii)pi  rivers.  The  start  for  Prairie 
Du  Chien  was  made  at  once.  Mr.  Atwater  in  a  book  published 
in  1 83 1  gives  a  minute  account  of  this  trip.  His  deceptions  of 
the  mode  of  travel  and  the  towns  and  country  through  which 
lie  passed  makes  intensely  interesting  reading.  His  first  descrip- 
tion is  of  Maysville,  Kentucky.  After  dilating  upon  the  progress 
of  the  town  and  the  hospitality  and  general  intelligence  of  the 
people,  he  concludes  by  wondering  why  map  makers  had  never 
placed  upon  their  maps  such  an  important  place. 

262  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Cincinnati  with  30,000  people  receives  encouragement  to  the 
effect  that  it  will  easily  reach  50,000;  that  it  will  continue  to  be 
the  largest  town  in  the  state  unless  surpassed  by  Zanesville  or 
Cleveland.  A  four  days'  stay  in  Louisville  awaiting  a  boat 
gave  Mr.  Atwater  ample  time  for  a  lengthy  "write  up"  of  the 
town.  He  went  into  details.  After  giving  some  of  the  history, 
he  proceeded  to  tell  the  plan  of  the  streets,  the  nature  of  the 
buildings,  churches,  schools,  theater,  market  houses,  and  then 
at  some  length,  the  facilities  for  manufacturing.  He  appended 
a  list  of  the  various  steamboats  and  tonnage  of  each.  He  recog- 
nized Kentucky  chivalry  and  hospitality  and  believed  the  state 
to  have  been  unjustly  slandered. 

The  trip  down  the  Ohio  and  up  the  Mississippi  opened  a 
new  world  to  our  traveler.  For  the  first  time  he  realized  the  great 
possibilities  of  the  West.  He  anticipated  the  building  of  rail- 
roads and  with  words  that  are  almost  prophetic  says : 

''When  locomotive  engines  are  brought  to  the  perfection, 
experience  and  ingenuity  will  soon  bring  them,  goods  and  pas- 
sengers can  pass  between  the  two  seas  in  ten  days.  That  this 
will  be  the  route  to  China  within  fifty  rears  scarcely  admits  a 
doubt.  From  sea  to  sea  a  dense  population  would  dwell  along 
the  whole,  enliven  the  prospect  with  their  industry  and  animate 
the  scene.  The  mind  of  the  patriot  is  lost  in  wonder  and  admira- 
tion when  he  looks  through  the  vista  of  futurity  at  the  wealth, 
the  grandeur  and  glory  that  certainly  await  our  posterity." 

"As  he  looks  upon  the  map  of  this  country  where  is  the 
man  whose  mind  is  not  expanded  with  the  extent  of  this  vast 
national  domain?  How  is  the  heart  of  the  patriot,  the  statesman, 
the  philanthropist,  the  lover  of  liberty  filled  with  joy  unutterable, 
when  he  looks  with  prophetic  eye  over  this  vast  field  of  future 
happiness,  grandeur  and  glory,  yet  in  reserve  for  the  human  race? 
Here  one  language  will  prevail  over  a  great  extent  of  country 
and  be  used  by  over  three  hundred  millions  of  people." 

A  part  of  Caleb  Atwater's  prophecy  has  been  fulfilled.  It 
was  one  of  his  characteristics  that  wherever  he  went  his  mind 
penetrated  into  the  potentialities  of  the  region.  He  saw  the 
possibilities  of  commerce,  agriculture  and  manufacturing  and  in 
his  judgment  he  was  scarcely  ever  mistaken. 

Caleb  Atwater.  263 

He  remained  in  St.  Louis  for  three  weeks.  During  this 
time  he  was  acquainting  himself  with  his  duties  as  Indian  Com- 
missioner. He  also  succeeded  in  getting  well  acquainted  with 
St.  Louis.  One  thing  in  particular  attracted  his  attention ;  it 
was  the  democratic  spirit  of  its  people.  This  was  so  noticeable 
that  he  alluded  to  it  in  these  words,  **There  was  but  one  tinner 
in  the  city  and  he  was  noticed  —  taken  into  the  best  society  in  the 
place  and  was  making  a  fortune  by  his  business.'' 

Of  his  trip  up  the  Mississippi  he  has  much  to  say  of  the 
country  on  both  sides  of  the  stream.  His  description  is  minute. 
He  expatiates  upon  the  beauty  and  fertility  of  the  country.  The 
trip  was  a  long  tedious  one  and  he  had  plenty  of  time  at  his 
command  for  observation. 

Arriving  at  Prairie  Du  Chien  the  work  of  treating  with  the 
Indians  began.  Several  weeks  were  taken  to  reach  a  satisfac- 
tory agreement.  On  the  ist  of  August,  1829,  the  final  treaty  was 
concluded.  The  tribes  interested  were  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas, 
Pottawotamies  and  Winnebagoes.  The  land  ceded  to  the  national 
government  contained  about  eight  million  acres,  and  extended 
from  the  upper  end  of  Rock  Island  to  the  mouth  of  the  Wis- 
consin—  from  latitude  41°  30'  to  latitude  43°  15'. 

Mr.  Atwater  in  his  book  then  proceeded  to  give  his  impres- 
sions of  the  Indians.  He  discusses  the  red  man  from  every  point 
of  view.  He  inquires  into  his  origin ;  he  notices  his  language, 
customs  and  government ;  he  looks  at  his  social  status  and  makes 
some  interesting  remarks  upon  family  life.  The  character  and 
influence  of  Indian  women  receives  a  fair  share  of  attention. 
He  discovers  a  propensity  for  gambling  among  the  braves  but  he 
admires  the  eloquence  and  the  poetic  instincts  of  the  forest  chil- 
dren. He  recognizes  that  there  is  an  Indian  problem  and  goes 
into  a  full  discussion  of  the  subject.  The  final  extinction  of  the 
red  man  he  suggests  can  be  prevented  only  by  making  him  a 
civilized  man.  The  Indian  must  be  taught  to  build  houses, 
to  give  up  the  chase  and  cultivate  the  earth.  The  Indian  youth 
should  be  taught  the  mechanical  arts  and  schools  for  that  purpose 
should  be  established. 

964  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

Mr.  Atwater  was  a  deep  sympathizer  with  the  Indian  and 
he  already  saw  in  the  treatment  accorded  him  that  "Century  of 

"As  the  tide  of  emigration  rolls  westward  our  red  brethren 
will  be  driven  from  river  to  river,  from  mountain  to  mountain, 
until  they  finally  perish.  My  heart  is  sick  of  the  idea.  My  poor 
veto  against  the  wasteful  and  villainous  expenditure  of  millions 
of  dollars  under  the  hypocritical  pretensions  of  benevolence  and 
piety  and  even  charity  is  of  no  avail  against  the  united  efforts 
of  a  corrupt  set  of  men  who  contrive  to  plunder  the  treasury 
every  winter  under  the  solemn  sanctions  of  law.  I  feel  ashamed 
of  my  country  and  I  conclude  by  reminding  our  rulers  and  our 
people  that  the  red  man  is  on  our  borders  —  that  he  is  wholly 
in  our  power,  either  to  save  or  destroy  him  —  that  the  whole 
civilized  world  of  this  day  and  all  posterity.  wHl  judge  us  im- 

A  Dictionary  of  the  Sioux  language  occupies  some  space  in 
the  book.  Whether  this  was  the  result  of  original  investigation 
on  the  part  of  the  writer,  can  not  be  determined.  Certainly  it 
forms  an  interesting  chapter  on  the  Indian  language. 

Mr.  Atwater's  return  trip  to  Ohio  is  described  with  the 
same  degree  of  care  as  his  outward  journey.  From  Prairie  Du 
Chien  to  Louisville  he  traveled  overland.  Sickness  overtook  liim 
and  he  was  obliged  to  halt  for  several  days.  His  conveyance 
was  by  light  wagon  and  by  stage.  Nothing  along  his  route  re- 
mained unnoticed.  The  Wisconsin  snow-birds,  the  prairie  hen, 
the  Dodgeville  lead  mines,  the  pure  atmosphere,  the  falls  in  the 
streams  where  mills  might  be  erected,  the  soil,  the  species  of  fish, 
the  flowers,  the  trees,  —  all  are  jotted  into  the  omnipresent  note- 

Of  the  future  of  ll.e  country  Mr.  Atwater  was  optimistic. 
In  speaking  of  the  Northwest  he  says :  '*This  vast  region  in  its 
present  state  is  of  little  value,  but  the  time  will  certainly  arrive 
when  it  will  be  covered  with  farms  and  animated  bv  countless 
millions  of  domestic  animals.  There  golden  harvests  will  wave 
before  every  breath  of  air  that  moves  ©ver  its  surface ;  there 
great  and  splendid  cities  will  rear  their  tall  and  glittering  spires 
and  millions  of  human  beings  will  live  and  move  and  display 

Caleb  Ativater,  265 

talents  that  will  ennoble  man  and  virtues  that  will  adorn  and 
render  him  happy." 

"The  longest,  the  most  durable  and  the  best  rivers  in  the 
world  intersect  and  pass  through  this  country,  standing  on 
whose  banks  there  will  yet  be  some  of  the  largest  cities  in  the 
world.  Comparatively  speaking  but  few  persons  in  the  world 
have  ever  beheld  this  country.  No  tongue  and  no  author  have 
described  it.  but  it  is  there.'* 

From  Louisville  to  Cincinnati  the  trip  was  quickly  made 
by  boat  and  according  to  his  own  statement  he  was  glad  once 
again  to  set  foot  on  Ohio  soil.  Anxious  to  get  to  Circleville, 
he  started  at  once  and  completed  the  journey  in  three  days.  His 
route  lay  by  way  of  Lebanon,  Wilmington  and  Washington.  The 
fertility  of  the  soil  and  hospitality  of  the  people  of  the  Miami 
valley  are  not  forgotten.  Interested  ever  in  education,  he  informs 
us  that  there  is  a  University  at  Oxford,  rising  in  reputation  and 
usefulness  but  sadly  irk  need  of  funds.  Then  he  pauses  long 
enough  to  say,  *'There  is  an  unreasonable  prejudice  against  our 
colleges.  They  are  considered  by  ignorant  people  as  nurseries 
of  aristocracy;  whereas  they  are  exactly  the  reverse.  These 
colleges  furnish  competent  teachers  to  our  common  schools,  lo- 
cated near  every  poor  man's  door  in  which  his  children  can  be 
well  educated.  The  college  is  the  poor  man's  best  friend  and  I 
regret  that  they  are  not  looked  upon  as  such  by  every  man  in 

After  visiting  a  few  days  with  his  family  at  Circleville,  Mr. 
Atwater  started  for  Washington  to  deliver  his  treaty  to  the 
President.  The  first  day  he  traveled  to  Zanesville  by  way  of 
Lancaster  and  Somerset,  a  distance  of  fifty-eight  miles.  He 
stopped  long  enough  to  discuss  the  geology  of  the  country  and 
then  hastened  on  to  Wheeling  toward  Washington.  At  a  tav- 
ern he  was  conipelled  to  remain  some  time.  This  gave  him  an 
opportunity  to  present  his  views  on  the  Allegheny  mountains 
which  he  proceeded  to  do  at  some  length  and  since  he  had 
ample  time  and  for  fear  he  might  forget  it  he  even  discoursed 
on  the  Rocky  mountains  also. 

Upon  his  arrival  in  Washington  he  waits  upop  General  Jack- 
son and  breakfasts  with  the  President  and  his  family.    For  several 

266  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

weeks  he  is  in  frequent  consultation  with  the  President  a;ul  the 
Secretary  of  War.  The  details  of  the  treaty  were  gone  over 
apparently  to  the  satisfaction  of  both  officials.  This  was  in 
October.  The  treaty  could  not  be  ratified  until  after  the  con- 
vening of  the  Senate  in  December.  During  this  interim  a  visit 
was  made  to  Philadelphia.  Here  many  prominent  citizens  were 
met.  They  impressed  themselves  most  favorably  upon  the  visitor 
for  he  can  hardly  find  words  sufficient  and  adjectives  strong 
enough  to  express  his  ideas  in  the  superlative  degree. 

By  the  opening  of  Congress  Mr.  Atwater  had  returned  to 
Washington  and  was  present  at  the  first  session  of  the  Senate. 
A  committee  was  elected  to  consider  his  treaty  and  he  met 
with  it  twice  a  week.  A  most  favorable  report  was  made.  Then 
the  Senate  confirmed,  the  President  approved  and  Mr.  Atwater's 
official  life  was  closed.  Before  returning  to  Ohio  he  attended 
the  first  levee  of  President  Jackson.  With  much  Naizrte  he 
tells  how  the  Mrs.  Donelson  and  Miss  Easton  of  the  President's 
family  and  Mrs.  Eaton,  wife  of  the  Secretary  of  War  were 
dressed  "in  American  calico  and  wore  no  ruffles  and  no  orna- 
ments of  any  sort." 

It  appears  that  this  dress  was  donned  out  of  deference  to 
the  western  idea  of  simplicity,  for  Mr.  Atwater  continues,  "As 
a  western  man,  I  confess,  I  could  not  help  feeling  proud  that 
they  were  born  and  wholly  educated  in  the  west.  The  simplicity 
of  their  dress,  their  unaffected  manners,  their  neatness,  their  ease, 
grace  and  dignity,  carried  all  before  them.  The  diamonds 
sparkled  in  vain  at  that  levee  and  western  unadorned  neatness, 
modesty  and  beauty  bore  off  the  palm  with  ease." 

'*Our  western  ladies  had  felt  some  uneasiness  before  the  levee, 
about  the  result,  but  their  friends  of  the  other  sex,  assured  them, 
v'orrectly  enough,  that  republican  simplicity  would  triumph  over 
all  the  crosses  and  diamonds  that  the  east  would  lirinq^  into  the 
field.  \o  time  and  no  circumstance  can  ever  efface  that  niq^ht 
from  my  memory.  It  was  a  splendid  triumph  for  the  Mississippi 

It  was  in  1838  that  Mr.  Atwater  published  his  History  of 
Ohio.  He  had  planned  the  work  twenty  years  before  and  nmch 
of  the  material  was  gathered  when  first  originated.     It  was  his 

Caleb  Atwater.  2ldl 

intention  to  publish  the  work  in  two  volumes  but  the  author 
evidently  changed  his  mind.  The  book  was  well  received  and 
hearty  encouragement  was  given  it  by  the  best  people  of  the 
day.  Among  the  original  subscribers  are  to  be  found  state 
and  county  officials,  ex-governors  and  men  of  all  professions. 

It  is  gratifying  to  see  how  well  the  geological  formations  are 
treated,  when  it  is  remembered  how  limited  was  the  accurate 
information  obtainable.  The  first  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio  was 
published  in  1837,  but  since  much  of  Mr.  Atwater's  manuscript 
had  been  written  years  before  publication  it  is  quite  probable 
that  what  he  has  to  say  of  Ohio  Geology  are  his  own  deductions 
from  his  own  observations.  In  the  treatment  of  this  part  of  his 
work  he  is  almost  wholly  utilitarian.  It  is  Economical  Geol- 
ogy that  he  discusses.  What  practical  use  can  be  made  of  a 
stratum  of  sand  rock  or  clay  or  limestone  is  the  important  ques- 
tion. He  saw  the  possibilities  of  Ohio  River  Freestone  and 
Scioto  Valley  Limestone  for  building  purposes ;  the  iron  ores 
of  southern  Ohio,/the  clays  of  Zanesville  and  the  coal  fields  of 
the  Hocking  Valley. 

The  rivers  of  Ohio  are  described  from  an  agricultural  and 
a  commercial  viewpoint.  He  utters  a  faint  prophecy  of  the 
Monroe  county  oil  fields  by  observing  that  on  Duck  Creek  in 
boring  for  salt  water,  petroleum  was  found;  that  many  such 
springs  were  reported  to  be  in  existence  and  that  the  oil  was 
being  burned  in  lamps  and  used  for  lubricating  purposes  in 
manufactories.  The  chief  utilization  of  the  product,  however 
was  the  bottling  of  "Seneca  Oil"  or  "American  Oil"  and  selling 
it  for  medicinal  uses.  Mr.  Atwater  thinks  that  if  some  "water 
doctor"  would  take  hold  of  it  a  large  fortune  would  be  made 
as  a  resuh.  Subsequent  history  in  many  ways  is  a  fulfillment  of 
Mr.  Atwater's  prophecy. 

The  fauna  ard  flora  of  the  state  are  not  neglected.  Especi- 
ally is  the  botanical  feature  well  discussed.  Not  only  are  the 
native  trees  and  their  habitat  pointed  out  but  their  preservation 
is  urged  for  economical  purpose*;.  It  is  interesting  to  note  in 
these  days  when  the  cry  of  "Save  the  forests"  is  heard  on  every 
hand,  that  our  author  raised  a  warning  voice  almost  seventy 
years  ago.    Mr.  Atwater's  position  on  the  question  is  undoubtedly 

268  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 

the  correct  one  and  had  his  words  been  heeded,  there  would 
not  now  be  that  periodical,  sentimental  wail  of  "Save  the  forests" 
when  there  are  no  forests  to  save. 

"Most  of  our  timber  trees  will  soon  be  gone  and  no  means 
are  yet  resorted  to,  to  restore  the  forests  which  we  are  destroying. 
In  many  places  even  now  woodlands  are  more  valuable  than 
cleared  fields.  It  is  true  that  in  the  northwest  part  of  the  state 
we  have  vast  forests  yet,  but  it  is  equally  true,  that  their  majesty 
is  bowing  before  the  woodchopper's  axe,  and  will  soon  be  gone. 
We  do  not  regret  the  disappearance  of  the  native  forests,  because 
by  that  means  more  human  beings  can  be  supported  in  the  state 
but  in  the  older  parts  of  Ohio  means  should  even  now  begin  to 
restore  trees  enough  for  fences,  fuel  and  timber,  for  the  house- 
builder  and  joiner." 

Unlike  Irving  who  begins  his  History  of  New  York  with 
the  creation  of  the  world,  Atwater  begins  his  with  La  Salle's 
discovery  of  the  Ohio  River.  The  treatment  accorded  to  the  vari- 
ous events  down  to  the  close  of  the  War  of  18^2  is  full  and  vivid. 
His  conclusions  on  the  Dunmore  War  do  not  vary  greatly  from 
what  more  recent  writers  have  concluded.  The  land  claims,  the 
first  settlements,  the  organization  and  admission  of  the  state,  the 
various  treaties  with  the  Indians,  come  in  for  their  share  of  atten- 
tion. Ohio's  attitude  and  share  in  the  second  war  with  England 
is  especially  well  handled.  Mr.  Atwater  was  a  genuine  Ohioan. 
He  was  not  a  Jingo  by  any  means  but  he  loved  his  state  and 
believed  in  its  citizens.  He  knew  what  every  other  fair  minded 
student  of  history  knows,  that  the  War  of  1812  meant  more  to 
the  people  of  Ohio  than  to  the  people  of  the  cast.  That  while 
the  locked  doors  protected  the  participants  in  tl^e  Hartford  Con- 
vention, there  was  little  protection  to  the  frontiersmen,  from  the 
tomahawk  and  firebrand  in  the  hands  of  a  ruthless  savage, 
urged  and  abetted  by  English  influence.  It  is  for  this  reason  no 
doubt,  that  Ohio's  part  in  that  war  is  described  with  such  minute- 
ness by  Mr.  Atwater. 

The  period  subsequent  to  the  War  of  1812  is  passed  over 
hastily  except  those  times  when  the  schools  and  'Internal  im- 
provement" agitations  were  at  their  height.  The  opening  of  the 
Ohio  Canal  was  certainly  a  great  event  in  the  opinion  of  our 

Caleb  Atwater,  269 

author.  Governor  Clinton  of  New  York  had  been  invited  to 
Ohio  and  his  journey  through  the  state  was  a  continual  ovation. 
Mr.  Atwater  has,  most  probably,  given  us  the  best  and  most 
authentic  account  of  the  ceremonies.  Interested  as  he  was,  and 
also  active  in  urging  the  digging  of  the  canal,  there  surely  was 
no  one  better  qualified  to  leave  the  people  of  Ohio  its  history. 

The  book  closes  with  a  brief  account  of  the  condition  of  Ohio 
at  that  time.  Schools  and  colleges  with  their  respective  faculties^ 
churches,  with  the  growth  of  religious  denominations,  trade  and 
commerce,  banks  and  banking,  newspapers,  societies  and  cities 
and  towns  are  described  in  the  most  optimistic  manner. 

On  the  question  of  slavery  Mr.  Atwater's  attitude  was  some- 
thing of  a  compromise.  He  thought  it  impracticable  and  impo- 
litic to  interfere  with  the  institution.  He  believed  that  slavery 
ought  to  exist  at  least,  a  hundred  years.  Yet  slavery  had  passed 
away  before  he  himself  died. 

It  were  fitting  after  Mr.  Atwater's  long  career  as  agitator  for 
a  public  school  system  or  the  establishment  of  one,  that  his  last 
literary  work  should  be  done  along  the  line  of  his  favorite  theme. 
It  was  an  appropriate  climax.  At  the  time  of  its  writing,  1841, 
our  common  schools  had  been  established.  Yet  there  was  much 
to  be  done  for  their  betterment.  In  "An  Essay  on  Education,'* 
a  plea  is  made  for  efficiency ;  better  school  buildings,  better 
teachers  and  broader  curricula  are  demanded.  His  ideal  of  what 
a  school  ought  to  be  was  years  in  advance  of  his  time.  His 
essay  makes  good  pedagogical  reading  even  at  this  time. 

The  subject  of  music  he  places  as  one  of  the  requirements  of 
a  complete  education.  He  argues  for  its  place  in  the  course  of 
study  both  as  a  cultural  and  utilitarian  branch.  He  believes  in 
the  education  of  woncn  on  tl:e  same  equality  as  men;  that  the 
future  wives  and  ni(-thers  should  be  conversant  not  only  with  the 
elementary  studies  but  with  the  higher  education  as  well.  He 
is  a  champion  of  co-education.  He  believes  that  women  should 
l)e  trained  for  their  duties  as  well  as  men  and  that  this  training 
should  be  the  same  in  kind. 

He  pleads  for  better  teachers.  He  emphasizes  the  import- 
ance of  a  teacher  in  a  country  and  asks  for  a  higher  degree  of 
professionalism.     He  has  little  sympathy  for  the  teacher  who 


270  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

makes  his  work  a  stepping  stone  to  something  else.  He  places  a 
high  moral  responsibility  upon  the  teacher.  He  wants  him  to  be 
an  example  for  good  in  a  community. 

He  goes  into  the  subject  of  text-books.  The  histories  in 
vogue  he  unmercifully  criticises.  He  asks  for  a  better  arranged 
text  and  then  goes  into  detail  on  the  value  of  history  as  a  school 
study.  His  reasons  breathe  the  highest  degree  of  patriotism. 
He  wants  the  rising  youth  to  know  how  our  nation  has  been  built 
and  the  fundamental  principles  underlying  our  government. 
He  thinks  that  the  books  ought  to  be  written  by  an  American  and 
that  American  should  be  Washington  Irving.  He  deplores  the 
lack  of  authenticity  in  our  geographies.  They  contain  such 
meagre  information  concerning  the  New  West.  Their  descrip- 
tions and  maps  arc  so  indefinite.  They  are  made  by  eastern  book 
makers  who  evidently  do  not  know  their  subjects,  for  they  speak 
of  ^'Missouri  Territory"  and  **other  districts"  in  a  vague  uncer- 
tain way. 

Another  argument  Mr.  Atwater  cites  for  popular  education 
is  adduced  from'  the  fact  of  the  foreign  immigration  to  our 
shores.  The  people  should  become  acquainted  with  American 
institutions.  He  speaks  in  a  commendatory  way  of  the  many 
Germans  and  Irish  who  were  then  settling  up  the  middle  west. 
They  were  the  kind  of  people  wanted  and  it  only  needed  the 
school  house  to  make  of  them  ideal  citizens  because  of  their  in- 
dustry and  thrift. 

Mr.  Atwater*s  essay  occupied  high  ground.  It  was  in  every 
way  worthy  of  the  man.  It  shows  him  to  be  of  broad  sympathies 
and  a  noble  nature.  While  it  was  not  the  most  popular  it  was 
certainly  the  best  thing  he  ever  wrote. 

Mr.  Atwater  was  an  admirer  of  the  classics.  His  writings 
show  a  thorough  acquaintance  with  both  the  Latin  and  the  Greek 
authors.  He  was  fon'I  of  quoting  from  them  and  his  allusions 
to  the  writers  of  antiquity  are  numerous. 

The  career  of  Caleb  Atwater  was  an  uneventful  one.  He 
worked  hard  for  others  and  he  deserves  to  be  remembered  for  it. 

He  was  the  father  of  six  sons  and  three  daughters,  all  of 
whom  are  dead,  except  his  youngest  daughter,  Lucy  Brown,  who 
lives  in  Indianapolis,  with  her  son,  an  Episcopalian  minister. 

Caleb  Atwater.  271 

He  died  at  the  home  of  a  daughter  in  Circleville  on  the  thir- 
teenth day  of  March,  1867.  He  had  been  a  familiar  character  in 
the  village  for  years,  yet  when  he  died  the  local  paper  barely  men- 
tioned the  event.  It  added,  however,  that  at  one  time  he  had  been 
a  prominent  citizen.  It  might  also  have  said,  and  said  it  truly, 
that  he  helped  to  give  their  city  its  first  scHool  and  their  state 
its  first  system  of  education. 

In  Ohio's  "Hall  of  Fame,"  let  us  place  the  name  of  Caleb 

New  Lexington,  Ohio,  April  25,  1905. 



[Paper  read  before  the  Fifth  Ohio  State  Conference,  Daughters 
of  the  American  Revolution,  held  at  Toledo,  October  29,  1903  — 

The  Iroquois  War  on  the  Shawanese  tribes  along  the  Ohio 
gave  white  men  in  1670  their  first  knowledge  of  that  river;  La 
Salle's  expedition  downits  waters  to  the  Falls  promptly  followed ; 
but  eleven  years  later,  when  he  stood  at  the  mouth  of  the  Missis- 
sippi and  took  possession  for  the  King  of  France  of  all  the  coun- 
trv  watered  bv  its  branches,  the  Ohio  was  closed  to  the  French 
by  Iroquois  hatred.  Before  many  years  by  the  same  enemies 
the  Shawanese  were  driven  out,  and  fled  east  and  south  of  the 

French  surveyors  and  traders  follow^  up  La  Salle's  explo- 
rations, but  they  made  no  attempt  to  form  settlements,  and  the 
Iroquois  sold  the  Ohio  country  to  the  English  in  utter  contempt 
of  other  claims. 

In  1750  the  Ohio  Company,  an  association  of  Virginia 
planters  and  English  merchants,  prepared  to  colonize  it  and  sent 
Christopher  Gist  to  cx])lore  it  and  report  on  the  l)cst  lands.  The 
Miamis  refused  to  allow  the  company  to  settle  north  of  the  Ohio, 
though  they  made  a  friendly  alliance  with  the  English.  Jealous 
of  this  friendship,  the  French  sent  Indian  allies,  who  surprised 
and  burnt  the  M*iami  towns,  including  an  English  stockade.  A 
chain  of  French  forts  was  then  built  from  Lake  Eric  through  the 
disputed  territory  to  the  Illinois.  The  result  was  the  French 
and  Indian  war  and  the  final  loss  of  this  region  by  F* ranee.  Before 
the  English  could  make  any  systematic  attempts  to  colonize,  they 
in  their  turn  were  compelled  to  transfer  their  title  to  the  Cnited 
States  after  the  Revolutionary  War. 

The  Americans  received  it  with  a  heavy  mortgage  in  the 
shape  of  its  savage  occupants.     This  they  endeavored  to  extin- 


Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names,  273 

guish ;  first,  by  a  second  purchase  of  the  Iroquois  claims  through 
conquest,  and  then  by  treaties  with  the  western  tribes. 

The  nation  of  the  Cat,  or  Eries,  had  ceased  to  exist  a  century 
before.  The  Lake  which  forms  our  northern  boundary,  a  county 
of  the  Reserve,  and  several  townships,  are  all  the  trace  of  them 
left  in  Ohio. 

The  Wyandots,  or  Hurons,  who  were  nearly  wiped  out  at  the 
same  time  by  the  same  foe,  the  Iroquois,  were  only  preserved 
from  extinction  by  absorption  among  their  kindred,  the  Tobacco 
Nation,  whose  tribes  were  the  ones  known  to  Ohio  as  Wyandots. 
The  United  States  acknowledged  their  claim  to  central  and  east- 
ern Ohio  and  compensated  them  for  it.  Fifty  years  before,  their 
chiefs  had  permitted  the  Shawanese  and  Delawares  to  come  out 
from  the  Potomac  and  from  Pennsylvania.  At  the  time  of  the 
treaty,  the  Miamis,  the  strongest  and  fiercest  of  the  western  tribes, 
who  had  held  undisputed  possession  from  the  Scioto  westward 
had  moved  back  to  the  Wabash  and  the  Miami  of  the  Lakes;  the 
Shawanese  were  occupying  their  deserted  towns  along  the  Sciotos 
and  the  Miamis;  the  Delawares  were  on  the  Muskingum,  while 
the  Wyandots  had  their  principal  villages  on  the  Sandusky. 

The  ease  and  frequency  with  which  Indian  towns  were  des- 
troyed and  rebuilt,  the  keenness  shown  in  the  selection  of  the 
sites,  and  the  general  tolerance  that  existed  among  the  tribes  in 
their  appreciation  of  a  common  danger  from  the  white  settle- 
ments, led  to  a  succession  and  juxtaposition  of  villages,  which 
creates  a  lack  of  correspondence  between  the  names  of  localities 
and  their  occupants.  There  is  hardly  an  important  town  in  the 
State  that  was  not  built  on  the  site  of  an  Indian  village,  though 
often  not  bearing  the  same  name  even  when  of  Indian  origin. 
rhus.  there  were  six  well-known  Chillicothe  towns  of  the  Shaw- 
piiesc;  but  our  Chillicothe  is  not  on  the  site  of  any,  though  in  a 
region  peopled  with  Indian  shades.  Thus,  also,  Christopher 
( iist  found  a  Wyandot  town  at  the  forks  of  the  Muskingum,  now 
Coshocton,  from  the  Delaware  word,  Goschachgunk.  He  found 
a  Delaware  village  at  the  "Standing  Stone"  called  Hock-hockin. 
On  a  map  of  the  time  it  is  called  "French  Margaret's  Town," 
from  the  daughter  of  that  strange,  forceful  character,  the  half- 
VoL  XIV.— 18. 

274  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

breed  interpreter,  Madame  Montour.  The  first  white  settlers, 
Pennsylvania  Dutch,  found  Shawanese  here,  and  two  towns  in 
full  swing,  Tarhe  town  and  Tobey  town;  but  they  built  a  third 
and  dubbed  it  New  Lancaster.  Piqua  is  on  the  site  of  the 
Lower  Piqua  town  of  the  Shawanese,  with  a  Miami  name.  The 
Pickaway  Plains  and  Pickaway  County  are  a  mis-spelling  of  the 
tribal  name. 

The  oldest  names  in  Ohio  are  borne  by  the  water-courses, 
and,  excepting  a  few  small  streams,  are  all  of  Indian  giving. 
Following  the  north  bank  of  the  "beautiful  river,"  (Seneca, 
Ohio,)  we  come  first  to  the  Mahoning,  "  at  the  Lick,"  with  its 
branches,  Shenango  and  the  Big  Bear.  Shenango  is  a  variation 
of  the  Iroquois  word  Yanangue,  "tobacco,"  and  comes  from 
Wyandot  occupation.  Indian  Cross  Creek,  now  Battle  Ground 
Run,  is  where  Buskirk*s  battle  was  fought  in  1793.  The  Mus- 
kingum is  Delaware  for  "elk's  eye,"  with  its  forks,  the  Tusca- 
rawas, "open  mouth,"  and  the  Walhonding,  or  "  White  Wo- 
man's Creek,"  for  the  first  white  woman  who  dwelt  in  this  wil- 
derness. She  was  Mary  Harris,  the  heroine  of  the  Deerfield, 
Mass.,  massacre  in  1704.  Ten  years  old  at  the  time,  she  was 
carried  captive  beyond  the  Ohio,  and  subsequently  married  a 
French  Mohawk.  Whitewoman's  town  stood  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Killbuck.  Mary  was  given  a  rival  in  a  second  white  captive, 
who  was  called  "  the  Newcomer."  One  morning  the  chief  was 
found  murdered  and  "  the  Newcomer  "  was  gone.  I  will  give 
you  Christopher  Gist's  account  of  her  end. 

"  December  26th,  1750. —  This  day  a  woman  who  had  been 
a  long  time  a  prisoner,  and  had  deserted  and  been  retaken  and 
brought  into  the  town  on  Christmas  Eve,  was  put  to  death  in 
the  following  manner  :  They  carried  her  without  the  town, 
and  let  her  loose,  and  when  she  attempted  to  run  away,  the 
persons  appointed  for  that  purpose  pursued  her  and  struck 
her  on  the  ear,  on  the  right  side  of  her  head,  which  beat  her 
flat  on  her  face  on  the  ground ;  they  then  struck  her  several  times 
through  the  back  with  a  dart  to  the  Heart,  scalped  her  and  threw 
the  scalp  in  the  air,  and  another  cut  off  her  head.  There  the 
dismal  spectacle  lay  till  the  evening,  and  then   Barney  Curran 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names,  275 

desired  leave  to  bury  her,  which  he  and  his  men  and  some  of  the 
Indians  did  just  at  dark." 

At  this  time  there  could  not  have  been  less  than  twentv 
white  traders  in  the  town.  Apparently  there  was  not  a  word 
of  protest.  Only  the  day  before,  the  Indians  had  begged  Gist 
to  remain  and  instruct  them  in  the  principles  of  Christianity 
and  baptize  their  children.  Newcomerstown,  in  Tuscarawas 
County,  is  a  reminder  of  this  poor  woman's  story. 

Killbuck,  after  the  noted  Delaware  chief,  and  Mohican 
are  branches  of  Walhonding.  The  latter  is  called  from  an 
emigration  of  Connecticut  Mohicans.  Their  old  enemies,  the 
Mingoes,  were  not  in  force  in  Ohio;  but  Mingo  Shaft,  a  coal 
mine  at  Steubenville,  and  Mingo  Junction,  three  miles  below, 
are  reminders  that  they  existed  here.  Jerome  Fork  of  the 
Mohican  was  the  home  of  a  French  trader  with  a  squaw  wife 
in  1812.  and  Jeromeville  helps  to  perpetuate  his  name.  Buck- 
horn  and  One  Leg,  from  a  one-legged  Indian,  are  branches 
of  the  Tuscarawas.  Licking  comes  from  the  salt  licks  in  its 
course :  the  Indian  form,  Pataskala,  is  now  applied  to  a  town 
The  importance  of  such  places  to  wild  animals  and  man  can- 
not be  overestimated ;  and  among  the  smaller  streams  Salt 
Licks  and  Sugar  Creeks  are  numerous,  with  Buck,  Bear,  Wolf, 
Beaver  and  Duck  Creeks  in  almost  as  great  number. 

In  Guernsey  County,  Leatherwood  Creek  is  from  a  bush 
with  tough,  stringy  bark  used  for  tying  bundles  of  furs ;  Yoker. 
from  the  Yoker  brush  that  grows  along  its  banks;  Little  and 
Big  Skull  Forks  mark  the  banks  where  a  pursuing  party  found 
the  remains  of  a  captive  mother  and  baby;  Indian  Camp 
Creek  is  from  a  deserted  camp;  there  is  a  town  of  the  same 

Next  comes  the  Hock-hocking,  "  the  neck  of  a  bottle,'* 
from  its  shape  at  the  falls.  Without  its  first  syllable,  it  is 
applied  to  a  county.  Of  its  branches,  Sunday  and  Monday 
Creeks  were  named  for  the  day  of  their  discovery  ;  and  Lost 
Run,  for  the  skeleton  of  a  lost  hunter  found  propped  against 
a  tree  with  his  rusty  gim  by  his  side.  Margaret's  Creek  bears 
the  name  of  Mrs.  Joseph  Snowden,  the  first  white  woman  in 
Athens  Countv. 

276  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Next,  the  Shade,  a  narrow,  gloomy  stream  of  darkest  mem- 
ory, for  many  an  Indian  war  party  bound  for  Kentucky  filed 
down  its  banks. 

Scioto  is  Wyandot  for  "deer ;"  the  two  Darby  Creeks  were 
named  for  an  Indian,  as  well  as  the  plains  watered  by  them. 
Mount  Logan,  once  the  home  of  the  great  Shawnee  chief,  is 
on  the  Paint.  Pea-pea  is  a  branch  of  Paint  Creek.  The 
first  settlers  found  an  old  beech  tree  by  a  creek  with  the 
initials  *'P.  P."  cut  in  it,  and  named  the  run,  the  meadows  drained 
by  it,  and  subsequently  a  township  in  Pike  County  from  the  inci- 
dent. Many  years  afterwards  its  origin  was  learned.  Some  emi- 
grants from  Redstone  Old  Fort  came  down  the  Ohio  and,  leaving 
their  families  at  its  mouth,  the  men  ascended  the  Scioto  to  ex- 
j)lore.  One  Peter  Patrick  cut  his  initials  on  the  tree.  Being  sur- 
prised by  Indians,  and  two  of  the  party  killed,  they  fled  down 
the  river,  and  pulled  out  with  their  families  for  Limestone,  Ken- 
tucky. If  there  is  any  descendant  of  Peter  Patrick  present,  I 
would  like  her  to  explain  just  why  her  ancestor  wanted  to  leave 
the  Redstone  settlement  the  verv  year  that  mv  ancestor  was  lav- 
ing  out  the  town  of  Brownsville  in  it. 

The  Big  and  Little  Miami  are  named  for  their  first  occu- 
pants— the  Ottawa  name  for  "mother ;"  and  the  Mad  River,  the 
largest  branch  of  the  Big  Miami,  from  its  torrent.  Tecumseh 
Hill  is  on  the  Mad.  Paddy's  Run,  on  the  Big  Miami,  is  in  honor 
of  an  Irishman  who  was  drowned  there. 

The  Maumee,  or  Onice,  anl  the  Auglaize  unite  to  form  the 
Great  Miami  of  the  Lakes;  the  first  name  is  now  api)lie(l  its  full 
length.  Auglaize  River  and  County  take  theirs  from  the  valley 
at  the  junction  called  by  the  French  traders  '*Au  (llaize,"  or 
"Grand  Cilaize,"  an  important  trading  center.  We  lia\e  adapted 
the  French,  "the  Au  Glaize,"  as  some  ])eo]:)lc  arc  determined  to 
adapt  the  name  "the  La  Grippe."  Blancliard's  ]'\^rk  of  the  Au- 
glaize (Indian,  "Tailors  River,")  is  from  a  domesticated  French- 
man who  plied  the  needle;  also  Mt.  Blanchard  and  several  Blanch- 
ard  townships ;  while  Tone-tog-a-nee.  ( Tontogany )  Creek  and  a 
town  in  Wood  County  are  from  an  Indian  chief ;  and  Alianaka, 
in  Van  Wert  County,  has  the  name  of  an  early  French  tribe  of 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.  277 

It  is  in  this  region  that  the  French  have  left  the  most  traces. 
Presque  Isle,  a  hill  on  the  Maumee,  and  Roche  de  Bout,  or  Stand- 
ing Stone,  are  noted  in  Wayne's  battle.  Turkey  Foot  rock 
where  a  brave  Indian  of  that  name  made  a  last  memorable  stand, 
still  shows  the  triangular  marks  scratched  in  his  memory.  Kel- 
Icy's  Island  was  once  "Cunningham's  Island,'*  from  a  French  (  !) 
trader.  Loramie's  store  was  a  noted  landmark  and  appeared  in 
all  the  treaties  after  1769.  It  was  fifteen  miles  up  Loramie*s 
Creek,  a  branch  of  the  Big  Miami.  The  stream,  the  post-office 
at  its  mouth  and  the  Reservoir  in  Shelby  County,  still  bear  his 
name.  Peter  Navarre,  a  French  trader  and  a  gentleman,  died 
some  thirty  years  ago  in  Toledo.  A  town  in  Stark  County  is 
named  for  him. 

Moving  east  along  the  Lake  we  come  to  the  venerable  San- 
dusky, "at  the  cold  water."  The  name  is  now  applied  to  a  river 
and  bay  and  the  county  containing  them.  Sandusky  on  the  Bay 
in  Erie  County,  is  built  on  the  site  of  an  Ottawa  town  called 
"Ogontz's  Place."  Its  distinguished  chief  is  now  remembered 
by  a  street  in  Sandusky,  several  civic  associations,  and  the  village 
of  Ogontz.  Upper  and  Lower  Sandusky  are  at  Indian  towns 
of  the  same  name  on  the  Sandusky  River;  the  latter  about  1849, 
in  a  burst  of  enthusiasm  for  our  great  explorer,  changed  its  name 
to  "Fremont."  The  Tymochtee,  "around  the  plains,"  and  the 
Scioto  surround  Wyandot  County.  Next,  Huron,  from  the 
French  for  "Wyandot,"  with  its  town  and  county;  Cold  Creek 
(Erie  County)  from  its  source  in  a  deep,  unfailing  limestone 
spring,  called  by  some  scholar  "the  Castalian  fount,'*  hence*  the 
town  of  Castalia  close  by  it.  Vermillion  River  is  from  the  red 
paint  the  Indians  obtained  here,  with  Vermillion  at  its  mouth.  It 
has  retained  its  obsolete  spelling.  The  Black  River  is  from  its 
deep  romantic  gorge  crowned  with  hemlock ;  while  at  its  mouth 
the  "Black  River  Settlement,"  next  "Charleston,"  is  now  "Lo- 
rain," from  the  countv. 

We  next  reach  the  Cuyahoga  or  "Crooked  River,"  whose 
source  is  farther  north  than  its  mouth.  The  county  and  the 
village  of  Cuyahoga  Falls  are  named  from  the  river.  The 
name  of  Chagrin  River  is  older  than  the  various  explanations 
of  its  oriein.     Chagrin,  at  it>  moulh     is    now    "  Willoughby." 

278  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

with  Chagrin  Falls  farther  up.  The  Grand  River  was  called 
Sheauga,  or  "Raccoon,"  by  the  Indians,  hence,  Geauga  County ; 
Conneaut,  "many  fish,"  and  lastly,  Ashtabula,  "fish,"  River,  Town 
and  County. 

The  savages  generally  had  stood  by  the  English  during  the 
Revolution,  and  were  no  mean  foes  to  be  reckoned  with  along 
the  border,  and  in  all  military  movements  towards  the  west.  The 
galling  aggressions  on  the  settlements  south  of  the  Ohio,  by  the 
Shawanese,  led  to  successive  expeditions  from  Pennsylvania  and 
Kentucky  which  repeatedly  destroyed  their  towns  on  the  Miamis 
and  the  Mad  River  and  in  the  Scioto  Valley.  Such  terrible  ven- 
geance was  exacted  that  the  region  earned  the  name  of  "the 
Miami  Slaughter  House."  The  most  noted  leaders  of  these  ex- 
peditions, Generals  Clark  and  Logan,  are  honored  by  counties 
near  the  scenes  of  their  exploits. 

Two  of  the  Pennsylvania  expeditions  were  less  justifiable. 
One  under  Col.  Williamson,  attacked  the  Moravian  missions  on 
the  Tuscarawas  and  murdered  in  cold  blood  94  unarmed  Chris- 
tian Indians,  non-combatants,  and  half  of  them  women  and  chil- 
dren. The  same  summer  a  second  expedition  under  Cols.  Craw- 
ford and  Williamson,  crossed  the  Ohio  with  the  same  end  in  view. 
Finding  the  villages  deserted,  they  attempted  to  follow  the  refu- 
gees to  their  new  homes  on  the  Sandusky,  but  were  surprised  by 
overwhelming  numbers,  and  after  a  fierce  battle  retreated.  The 
Indians  pursued,  killing  all  stragglers.  Col.  Crawford  was  taken 
prisoner  by  a  Delaware  chief,  carried  back  to  a  Delaware  town 
on  the  Tymochtee,  and  there  burned  with  the  most  horrible  tor- 
tures that  fiendish  ingenuity  could  devise.  Col.  Crawford's  high 
character  and  his  terrible  fate  have  relieved  his  memory 
from  the  obloquy  that  a  successful  exj)e(lition  would  have  brought 
upon  it.  The  place  where  he  was  taken  prisoner  is  within  the 
former  limits  of  the  county  that  bears  his  name. 

As  the  facts  became  known  with  regard  to  the  first  ex|)edi- 
tion,  public  sentiment  demanded  compensation  to  the  Moravians 
and  their  converts.  Congress  gave  them  a  large  tract  of  land 
on  the  Tuscarawas,  and  their  villages  were  rebuilt.  There  are 
still  some  Moravians  at  tlie  little  tovvii  of  (hiadenhutten,  "tents  of 
grace,"  but  the  other  towns  and  the  Indians  are  gone. 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.  279 

By  the  first  treaty  with  the  Ohio  Indians  at  the  close  of  the 
Revolution  the  boundary  line  ran  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga south  to  Fort  Laurens  on  the  Tuscarawas,  west  to  Loramie's 
store  near  the  Big  Miami,  along  the  Portage  to  the  Maumee  and 
down  it  to  its  mouth.  The  country  south  and  east  of  this  line  com- 
prised  two-thirds  of  the  present  State,  and  was  erected  into  Wash- 
ington County.  The  original  designation  of  the  entire  region 
was  the  "territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio;"  but  when  it  was  di- 
vided  into  two  territorial  governments  the  first  settled  portion 
(Ohio)  received  the  name  of  honor  which  the  State  was  proud 
to  keep. 

The  next  step  was  to  clear  off  the  claims  of  the  old  colo- 
nies. New  York  surrendered  hers ;  Virginia  also,  except  a  reseri- 
vation  between  the  Scioto  and  the  Little  Miami  for  bounties  for 
her  Continental  troops,  in  case  the  State  lands  in  Kentucky  should 
not  hold  out.  Connecticut  reserved  the  property  in  3.500,000 
acres,  but  surrendered  the  jurisdiction. 

Then  was  passed  the  ordinance  of  1787,  that  greatest  of 
charters  of  liberty,  and  immediately  thereafter  the  New  England 
Ohio  Company  purchased  1,500,000  acres  of  land  on  the  Ohio 
River  from  the  Muskingum  west,  and  the  black  canvas-topped 
wagon  started  for  the  Ohio  country.  April  7th,  1788,  the  emi- 
grants landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum  River,  pinned  a 
code  of  laws  for  the  colony  to  a  tree,  and  named  the  settlement 
Marietta,  after  Marie  Antoinette,  one  of  the  last  acts  of  rever- 
ence vouchsafed  that  unhappy  queen. 

Another  large  tract  lying  to  the  west  was  contracted  for  at 
the  same  time  and  given  to  the  Scioto  Land  Company,  who  un- 
dertook to  sell  surplus  shares  in  France  in  advance  of  payment. 
It  was  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  terror ;  many  of  the  middle 
and  upper  classes  were  glad  to  emigrate  to  a  romantic  wilderness, 
a  nobler  Bois  du  Boulogne — there  were  no  savages  marked  on 
the  advertisement  maps.  About  200  carvers  and  gilders,  wig- 
makers,  jewellers  and  gentlemen,  with  a  very  few  farmers,  landed 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto.  Between  incompetence  and  fraud  the 
company  failed,  and  the  settlers  lost  both  money  and  lands,  be- 
coming reduced  to  absolute  penury.  Some  years  later  from  a 
sense  of  national  pride,  Congress  gave  them  a  portion  of  their 

280  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

tract ;  but  they  gradually  scattered  or  perished  and  have  left  few 
descendants  in  that  region.  Gallipolis»  the  first  settlement,  with 
Gallia  County,  are  all  the  names  left. 

But  before  Gallipolis,  the  second  group  of  settlements  was 
made  at  Columbia,  Cincinnati  and  North  Bend,  at  the  most 
northerly  bend  of  the  river.  Judge  Symmes,  of  New  Jersey,  laid 
out  the  last  as  "Symmes  City,"  but  nobody  paid  attention  to  that, 
and  Cleves,  in  Hamilton  County,  is  his  only  namesake.  Cincin- 
nati was  originally  *'Losantiville,"  a  truly  American  hodge-podge 
of  Greek,  Latin  and  French  for  **the  city  opposite  the  mouth"  of 
the  Licking  River  in  Kentucky.  The  next  year,  to  please  Gover- 
nor St.  Clair,  who  was  a  member  of  the  order  of  the  Cincinnati, 
the  name  was  changed.  The  patriotic  enthusiasm  of  the  early 
christeners  has  been  somewhat  curbed  by  the  general  post  office 
which  has  limited  the  number  of  towns  of  the  same  name.  Still 
there  is  Washington  Court  House,  Washington,  Washington ville, 
and  -burg.  New,  Mount  and  Fort  Washington,  and  finally  Mt. 
Vernon.  In  a  lesser  degree  the  other  Revolutionary  favorites 
have  been  honored.  Fortunately  the  national  authorities  cannot 
interfere  with  our  townships,  and  half  of  them  in  each  of  the 
southern  counties  are  the  same.  Patriot,  Liberty  Center,  Union, 
town  and  county,  with  its  variations  by  compass  and  in  com- 
pounds ;  several  Columbias,  and  Columbus  laid  out  the  day  war 
was  declared  against  Great  Britain  in  1812,  all  attest  the  same 
spirit.  Of  the  counties  formed  before  I833,  thirty-three  were 
named  for  Revohitionary  heroes,  almost  all  generals,  many  of 
whom  had  direct  relations  with  Ohio;  while  the  war  of  1812  is 
represented  by  nine  more,  all  but  Jackson  winning  their  laurels 
within  our  borders.  Meigs,  Lucas  and  Morrow  were  early  gov- 
ernors ;  Vinton  was  a  distinguished  Ohio  statesman,  and  Noble 
honored  its  first  settler  regardless  of  the  lack  of  a  national  repu- 

The  Virginia  reservation  comprised  the  greater  part  of  thir- 
teen modern  counties.  The  first  settlers  naturally  were  from 
Kentucky  and  X'irginia,  Col.  Xathanicl  Massie,  with  a  party  of 
Kentuckians,  making  the  first  permanent  settlement  at  Manches- 
ter on  the  river  twelve  miles  above  Maysville.  The  region  is 
under  great  obligations  to  Massie  for  his  enterprise,  energy  and 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.  281 

daring  in  surveys  and  settlements;  but  its  appreciation  on  the 
map  is  only  shown  by  Massie's  Creek,  and  Massie  township,  in 
Warren  County.  Such  names  as  WilHamsburg,  Point  Pleasant, 
Bainbridge,  Frankfort,  Lynchburg  and  Jamestown, -all  speak  of 
their  origin ;  while  scattered  through  the  State  are  Richmond, 
Alexandria,  Loudonville,  Moorefield,  and  several  Court  Houses 
that  have  a  pleasant  "Faginny"  twang.  There  is  a  touch  of  ro- 
mance in  the  naming  of  Bowling  Green  shown  by  a  grizzled  old 
mail-carrier  who  had  carried  mails  between  Kentucky  and  Tenn- 
essee  in  1802;  thirty-seven  years  later  he  was  on  the  line  between 
Findlay  and  Bellefontaine.  A  little  settlement  further  on  drew  up 
a  petition  for  a  post  office,  but  could  think  of  no  appropriate 
name.  The  postman,  happening  to  ride  up,  learned  of  the  diffi- 
culty and,  seizing  a  glass  of  cider,  he  waved  it  from  north  to  south 
— ^''Here's  to  Bowling  Green!'*  A  green  clearing  in  the  forest 
made  by  an  army  encampment  in  181 2,  made  the  Kentucky  name 
all  the  more  fitting. 

The  Government  did  its  best  to  protect  its  infant  colonies. 
Forts  Harmar,  Finney  and  Washington  were  built  along  the  Ohio 
River.  The  savages,  paid  and  armed  by  the  British,  committed 
constant  outrages  on  the  settlements.  Col.  Hardin,  sent  on  a 
mission  of  peace  to  them,  was  murdered  where  the  town  of  Har- 
din now  stands.  Harmar  and  St.  Clair  led  two  unsuccessful 
expeditions  against  the  Indians  of  the  Maumee,  the  latter  suflFer- 
ing  a  most  disastrous  defeat.  The  third  was  in  charge  of  General 
Wayne,  who  routed  the  enemy  in  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timbers, 
August  20,  1794,  and  laid  waste  a  populous  country  for  fifty  miles 
around.  Previous  to  and  during  Wayne's  march  a  line  of  forts 
was  built  from  Fort  Washington,  at  Cincinnati,  north — Fort 
Hamilton  at  the  crossing  of  the  Big  Miami,  Forts  St.  Clair,  Jef- 
ferson and  Greenville,  Fort  Recovery  on  the  scene  of  St.  Clair's 
defeat,  as  recovered  from  the  Indians;  Fort  St.  Mary's,  in  Mer- 
cer County,  and  Fort  Defiance,  at  the  junction  of  the  Auglaize 
and  Maumee.  The  towns  of  Hamilton,  Greenville,  Fort  Recov- 
ery, St.  Mary's  and  Defiance  still  show  the  line  of  march.  Wayne 
named  Shane's  Crossing  on  the  upper  Wabash  from  a  half-breed 
trader,  and  destroyed  the  trading  house  and  stores  of  the  infa- 
mous  British  agent,  McKee,  who  has  left  his  memory  in  Mc- 

2(^2  Ohio  Arch,  cud  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

Kee's  Creek,  and  the  Ottawa  River,  sometimes  called  "the  Hog," 
because,  in  seeking  to  save  his  property,  he  drove  his  hogs  down 
the  steep  banks  of  the  stream. 

Wayne  jiiade  a  firm  peace  with  but  little  accession  of  terri- 
tory. Shortly  after,  Ebenezer  Zane's  trace  was  cut  from  oppo- 
site Wheeling  to  opposite  Limestone,  Kentucky,  which  opened 
up  immigration  to  the  central  counties.  Zanesville  was  laid  out 
on  one  of  his  reservations.  The  Western  Reserve  of  Connecti- 
cut was  erected  into  the  Countv  of  Trumbull,  than  which  there 
is  no  better  name  in  American  history.  It  comprised  twelve 
counties  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the  State.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  the  Firelands,  at  the  western  end,  which  were  not 
yet  purchased  from  the  Indians,  the  lands  were  sold  in  a  lump 
to  a  Connecticut  syndicate  and  resold  in  large  tracts,  frequently 
by  whole  townships ;  naturally  many  of  these  townships  bear  the 
names  of  their  original  owners.  The  first  permanent  settlement 
was  made  in  1796,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  and  named  for 
General  Moses  Cleaveland,  the  leader  of  the  surveying  party.  It 
is  said  to  have  had  an  "a"  in  its  name  until  1832,  when  the  first 
issue  of  the  "Cleveland  Advertiser,"  owing  to  a  lack  of  proportion 
between  the  type  and  the  page,  was  obliged  to  leave  the  "a"  out  of 
its  title,  and  it  soon  went  out  of  general  use. 

The  names  of  the  towns  in  the  Reserve  show  a  decided 
remembrance  of  the  settlers'  early  homes ;  as  West  Andover, 
Deerfield,  New  London.  North  Amherst,  Danbury,  Saybrook 
and  Farmington ;  while  other  characteristic  New  England 
names  show  Yankee  colonics  all  over  the  State.  In  many  in- 
stances a  township  organization  was  completed  and  a  niinistei 
chosen  before  the  emigrants*  left  home.  The  first  act  of  the 
Granville  colony  was  to  hear  a  sermon.  Such  communities  were 
more  law-abiding  than  those  that  grew  up  hap-hazard.  and  their 
distinctly  religious  character  has  left  its  mark  on  the  whole  State. 

Other  Eastern  States  are  remembered  bv  Rome  and  Ttica, 
from  New  York  ;  New  Philadelphia.  ( icrmantown,  and  Somerset,. 
from  Pennsylvania;  Newark  from  Xcw  Jersey;  Dover,  Delaware; 
Wilmington,  North  Carolina ;  and  Baltimore  and  Fredericktown> 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.  283 

Next  in  importance  is  the  German  immigration,  direct  and 
indirect.  The  Hollanders  and  Germans  known  as  "Pennsylvania 
Dutch,"  were  early  settlers,  and  such  towns  as  Antwerp  and  New 
Holland  probably  came  through  them.  German,  Berlin,  Berne  and 
Bremen  Townships  are  without  number;  while,  of  the  cities, 
Leipsic,  Dresden,  Strasburg  and  many  Berlins  are  the  most  im- 
portant. A  German  emigration  in  1832,  from  Cincinnati  to 
Auglaize  County  gave  a  New  Bremen,  a  Berlin  and  a  Minster 
within  six  miles.  There  was  a  large  emigration  to  Ottawa  County 
in  1849.  I"  0"e  township  in  Erie  County  are  Berlin,  Berlin- 
ville  and  Ceylon.  Switzerland  township  in  Monroe  County, 
takes  its  name  from  Father  Tisher's  large  settlement  of  Swiss 
from  Berne  in  1819. 

Though  Scotch-Irish  descendants  are  all  through  Ohio, 
there  are  but  few  national  nam'es:  Antrim  township,  in  Wyan- 
dot County,  Aberdeen,  Edinburgh  and  Caledonia,  are  all. 
Guernsey  County  gets  its  name  from  about  twenty  families  from 
that  little  island  in  1806.  The  Welsh,  probably,  are  of  too  recent 
immigration  to  affect  our  nomenclature;  Welsh  Hills,  a  town 
quarter  in  Granville;  Radnor  township,  in  Delaware  County,  and 
Venedocia,  the  Latin  for  "North  Wales,"  being  about  all. 

From  the  Scriptures  we  have  numerous  Goshens,  Gileads  and 
Canaans  (usually  by  way  of  New  England)  Rehoboth,  Sardis, 
several  Bethels  and  Zoar,  a  Tuscarawas  County  settlement  in 
181 7,  of  two  hundred  poor  German  sectarians,  whose  desperate 
struggle  for  existence  finally  forced  them  to  adopt  the  Com- 
munistic plan  with  ultimate  success.  Quaker  City  and  several 
Salems  mark  our  numerous  Friends ;  and  Lebanon,  the  Shakers. 
Batesville  is  for  an  old  Methodist  preacher,  the  only  town  named 
for  that  grand  group  of  men,  one  of  the  best  types  of  muscular 
Christians  that  the  world  has  ever  seen.  The  first  Bethel  in  the 
State  was  by  Obed  Denham  in  1797,  who  freed  his  slaves  when  he 
founded  the  town.  Other  Kentuckians  and  Virginians  in  divers 
settlements  did  the  same,  and  many  more  came  to  escape  the  air 
of  slavery.  It  is  indeed  *'holy  ground"  where  men,  after  a  hard 
won  fight  for  their  own  liberty,  will  begin  life  over  again  to  make 
the  lives  of  others  worth  having. 

284  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Ancient  history  is  still  further  represented  in  our  towns  by 
several  Palmyras  and  Carthages,  Sparta,  Iberia,  Delphos  and  Scio 
— which  smacks  of  Wyandot — and  our  learning  has  provided  us 
with  Xenia,  "gifts;"  KaHda,  "beautiful;"  Neapolis,  "new  city;" 
and  Eldorado,  which  has  not  kept  its  promise. 

The  Capitals  of  the  modern  world  and  of  the  old  Italian 
republics  are  all  sponsors  for  the  future  glories  of  our  towns; 
while  Poland  township,  Pulaski,  Moscow,  Marengo  and  Napoleon 
warn  us  of  the  fleeting  nature  of  earthly  grandeur;  the  knightly 
Sir  Philip  Sidney  has  a  namesake ;  and  Caesarville  is  on  Caesar's 
Creek,  but  whether  black  or  white  Caesar,  I  am  sure  I  cannot  tell. 

Our  first  college  town,  Athens,  had  a  proper  ambition  to 
which  Oxford  makes  a  good  second ;  Kenyon  College  and  Gam- 
bier,  the  town  where  it  is  situated,  were  named  for  generous 
English  nobleman  who  made  the  college  foundation  possible;  while 
Oberlin  is  in  honor  of  the  noble  Alsatian  pastor  whose  deeds  of 
philanthropy  were  ably  seconded  by  the  founders  of  this  college. 

It  may  not  be  familiar  to  all  of  you  that,  in  1814,  a  company 
of  infantry  was  recruited  at  Athens  College,  and  formed  a  part 
of  General  Meigs'  large  command  which  reached  the  scene  of  war 
only  in  time  to  disband.  When  the  recruits  were  gathered  in  the 
college  chapel  for  a  farewell  service,  the  old  president  prayed 
fervently  for  the  souls  of  the  British  and  Indians  whom  these 
young  men  were  about  to  kill.  My  grandfather,  who  was  one  of 
them,  used  to  say  that  the  boys  never  felt  positive  whether  or 
not  the  old  gentleman  was  poking  fun  at  them. 

The  names  concerning  the  oldest  human  events  in  the  State 
are  those  applied  to  the  remains  of  the  mound  builders.  Fort 
Ancient,  in  Warren  Conntv,  Fort  Hill,  in  Miijhland  are  famous 
fortifications:  Serpent  Mound  in  Adams  County,  and 
Allii^ator  Mound,  in  Licking,  religious  edifices,  the  finest  in  the 
west.  There  formerly  a  large  circular  earthwork  in 
Pickaway  County  with  fortified  gates  on  which  the  town  of  Cir- 
cleville  was  built  with  the  court  house  in  the  center;  but  time 
wore  away  the  mound,  and  a  vandal  council  levelled  it,  rebuilding 
the  center  on  a  square;  so  the  name  is  now  hut  a  reminiscence. 

Our  primeval  forests  are  kept  in  rememherance  by  such 
names  as  Oak  Hill,  Oak  Harbor  and  Oakwood,  Locust  Grove, 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names,  285 


Cherry  Valley,  Hazelwood,  Maplewood  and  Elmwood,  Sycamore, 
Laurelville,  Sylvania,  Rushsyivania  and  Forest ;  while  the  Buck- 
eye characterizes  the  people  and  the  State.  Three  Locusts  is  from 
a  group  on  the  village  green,  but  Magnolia  must  be  more  what  was 
hoped  than  what  existed.  Cranberry  township,  in  Crawford 
County,  comes  from  a  cranberry  marsh  once  2,000  acres  in  extent, 
and  well  known  to  Indians,  trappers,  .wild  animals  and  snakes. 

Our  mineral  wealth  is  attested  in  the  east  and  south  by  such 
names  as  Irondale,  Galena,  •Ironton,  Minersville,  Coalport,  Coal- 
ton,  Carbon  Hill  and  Mineral  City;  Syracuse  and  Salineville  are 
named  for  their  salt ;  Jobs  is  not  connected  with  dishonest  specu- 
lation, as  the  name  might  indicate,  but  with  an  energetic  miner 
named  Job,  who  has  become  a  very  capable  operator.  We  are  not 
without  a  poetic  fancy  in  the  mining  region,  and  Glen  Roy  and 
Dell  Roy  indicate  this,  as  well  as  the  respect  shown  to  a  mining 
inspector ;  so  does  Coal  Gate,  which  the  maps  are  beginning  to 
misspell,  as  if  associated  with  soap. 

Rockbridge,  in  Hocking  County,  is  near  a  natural  bridge 
100  leet  long  and  ten  to  twenty  feet  wide;  Lithopolis  (Fairfield 
County)  is  from  a  good  grade  of  freestone;  Hanging  Rock,  in 
Jackson  County,  which  lends  its  name  to  an  ore  region  1,000 
square  miles  in  extent  in  three  States,  is  a  sandstone  cliff  400 
feet  high  whose  top  projects  like  the  eaves  of  a  house ;  Put-in- 
Bay,  on  Lake  Erie,  has  an  original  and  expressive  name;  Gib- 
ralter  Island,  at  the  entrance,  is  a  rock  eight  acres  in  extent 
which  rises  forty-five  feet  above 'the  Lake  to  support  its  am- 
bitious name ;  Rattlesnake  Island,  from  a  succession  of  rocky 
humps,  claims  precedence  among  the  once  snake-infested 
islands;  Carryall  township,  in  Paulding  County,  is  from  the  re- 
semblance of  a  rock  in  the  river  to  the  old-fashioned  carriage; 
lUickhorn  Cottage  is  from  the  shape  of  a  hill ;  Clifton,  in  Greene 
County,  is  from  a  wild  and  picturesque  gorge  of  the  Little  Miami ; 
Plain  City  is  on  the  rich  Darby  plains ;  Pigeon  Roost  Ridges  are 
no  longer  true  to  their  name ;  while  many  valuable  springs  give 
various  appropriate  names  to  towns  in  their  vicinity. 

Summit  and  Portage  Counties  remind  us  of  the  water-shed 
in  the  center  of  our  State,  and  the  old  eight-mile  portage  between 
the  Cuyahoga  and  the  Tuscarawas ;  Ridgeway,  on  that  same  wa- 

286  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

ter-shed,  is  where  the  time-honored  house  stands  whose  roof 
sheds  its  rain  into  Lake  Erie  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Crestline 
was  thought  to  be  the  highest  point  in  the  State  when  founded; 
Akron  is  the  Greek  for  "elevation/'  while  Flint  Ridge  provided 
the  Indians  from  far  and  near  with  their  arrow-heads.  Lock- 
port,  Lockington  and  Lockland  are  towns  on  canals,  the  last  hav- 
ing four  locks. 

A  very  few  town  founders  have  been  gallant  enough  to  re- 
member their  -daughters  and  wives  :  Aurora  was  named,  in 
1800,  for  the  daughter  of  a  surveyor;  Athalia,  Marysvillc,  Clar- 
ington  (from  Clarinda)  and  Anna  are  all  named  for  daughters 
of  the  founders.  Amanda  township,  Allen  County,  perpetuates 
Fort  Amanda  and  the  wife  of  Col.  Poague.  There  are  many 
more  Amandas,  but  I  don't  know  their  true  knights. 

We  have  our  literary  favorites,  though  not  many;  Waverly 
was  named  by  an  engineer,  on  the  Ohio  canal,  who  was  addicted 
to  Scott;  Massillon,  by  Mrs.  James  Duncan  for  her  favorite 
French  author;  we  have  Homer  and  Roscoe,  and  Murdoch,  for 
the  distinguished  actor  and  reader  who  lived  there  twenty-five 
years,  whom  many  of  us  will  always  remember  with  pleasure. 

Many  of  our  names  are  unique  :  Bucyrus  was  called  for 
Busiris  in  Ancient  Egypt  with  the  spelling  altered ;  Ivorydale, 
for  the  soap  made  there ;  Leetonia,  for  a  member  of  its  mining 
company  named  Lee ;  Elyria,  town  and  township,  for  their 
owner,  Heman  Ely ;  through  his  efforts  the  county  was  admitted 
in  182 1 -2  and  called  "Lorain"*  from  his  pleasant  recollection 
of  time  spent  in  the  Rhine  province ;  Amity,  Tranquillity,  Har- 
mony township,  Urbana  (from  "urbanity"),  from  the  tempers 
and  expectations  of  the  settlers ;  Felicity  is,  perhaps,  somewhat 
indebted  to  an  early  settler,  William  Fee;  College  Hill  is  named 
from  two  colleges ;  College  Corner,  with  similar  educational  ad- 
vantages, has  one  Indiana  and  two  Ohio  counties  cornering  in  it. 
The  town  of  Medina  was  originally  called  Mecca,  but  both  town 
and  county  were  later  named  for  the  rival  Arabian  town ;  Utopia, 
founded  about  1847,  by  a  Fouierite,  was  for  a  good  while  run  on 
l^topian  principles.  Celina  was  named  for  Salina,  N.  Y.,  from  a 
resemblance  in  the  situation,  but  with  the  spelling  changed. 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names.  287 

Silas  Wells,  of  Miami  County,  always  wore  a  gingham  coat, 
and  went  by  the  name  of  **Gingham/'  His  eccentricity  is  kept  in 
remembrance  by  the  town  of  Ginghamsburg.  At  Junction  City 
three  railroads  cross ;  at  Gore,  a  little  corner  of  Hocking  County 
is  neatly  inserted  into  Perry ;  Stringtown  may  have  suggested  the 
title  of  a  recent  novel.  Our  most  successful  manufacture  has 
been  Columbiana  County — a  compound  of  Columbus  and  Anna. 
A  waggish  legislator,  when  the  name  was  under  consideration, 
suggested  that  "Maria''  be  added,  to  read  "Columbi-Anna-Maria." 

By  a  treaty  at  Fort  Industry,  now  Toledo,  July,  1805,  ^^^^ 
Indian  title  to  the  Firelands  was  extinguished,  and  Connecticut 
gave  them  to  such  of  her  citizens  as  had  been  burnt  out  by  the 
British  during  the  Revolution.  They  were  erected  into  Huron 
and  Erie  Counties,  and  Xorwalk  was  appropriately  named  for 
the  town  that  had  suffered  the  most.  The  Indians  were  quiet 
until  about  1810,  when,  fomented  by  Tecumseh  and  his  brother, 
the  Prophet,  aggressions  began  again.  Harrison's  victory  at 
Tippecanoe  destroyed  the  power  of  the  Prophet,  but  Tecumseh 
joined  the  British  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  showed  himself  a  better 
man  than  his  associates.  The  latter  part  of  that  war  is  marked 
by  some  brilliant  victories,  several  within  our  borders:  the  stub- 
born defense  of  Fort  Meigs ;  Croghan's  gallantry  at  Fort  Steph- 
enson, this  fight  commemorated  by  Croghansville  and  Balls- 
ville,  which,  with  the  Fort,  have  long  been  swallowed  up  by  Fre- 
mont ;  and  Perry's  victory  off  Ottawa  County,  which  is  marked 
by  a  southern  county  and  the  town  of  Perrysburg,  just  below 
Fort  Meigs. 

The  war  deprived  the  Indians  of  tne  remainder  of  their 
lands  in  Ohio.  In  1818,  the  ncrthwest  portion  of  the  State  was 
purchased,  certain  reservations  being  given  to  them.  These  were 
subsequently  ceded  to  the  United  States,  the  latest  by  the  Wyan- 
dots  in  1842,  and  the  last  of  the  Ohio  Indians  were  moved  beyond 
the  Mississippi.* 

*  Among  the  Delaware  Indians  who  were  moved  to  Kansas  in  1829 
was  Chief  Johnny  Cake.  At  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War  he  was  more 
than  once  a  caller  at  my  father's  house  in  Leavenworth.  On  one  occa- 
sion the  baby  shook  hands  with  him  and  said.  "How  do  you  do,  Mr. 
Patty-cake.-*'*  at  which  the  Indian's  gravity  was  overcome  and  he  laughed 


288  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 


Eighteen  new  counties  were  now  formed,  mostly  from  this 
territory,  and  were  opened  up  for  settlement.  Of  these  coun- 
ties, Seneca,  Wyandot,  and  Ottawa  ("a  trader")  were 
named  for  the  tribes  having  reservations  therein.  The  Shaw- 
anese  were  given  theirs  in  Auglaize  County.  (The  town  of 
Shawnee  is  near  their  old  haunts  in  the  Hocking  Valley.)  The 
region  was  largely  black  swamp  covered  with  a  heavy  forest 
growth  except  for  the  clearings  about  the  Indian  villages. 
Cutting  down  the  forests  and  draining  the  swamps  has  given 
some  of  the  richest  land  in  the  State ;  it  required  very  hard  work 
from  the  settler,  but  without  annoyance  from  the  Indians. 

Rising  parallel  with  the  Lake  along  almost  the  entire  north- 
ern border  are  ancient  lake  beaches  which  have  afforded  the  best 
natural  roads  in  the  State,  and  which  have  been  used  in  succes- 
sion by  buffaloes  and  Indians,  and  for  the  wagons  of  white  men, 
at  a  time  when  the  region  was  elsewhere  impassable.  These 
ridges  are  called  in  Lorain  County  North,  Center  and  Butternut 
Ridges,  five,  seven  and  nine  miles  from  the  Lake,  the  Central 
ridge  running  almost  the  length  of  the  Lake.  Sand,  Oak  and 
Sugar  Ridge  are  local  names.  Near  the  town  of  Ridgeville,  in 
Lorain  County,  there  are  four  ridges ;  in  other  places  they  are 
broken  up  into  knolls  or  disappear  entirely. 

These  counties  have  the  latest  and  the  friendliest  associa- 
tion with  the  Indians,  and  many  interesting  local  traditions. 
Wauseon,  "far  off,"  and  Ottokec,  are  towns  in  Fulton  County 
named  for  two  great  chiefs,  by  a  man  who  loved  them  as 
brothers.  There  are  several  Roundhead  townships.  Zanes- 
field  was  owned  by  Isaac  Zane,  a  Virginia  captive,  raised  and 
married  among  the  Wyandots  ;  Wapakoneta,  in  Auglaize 
County,  succeeded  a  Shawanese  village  of  the  same  name,  built 
by  refugees  from  the  Piqua  towns.  Lewistown,  an  Indian  vil- 
lage, named  for  Capt.  John  Lewis,  a  Shawanee,  was  the  center 
of  the  Seneca  reservation.  The  Lewistown  reservoir  is  his  me- 
morial to-day. 

The  last  war  known  to  Ohio  soil,  until  the  Morgan  raid, 
which  left  no  names  behind  it,  was  the  Ohio  and  Michigan 
Boundary  War  in  1835.  It  was  settled  by  a  decision  of  Con- 
gress in  favor  of  Ohio.     Toledo  was  the  center  of  activities  and 

Origin  of  Ohio  Place  Names,  289 

the  victory  named  the  county  for  Governor  Lucas.  It  is  largely 
due  to  the  oratory  of  Samuel  Vinton,  in  the  House,  and  Thomas 
Ewing,  in  the  Senate,  that  we  can  have  to-day  a  State  D.  A.  R. 
Conference  in  Toledo. 

The  time  limit  of  this  paper  has  compelled  a  bare  recital  of 
the  naming  of  our  early  towns  while  omitting  a  description  of 
their  settlement.  The  dangers  and  privations  of  the  pioneers  in 
this  State  are  well  known  to  us,  but  the  horrors  are  somewhat 
worn  off  by  time.  We  have  a  feeling  that  if  they  did  not  ex- 
actly enjoy  their  hardships,  at  least  they  were  constituted  differ- 
ently from  ourselves.  One  who  was  scalped  as  a  child,  but  lived 
to  marry  and  settle  on  our  frontier,  would  naturally  be  somewhat 
inured  to  suffering  and  immune  from  nervous  prostration.  But 
there  were  as  tender  and  beautiful  women  who  crossed  the  river 
in  those  early  days  as  among  the  ones  who  are  enjoying  the  civ- 
ilization that  their  heroism  won.  They  followed  their  husbands 
as  Rachel  followed  Jacob — and  what  brought  them?  Poverty, 
restlessness,  the  call  of  the  wild,  which  at  times  dim  and  far  off 
we  still  can  hear,  a  desire  for  a  democracy  purer  and  stronger 
than  the  old  colonies  could  produce  brought  them  here.  We  do 
well  to  honor  our  forefathers  of  the  Revolution,  but  Ohio 
Daughters  are  twice  happy,  for  it  is  a  mighty  poor  pioneer  that 
doesn't  make  a  glorious  ancestor. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  French  in  the  Ohio  Country  is  spec- 
tacular and  evanescent.  The  associations  of  the  British  produce 
neither  admiration  for  their  courage,  nor  respect  for  their  hu- 
manity. But  we  had  a  foe,  during  forty  years  of  the  occupation 
of  Ohio,  whose  savage  virtues  at  times  shone  brighter  than  our 
civilization.  It  is  our  boast  that  every  foot  of  soil  was  honorably 
purchased  from  the  Indians:  but  they  sold  with  the  bayonet  at 
their  throats,  or  to  get  them  rum  which  white  men  had  made  a 
necessity  to  them.  The  Shawnee  chief's  message  to  Governor 
Gordon  when  leaving  the  Potomac,  was:  "The  Delaware  In- 
dians some  time  ago  bid  us  depart  for  they  was  Dry  and  wanted 
to  drink  ye  land  away,  whereupon  we  told  them  since  some  of  you 
are  gone  to  Ohio  we  will  go  there  also ;  we  hope  you  will  not  drink 
that  away,  too."  Yet  afterwards  in  Ohio  the  other  tribes  bitterly 
blamed  the  Shawanese,  who  were  as  guests  in  the  land,  for  being 

Vol.  XTV-IO 

290  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

the  first  to  sell.  White  men  easily  become  savages,  but  the  Indian 
has  not  been  civilized.  Their  tribes  have  all  been  honored  in  our 
nomenclature ;  some  of  the  greatest  chiefs  have  not ;  but  there  are 
many,  like  Tecumseh  and  Little  Turtle,  whose  valour  and  high 
character  would  ennoble  even  a  ridiculous  name.  Their  deeds, 
too,  are  our  hei^'tage.  But  for  us  their  tribes  will  pass  away  and 
leave  not  even  tht  mounds  of  the  earlier  races.  Let  us  hold  fast 
what  we  have  of  their  mer^ories  in  this  State,  and,  especially,  let 
us  not  dissever 

"Old  places  and  old  names;"  but 
"Guard  the  old  landmarks  truly, 
On  the  old  altars  duly 
Keep  bright  the  ancient  flames." 



Author  of  "  Gathering  Shells  from  the  Seashore." 
C.    B.    GALBREATH. 

The  world  no  longer  takes  things  for  granted.  The  days  of 
^'original  research"  are  upon  us.  The  strenuous  quest  for  the 
eternal  verities  works  results  at  once  constructive  and  icono- 
clastic. It  reveals  marvels  and  dissipates  old  illusions.  The 
method  of  the  analyst  is  merciless, —  as  frigid  as  justice,  as  "un- 
compromising as  truth.'*  Woe  to  the  tradition  or  the  ideal  that 
rests  on  sandv  foundation. 

Theories  of  beauty  in  the  abstract  are  older  than  the  science 
of  ethics.  Beauty  in  the  concrete,  if  it  be  at  all  existent,  is  rela- 
tive. We  are  variously  impressed  as  we  view  the  pages  of  art 
and  nature.  The  things  that  to-day  satisfy  the  soul  with  their 
sweet  harmonies,  may  pall  upon  the  aesthetic  sense  to-morrow. 
Rare  indeed  are  the  things  attractive  to  all  eyes  and  in  all  seasons 

The  sentimental  Frenchman,  so  runs  the  history  or  the 
legend,  when  his  eye  beheld  the  river  that  forms  the  southern 
boundary  of  our  state,  called  it  La  Belle  Riviere, —  "The  River 
Beautiful."  The  hand  of  man  had  not  marred  its  banks ;  indus- 
trial civilization  had  not  polluted  its  waters.  It  meandered  in 
stately  grandeur  through  the  solitude  primeval.  We  are  told 
that  the  Frenchman  was  mistaken  —  that  even  then  it  was  somber 
rather  than  beautiful. 

Passing  over  the  varied  comments  of  early  explorers  and 
the  fervid  tributes  of  some  of  our  later  poets,  it  may  be  observed 
that  the  great  English  novelist,  who  first  visited  America  in  a 
somewhat  critical  mood,  found  the  Ohio  "a  fine,  broad  river 
always,  but  in  some  parts  much  wider  than  in  others;  and  then 
there  is  usually  a  green  island,  covered  with  trees,  dividing  it 


292  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

into  two  streams."     In  a  different  strain  he  describes  the  shores 
on  either  side: 

"The  banks  are  for  the  most  part  deep  solitudes,  overgrown  with 
trees.  *  *  *  For  miles,  and  miles,  and  miles  these  solitudes  are 
unbroken  by  any  sign  of  human  life  or  trace  of  human  footstep;  nor 
is  anything  seen  to  move  about  them  but  the  blue  jay,  whose  color  is 
so  bright  and  yet  so  delicate,  that  it  looks  like  a  flying  flower.  At 
lengthened  intervals  a  log  cabin,  with  its  little  space  of  cleared  land 
about  it,  nestles  under  a  rising  ground  and  sends  its  thread  of  blue 
smoke  curling  up  mto  the  sky.  It  stands  in  the  corner  of  the  poor  field 
of  wheat,  which  is  full  of  great  unsightly  stumps,  like  earthly  butchers* 
blocks.  *  *  *  Xhe  night  is  dark,  and  we  proceed  within  the  shadow 
of  the  wooded  bank,  which  makes  it  darker.  After  gliding  past  the 
somber  maze  of  boughs  for  a  long  time,  we  come  upon  an  open  space 
where  the  tall  trees  are  burning.  The  shape  of  every  branch  and  twig 
is  expressed  in  a  deep  red  glow  and  as  the  light  wind  stirs  and  rufiles 
it,  they  seem  to  vegetate  in  fire.  It  is  such  a  sight  as  we  read  of  in 
legends  of  enchanted  forests ;  saving  that  it  is  sad  to  see  these  noble 
works   wasting  away  so  awfully,   alone." 

Here  we  have  an  impression  decidedly  gloomy,  but  sixty 
years  have  wrought  changes.  Whether  our  river  to-day  may 
justly  claim  the  title  that  has  graced  it  so  long  in  song  and  story 
will  probably  remain  an  open  question.  After  the  critics  have 
had  their  say,  however,  there  are  stretches  of  the  stream  and  its 
shores  that  will  still  claim  something  of  the  tribute  of  old. 

It  is  not  wholly  the  partiality  of  early  association  that  selects 
as  one  of  these  that  portion  of  the  river  which  emerges  from 
Pennsylvania  and  flows  a  few  miles  westward  to  a  point  w^here 
a  semicircular  sweep  turns  it  toward  the  south. 

While  the  waters  are  usually  somewhat  turbid,  th^  rugged 
banks  on  either  side  present  a  pleasing  variety  of  jutting  ledge, 
slopini^:  woodland,  undulating  meadows  and  confluent  streams, 
bearing  from  far-oflp  spring-brooks,  through  narrow  valleys, 
their  tributes  of  sparkling  water. 

Even  in  mid-winter,  when  fetters  of  ice  hush  ripple  and  roar, 
the  eye  will  fondly  linger  on  the  widenin^:  expanse  and  bordering 
landscapes,  robed  in  vestments  of  jeweled  white.  When  day 
looks  down  from  a  cloudless  sky,  bright  tapers  eleam  and  scin- 
tillate among  the  rime-covered  twigs  of  the  leafless  trees,  and 
the  dark  green  spruce  wears  right  royally  his  ermine  of  snow. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  293 

Underneath  the  quail  comes  in  quest  of  food,  while  from  the 
sheltering  boughs  the  cardinal  flits  forth  in  his  red  glory,  and 
with  flaming  crest  proudly  aloft,  pours  forth  into  the  waste  of 
frost  and  sunshine  the  challenge  of  his  valiant  melody. 

When  winter  departs  and  the  rain  and  melting  snow  pour 
into  the  river  and  its  tributaries  great  volumes  of  muddy  water, 
the  desolate  and  gloomy  scene  revealed  by  day  is  wondrously 
transformed  under  the  mellow  light  of  the  full  moon.  How  the 
gilt  waves  shimmer  through  the  intervening  trees !  How  the 
silvery  streams  thread  their  way  through  meadow  and  ravine  to 
join  the  larger  flood,  while  a  constant  roar  echoes  through  the 
chambers  of  the  night  like  the  myriad  voices  of  the  far-resound- 
ing sea! 

When  spring,  **sweet  prophetess  of  the  resurrection,"  walks 
the  earth,  and  through  the  waste  reveals  her  power  in  the  miracle 
of  bud  and  bloom,  this  region  feels  the  spell  of  her  presence,  for 
she  lingers  fondly  here.  From  trailing  arbutus  to  budding  rose, 
there  is  no  break  in  the  procession  of  flowers.  Spring  beauty, 
violet,  anemone,  trillium,  phlox  ^nd  columbine  nod  at  the  edge 
of  the  wood,  while  garden  and  orchard  don  their  garments  of 
many  colors.  The  deeper  pink  of  the  peach  yields  to  a  lighter 
tint,  a  more  ample  and  pleasing  array,  for  the  world  holds  noth- 
ing in  its  flowery  realm  more  beautiful  or  delicately  fragrant  than 
an  apple  orchard  in  full  bloom. 

Here  the  gentle  breezes  of  June  are  redolent  with  the  sweet- 
ness of  locust  groves  and  clover  meadows.  Her  golden  billows 
roll  over  fields  of  ripened  grain.  Here  autumn  comes  with  radi- 
ant glories,  and  orchards  bend  with  fruit,  the  woodland  glows 
with  russet  and  gold  and  crimson ;  there  is  a  rustle  among  the 
gray  shocks  of  fodder,  and  the  jolly  buskers  heap  high  the  golden 

These  are  but  a  few  random  glinipses  of  the  year's  panorama 
on  the  banks  of  the  "river  beautiful,'*  in  the  first  stage  of  its 
course  on  the  border  of  our  own  Ohio.  With  all  seasons  there  is 
music .  from  stream  and  meadow  and  wood.  No  marvel  here, 
but  much  to  inspire  melody  in  a  soul  attuned  to  its  environment. 

In  the  midst  of  this  re^^ion,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river, 
stands  the  flourishing  city  of  East  Liverpool.     Rising  from  the 

294  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

water's  edge  up  a  steep  declivity,  it  commands  a  picturesque 
view  of  three  states.  When  it  was  yet  a  small  village  it  became 
the  birthplace  of  a  singer  whose  music  has  gone  to  all  lands. 
Here  Will  Lamartine  Thompson  was  born  November  7,  1847, 

"A  prophet  is  not  without  honor  save  in  his  own  country," 
so  runs  the  text,  frequently  verified.  Failure  to  recognize  home 
talent  and  achievement  is  due  to  indifference  rather  than  to  in- 
tended slight.  Especially  is 
this  true  in  our  own  state. 
Our  pride  has  made  Ohio 
birth  synonymous  with  great- 
ness. The  local  orator  never 
tires  of  pointing  to  the  "long 
line"  of  "iikistrious."  This 
pardonable  bias  in  favor  of 
what  is  distinctively  our  own 
makes  it  somewhat  difficult  to 
observe  conventional  limits  in 
speaking  of  the  work  and 
worth  of  one  with  whom  we 
claim  neighborhood  nativity, 
—  a  friend  who  is  among  the 
living,  who  has  achieved 
marked  success  and  who  is 
still  at  the  flonil-tide  of  his 

Will  Thompson,  as  he  is 
known  among  his  acquaintances,  was  the  youngest  sou  01  a  family 
of  seven  children.  His  father,  Josiah  Thompson,  was  a  success- 
ful merchant,  manufacturer  and  hanker,  and  for  iwo  terms  a 
member  of  tiie  state  legislature.  His  niolhcr.  Sarah  Jackman 
Tliompson,  was  devoted  to  social  and  charitable  work.  All  the 
family  were  lovers  of  music,  but  the  youngest  son  alone  made 
it  a  serious  study.  As  far  back  as  be  can  rcnicniber  he  was 
humming  tunes.  He  readily  learned  to  play  on  instruments  and 
even  while  a  boy  was  in  demand  as  pianist  for  local  concerts. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  295 

When  he  was  only  sixteen  years  old  he  composed  Darling  Minnie 
Gray*  and  Liverpool  Scliottische,  both  of  which  were  published. 
He  was  educated  in  the  public  schools  of  the  village.  Later 
he  attended  Union  Colle.q^e,  then  as  now  the  Mecca  for  worthy 
young  men  and  women  in  eastern  Ohio  who  aspire  to  a  liberal 
education.  In  the  years  1870-3,  he  attended  the  Boston  Music 
School,  where  he  took  a  course  in  piano,  organ  and  harmony. 
Near  the  close  of  his  work  here  he  wrote  a  song  which,  when 
published,  almost  immediately  attained  great  popularity. 


The  circumstances  under  which  this  was  written  are  related 
by  the  author  substantially  as  follows: 

*'I  was  attending  the  Boston  Peace  Jubilee  Musical  Festival.  It  was 
gotten  up  by  Gilmore  in  1S73  and  was  a  wonderful  affair.  After  it  was 
over  I,  with  a  friend,  went  to  Nahant  Beach  to  spend  a  day,  and  while 
there  I  sat  down  on  the  shore  and  wrote  the  song." 

The  words  are  as  follows : 

I    wandered    to-day    on    the    seashore, 

The  wind  and  the  waves  they  were  low, 
And  I  thought  of  the  days  that  are  gone,  Maud, 

Many  long  years   ago; 
Ah !    those  were  the  happiest  days  of  all,  Maud, 

Not  a  care  nor  a  sorrow  did  we  know, 
As  we  played  on  the  white  pebbled  sand,  Maud, 

Gathering  up   shells  from  the  shore. 

*  The  title  of  the  former  indicates  a  possible  partiality  of  the  youth- 
ful author  for  the  famous  song  written  by  Hanby  some  years  earlier, 
but  the  measure  is  different.     Here  is  the  first  stanza: 

In  a  pretty  little  cottage  by  the  seashore. 

Where  the  ivy  and  the  honeysuckle  climb. 
Lives  the  sweetest,  the  dearest  little  darling 

That  ever  deigned  to  charm  this  heart  of  mine. 
She's  as  fair  and  as  pure  as  the  lily 

And  as  charming  as  the  beauteous  flowers  of  May. 
Oh,  I  never  shall  forget  my  darling  Minnie, 

I  shall  never  cease  to  love  sweet  Minnie  Gray. 

T-     ;:♦ 








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r  *^  " 


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■  ,.!-  : 



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298  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications, 


Gathering    up   the    shells    from   the    seashore. 
Gathering   up   the   shells   from   the   shore; 
Ah !    those  were  the  happiest  days  of  all,  Maud, 
Gathering  up  the  shells   from  the   shore. 

Oh,  don't   you   remember  the  day,   Maud? 

The  last  time  we  wandered  by  the  shore? 
Our  hearts  were  so  joyous  and  gay,  Maud, 

For  you  promised  to  be  mine  evermore : 
Then  the  shells  they  were  whiter  than  ever. 

And  the  bright  waves  were  lovelier  than  before. 
The  hours  were  but  moments  to  us,  Maud, 

Gathering  up  shells  from  the  shore. 

But  now  we  are  growing  up  in  years,  Maud, 

Our  locks  are  all  silvered  and  gray, 
Yet  the  vows  that  we  made  on  the  shore,  Maud, 

Are  fresh  in  our  memories  to-day : 
There  still  is  a  charm  in  those  bright  shells, 

And  the  sound  of  the  deep  ocean's  roar, 
For  they  call  back  the  days  that  we  spent.  Maud, 

Gathering  up  shells  from  the  shore. 

The  writer  of  this  composition  was  fortunate  alike  in  the 
choice  of  words  and  inusic.  He  took  it  and  three  others.  Drift- 
ing  With  the  Tide,  My  Home  on  the  Old  Ohio,  and  Under  the 
Moonlit  Sky,  to  a  well-known  publisher  in  Clevefend  and  offered 
all  for  one  hundred  dollars.  He  was  told  that  the  price  was  too 
high  for  an  unknown  author ;  that  such  material  could  be  had 
in  abundance  free  of  chari^e ;  that  the  four  pieces  were  not  worth 
at  the  outside  more  than  twenty-five  dollars.  After  thinking 
over  the  matter  for  some  time,  the  young  composer  decided  to 
hold  his  manuscripts.  Later  he  went  to  Xew  York  City  on  a 
business  trip  for  his  father.  Here  he  arranged  for  the  publica- 
tion of  his  songs,  determining  to  undertake  the  management  of 
sales  himself. 

His  natural  business  tact  was  no  small  factor  in  the  success 
score^l  by  his  earliest  publications.  Rightly  concluding  that 
Gathering  Shells  From  the  Seashore  had  distinctive  merit,  he 
sent  copies  of  it  to  various  minstrel  organizations.     From  one  of 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  239 

the  best  known  in  the  country  he  received  a  large  order.^  He 
then  sent  copies  to  musical  periodicals  and  newspapers.  To  each 
he  attached  a  printed  slip  containing  a  brief  notice  of  the  song 
and  the  statement  that  it  was  used  by  the  Crancross  and  Dixie 
Minstrels.  This  was  so  carefully  and  concisely  worded,  that  it 
was  usually  reproduced  in  full.  Soon  orders  began  to  come  in 
from  many  sources.  The  presses  were  put  in  motion  and  for 
months  they  were  kept  running  night  and  day  to  meet  the  demand. 
In  less  than  a  year  the  Cleveland  publisher  and  dealer  who  had 
refused  to  pay  one  hundred  dollars  for  the  manuscripts  had  turned 
over  to  the  author  in  profits  more  than  a  thousand  dollars. 
Gathering  Shells  From  the  Seashore  was  sung  almost  everywhere. 
From  this  initial  venture  his  financial  returns  were  most  grati- 


Another  of  his  early  songs  was  quite  successful  and  still 
retains  much  of  its  former  favor.  The  reader  will  readily  recog- 
nize the  words  of  Drifting  With  the  Tide : 

We   are   floating  on   the  ocean, 

Drifting,  drifting  with  the  tide; 
Far  from  home  and  far  from  kindred, 

O'er  the  boundless  sea  we  ride. 
Giant  waves,  like  wondrous  mountains, 

Rise  and  fall   with   solemn   sound ; 
On  we  glide  through  foaming  fountains 

On  we're  drifting,  ocean-bound. 


We   are  floating  on  the   ocean, 

Drifting,   drifting  with   the  tide; 
We  ane  drifting  on  the  ocean, 

Floating  away,  away. 

We   are   floating  on   the   ocean,  , 

Drifting,   drifting  with   the  tide; 
Not  a  ray  of  cheering  sunlight. 

Not    a    friendly   hand   to   guide. 

*  John  L.  Crancross,  of  The  Crancross  and  Dixie  Minstrel  Company, 
of  Philadelphia,  first  introduced  the  song  on  the  stage.  Many  other 
companies  soon  began  to  sing  it. 

300  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Driving  winds,  with  note  of  terror, 

Sweep  across   the   maddened   wave ; 
Soon  we'll  sink  with  plunge  and  quiver, 

For   no   earthly   hand   can    save. 

We   are   floating  on   the   ocean, 

Drifting,    drifting   with   the  tide; 
But  a  loving  hand  above  us. 

Deigns  our  floating  bark  to  guide. 
Waves  of  trouble   rise  before   us, 

But  our  boat  goes  safely  o'er; 
Trusting  in  our  worthy  Captain, 

Soon  we'll  reach  the  other  shore. 


Although  not  written  while  he  was  abroad,  this  lay  reveals 
a  dominant  sentiment  of  the  composer.  Under  all  skies  he  has 
been  a  loyal  Ohioan.  In  simple,  unadorned  measure  he  sings 
My  Home  on  the  Old  Ohio : 

Far  away  on  the  banks  of  the  old   Ohio, 
.  Down   where   the  silver  maples  grow. 
Where  the   river   runs   deep   in  the  broad,   green  valley, 

Oh.  there's  wjiere   I  lived,  long  ago. 
Ah,  well   I   remember  the  old  cottage  home. 

By  the   side  of  the   long,   grassy  lane : 
How  oft  I  have  wished  for  the  moment  to  come, 

When  I'll  stand  in  my  old  home  again. 


Then  carry  me  back  to  the  old  Ohio, 
Back  to  my  own  cottage  home 
On  the  banks  of  the  river. 
'Neath  the  green,   weeping  willow 
Let   me  linger,  and   nevermore   roam. 

Oh,  'twas  there  in  the  fields  and  broad,  verdant  meadows, 

I    wandered    with   playmates    that    1    loved : 
'Mid  the  perfumes  of  flowers  and  sweet  fragrant  blossoms, 

Where  the  birds  sing  so  sweetly,  we  roved  : 
But   long,    long  ago  all   my   ])laymates   were   gone, 

One  by  one  'neath  the  flowers  they  have  lain  ; 
On  the  banks  of  the  river,  'nealh  the  green,  weeping  willow 

I  shall   ne'er  sec  their  dear   forms  again. 

Sotig  Writers  of  Ohio,  301 

Many  long  years  have  passed  since  I  stood  by  the  river, 

And   said   "Goodbye,   my   happy  home;" 
Oh,  'twas  sad,  sad  to  part  with  the  scenes  I  loved  dearly, 

And  start  o'er  the  cold  world  to  roam ; 
Take  me  back,  take  me  back  to  the  dear  old  farm, 

Where  the  fields  teem  with  ripe,  golden  grain ; 
For  my  heart  is  still  longing  for  my  home  by  the  river, 

Take  me  back,  and  I'll  ne'er  roam  again. 


Who  that  lived  through  them  does  not  recall  the  troublous 
times  of  1876-7,  when  business  was  at  a  stand-still,  the  presidency 
in  the  air,  the  railroad  men  on  a  strike  and  thousands  of  the 
unemployed  on  the  tramp.  And  who  does  not  remember  the 
song  —  on  the  lips  alike  of  sturdy  workman  and  street  urchin  — 
celebrating  the  sadly  picturesque  character  to  be  met  on  almost 
every  public  highway  ?  We  were  not  a  little  surprised  in  looking' 
over  a  collection  of  sheet  music  to  find  that  this  old  favorite  was 
written  by  our  own  Thompson.     Here  it  is: 

I'm  only  a  poor  old   wandcn-r, 

I've  no  place  to  call  my  home ; 
No  one  to  pity  me,  no  one  to  cheer  me, 

As  friendless  and  sadly  I  roam. 


Only  a  poor  old  wanderer, 

I've  no  place  to  call  my  home ; 
No  one  to  pity  me.  no  one  to  cheer  me, 

As  friendless  and  sadly  I  roam. 

I    tramp,    tramp    along   though    I'm    weary. 

No   rest  through   the   long,   long  day ; 
Through  the   rain  and  the  «;now.   I  must  tramp  to  and  fro. 

For  I've  no  place  in  shelter  to  stay. 

How   I   wish   for  a  place  by  the  fireside. 

For  the  night  is  so  dark,  cold  and  damp : 
Vacant  places  I  see,  but  there's  no  room  for  me, 

For  I'm  only  a  poor  old  tramp. 

Long  ago   I   was   peaceful   and   happy. 

With  dear,  loving  friends  ever  near; 
But  now  they  are  gone,  and  I'm  left  all  alone. 

With  no  one  my  pathway  to  cheer. 

302  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


While  our  bard  seldom  essays  the  humorous,  he  has  given 
us  enough  to  show  that  he  can  be  simply  and  exquisitely  pleasant, 
if  he  so  desires.  One  of  the  following  selections  will  be  remem- 
bered by  many  in  connection  with  first  efforts  at  the  piano.  The 
other,  though  not  so  widely  known,  will  not,  on  that  account  be 
less  heartily  appreciated. 


My  Ma  she  took  it  in  her  head  that  I  should  learn  to  play 
On  the  organ  and  piano  in .  the  most  newfangled  way ; 
So  to  the  teacher  we  did  go,  with  lesson  book  in  hand, 
Determined  I  should  music  know,  its  mysteries  understand. 


This  exercise  I  then  went  through, 

As  all  beginners  have  to  do, 

I  sang  so  high  that  my  voice  broke  down, 

And  I  drove  the  neighbors  out  of  town. 

My  teacher  showed  me  A  and  B.  and  F  sharp,  G  and  D; 

Said  I,  "Dear  teacher,  is  that  all?     Don't  we  play  on  X  and  Z?" 

He  showed  me  clefs,  and  staffs  and  bars,  I  thought  'twould  next  be  rails, 

And  the  little  things  he  called  the  notes,  were  like  drum-sticks  with  tails. 

I   warbled  high:    said  he,  "You're  sharp,  jnst  come  a  little  down;" 
My  Ma  chimed  in  and  said,  "You're  right,  she's  the  sharpest  girl  in  town." 
''Now,  teacher,  what's  this  little  scroll?"    "Why  that,  my  dear's  a  rest." 
I  jumped  up  from  my  music  stool   (Spoken)  and  I've  been  resting  ever 


My  sweetheart  and  I  went  fishing. 

In  the  merry  month  of  May ; 
Along  the  brook  with  bait  and  hook. 

We  wound  our  happy  way. 
Till  by  and  by  we  spied  a  place 

O'erhung  with  verdant  boughs. 
'Twas  just  the  place  for  catching  fish 

And    making    loving    vows. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  303 


Then  we  caught  the  little  fishes, 

And  we  whispered  loving  wishes, 

Along  the  brook,  with  bait  and  hook. 

In*  the  merry  month  of  May. 

Ah,  happy  the  moments,  all  the  livelong  day. 

Fishing  with  my  sweetheart,  in  the  month  of  May. 

Said  I,  "Little  sweetheart,  listen, 

While   I  tell   my  happy  wish! 
Td  give  my  earthly  riches  all. 

If  I  could  be  a  fish. 
I'd  turn  aside  from  every  bait, 

Until  I  came  to  thine; 
Oh  what  a  pleasure  to  be  caught 

By  sweetheart's  hook  and  line." 

The  fish  we  caught  that  May-day, 

We  shall  ever  dearly  prize; 
But    sweetheart    caught    the    largest    one, 

In  fact,  'twas  just  my  size; 
And  now  I  am  the  happiest  fish. 

That  ever  took  the  bait; 
And  sweetheart  dear  is  ever  near. 

My  happy,  loving  mate. 


Patriotism  and  politics  often  have  little  in  common,  but  in 
Ohio  they  seem  to  flourish  in  close  proximity.  Even  the  most 
radical  Democrat  will  forgive  Thpmpson  for  writing  a  Protective 
Tariff  March  when  it  is  remembered  that  he  is  a  son  of  the  city 
of  East  Liverpool,  far-famed  for  Republican  majorities  and  the 
manufacture  of  pottery.  He  will  be  forgiven  freely  when  it  is 
understood  that  personally  he  takes  little  interest  in  politics  and 
that  he  has  written  songs  that  breathe  the  broader  and  deeper 
sentiment  of  patriotism.  The  second  of  those  here  given  is  one 
of.  his  latest  productions,  having  been  published  in  1904: 


God  save  our  Union, 
May  it  ever  stand; 
Watch   o'er   our  happy  land, 

904  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

Through  day  and  night, 
Be  thou  our  guiding  star ; 
Protect  us  with  Thy  power, 
Shield  us,  for  Thine  we  are. 

Oh,  guide  us  aright. 

God   save  our  Union, 

May  truth  and  right  prevail; 

Tyrants  and  despots  fail, 
Bind  treason's  hand. 

Father,  we  look  to  Thee, 

Keep  us  forever  free. 

Our  preservation  be, 
O  God,  bless  our  land. 

God   save  our  Union, 

Prosper  our  glorious  land; 
One  firm,   united  band, 

Happy  and  free. 
Angel  of  holy  peace. 
May  wars  and  tumults  cease, 
Friendship  and  love  increase, 

Throughout  land  and  sea. 


Soldier,   to   arms,    hear    the   country's    call, 
There's  war  in  the  air,  we  must  fight  or  fall ! 
The  trumpet  is  sounding,  the  battle  is  near. 
But  our  gallant  army  has  nothing  to  fear. 


Shoulder  to  shoulder,  together,  boys. 
Musket  to  musket,  with  cheer  and  noise ; 
To  arms!    to  arms!    prepare  for  ilu-  war! 
The  call  of  the  bugle  comes  from  afar. 

Good-bye,    my    sweetheart,   good-bye,    home. 
Your  soldier  is  off.  he  must  march  and  roam ; 
We  love  you  our  darlings,  more  than  you  know, 
But,  when  there  is  war,  to  the  front  wc  must  go. 

We  fight  not  for  empire,  wc  fight  not  for  fame. 
We  fight   for  onr  homes  and   our  country's  name; 
Colnmbia.   Columbia,   the  land   of  the   free. 
Our  homes  and  our  dear  ones,  we  battle  for  thee. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio.  306 

The  sun  never  shone  on  a  land  more  free, 
This  God  given  country's  for  you  and  me; 
Beloved  by  our  fathers,  beloved  by  us  all, 
The  soldier  is  honored  who  honors  thy  call. 


From  a  long  list  of  secular  songs  of  almost  equal  merit,  the 
following  have  been  selected : 


*Tis  midnight,  and  the  sleeper 

Lies  dreaming,   free  from  care; 
But  anon  his  dreams  are  broken. 

By  sounds  on  the  midnight  air, 
Strange  sounds  like  a  hissing  serpent, 

Or  the  roar  of  a  mighty  stream; 
Then  the  fire  alarm  is  sounded, 

And   the    sleeper   awakes   from   his   dream. 


Hark!    Hark!    do  you  hear  those  mournful  cries? 

See !    see !    yonder  light  across  the  skies ! 

Now  the  fire  bells  are  ringing, 

Now  the  loud  alarm  is  sounding, 

See,  the  lightning  flames  are  flashing, 

Sound  the -midnight  fire  alarm. 

The  fireman,  quick  to  action. 

Like  magic  springs  to  his  place/ 
The  engines  rush  by  madly 

Like  dragons  of  fire  at  race, — 
The   sound  of  the   wheels   on  the  pavement. 

The  noise  of  the  swelling  crowd. 
The  shouts  of  men  at  duty^ 

And  the  ringing  of  bells  long  and   loud. 

Tfie  glaring  flames  grow  hotter. 

And  wave  their  wings  on  high; 
The  flying  sparks  grow  brighter, 

And  paint  the  midnight  sky. 
This  demon  of  fierce  destruction 

Knows  naught  but  a  .tyrant's  harm ; 
Oh  God,  protect  and  save  us 

From  the  midnight  fire  alarm. 

VoL  XIV.— 20. 

Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 


Under'  the   fair   moonlight, 
When  the  bright  stars  are  shining, 
Wandering  where  the  shadows  gather, 
Happy   you    and    I. 
^  Long,  long  ago  in  youth,  Maud, 
Happiest  hours  of  life,  Maud, 
Under  the  moonlit  sky. 


Oh,   gently   the   moonbeams    fall. 

Softly  the  night  winds  sigh, 
Bright,  happy  hours  of  love  and  joy, 

Under  the  moonlit  sky. 

Under  the  quiet  moon,  Maud, 
'Twas  such  a  glorious  evening, 
When  I  spoke  of  love  so  tender. 
Love  for  only  thee. 
Brighter  the  moonbeams  fell,  Maud, 
Brighter  the  stars  did  sparkle, 
Brighter  my  heart's  high  hopes, 
Brighter  my  life  to  me. 

Under  the  same  old  moon.  Maud. 
Under  the  same  bright  light. 
Years  roll  on  and  still  we  wander, 
Happy  you  and  I. 

Though  we  are  old  and  gray,  Maud, 
Though  we've  not  long  to  stay.    Mand, 
Still  we'll  be  young  and  gay, 
Under  the  moonlit  sky. 


I  am  king  o'er  the  land  and  the  sea. 

My  power  reaches  out  o'er  the  realm; 
The  good  ship  of  state  never  fears    for  her  fate. 

When  my  hand  rests  secure  at  the  helm. 
My  subjects  are  slaves  to  my  own  gracious  will, 

I  am  king  of  the  bond,  and  the  free 
Come  and  go  at  my  call,  for  I'm  ruler  of  all, 

Hail  the  king  o'er  the  land  and  the  sea. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  307 

I  am  king  o'er  the  land  and  the  sea, 

My  power  there  is  none  to  withstand. 
I  have  only  to  speak  or  to  sign  a  decree 

And  my  will  is  the  law  of  the  land; 
I  have  treasures  at  hand  and  I've  gold  to  command, 

What  more  could  my  heart  wish  to  be ; 
My  banner's  unfurled,  and  I'm  known  o'er  the  world, 

As  the  monarch  o'er  land  and  o'er  sea. 

One  is  tempted  to  quote  further.  The  words,  of  course, 
without  the  music,  convey  a  very  inadequate  impression  of  the 
song.  Especially  is  this  true  of  the  well-known  ''Come  Where 
the  Lilies  Bloom,  with  its  numerous  and  beautiful  refrains.  "  I 
wrote  it,"  says  the  author,  "as  I  sat  in  my  little  boat  one  after- 
noon at  Chautauqua  Lake  while  my  companion  rowed  through 
the  lily  beds.  The  surroundings  generally  suggest  my  themes." 
The  Denman-Thompson  Quartette  in  the  "Old  Homestead"  sang 
this  song  for  more  than  five  hundred  consecutive  nights  in  New 
York  City. 


The  list  of  sacred  songs  is  a  long  one  and  includes  several 
that  have  enjoyed  more  than  national  popularity.  The  first  of 
the  tw(>  here  selected.  Softly  and  Tenderly  Jesus  is  Calling  has 
gone  to  almost  every  land  and  has  found  expression  in  every  lan- 
guage in  which  Christian  music  is  sung.  It  has  been  published 
in  the  Hawaiian  tongue  and  has  enjoyed  the  favor  of  those 
sturdy  latter-dav  Puritans  —  the  Boers  of  South  Africa. 


Softly   and  tenderly  Jesus   is  calling. 

Calling   for  you   and   for   me. 
See,  on  the  portals  He's  waiting  and  watching, 

Watching  for  you  and  for  me. 


Come   home,    come   home. 
Ye  who  are  weary,  come  home; 
Earnestly,   tenderly,  Jesus  is  calling. 
Calling,  O  sinner,  come  home! 

908  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications^ 

Why  should  we  tarry  when  Jesus  is  pleading, 
Pleading  for  you  and  for  me? 

Why  should  we  linger  and  heed  not  his  mercies, 
Mercies  for  you  and  for  me? 

Time  is  now  fleeting,  the  moments*  are  passing, 
,     Passing  from  3rou  and  from  me; 
Shadows  are  gathering,  datffi  warnings  coming, 
Coming  for  you  and  for  me. 

O  for  the  wonderful  love  He  has  promised, 
Promised  for  you  and  for  me, 

Tho'  we  have  sinned.  He  has  mercy  and  pardon,. 
Pardon  for  you  and  fdr  me. 




The  fading  flowers  and  autumn  leaves. 

With  all  their  wondrous  beauty, 
Tfiey  tell  us  life  is  passing  by. 

This  life  so  full  of  duty. 
Each  falling  leaflet  tells  us  plain, 

As  on  life's  road   we're  wending. 
The  harvest  time  is  passing  by, 

The  summer  days  are  ending. 

O  traveler  through  this  busy  world, 

One  moment  stop  and  ponder. 
Was  thy  great  mission  here  Below 

For  naught  but  gain  and  squander? 
See  how  the  wasted  moments  fly  I 

Not  one  returns  for  mending: 
The  harvest  time   is  passing  by. 

The  summer  days  are  ending. 

The  days  and  months  and  gone  by,. 

Should  be  to  us  a  warning. 
To  point  onr  ficcs  toward  the  sky. 

Before  the  Judgment  morning. 
Then   nerve  the  a^ni   f^r  glorious  work,. 

The  grain  is  ripe  and  bending; 
The  harvest  time  is  passing  by. 

The  summer  days  are  ending. 

Then  turn  to  good  the  fleeting  hours^ 

Each  duty  now  attending. 
The  harvest  time  is  passing  by. 

The  summer  days  are  ending. 

Song  Writers  of  Ohio,  309 


Something  remains  to  be  said  in  regard  to  Thompson's 
aims  and  methods.  He  began  with  songs  for  the  many.  After 
completing  his  studies  abroad,  he  wrote  a  few  instrumental 
pieces  of  the  ^'classic"  order.  "But,"  he  says,  "as  I  had  already 
been  before  the  public  as  a  writer  of  popular  songs,  my  business 
instincts  told  me  T  had  better  stick  to  writing  music  for  the 
masses.  Since  then  my  aim  has  been  to  write  good,  elevating 
music,  with  words  and  melodies  pure  and  clean,  but  not  so  difficult 
as  to  be  beyond  the  ability  of  the  masses.''  Here  we  have  his 
purpose  set  forth  very  clearly. 

His  method  he  explains  in  his  usual  modest  and  direct  way. 
"How  do  you  go  about  writing  a  song?"  asked  a  friend. 

Opening  a  folio  of  manuscripts  he  replied: 

"You  see  here  perhaps  fifty  or  more  manuscripts  in  various 
degrees  of  completion.  Most  of  them  are  unfinished,  and  some 
merely  contain  the  idea  or  theme.  Others,  you  see,  are  almost 
ready  for  publication.  I  carry  with  me  always  a  pocket  memo- 
randum, and  no  matter  where  I  am,  at  home  or  hotel,  at  the  store 
or  in  the  cars,  if  an  idea  or  theme  comes  to  me  that  I  deem 
worthy  of  a  song,  I  jot  it  down  in  verse,  and  as  I  do  so  the 
music  simply  comes  to  me  naturally,  so  I  write  words  and  music 
enough  to  call  back  the  whole  theme  again  any  time  I  open  it. 
In  this  way  I  never  lose  it." 

"Rut  how  do  you  get  the  music  in  your  mind  without  going 
to  the  instrument?" 

"That  is  hard  to  explain  to  any  but  a  musician.  The  music 
comes  to  my  mind  the  same  as  any  other  thought.  As  I  write  the 
words  of  a  song,  a  fitting  melody  is  already  in  my  mind,  and  as 
I  jot  down  the  notes  of  the  music  I  know  just  how  it  will  sound. 
T  write  the  different  parts  of  the  harmony  and  the  whole  piece 
is  rehearsed  in  mind ;  I  hear  the  blending  of  the  different  voices 
and  know  just  how  each  part  will  sound  in  its  harmonic  relations 
to  the  other  parts.  Of  course,  to  do  this  intelligently,  one  must 
have  a  knowledq^e  of  the  science  of  harmony,  as  there  are  rules 
governing  the  harmonic  relations  of  sounds  just  as  arbitrary  as 
the  rules  of  mathematics." 

310  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

About  one  year  ago  the  writer  met  Thompson  at  his  place 
of  business  in  East  Liverpool.  The  conversation  drifted  to  his 
work.    When  told  of  a  proposed  sketch  of  his  life  he  said : 

"Certainly,  I  have  no  objection  if  you  think  the  matter  of 
sufficient  importance  to  print.  I  shall  be  pleased  to  answer  any 
questions,  but  I  would  prefer  not  to  write  anything  in  the  nature 
of  a  personal  sketch.  I  frequently  get  requests  to  do  that,  and 
while  it  would  probably  be  all  right  to  comply,  I  have  an  aversion 
to  autobiography.'' 

"Are  you  at  present  composing?"  he  was  asked. 

"Recently  I  have  not  done  much.  Perhaps  I  have  been  living 
a  little  too  leisurely.  I  ought  to  be  making  use  of  my  time,  how- 
ever.    This  thought  has  led  me  to  take  up  the  pen  again." 

Here  he  opened  a  table  drawer,  took  out  a  few  sheets  of 
manuscript  and  said : 

"I  am  writing  a  military  song,  Shoulder  to  Shoulder/' 

He  read  one  of  the  stanzas  and  hummed  a  few  bars  of  the 


I  think,  perhaps,  it  has  some  merit,"  said  he.  "but  you  can- 
not always  tell.  A  little  thing  sometimes  makes  a  song  or 
spoils  it." 


This  song  writer,  it  is  a  pleasure  to  record,  has  made  a 
goodly  fortune  from  his  work.  Blest  with  rare  I)usiness  judg- 
ment, he  has  made  every  one  of  his  compositions  pay.  Some, 
of  course,  have  been  much  more  profitable  tlian  others,  but  in 
the  aggregate  the  returns  have  been  large. 

"Yes,"  he  admitted,  "the  music  trade  paj^ers  sometimes  speak 
of  me  as  the  'millionaire  song  writer,'  which,  of  course,  is  over- 
doing it,"  he  added  with  a  smile. 

Inquiries  directed  to  those  whose  judgment  ought  to  be 
good,  however,  led  to  the  conclusion  that  our  friend  in  this,  as 
in  some  other  matters,  was  over  modest.  At  all  events,  his  work 
has  brought  him  a  fortune  of  which  any  composer  or  literary 
man  might  well  be  proud.  It  is  doubtful  if  there  is  living  in  this 
country  to-day  a  writer  whose  compositions  have  had  so  wide  a 
sale.     In  addition  to  scores  of  songs  published  separately,  he  has 

Song  li-'rilcrs  of  Ohio. 


issued  in  book  form  "Thompson's  Class  and  Concert,"  "Thomp- 
son's Popular  Anthems,"  and  "The  New  Century  Hymnal." 
Each  of  these  has  passed  through  a  number  of  editions. 

His  music  store  at  East  Liverpool  has  little  to  distinguish 
it  from  like  establishments  in  oiIkt  cities.  The  volume  of  busi- 
ness is  large,  however.  Thompson  himself  exercises  general  su- 
pervision only.     The  details  are  left  to  subordinates. 

About  fourteen  years  ago  he  married  Miss  Elizabeth  John- 
son, of  Wellsville,  O.  He  spends  his  tinit  very  p|leasantly, 
migrating  like  the  birds  of  passage,  with  the  change  of  seasons. 

The  winters  axe  passed  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  where  he  enjoys  the 
society  of  congenial  spirits  who  have  come  to  know  and  appre- 
ciate his  pleasing  and  substantial  qualities.  Through  the  sum- 
mer and  early  autumn  months  he  resides  in  his  native  county. 
His  country  home  near  East  Liverpool  is  a  model  of  comfort  and 
convenience.  He  frequently  goes  to  the  city  and  mingles  freely 
with  the  people  who  are  very  generally  acquainted  with  him, 
but  who  do  not  appreciate  the  fact  that  he  is  the  author  of  many 
of  the  most  popular  songs  of  America. 

He  is  an  active  worker  in  the  church.    His  faith  is  broad  and 
tolerant.     He  stands  for  temperance,  order  and  all  that  consti- 

312  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

tutes  good  citizenship.  Politics  has  no  attractions  for  him,  and 
he  has  never  been  a  place  seeker.  He  now  fills  most  acceptably 
the  only  office  that  he  ever  held.  He  is  president  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees  of  the  local  Carnegie  Library. 

Through  the  summer  he  visits  the  library  frequently  and 
delights  to  browse  among  the  shelves  and  note  the  progress  of 
the  work.  He  is  interested  especially  in  the  wide  circulation  of 
books  and  draws  the  attention  of  the  visitor  to  the  fact  that  they 
go  to  almost  every  family  of  the  city. 

And  an  interesting  city  this  is,  by  the  way.  Here  are  the 
largest  potteries  in  the  United  States.  By  water  and  rail  finely 
decorated  wares  are  shipped  to  all  parts  of  the  Union.  The  huge 
kilns,  as  they  send  their  great  columns  of  smoke  into  the  clear 
sky,  present  an  imposing  scene.  From  shady  lawns  at  places  of 
vantage  on  the  hill  may  be  viewed  an  irregular  array  of  roofs, 
with  church  spires  proportionately  numerous ;  busy  streets, 
branchins^  in  many  directions ;  the  glittering  river  bordered  on 
one  side  by  rails  over  which  the  **iron  horses'*  glide  at  frequent 
intervals,  and  crossed  by  a  bridge  that  communicates  with  the 
beautiful  farm  lands  beyond.  Around  is  the  music  of  industry, 
the  rattle  of  machinery,  the  roar  of  transmuting  fires,  the  shriek 
of  factory  whistles,  a  hoarse  voice  from  the  steamboat  below, 
echoing  among  the  hills.  The  local  minstrel  began  by  writing 
Liverpool  Schottische.  Will  he  not  add  to  his  rich  repertoire  a 
song  that  shall  fittingly  celebrate  his  native  city? 




It  is  the  desire  of  this  writing  to  add  somewhat  to  the  men- 
tion of  Tarhe,  the  Wyandot  Aborigine*  Chief,  and  to  the  men- 
tion of  the  character  of  the  Aborigines,  that  appeared  in  the  last 
number  of  the  Quarterly,  although  this  addition  shows  their 
character  different  from  that  there  mentioned. 

Tarhe  grew  to  adult  life  in  very  troublous  times.  He 
was  reared  to  savagery,  and 'to  inebriety,  like  all  Aborigine  youths 
of  his  range  and  time  —  first,  in  addition  to  the  habits  of  his 
people,  under  the  tutorship  of  the  French  against  the  British  and 
later  under  the  yet  more  savage  policy  of  the  British  against  the 
Americans.  If-  he  was  born  in  the  year  1742  (there  is  always 
doubt  connected  witli  alleged  parentage  and  date  of  birth  of  the 
children  of  earlier  Aborigines)  he  was  eighteen  years  of  age 
when  Sandusky,  Detroit,  Fort  Miami  (at  the  head  of  the  Mau- 
mee  River )  and  all  of  this  western  country  were  surrendered 
by  the  Frencli  to  the  British ;  and  he  was  thirty-three  years  old 
when  Lieutenajit  Governor  Hamilton  began  to  send  war-parties 
of  savages  from  Detroit,  with  British  outfittings  and  leaders, 
through  Ohio,  Pennsylvania  and  Kentucky,  against  American 
settlers.  We  may  rightfully  presume,  therefore,  that  it  was  dur- 
ing these  man\  savage  raids,  which  continued  throughout  the 
Revolutionary  War.  that  Tarhe.  liberally  supplied  by  the  British 
and  under  their  direction,  demonstrated  to  the  British  and  to 
his  savage  followers  the  worthiness  of  his  claim  to  their  chief- 
taincy. His  tribe  continued  marauding  excursions  as  aUies  of 
the  P>ritish.  with  but  little  intermission  after  the  close  of  the 
Revolutionary  War.  until  General  Wayne's  crushing  defeat  of 
them  at  Fallen  Timber. 

*  The  writer  desires  to  discourage  the  parrot-like  use  of  the  mis- 
nomer 'Indian'  to  designate  an  American  Aborigine. 


314  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

The  Wyandots  were  a  warring  tribe  —  an  otTshoot  from 
the  Iroquois  of  the  East  —  and  consequently  were  quarrel- 
some, and  brave  in  battle.  But  they,  in  common  with  all  other 
Aborigines,  were  quick  to  desert  their  allies  when  the  tide  oi 
battle  turned  against  them.  General  Wayne  took  advantage  of 
this  phase  of  the  character  of  the  tribes  and,  after  his  signal  suc- 
cess at  Fallen  Timber,  he  diplomatically  drew  them  all  to  the 
most  important  treaty  at  Greenville  in  1795.  To  his  prestige  as 
conqueror  was  added  his  very  important  overbidding  of  the 
British  in  supplies,  and  the  discoursing  of  his  agents  on  the 
growing  power  of  the  United  States. 

For  several  years  after  Wayne's  treaty  at  Greenville  the 
Aborigines  were  satisfied  with  the  American  annuities  accord- 
ing to  the  terms  of  that  treaty,  and  with  their  unrestricted  hunt- 
ing grounds.  During  this  time  we  catch  glimpses  of  Tarhe's 
ignoble  character,  including  his  inebriety  and  his  disposition  to 
make  Americans  his  slaves.  The  Society  of  Friends  had,  from 
their  first  coming  to  America  in  1656,  taken  great  interest  in  the 
civilization  of  the  Aborigines  and  had  done  much  for  them  with 
this  end  in  view.  The  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends  in 
1795  appointed  a  large  committee  to  consider  the  condition  and 
needs  of  the  western  Aborigines ;  and  the  influence  of  this  com- 
mittee was  felt  at  tlie  first  treaty  at  Greenville  where  General 
Wayne,  who  was  reared  a  neighbor  to  the  Friends,  took  occasion 
to  commend  their  good  offices  to  the  Aborigines.  The  Wyandots, 
always  ready  like  other  tribes  to  enter  upon  anything  that  prom- 
ised an  increase  of  their  supplies,  sent  a  ''speech  with  a  large  belt 
and  ten  strings  of  white  wampum"  to  tlie  Friends'  Yearly  Meet- 
ing at  Baltimore  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1798,  inviting  them 
to  visit  the  chiefs  at  Upper  Sandusky.  To  this  invitation  were 
appended,  by  the  white  man  who  did  the  writing,  the  name  of 
the  chiefs  Tarhe  (Crane),  Skah-on-wot  (Adam  Brown),  and 
Mai-i-rai  (Walk-on-the- Water).  Seven  Friends  started  west- 
ward on  horseback  May  7,  1799,  to  accept  this  invitation.  After 
suffering  many  hardships  in  their  tortuous  way  through  the  for- 
est, through  the  mud  and  through  flooded  streams,  they  arrived 
at  Upper  Sandusky  the  third  day  of  June  to  be  witnesses  of 
shocking  scenes  of  drunkenness  among  the  Aborigines,  and  to 

Tarhe,  the  Wyandot  Chief,  Etc.  316 

be  subjected  to  many  indignities  by  them.  From  his  intoxicated 
condition  Tarhe  was  unable  to  meet  the  Friends  until  late  the 
next  day ;  and  then,  with  three  other  chiefs,  the  meeting  was  brief 
and  unsatisfactory.  The  Friends  with  difficulty  understood  that 
the  council  would  not  meet  until  the  middle  of  the  month  when 
Tarhe  would  present  to  those  assembled  the  subject  of  the 
Friends'  desire  to  instruct  the  people  generally  in  religion,  agri- 
culture, mechanical  arts,  domestic  economy,  etc.,  and  as  soon  as  a 
decision  was  obtained  they  would  send  a  *speech'  to  Baltimore 
announcing  it.  The  presents  then  given  by  the  Friends  and  the 
efforts  they  offered,  were  not  of  the  character  to  appeal  to  the 
dissolute  inclination  of  the  Aborigines;  and  request  fcr  the  return 
of  the  Friends  was  not  made.  Being  unable  to  obtain  food  for 
themselves  and  their  horses,  the  Friends  were  obliged  to  imme- 
diately start  homeward. 

In  the  winter  of  1803-04  Tarhe,  and  near  one  hundred  other 
Aborigines  mostly  Wyandots,  went  to  the  upper  waters  of  the 
Mahoning  River  to  hunt  bears.  Snow  fell  to  the  depth  of  about 
three  feet  which,  with  their  previous  improvident  use  of  their 
United  States  Annuity  receipts  and  their  established  habit  of 
beggary,  quite  incapacitated  them  in  their  opinion  for  any  action 
but  appeals  for  help  to  some  families  of  r>iends  who  lived  about 
twenty  miles  distant.  The  first  appeal,  written  by  a  lounging 
white  man  in  their  camp,  reads  in  part  as  follows  after  being 
straightened  out :  .  .  .  Brothers,  will  you  please  help  me 
to  fill  my  kettles  and  my  horses'  troughs,  for  I  am  afraid  my 
horses  will  not  be  able  to  carry  me  home  again.  Neighbors,  will 
you  please  to  give  if  it  is  but  a  handful  apiece,  and  fetch  it  out 
to  us  for  my  horses  are  not  able  to  come  after  it.  [Signed] 
Tarhie.  Their  needs  were  supplied  by  the  nearest  Friends,  and 
then  came  another  writing,  viz. :  .  .  .  Brothers,  I  want  you 
to  know  I  have  got  help  from  some  of  my  near  neighbors. 
Brothers,  I  would  be  glad  to  know  what  you  will  do  for  me,  if  it 
is  but  little.  Brothers,  if  you  cannot  come  soon,  it  will  do  bye 
and  bye,  for  my  belly  is  now  full.  .  .  My  Brothers,  Quakers, 
I  hope  our  friendship  will  last  as  long  as  the  world  stands.  All 
I  have  to  say  to  you  now  is,  that  I  shall  stay  here  until  two 
moons  are  gone.    Tarhie.    More  food  was  taken  to  them  by  these 

316  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

Friends  and  members  of  the  Redstone,  Pennsylvania,  Quarterly 

The  United  States  Annuity  gifts  to  these  shiftless  people, 
large  as  they  were  relatively,  were  overbid  by  the  British  during 
their  collusion  with  Tecumseh  and  the  'Prophet'  previous  to 
the  declaration  of  War  of  1812,  and  then,  as  has  even  been  the 
case  with  these  wretched  people,  the  side  that  bid  the  highest  in 
sensual  indulgences,  including  savagery,  obtained  their  aid  for 
savage  work.  The  exceedingly  lavish  gifts  of  guns,  ammunition, 
intoxicating  liquors,  food  and  gaudy  raiment,  at  Maiden  (Am- 
herstburg,  Canada)  to  the  Wyandots  and  other  tribes  of  this 
western  country  by  the  British  long  before  war  was  declared, 
attracted  and  allied  to  the  British  support  during  the  War  of 
181 2  practically  all  of  the  active  warrior  Aborigines.  The  old 
and  decrepit  like  Tarhe,  and  many  women  and  children,  were  left 
behind  —  and  the  United  States  continued  to  feed  and  clothe 
these  non-combatant  remnants,  and  to  treat  with  them,  in  the 
hope  thereby  to  win  back  to  neutrality  the  warriors  from  the 
British  ranks.  To  hasten  this  result  General  Harrison  sent  some 
old  Wyandots  to  the  hostile  camp  at  Brownstown,  Michigan, 
soon  after  the  British  withdrew  from  the  first  Siege  of  Fort 
Meigs,  but  the  savage  cannibals  were  yet  cloyed  witli  the  flesh 
and  booty  obtained  at  the  Dudley  Massacre  —  and  the  ever  alert 
British  agents  were  at  hand  to  neutralize  the  first  appearance  of 
dissatisfaction  in  the  savage  camp. 

The  British  were  somewhat  less  successful  in  allying  the 
Shawnees  and  Delawares  to  their  army  for  the  War  of  181 2 
than  with  other  tribes.  This  was  due  in  part  to  the  inlluence  for 
peace  exerted  on  them  by  the  Society  of  Friends,  hut  principally 
to  the  chastiseniepts  given  these  tribes  by  United  States  soldiers 
and  the  liberal  increase  to  them  of  the  United  States  Annuity. 
The  following  table  of  United  States  .Annuity  gifts  shows  in  its 
blanks  which  tribes  went  fully  to  the  British  (including  Tarhe's 
own  tribe),  but  it  cannot  show  the  number  of  warriors  which 
deserted  the  Americans  from  other  tribes  on  account  of  the  rela- 
tive increase  of  annuity  to  the  remnants  of  tribes  left  behind  in 
Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois  —  and  on  this  account  the  Senecas  of 
the  Sandusky  River  cannot  be  included  in  this  table,  viz. : 

Tarhe,  the  Wyandot  Chief,  Etc, 


INE TRIBES  FROM    MARCH   3,    181I,  TO   MARCH   3,    1815. 


Annual     Amount     Ap- 
propriations  by   Dif- 
ferent  Acts   of  Con- 


»— I 













»— I 







Amount  Pair,  1814. 


$2,300  00 
1.100  00 
1,000  00 
2,400  00 
1,800  00 
1,150  00 
1,000  00 
1,000  00 

$2,948  89 

1.100  10 

1,000  75 
1,000  54 

1.799  24 
750  00 
500  00 

1.000  00 

900  00 

1,400  00 

1.800  00 
1,800  00 
4,500  00 

28,239  45 

Eel   River 


$1  500  00   $1,500  8'^ 

ii  Tm  m 



400  00 

1  800  00      1,393  04      1  .^00  oa 





1,000  00 

1,000  00 
1,010  28 
1,800  00 
1.800  00 
4,410  00 

21.033  83 

400  00 

1  000  00 


1,400  (»0 
1,800  00 
1,800  00 
4,500  00 



Six    Nations    

To      more      distant 

4,500  00 
19,631  88 

2,300  00 
20,451  00 

In  addition  to  these  amounts  $496,647.14  was  expended  by 
the  United.  States  at  Sandusky,  Fort  Wayne,  Detroit,  Mackinaw, 
Vincennes,  Kaskaskia,  Chicai^^o,  at  the  seat  of  government,  and 
other  points  in  effort  to  keep  these  wretched  people  neutral  dur- 
ing the  war;  but  the  British  appealed  to  and  gave  free  rein  to 
their  savagery  and  thereby  readily  won  their  alliance. 

The  "Harrison-Tarhe    Peace    Conference"    at    Franklinton 


(Columbus)  could  not  keep  the  Wyandot  warriors  from  the 
British.  It  only  resulted  in  adding  a  few^  worse  than  useless  old 
men  to  the  Northwestern  army  at  its  advance  into  Canada.  This 
action,  however,  was  insignificant  for  good,  as  they  had  no  part, 
even  in  remote  influence,  in  turning  the  tide  in  favor  of  the 
American  arms.  The  repulses  of  the  British  and  their  savage 
allies  at  Fort  Meigs,  at  Fort  Stephenson,  and  on  Lake  Erie,  were 

318  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

more  than  enough  to  dishearten  all  the  hostile  Aborigines  and  to 
turn  many  of  them  from  the  British  before  and  during  their 
flight  from  Amherstburg.  They  at  once  sought  favor  with  the 
victors,  and  fully  attended  the  numerous  magnanimous  treaties 
to  which  the  United  States  invited  them.- 

*  See  History  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin  by  Charles  E.  Sloctun, 
pages  309,  312,  366,  385,  442  passim,  for  reference  to  authorities  and 
evidence  against  other  misconceptions. 



It  is  and  has  been  utterly  impossible  to  6x,  with  absolute 
certainty  the  date,  or  place  of  the  birth  of  Colonel  John  O'Bannon. 
It  was  not  later  than  the  year  1756,  and  may  have  been  several 
years  previous.  The  place,  as 
near  as  can  be  determined,* 
was  called  Neville.  Virginia. 
John  Presley  and  Morgan 
Xeville.  prominent  officers  in 
the  Revolutionary  War,  were 
her  kinsmen,  and  likely  broth- 
ers. We  arc  not  certain  as  to 
her  father's  name.  From  the 
best  information  obtainable, 
we  are  led  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  O'Bannon  family  was 
of  prominence  in  Virginia, 
and  that  John  O'Bannon  had 
a  fair  education.  Among  his 
other  acquirements,  lie  learned 
the  art  of  surveying.  We 
find  that  on  April  14th.  1784, 
Thomas  Jefferson  wrote  him 
a  letter  on  the  subject  of  a  military  commission  as  Major.  It  was 
addressed  to  Captain  John  O'Bannon.  It  speaks  of  his  men  being 
in  the  field  and.  of  the  expected  resignation  of  Major  Buckner. 
i>om  the  fact  that  Captain  John  O'Bannon  is  not  found  in  Heit- 
nian's  Register,  we  infer  that  his  service  must  have  been  in  the 
>tate  line.  Mr.  J.  H.  O'Bannon,  public  printer  at  Richmond,  Va., 
is  sure  that  the  Captain  addressed  by  Thomas  Jefferson.  April  14, 
T781,  is  the  same  one  we  describe.  We  are  unable  to  account  for 
John  O'Bannon  between  April  14.  1781.  and  April  1786.  In  that 

320  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

period  he  probably  married.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Minor 
Wynne,  of  Lx)udon  County,  Virginia.  In  April,  1786,  he  was  in 
Kentucky,  and  in  an  expedition  against  Indians,  composed  of  ten 
persons.  His  party  overtook  the  Indians  and  fired  upon  them. 
The  Indians  returned  the  fire  and  wounded  Col.  W.  Christain. 
Alex  Scott  Bullitt  and  John  O'Bannon  fired  on  the  Indians,  and 
two  of  them  fell.  One  Kelley,  a  member  of  the  party,  approached 
one  of  the  fallen  Indians,  believing  him  to  be  dead.  The  Indian 
raised  on  his  knees,  fired  on  Kelley  and  killed  him.  The  Indian 
then  fell  back  and  expired.  Some  time  in  the  summer  of  1787, 
John  O'Bannon  was  appointed  a  Deputy  Surveyor  of  the  Virginia 
Military  District  of  Ohio,  by  Col.  Richard  C.  Anderson,  then  at 
Louisville,  Kentucky.  The  Virginia  Military  District  of  Ohio, 
had  been  ceded  by  Virginia  to  the  United  States,  March  i,  1784,. 
but  Congress  did  not  open  the  District  to  location  until  August 
10,  1790.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  John  O'Bannon  began 
making  surveys  in  the  District.  The  first  he  made,  or  rather 
which  the  record  shows  that  he  made  was  No.  386,  for  Mace 
Clements,  which  lies  just  east  of  Ripley,  on  the  Ohio  River,  and 
was  for  1,000  acres  out  of  a  7,000  acre  warrant.  The  record 
shows  that  on  the  same  day  he  made  a  survey  for  his  relative, 
John  Neville,  *in  Washington  Township,  Clermont  County,  Ohio, 
for  1,400  acres  on  Warrant  937  for  7,777^  acres.  The  record 
shows  that  one  John  Williams  was  a  chain  carrier  on  both  sur- 
veys, and  that  he  chained  around  2400  acres  in  one  day,  and  that 
James  Blair  was  a  marker  on  both  surveys.  When  we  reflect  that 
the  locations  were  an  absolute  wilderness  at  that  time,  and  that 
the  parties  might  expect  the  crack  of  an  Indian  rifle  at  any  mo- 
ment, we  see  the  absolute  inijK)ssibility  of  these  two  surveys  hav- 
ing been  made  in  one  day.  The  records  show  that  John  O'Ban- 
non.  Deputy  Surveyor,  continued  to  make  these  surveys  right 
along  until  May  29.  1788,  when  he  stopped  work. 

In  that  time  he  had  surveyed  along  the  Ohio  River,  between 
the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  and  Little  Miami  Rivers,  163,548  acres, 
and  that  it  was  distributed  among  the  counties  afterward  formed, 
as  follows  : 

The  Surveys  from  i  to  386  had  been  made  in  Indiana,  op- 
posite Louisville,  Kentucky,  and  near  that  vicinity.     The  record 

Colonel  John  O'Bannon,  321 

shows  that  on  November  17,  1787,  John  O'Bannon  surveyed 
S,ooo  acres  of  land;  Survey  459,  at  the  mouth  of  Ohio  Brush 
Creek,  on  the  right  bank,  for  1,000  acres;  Survey  436  for  1,000 
acres  just  above  Vanceburg,  Kentucky;  Survey  496  for  1,000 
acres  for  Byrd  Hendricks  in  Sprigg  Township,  Adams  County, 
Ohio,  and  1,000  acres  fbr  John  McDowell,  in  Liberty  Township, 
Adams  County,  Ohio;  Survey  418  for  1,000  acres  on  Warrant 
386,  for  James  Page,  embraces  the  site  of  Ripley,  Ohio. 

Here  were  5,000  acres  purporting  to  be  surveyed  in  one 
day  and  Sylvester  Moroney  was  certified  as  a  chain  carrier  on 
four  of  these  surveys.  When  it  is  stated  the  Survey  496  is  Just 
above  Maysville,  Ky.,  and  386  opposite  Vanceburg,  Ky.,  and 
Survey  418  is  at  Ripley,' Ohio,  and  when  we  reflect  that  the  en- 
tire country  north  of  the  Ohio  River  was  then  an  unbroken  wil- 
derness, without  a  single  settlement  of  white  men,  we  realize  the 
utter  impracticability  of  5,000  acres  of  land  between  Vancefaarg, 
Kentucky,  and  Ripley,  Ohio,  being  surveyed  in  one  day.  640 
acres  of  land  in  one  section  is  only  one  mile  square,  but  1,000 
acres  on  a  warrant  was  a  favorite  number  to  be  entered  by  O'Ban- 
non  in  the  warrants  he  held.  On  November  19,  1787,  he  certi- 
fies to  have  surveyed  3.600  acres,  all  in  Adams  County,  Ohio,  in 
three  surveys,  lying  close  together  and  the  same  chain  carriers 
and  markers  are  used  to  each  of  the  three  survevs,  which  were 
some  seven  miles  back  from  the  river.  On  Christmas  Day,  1787, 
he  surveyed  4,239  acres  of  land  in  seven  different  surveys,  in 
Clermont  County,  Ohio. 

Evan  Shelby,  father  of  Isaac. Shelby,  afterwards  Governor  of 
Kentucky,  was  put  down  as  a  marker  in  four  of  the  different 
surveys.  George  Marshall  was  put  down  as  chain  carrier  in  four 
of  these  different  surveys. 

To  think  that  anyone  would  survey  on  Christmas  Day  is 
bad  enough,  but  to  survey  4,239  acres  of  land,  over  six  square 
miles  in  a  wilderness  in  one  day,  is  more  than  human  nature 
could  stand.  But  there  is  worse  and  more  to  come.  839  acres 
of  these  4,239  acres  were  for  the  immortal  George  Washington. 
The  latter  had  a  warrant  for  3,000  acres  of  land,  which  could  not 
be  located  in  the  Virginia  Military  District  of  Ohio,  and  yet 
O'Bannon  had  it  there  and  not  only  located  the  839  acres  of  it  on 

Vol.  XIV.— 21. 

822  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

Christmas  Day,  but  located  the  remainder  of  it,  1,235  acres  in 
Miami  Township,  and  977  acres  in  Union  Township,  Clermont 
County.  The  one  in  Union  Township  lies  partly  in  Hamilton 

General  Washington's  Warrant  was  founded  on  a  certificate 
issued  to  John  Rootes,  on  December  7,  1763,  by  Lord  Dunmore, 
under  proclamations  in  the  name  of  King  George. 

Washington,  who  was  always  around  buying  claims,  bought 
this  certificate,  the  basis  of  a  land  warrant.     On  December  14, 

1784,  the  House  of  Delegates  of  Virginia,  passed  a  resolution 
that  certificates  of  this  class  owned  by  persons  who,  purchased 
them  prior  to  May  i,  1779,  and  who  served  in  the  Revolution 
from  May  i,  1779  to  the  close  of  the  war,  could  have  them 
changed  into  warrants,  which  could  be  located  on  the  lands  re- 
served by  Virginia  north  of  the  Ohio  River.  The  Senate  con- 
curred in  this  resolution  January  7,  1785,  and  on  February  14, 

1785,  Washington  had  his  warrant  issued  to  him  for  3,000  acres. 
This  he  gave  to  Col.  O'Bannon,  who  located  it  in  full  and  51 
more  acres  of  another  in  the  three  surveys,  1775,  1765,  and  1650, 
in  Clermont  and  Hamilton  Counties.  This  warrant  numbered 
3,753,  could  not  legally  be  located  in  the  \  irginia  Military  Dis- 
trict in  the  Northwest  Territory. 

The  resolution  of  the  \'irginia  Legislature  was  passed  after 
the  delivery  of  the  deed  of  cession  by  \'irginia  to  tlie  United 
States,  which  was  on  March  i,  1784.  and  the  claim  under  this 
warrant  was  not  in  the  class  of  claims  for  which  the  land  was 
reserved.  The  United  States  never  extended  the  class  of  bene- 
ficiaries and  hence  this  warrant  could  not  be  legally  located  in  the 
Virginia  Military  District,  which  afterwards  became  a  part  of 
Ohio.  Col.  0'l)annon  had  located  the  Mavo  CarrinLt^m  Survey 
of  1,000  acres  opposite  Vanceburg,  Kentucky,  on  a  state  line  war- 
rant issued  to  one  Edward  Williams,  and  which  could  not  be  lo- 
cated in  Virginia  Military  District  of  Ohio.  General  Washing- 
ton wrote  in  the  year  of  his  death  as  to  the  ownership  n{  these 
3,000  acres.  He  said  he  had  owned  them  for  12  years,  and  that 
they  were  near  Judge  Symnies'  grants,  on  the  o])posite  side  of  the 
Miami  River,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Cincinnati  and  I'ort  Wash- 

Colonel  John  O'Banm 


ington;  that  he  had  never  seen  them,  but  that  the  Surveyor  had 
reported  them  valuable. 

By  using  the  calendar,  we  find  that  some  of  these  large  sur- 
veys were  made  on  Sunday.  From  January  7  to  February  2, 
1788,  Col.  O'Bannon  did  no  surveying.  From  February  7  to 
April  1.  1788,  he  did  no  surveying,  but  on  April  i,  1788,  he  began 
and  continued  busy  till  May  29,  1788.  when  he  ceased  operations. 
He  made  no  more  surveys  in  the  Virginia  Military  District,  in  the 
Northwest  Territory,  till  1792, 
when  he  made  one  or  more. 
Col.  John  O'Bannon  had  no 
right  or  authority  whatever 
to  make  these  199  surveys. 
He  was  a  trespasser  in  so  do- 
ing. He  never,  in  point  of 
fact,  made  them  himself,  and 
it  was  physically  impossible 
he  should  have  done  so.  He, 
no  doubt,  had  not  less  than 
six  parties  of  surveyors,  and 
they  did  the  work.  He  certi- 
fied all  the  199  surveys  as 
Deputy  Surveyor,  and  put 
down  the  names  of  the  chain 
carriers  and  markers  as  oc- 
curred to  him. 

O'Bannon  claimed  to  have 
made  these  surveys  under  a  law  of  Virginia,  passed  in  October, 
[783,  wJiich  required  the  surveyor  to  actually  run  the  lines  and 
mark-the  corners.  This  law  required  chain  carriers  to  be  sworn. 
Tlie  Continental  Congress,  at  its  last  session,  became  alarmed 
^t  this  wholesale  sur\'eying  of  Col,  O'Bannon,  and,  on  July  17, 
1788.  passed  a  resolution  declaring  these  surveys  void,  and  this 
resolution  remained  in  force  until  August  10,  ^790,  when  the  act, 
opening  the  district  for  location  was  passed,  and  the  resolution 
repealed.  The  act  of  .-\ugust  10.  1790  incidentally  referred  to 
these  199  locations  as  to  be  approved,  but  never  directly  confirmed 
them.     However,  most  of  them  were  afterwards  patented.     But 

324  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

the  business  of  locating  in  the  Virginia  Military  District  of  Ohio^ 
was  stopped  and  not  resumed  again  until  about  December  i^ 

Some  lawyers  claim  that  the  patents  issued  on  the  199  sur- 
veys of  O'Bannon  are  void  because  the  surveys  were  made  with- 
out authority  of  law  and  were  expressly  declared  void  by  the 
resolution  of  Congress  of  July  17,  1788.  These  lawyers  claim  the 
Act  of  August  10,  1790,  opening  up  the  district,  did  not  confirm 
these  surveys,  and  that  the  latter  being  void,  the  patents  are  void, 
but  if  such  wxre  the  case,  the  parties  could  confirm  their  titles 
bv  deeds  from  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Ohio  State  Univer- 
sity,  and  in  that  case,  the  new  title  would  relate  to  March  14,  1868. 
The  Cincinnati  Waterworks,  east  of  the  Little  ^lianii,  is  on  one 
of  these  O'Bannon  surveys,  in  the  celebrated  McArthur  will 
cases,  which  involved  two  or  more  of  these  O'Bannon  surveys, 
the  distinguished  counsel  on  both  sides  assumed  that  the  patents 
to  these  surveys  were  valid,  and  did  not  raise  any  question  as  to 
their  validity. 

As  to  the  three  Washington  Surveys,  they  were  never  sent  to 
the  United  States  Land  Office  and  never  patented.  It  seems  they 
were  sent  to  the  \'irginia  Land  Office,  in  Richmond,  and  grants 
issued  on  them  there.  On  May  20,  1806,  seme  one  in  the  name 
of  Col.  John  Neville,  who  had  died  July  30,  1803,  made  a  survey 
4,847,  which  completely  covered  the  Washington  survey  1650, 
in  Pierce  Township,  Clermont  County.  Ohio.  On  May  20,  1806, 
some  one  in  the  name  of  the  same  John  Xeville,  covered  Wash- 
ington's Survey  1765.  in  Miami  Township.  Clermont  County,  for 
1.2^5  acres.  On  the  same  day,  a  survey  in  the  name  of  Major 
Henry  Massie,  the  founder  of  Portsmouth.  Ohio,  was  made, 
overlying  the  whole  of  Cieneral  Washini^ton's  Survey  1775  for 
}/7  acres  in  Cnion  Township.  Clermont  County,  and  Anderson 
Township  in  Hamikon  County.  The  Deputy  Survevor  who 
made  these  three  overlying  surveys  was  Joseph  Kerr.  Congress, 
hov.ever.  got  alarmed  at  this  kind  of  business  and  on  March  3, 
(807.  enacted  the  famous  proviso,  which  f«irba(le  the  making  of 
any  surveys  over  previous  locations.  This  famous  proviso  of 
March  3,  1807,  was  construed  in  Jackson  vs.  Clark,  ist  Peters^ 
666,  by  the  great  Chief  Justice  Marshall. 

Colonel  John  O'Bannon,  325 

No  doubt  Joseph  Kerr,  Deputy  Surveyor,  knew  that  Wash- 
ington's Warrant  was  not  locatable  in  the  Virginia  Military  Dis- 
trict of  Ohio,  and  he  took  care  to  locate  them  on  Virginia  Mili- 
tary Continental  Warrants,  though  two  of  the  surveys  were  made 
in  the  name  of  a  person  who  had  been  dead  over  two  years. 

The  value  of  a  survey  made  in  the  name  of  a  dead  man,  I 
leave  to  the  lawyers.  I  have  no  information  as  to  whether  the 
overlying  surveys  4847,  4848  and  4862  have  ever  been  patented. 
After  the  resolution  of  July  17,  1788,  Colonel  John  O'Bannon 
returned  to  Woodford  County,  Kentucky,  where  he  became  an 
extensive  land  owner.  The  Virginia  Military  District  had  rest 
from  any  locations  after  his  199  surveys  till  1792.  In  1795,  John 
O'Bannon  was  trustee  of  the  town  of  Versailles,  Kentucky.  In 
1808,  he  was  sheriff  of  Woodford  County,  Kentucky,  and  George 
T.  Cotton,  his  son-in-law,  was  his  deputy.  He  had  two  daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth,  who  married  George  T.  Cotton,  and  Eliza,  who 
married  a  man  named  Bucham.  In  the  preparation  of  this  ar- 
ticle, I  was  unable  to  find  any  descendants  of  the  latter.  George 
T.  Cotton,  a  son  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Cotton,  vyas  a  Lieutenant  Col- 
onel of  the  6th  Kentucky  Regiment  of  Infantry  (Union),  in  the 
Civil  War,  and  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Sb.ilo.  The  titles  of  John 
O'Bannon,  Major  and  Colonel,  were  acquired  after  his  location 
in  Kentucky.  He  made  his  vyill  on  January  7,  18 10.  He  recites 
that  he  is  much  afflicted  with  rheumatism,  but  is  of  sound  mind. 
He  was  an  extensive  slave  holder  and  land  holder.  He  devised 
his  wife  seven  slaves  with  his  home  plantation,  and  his  lot  in 
Versailles.  He  gave  his  daughter,  Elizabeth  Cotton,  a  plantation 
and  five  slaves  by  name.  He  gave  his  daughter  Eliza,  500  acres 
of  land  in  Hopkins  County,  and  several  slaves.  He  devised  lands 
and  slaves  to  his  grandsons  by  the  name  of  Cotton.  He  gave  his 
brother,  Presley  O'Bannon,  1,000  acres  of  land  in  Clermont 
County,  Ohio,  a  slave  and  a  horse.  He  gave  a  slave  each  to  his 
niece,  Margaret  O'fiannon  and  his  nephew,  George  O'Bannon. 

He  gave  to  his  brother  William,  two  slaves  and  a  plantation. 
He  was  an  extensive  owner  of  horses,  cattle  and  live  stock,  and 
disposed  of  them  by  will.  He  directed  certain  of  his  slaves  to 
be  hired  out  and  the  hire  to  be  applied  in  certain  directions.  His 
residuary  estate,  after  the  death  of  his  wife,  was  to  be  sold  and 

326  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

divided  into  eight  parts,  two  parts  to  his  daughters  and  the  other 
parts  to  go  to  collateral  relatives  named  by  him.  He  appointed 
a  committee  of  three  friends,  named  in  his  will,  to  decide  all  ques- 
tions arising  under  that  instrument,  without  going  to  law.  He 
made  Robert  Alexander  and  his  son-in-law,  George  T.  Cotton,  his 
executors.  He  departed  this  life  February  17, 18 13,  and  his  will 
was  probated  at  Woodford  County  Court,  in  April,  1813. 

Of  his  political  or  religious  views,  we  know  nothing.  He 
evidently  enjoyed  the  acquaintance  and  respect  of  Jefferson  and 
Washington.  He  also  had  the  complete  confidence  of  General 
Richard  Clough  Anderson,  who  appointed  him  a  Deputy  Sur- 
veyor of  the  Virginia  Military  District,  in  the  North  West  Ter- 
ritory. He  was  the  only  Deputy  Surveyor  who  made  any  sur- 
veys in  the  District  before  it  was  legally  opened  by  Congress. 
From  the  number  of  surveys  made  by  him  in  Hamilton  and  Cler- 
mont Counties,  it  is  apparent  that  he  operated  with  Fort  Wash- 
ington as  a  base,  and  none  of  his  surveys  were  made  over  five 
miles  back  from  the  Ohio  River,  except  in  Clermont  or  Hamilton 
Counties.  All  were  made  in  peril  of  Indian  attacks  and  no  doubt 
three  or  more  parties  of  surveyors  traveled  together.  The  lowest 
number  of  surveys  made  by  O'Bannon  was  386,  made  at  Ripley, 
Ohio,  and  the  highest  number  1775,  made  for  General  George 
Washington.  Of  the  1190  numbers  not  taken  by  O'Bannon,  I 
am  unable  to  state  where  thev  were  located — a  few  of  those  num- 
bers  were  taken  in  the  district  after  1792. 

It  seems  a  pity  the  way  General  Washington's  interests  were 
sacrificed  after  O'Bannon's  surveys.  His  own  agents  did  not 
know  enough  to  return  his  surveys  with  the  Warrant  to  the  Gen- 
eral Land  Office  at  Washington  D.  C.  The  subsequent  locators 
appropriated  his  lands,  and  to  add  insult  to  injury.  Congress,  on 
March  3,  1899,  outlawed  his  warrant,  and  thus  the  Washington 
estate  lost  that  which  at  one  time  would  have  realized  $14,250. 
The  lands  which  were  located  under  the  warrant  were  doubtless 
worth  at  this  time,  with  improvements,  not  less  than  $300,000. 
Washington's  estate  at  the  time  of  his  death  was  worth  $500,000, 
and  had  it  been  kept  intact,  its  value  now  would  have  been  fabu- 

Colonel  John  O'Bannon,  327 

In  ascertaining  the  facts  set  forth  herein  as  to  John  O'Ban- 
non,  I  have  pursued  every  lead  to  its  source  and  have  been 
baffled  seemingly,  at  every  point.  The  facts  that  I  wished  to 
know  have  receded  into  oblivion  and  cannot  be  brought  to  light. 
There  was  not  a  publication,  in  February,  1813,  which  had  an 
obituary  notice  of  John  O'Bannon.  There  is  no  mention  of  him 
of  any  significance  in  any  contemporary  history.  A  man  now  in 
full  life,  has  every  opportunity  to  have  his  record  preserved  to 
posterity.  If  he  is  of  the  slightest  importance,  the  Daily  News- 
papers record  his  doing  from  day  to  day,  but  of  John  O'Bannon 
scarcely  anything  was  preserved,  except  what  the  official  records 



The  accompanying  cut  represents  a  large  granitic  boulder, 
believed  to  be  the  largest  in  Sandusky  County,  and  which  pos- 
sesses local  historic  associations  worthy  to  be  published  for  pres- 
ervation with  other  interesting  facts  connected  with  the  early  his- 
tory of  the  Sandusky  river  region. 

It  is  located  in  the  north  and  south  road  on  the  line  dividing 
Sections  14  and  15  between  the  farms  of  W.  J.  Havens  and  Hugh 
Havens  in  Jackson  township,  7  miles  south-west  from  the  City  of 

There  is  a  general,  and  what  seems  to  be  an  undisputed, 
tradition,  that  during  his  campaigns  in  the  Sandusky  and  Mau- 
mee  river  valleys,  in  the  War  of  1812,  Gen.  William  Henry  Har- 
rison, with  his  military  staff,  at  one  time  dined  upon  this  boulder 
as  a  table. 

There  was  an  Indian  trail  leading  from  Lower  Sandusky 
(Fremont),  through  what  is  now  Spiegel  Grove,  the  grounds  of 
the  late  President  R.  B.  Hayes,  passing  thence  west  of  the  San- 
dusky river,  in  a  southwesterly  direction  and  intersecting  at  a 
point  not  far  east  of  this  rock  a  similar  one  from  the  site  of  Fort 
Seneca,  and  thus  becoming  united  into  one  trail,  which  passed 
near  the  rock  in  a  northwesterly  direction  to  Fort  Meigs,  on  the 
Alaumee  river. 

This  trail  became  known  as  the  **  Harrison  trail,'*  because  in 
his  military  movements  between  Lower  Sandusky  and  Fort  Sen- 
eca on  the  Sandusky  river,  and  Fort  Meigs  on  the  Maumee,  Gen. 
Harrison  made  use  of  it  as  a  military  road.  While  passing  along 
the  same,  accorJing  to  tradition,  he  and  his  military  family 
partook  of  the  repast  mentioned  upon  this  substantial  table  in  the 
then  wilderness. 

The  Messrs.  Havens  who  have  owned  these  farms  for  fifty 
years,  well  remember  traces  of  this  trail  and  pointed  out  to  the 
writer  the  ground  along  which  it  ran.  They  remember  and  speak 
of  it  as  the  **  Harrison  trail.*' 


A  Rock  with  a  History.  329 

In  the  field  notes  of  the  government  survey,  1820,  of  said 

sections  14  and  15,  it  is  mentioned  as  the  "  Road  to  Fort  Meigs," 
and  its  location  shown  to  be  near  the  spot  where  the  boulder  lies. 
In  size,  the  boulder  is  12  feet  in  length,  with  a  slightly  con- 
vex top  surface  containing  80  square  feel;  its  circumference  at 
the  ground  is  37  feet,  and  near  the  top  32  feel;  it  rises  3  1-2  feet 
above  ground,  and  as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained,  lies  embedded 
in  the  earth  about  the  same  number  of  feet  it  rises  above;  which 
would  make  it  contain  500  cubic  feet  and  weigh  40  tons. 

Il  has  been  regarded  by  some  as  merely  an  obstruction  in  the 
highway,  and  occasional  threats  have  been  made  to  destroy  it, 
hut  thus  far  the  liettcr  .sentiment  favoring  its  preservation,  has 

If  this  article  shall  aid  in  promoting  still  further  this  senti- 
ment, and  result  in  the  preservation  of  this  historic  rock  which 
may  appropriately  be  named  "  Harrison  Rock,"  and  which  19 
suggested  as  a  name  for  it.  the  object  of  the  writer  will  have  been 


(JUNE  2,  1905.) 

The  Twentieth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeo- 
logical and  Historical  Society  was  held  in  the  lecture  room  of 
the  Y.  M,  C.  A.  Building,  Columbus,  Ohio,  at  2:30  P.  M.,  June 
2d,  1905.     The  following  members  were  present: 

Rev.  J.  \V.  Atwood,  Columbus;  Judge  J.  H.  Anderson,  Co- 
lumbus; Prof.  M.  R.  Andrews,  Marietta;  Mr.  E.  H.  Archer, 
Columbus ;  General  R.  Brinkerhoff ,  Mansfield ;  Mr.  George  F. 
Bareis,  Canal  Winchester;  Prof.  J.  H.  Beal,  Scio;  Hon.  M.  D. 
Follett,  Marietta;  Hon.  C.  B.  Galbreath,  Columbus;  Hon.  M.  S. 
Greenough,  Cleveland;  Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter,  Chillicothe;  Prof. 
Archer  B.  Hulbert,  Marietta;  Colonel  John  W.  Harper,  Cincin- 
nati ;  Prof.  C.  L.  Martzolff,  New  Lexington ;  Prof.  W.  C.  Mills, 
Columbus;  Prof.  John  D.  -H.  McKinley,  Columbus;  Prof.  B.  F. 
Prince,  Springfield ;  Prof.  E.  O.  Randall,  Columbus ;  Hon.  Rush 
R.  Sloane,  Sandusky ;  Mr.  E.  F.  Wood,  Columbus ;  Prof.  G.  Fred- 
erick Wright,  Oberlin.  Prof.  Frederick  Starr,  Chicago  Univer- 
sity, was  the  guest  of  the  society. 

Messages  of  regret  because  of  inability  to  attend  were  re- 
ceived from  Trustees  Dr.  H.  A.  Thompson,  Dayton;  Rev.  N.  B. 
C.  Love,  Toledo;  General  J.  Warren  Keifer,  Springfield;  Hon. 
S.  S.  Rickly,  Columbus :  and  Hon.  D.  J.  Ryan,  Columbus. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  President,  Gen.  R. 
Brinkerhoff.  The  Secretary,  Mr.  Randall,  was  called  upon  for 
the  minutes  of  the  previous  annual  meeting  held  June  3,  1904- 
In  order  to  save  time,  he  referred  to  the  minutes  of  that  meeting 
as  published  in  \'ol.  13,  pp  375  to  3tii,  inclusive.  Motion  was 
made  and  carried  to  dispense  with  the  reading  of  the  minutes, 
and  the  printed  report  referred  to  was  adopted  as  the  correct 
minutes  of  the  meeting.  The  President  then  delivered  the  fol- 
lowing opening  address : 


Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  331 


The  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society  had  its  begin- 
ning about  thirty  years  ago.  It  was  first  organized  as  the  Ohio  State 
Archaeological  Association,  and  its  first  annual  meeting  was  held  at 
Mansfield  September  1,  1875,  and  was  attended  by  about  fifty  of  the 
leading  archaeologists  of  the  state. 

The  purpose  of  that  organization  was  purely  to  form  an  archaeo- 
logical society.  In  1876  the  association  was  represented  at  the  Cen- 
tennial at  Philadelphia.  The  Legislature  appropriated  $2,500  to  make 
an  exhibit  of  this  nature.  Time  was  short,  but  an  interesting  and  cred- 
itable showing  was  made.  In  the  opinion  of  those  competent  to  judge, 
Ohio  had  by  far  the  finest  exhibit  of  pre-historic  relics,  except  that  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institute. 

For  ten  years  the  work  of  the  association  was  given  exclusively  to 
archaeology,  but  in  1885,  it  was  reorganized  and  broadened  so  as  to  in- 
clude events  historic  as  well  as  pre-historic,  and  the  association  has 
since  been  known  as  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society. 

As  stated  in  its  articles  of  incorporation,  "said  society  is  formed  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  a  knowledge  of  archaeology  and  history,  especi- 
ally of  Ohio,  by  establishing  and  maintaining  a  library  of  books,  manu- 
scripts, maps,  charts,  etc.,  properly  pertaining  thereto;  a  museum  of 
pre-historic  relics  and  natural  or  other  curiosities  or  specimens  of  art 
or  nature,  promotive  of  the  objects  of  the  association,  said  library  and 
museum  to  be  open  to  the  public  upon  reasonable  terms,  and  by  courses 
of  lectures  and  publication  of  books,  papers  and  documents  touching 
the  subjects  so  specified,  with  power  to  receive  and  hold  gifts  and  devises 
of  real  and  personal  estate  for  the  benefit  of  such  society,  and  generally 
to  exercise  all  the  powers  legally  pertaining  thereto." 

How  far  these  requirements  have  been  complied  with  by  the  society 
is  fairly  indicated  by  its  annual  reports  and  other  publications,  which  are 
everywhere  recognized  as  of  the  highest  value,  and  comparing  favorably 
with  those  of  any  other  state. 

In  archaeology,  its  prehistoric  exhibits  at  the  world  expositions  at 
Chicago,  Buffalo  and  St.  Louis,  as  a  whole  were  unequalled  by  any  other 
state  or  country  and  were  so  officially  recognized. 

Among  its  accomplishments,  doubtless,  the  most  important  has  been 
the  acquirement  for  the  state  of  Fort  Ancient  and  the  Serpent  Mound, 
than  which,  among  pre-historic  monuments  in  the  United  States,  there 
are  none  more  interesting  and  important.  The  various  mounds  and  other 
pre-historic  relics  of  Ohio,  located  and  enumerated  by  the  society,  now 
numbers  over  ten  thousand,  and  one  of  its  leading  and  permanent  activi- 
ties has  been  the  examination  and  excavation  of  these  mounds,  more  or 
less  every  year,  by  and  under  the  direction  of  our  curator  and  librarian 
Prof.  W.  C.  Mills. 

332  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Our  collection  of  prehistoric  relics  now  numbers  over  50,000  separate 
objects,  and  is  not  surpassed  or  equalled  by  any  other  state  in  the  Union. 
During  the  twenty  years  succeeding  its  reorganization,  the  society,  as 
indicated  by  its  publications,  has  given  large  attention  to  matters  of  his- 
tory, and  its  library  of  books,  manuscripts,  maps,  charts,  etc.,  is  now 
very  large  and  valuable.  Of  these  various  acquisitions,  both  historic  and 
pre-historic,  our  secretary  and  curator,  in  their  annual  reports  to  this 
meeting,  will  doubtless  present  a  more  comprehensive  and  intelligent 
review  than  is  possible  or  proper  in  a  brief  opening  address. 

The  greatest  need  of  the  society  at  the  present  time  is,  a  separate 
and  larger  building  for  our  museum  and  library  with  largely  increased 
capacity  over  the  quarters  now  occupied  at  the  Ohio  State  University, 
and  it  ought  to  be  a  structure  worthy  of  the  first  and  greatest  of  our 
northwestern  states. 

In  response  to  a  recent  letter  of  inquiry  to  our  Curator  Prof.  Mills, 
he  writes  me  as  follows :  —  "The  facts  are  we  have  absolutely  outgrown 
the  accommodations  provided  for  us  in  Page  Hall.  Every  nook  and 
comer  is  filled,  and  I  have  been  compelled,  within  a  week,  to  refuse 
to  receive  collections,  as  we  cannot  place  them  on  display."  I  am  indeed 
sorry  for  this,  as  we  have  grown  so  rapidly  within  the  two  years,  or 
since  we  occupied  our  more  commodious  quarters  at  Page  Hall.  Not 
only  has  the  museum  grown  but  the  library  is  well  keeping  pace  with  it. 
Exchanging  our  publications  with  like  societies  over  the  entire  globe 
has  placed  our  society  in  touch  with  those  it  would  be  impossible  to 
reach  in  any  other  way.  However,  our  society  has  led  in  archtTolopical 
explorations  and  publications,  and  these,  together  with  our  exhibitions, 
have  created  an  interest  in  archjeological  exploration  throughout  the 
middle  west.     At  present  many  states  are  following  our  example." 

In  view  of  the  approaching  bi-centcnnial  session  of  our  state  legis- 
lature, it  would  seem  proper  and  advisable  that  our  society,  at  its  present 
session,  should  take  such  action  as  may  seem  desirable  for  the  presenta- 
tion of  its  great  needs  to  legislators  and  the  public. 

The  President's  address  was  received  and  ordered  placed  on 

The  Secretary  then  made  his  annual  report,  which  was  as 
follows : 


(For  the  year,  June  3,  1904,  to  June  2,  1905.) 

Some  one  has  said  that  that  nation  is  the  happiest  which  has  the 
least  history.  The  theory  being  that  prosperity  follows  a  quiet  ex- 
istence. It  is  likely  that  many  historians  and  philosophers  would  quarrel 
with  the  truth  of  that  axiom.     Certain  it  is,   however,  that   the  history 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  333 

of  our  society  for  the  past  year  has  been  one  of  unusual  uneventfulness, 
yet  one  of  unusual  progress  and  prosperity. 


Since  the  last  annual  meeting  the  society  has  issued  its  quarterly 
regularly  as  follows:  July,  1904  (No.  3,  vol.  13),  October,  1904  (No. 
4,  vol.  18)  January,  1905  (No.  1,  vol.  14)  and  April,  1905  (No.  2,  vol.  14). 
Volume  13  comprising  the  quarterlies  for  January,  April,  .July  and  Oc- 
tober, 1904,  was  issued  in  bound  volume  form  in  December  (1904).  It 
makes  one  of  the  most  valuable  and  readable  volumes  of  the  series. 
The  reprint  of  this  volume  was  included  in  the  appropriation  ($7,500)  by 
the  Sixty-sixth  General  Assembly  for  the  supplying  of  each  member  of 
the  legislature  with  ten  complete  sets  of  the  thirteen  volumes.  The  re- 
publication of  these  volumes  amounting  to  the  printing  and  binding  of 
some  twenty  thousand  separate  books  was  completed  in  April  (1905) 
and  the  books  were  boxed  and  shipped  at  the  expense  of  the  appropria- 
tion fund  to  each  member  of  the  legislature.  Double  postals  were  mailed 
to  each  consignee  announcing  the  shipment  and  requesting  acknowl- 
edgement of  its  receipt  by  return  card.  In  addition  to  these  annuals, 
five  copies  of  the  volume  of  the  centennial  proceedings  were  sent  in  the 
shipment  abov^  mentioned  to  each  member  of  the  legislature.  This  was 
in  the  nature  of  a  bonus  to  the  members.  It  will  be  recalled  that  the 
appropriation  of  $10,000  by  the  Seventy-fifth  General  Assembly  for  the 
expens^  of  the  State  Centennial  held  at  Chillicothe  was  not  fully  ex- 
pended and  there  was  left  after  the  payment  of  all  bills  and  the  publi- 
cation of  the  volume  of  proceedings  a  balance  of  $084.79.  It  was  intended 
at  that  time  to  permit  this  surplus  to  lapse  into  the  credit  of  the  general 
fund  of  the  state.  The  members  of  the  Seventy-sixth  General  Assembly 
made  an  appropriation  of  $7,500  to  reprint  the  volume  of  the  Ohio  Cen- 
tennial proceedings  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  each  member  of  that 
Assembly  with  one  hundred  copies.  This  item  of  the  appropriation  bill 
was  vetoed  by  the  Governor.  In  order  that  the  members  thus  deprived 
of  the  results  of  that  appropriation,  might  receive  at  least  a  few  copies 
of  this  book,  by  approval  of  the  Auditor  of  State  and  the  Governor, 
the  society  expended  the  $()84.79  surplus  for  the  reprinting  of  this  Cen- 
tennial volume  thus  permitting  the  distribution  of  five  copies  to  each 
member  of  the  Legislature  and  in  addition  giving  the  society  about  750 
copies   for   exchanges,    libraries,    new   members,    etc. 

The  publications  of  the  society  are  more  and  more  in  demand  by 
the  libraries  and  historical  and  literary  societies  in  all  parts  of  the 
country  as  well  as  in  the  old  world.  The  editor  receives  the  manu- 
script of  many  more  articles  than  he  is  able  to  use.  The  result  of  his 
selection  for  publication  speaks  for  itself.  Many  admirable  article^  are 
received  bearing  upon  historical  subjects  and  events  in  other  states  or 
having   no   especial   significance   to   Ohio.     These  articles  the   editor  re- 

834       .      Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

turns  with  the  statement  that  the  society  and  its  publications  are  devoted 
exclusively  'to  Ohio  archaeology  and  history. 

The  policy  has  been  continued  of  sending  the  quarterlies  as  they 
appear  to  a  list  of  some  350  leading  Ohio  papers.  This  has  proven  to 
be  of  mutual  benefit  to  the  society  and  the  recipient  papers.  Many  of 
them  have  copied  the  articles  or  made  copious  extracts  from  the  quar- 
terlies, thereby  disseminating  the  literature  of  the  society  in  quarters 
where  it  was  of  particular  value  or  interest 


Since  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Society  on  June  3,  1904,  the  Execu- 
tive Committee  has  held  meetings  as  follows: 

August  19,  190^,  (page  558,  vol.  13)  ;  September  19,  1904  (page  89, 
vol.  14) ;  November  28,  1904  (page  91,  vol.  14)  ;  February  7,  1905.  At 
the  last  meeting  mentioned  the  (Committee  took  action  concerning  the 
charges  made  against  the  Secretary  of  the  Society  by  Professor  J.  P. 
MacLean,  formerly  a  trustee  of  the  society,  which  charges  were 
published  in  the  Franklin  News  of  January  7,  1905  and  a  copy  of 
which  was  mailed  by  Mr.  MacLean  to  each  member  of  the  society. 
These  charges  were  made  in  the  form  of  a  letter  addressed  to  President 
Brinkerhoff.  After  due  consideration  the  Executive  Committee  unani- 
mously adopted  the  following  resolution: 

Whereas,  The  communication  of  J.  P.  MacLean,  of  Franklin,  Ohio, 
dated  January  23,  1905,  and  addressed  to  General  R.  Brinkerhoff^  Presi- 
dent of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society,  has  been 
referred  to  the  Executive  Committee  by  the  President:    and 

Whereas,  The  Executive  Committee  after  a  full  and  careful  con- 
sideration of  Professor  MacLean's  letter  to  the  President,  and  the  charges 
and  specifications  set  forth  therein  against  the  Secretary,  E.  O.  Randall, 
and  the   Executive 'Committee   representing  the  Society; 

Therefore,  Be  it  resolved  that  this  Committee  having  the  fullest  con- 
fidence in  its  Secretary,  E.  O.  Randall,  hereby  approves  and  commends 
his  conduct,  both  officially  and  personally,  during  his  long  and  honored 
career  as  the  Secretary  of  this  Snciety,  and  be  v   further 

Resolvi'd,  That  ihc  Committee  has  no  confidi^nce  in,  and  resents  the 
so-called  charges  and  specifications  of  Dr.  J.  P.  MacLean  and  it  requests 
the  President,  General  R.  Brinkerhoff.  to  return  the  same  to  its  author 
with  a  copy  of  this  resolution. 

The  following  members  of  the   Executive   Committee  were  present: 

D.  J.  Ryan.  ^\  F.  Prince. 

W.  H.  Hunter,  S.  S.  Ricklv. 

G.  F.  Bareis.  G.  Frederick  Wright, 

J.  W.  Harper,  E.  F.  Wood,  and 

C.  L.  Martzolkf,  W.  C.  Mills. 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  335 

Each  one  of  the  members  present  voted  in  favor  of  the  above  resolu- 
tion.    Secretary  Randall  was  present  but  not  voting. 

The  meetings  of  the  Executive  Committee  the  past  year  have  been 
less  frequent  than  usual  because  there  was  really  no  necessity  for  meet- 
ings other  than   those  held. 

At  the  meeting  on  August  19,  Mr.  E.  F.  Wood  made  a  verbal  report 
of  his  visit  to  Fort  Ancient  on  July  4  and  5  (as  per  page  558,  vol.  13). 
At  this  meeting  standing  committees  for  the  ensuing  year  were  selected 
as  follows:  Finance:  Messrs  Rickly,  Ryan  and  Bareis;  Fort  Ancient: 
Messrs.  Prince,  Harper  and  Bareis ;  Serpent  Mound :  Messrs  Martzolff, 
Hunter  and  Randall;  Museum  and  Library:  Messrs.  Wright,  Greehough 
and  Brinkerhoff;    Publications:    Messrs.  Wright,  Ryan  and  Randall. 

On  Mnnday,  August  29,  in  accordance  with  the  decision  of  the 
Executive  Committee  at  its  previous  meeting  (August  19)  members  of 
the  Executive  Committee  and  certain  invited  state  officials  made  a  visit 
of  inspection  to  Fort  Ancient  as  described  on  page  259,  vol.  13. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  on  September  19,  the 
resignation  of  Professor  J.  P.  MacLean  both  as  trustee  and  life  mem- 
ber of  the  society  was  accepted  and  at  the  meeting  on  November  28, 
Hon.  R.  E.  Hills  of  Delaware  was  selected  to  fill  out  Mr.  MacLean's 
unexpired  term  which  would  terminate  at  the  next  annual  (this  meet- 
ing). At  tlie  Executive  Committee  meeting  on  February  7,  Messrs  Ryan, 
Mills  and  Randall  were  appointed  a  committee  to  fix  the  date  and  the 
program  for  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Society.  This  committee  met  at 
various  dates  and  after  a  personal  consultation  wiih  President  Brinker- 
hoff fixed  the  date  of  the  annual  meeting  upon  Friday.  June  2.  It  was 
decided  to  invite  Professor  Frederick  Starr  of  the  Chicago  University 
to  deliver  an  address  to  the  society  and  invited  guests  on  the  evening 
of  June  2d  at  the  auditorium.  Ohio  State  University.  It  was  further 
decided  to  arrange  for  an  excursion  to  Fort  Ancient  on  the  following 
day,  (Saturday,  June  3d),  the  Governor  having  acquiesced  in  that  date 
as  being  one  convenient  for  his  acceptance  of  an  invitation  by  the  society 
to  accompany  the  excursion. 


In  addition  to  the  usual  duties  of  the  Secretary  in  looking  after  the 
business  affairs  of  the  society  and  editing  its  publications,  he  paid  a  visit 
to  the  St.  Louis  exposition  on  June  15  and  16  at  which  time  he -inspected 
the  exhibit  being  made  by  the  society  under  the  direction  of  Curator 
Mills  in  the  quarters  assigned  for  that  purpose  in  the  Anthropological 
Building.  (See  page  55.  vol.  13).  On  September  H  to  the  10th  inclusive 
the  Secretary  accompanied  by  Assistant  Tren surer  Wood  visited  the  St. 
Louis  Exposition  when  further  inspection  of  the  exhibit  of  the  society 
and  its  value  was  made.  During  this  visit  in  company  with  a  party  of 
archaeologists  including  Curator  Mills,  Professor  Starr  of  Chicago.  Messrs. 

886  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  Publications. 

Wood  and  Randall,  made  a  trip  to  the  famous  Cahokia  Mound  located 
in  Illinois  on  the  Mississippi  River  opposite  St.  Louis.  This  is  the 
largest  mound  now  remaining  constructed  by  the  mound-builders.  Prof. 
Mills  in  his  report  will  make  full  statement  concemng  the  exhibit  of 
the  society  at  the  St.  Louis  exposition. 

The  secretary  was  invited  t)y  the  program  committee  to  address  the 
Historical  Section  of  the  International  Congress  of  Arts  and  Sciences, 
held  at  the  St.  Louis  Exposition,  September  19-25,  1904.  The  secretary 
was  unable  to  comply,  owing  to  other  engagements  at  that  time,  but 
Prof.  Mills,  our  curator,  received  a  similar  invitation  and  represented 
the  society  by  an  address  in  the  section  in  Archaeology  of  that  congress. 

On  October  11,  the  Secretary  was  invited  as  representative  of  the 
society  to  be  present  at  the  dedication  of  the  Soldiers*  and  Sailors*  Me- 
morial Hall  at  Columbus.  The  exercises  were '  held  in  the  open  air 
at  the  site  of  the  building  in  the  afternoon  when  the  corner-stone  was 
laid.  In  the  evening  an  open  camp  fire  was  held  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Wells  Post  and  the  McCoy  Post,  G.  A.  R.  in  the  auditorium 
of  the  Board  of  Trade  (Columbus),  at  which  the  Secretary  was  one  of 
the  speakers. 

On  November  5,  the  Secretary  accompanied  by  Messrs  Harper  and 
Martzolff  of  the  Executive  Committee  paid  a  visit  to  Serpent  Mound 
an  account  of  which  is  found  on  page  92,  vol.  14. 

On  Friday,  November  18,  the  famous  Liberty  Bell,  from  Inde- 
pendence Hall,  Philadelphia,  passed  through  Columbus  on  its  return 
trip  from  St.  Louis  to  its  home  in  the  Quaker  City.  Secretary  Randall 
in  accordance  with  the  request  of  Mayor  Jeffrey  of  Columbus  repre- 
sented the  society  in  a  committee  composed  of  representatives  from  other 
patriotic,  educational  and  historical  societies.  The  purpose  of  this  com- 
mittee was  to  give  a  fitting  reception  to  the  Bell  upon  its  stop-over  of 
half  an  hour  in  the  Union  Depot.  The  Secretary  selected  a  number 
of  the  local  members  of  the  society  to  be  present  at  its  reception.  A 
full  account  of  this  will  be  found  on  page  04,  vol.   14. 

On  December  28-30,  lf)(>4,  Mr.  A.  J.  Baughman,  Mansfield,  and 
Secretary  E.  O.  Randall  represented  the  society,  as  per  their  selection 
by  the  Executive  Committee,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  .\mcrican 
Historical  Association  held  in  Chicago.  There  were  also  present  at  that 
meeting  Miss  Martha  J.  Maltby.  Columbus.  Mr.  Nelson  W.  Evans.  Ports- 
mouth and  Dr.  C.  E.  .Slocum.  Defiance,  all  life  members  of  The  Ohio 
State  Archieological  and  Historical  Society.  .\  statement  of  the  meet- 
ing of  the  American  Historical  Association  will  be  found  on  page  219^ 
vol.  14. 


Since  the  last  annual  meeting  (June  3,  1904),  there  have  been  re- 
ceived  into   life   membership   of   the   society    the   following: 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting^  Etc.  337 

Hon.  Jeptha  Garrard  and  Judge  James  B.  Swing,  Cincinnati;  Hon. 
E.  V.  Hale,  Cleveland ;  Prof.  G.  A.  Hubbell,  Berea,  Ky. ;  Prof.  John  D. 
H.  McKinley,  Mr.  Frank  S.  Brooks  and  Miss  Martha  J.  Maltby,  Co- 
lumbus; Dr  C.  E.  Slocum,  Defiance;  Mr.  Stephen  B.  Cone,  Hamilton; 
Hon.  Ross  J.  Alexander,  Bridgeport;  Mr.  George  W.  Vanhorn,  Findlay, 
Mrs.  Mary  McArthur  Tuttle,  Hillsboro;  and  Prof.  Stephen  B.  Peet, 
Mrs.  Mary  McArthur  Tuttle,  Hillsboro;  Prof.  Stephen  B.  Peet,  Chicago; 
Mr.  E.  F.  Wood,  Columbus ;  Prof.  J.  H.  Beal,  Scio. 

Dr.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  Pastor  of  Plymouth  Church,  Brooklyn, 
was  elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  society  in  recognition  of  his 
being  the  author  of  a  book  entitled  "The  Quest  of  John  Chapman" 
founded  upon  the  story  of  ^7oHnnie  Appleseed,"  one  of  the  unique  and 
original  characters  in  early  Ohio  history. 


On  February  29,  1905,  Governor  Myron  T.  Herrick,  re-appointed 
Professor  B.  F.  Prince,  Springfield,  and  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall,  Columbus, 
as  trustees  of  The  Ohio  State  Archseological  and  Historical  Society 
for  a  term  of  three  years  ending  February,  1908. 

The  report  of  the  Secretary  was  unanimously  adopted  and 
ordered  placed  on  file. 

Prof.  Mills  being  called  upon  for  his  annual  report  submit- 
ted the  following: 


I  have  the  honor  as  Curator  and  Librarian,  to  make  my  annual 
report  upon  the  condition  of  the  museum  and  library  and  upon  the 
Archaeological  Exhibit,  made  by  the  Society,  at  the  Universal  Exposition, 
St.  Louis,  1904. 

During  the  year  the  Archaeological  Museum  has  grown  rapidly,  ad- 
vancing far  beyond  our  expectations  and  adding  several  collections  of 
value  from  portions  of  the  state,  not  heretofore  represented  in  the 
museum.  I  also  placed  on  exhibition  a  portion  of  the  material  secured 
during  our  explorations  in  the  field. 

At  the  present  time  every  available  space  that  can  be  used  for  exhi- 
bition purposes  has  been  utilized  and  occupied,  and  I  hope  you  will 
visit  the  museum  in  Page  Hall  and  see  for  yourselves  the  crowded  con- 
dition and  the  many  obstacles  which  materially  hinder  our  progress  and 
that  each  of  you  will  feel  that  it  is  his  individual  duty  to  devote  every 
honorable  effort  to  secure  a  permanent  and  adequate  home  for  the  largest 
and  finest  archaeological  collection  in  Ohio.  If  this  home  is  provided, 
Ohio  will  have  the  largest  archaeological  museum,  representing  one  state, 
in  this  country,  if  not  in  the  world. 

Situated  as  we  are  in  the  very  heart  of  a  country  once  occupied 
by   a   pre-historic  people,   whose   little   villages  lie   buried   in   almost   all 

Vol.  XIV.— 22. 

,838  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

the  river  valleys  in  Ohio,  it  behooves  us  as  a  Society  to  continue  the 
work  of  exploration,  adding  what  little  we  can  to  archaeological  science, 
and  keeping  abreast  with  other  states  engaged  in  the  same  work. 

A  few  years  ago  Ohio  was  alone  in  this  work  but  by  her  explora- 
tions, publications  and  exhibitions  she  has  enlisted  the  attention  of 
other  states  which  at  present  are  engaging  in  the  care  and  protection  of 
archaeological  remains,  the  exploration  of  mounds  and  village  sites  and 
the  proper  publication  of  the  results  of  such  explorations.  This  means  a 
concerted  action  along  the  lines  of  exploration  in  the  various  states.  At 
no  time  in  the  history  of  the  science  is  the  outlook  for  advancement  so  flat- 
tering and  widespread  and  with  this  combined  effort  in  archaeology  we  will 
be  able  to  present  as  perfect  a  history  of  early  man  in  this  country  as  it 
is  possible  to  secure.  However  to  bring  this  about  in  our  own  slate, 
we  must  not  feel  that  because  our  explorations  have  been  successful 
and  we  have  obtained  great  quantities  of  valuable  specimens  our  efforts 
should  be  diminished,  on  the  contrary,  what  has  been  accomplished  in 
our  field  explorations  and  publications  should  be  our  incentive  to  still 
better  and  greater  work,  so  the  society  can  feel,  in  later  years,  no 
regret  over  lost  opportunities.  At  present  we  are  practically  free  from 
invasions  by  other  institutions  outside  of  our  state,  for  the  purpose  of 
carrying  away  our  state  treasures,  and  this  will  no  doubt  continue  so 
long  as  we  put  forth  the  effort  that  is  expected  of  us. 

I  wish  to  call  your  attention  to  the  historical  museum  and  library 
and  ask  you  to  note  its  rapid  growth  showing  that  the  quarters  are  inade- 
quate for  our  present  needs,  however,  I  feel,  we,  as  a  Society,  are  not 
making  the  necessary  effort  incumbent  upon  us,  to  secure  the  state 
papers  and  even  the  libraries  of  our  most  prominent  men  in  Ohio,  who 
have  figured  in  making  our  state  and  country  great. 

No  other  state  has  such  a  storehouse  of  historical  material.  We 
need  to  collect  more  data  during  the  time  before  Ohio  became  a  state, 
for.  certainly  much  history  must  be  written  concerning  Ohio's  part  in 
the  American  Revolution.  Although  not  a  state  at  that  time,  yet  the 
important  events  occurring  within  her  borders,  between  the  years  1774 
and  1800,  makes  Ohio  the  most  important  western  countVy  in  the 
struggle  for  the  independence  of  the  United  States.  Therefore  I  feel 
assured  that  you  are  all  of  one  opinion,  that  the  vast  resources  of  our 
state,  both  archaeologically  and  historically  should  be  properly  collected 
and  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  public.  Our  plans  have  been  perfected 
to  do  this  and  what  we  most  need  is  a  building  to  properly  care  for  and 
display  the  many  valuable  specimens  that  would  come  to  us  merely 
for  the  asking.  At  present  we  cannot  even  take  care  of  collections  that 
come  to  us  unsolicited,  especially  if  requested  to  place  collections  on 
exhibition ;  however  we  never  refuse  to  receive  them  and  place  them  in 
storage  in  our  basement  rooms  if  such  arrangements  can  be  made. 

I  cannot  at  the  present  time  tell  you  just  how  many  specimens  we 
have  in  the  museum  as  we  are  Vvorking  on  the  new  card  catalog,  but  it 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  339 

will  not  fall  short  of  50,000  and,  combined  with  those  belonging  to  the 
University  we  have  an  archaeological  museum  of  more  than  75,000  speci- 
mens representing  Ohio  alone.  In  the  Library  we  have  2,432  volumes 
recorded  in  the  accession  book  and  have  several  hundred  volumes  to 
add  to  our  accession  list  as  soon  as  the  additions  can  be  made. 

During  the  session  of  the  Ohio  Legislature,  1901-2,  a  bill  was  intro- 
duced and  passed  authorizing  our  Society  to  make  an  archaeological  ex- 
hibit at  the  Universal '  Exposition,  St.  Louis,  1904,  and  an  appropriation 
of  2,o0U  dollars  was  made  to  pay  the  expenses  of  such  an  exhibit.  The 
Society  directed  me  to  prepare  and  take  charge  of  this  exhibit.  Accord- 
ingly on  the  19th  of  March  I  shipped  to  St.  Louis,  the  exhibit  prepared 
from  selections  in  the  museum,  together  with  suitable  display  cases, 
purchased  for  that  purpose.  The  rooms  assigned  us  in  the  Anthropology 
Building,  Exposition  grounds,  were  not  well  adapted  for  a  display  room, 
consequently  our  efforts  were  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  make  our  exhibit 
attractive  and  instructive. 

We  completed  the  installation  some  time  before  the  openmg  day  and 
received  congratulations  from  the  Chief  of  the  Department  of  Anthro- 
pology and  other  officials  of  the  Exposition  for  presenting  the  first  com- 
plete exhibit  in  the  building,  ready  on  the  opening  day.  I  remained 
with  the  exhibit  during  the  entire  period  of  the  Exposition  and  at  the 
close  of  the  Exposition,  packed  and  returned  the  exhibit  without  breakage 
or  the  loss  of  a  single  specimen,  besides  the  return  to  the  museum  of 
more  than  one  thousand  dollars'  worth  of  cases,  furniture,  casts,  draw- 
ings, photographs,   maps,  etc. 

The  exhibit  for  the  most  part  consisted  of  material  secured  jDy  our 
surveys  during  the  last  four  (4)  years  in  the  field,  consisting  principally 
of  artifacts  from  the  Baum  Village  Site,  Gartner  Mound  and  Village  Site, 
Adena  Mound  and  the  Harness  Mound,  occupying  in  all  six  cases  while 
the  other  eight  cases  were  used  in  displaying  typical  specimens  from  vari- 
ous sections  of  Ohio. 

The  large  plaster  cast  of  Fort  Ancient  which  we  had  prepared  for 
this  exhibit  was  so  large  that  it  was  impossible  to  get  it  into  the  exhibit 
room  at  St.  Louis,  consequently  this  proposed  interesting  feature 
of  our  exhibit  we  were  compelled  to  leave  at  home.  However  in  its 
stead  I  took  the  large  drawing  of  the  Fort  and  hung  it  on  the  east  wall 
of  the  room,  together  with  enlarged  photographs  of  all  the  most  important 
points  of  the  Fort.  The  large  drawing  of  the  Serpent  Mound  Park 
was  hung  upon  the  west  wall  together  with  enlarged  photographs  of  the 
most  important  parts  of  the  park.  Two  large  casts,  one  of  the  Serpent 
Mound,  which  was  placed  at  the  wc^t  end  of  the  exhibit  room,  and  one 
of  Fort  Hill  of  Highland  county,  which  was  placed  at  the  east  end 
of  the  room,  attracted  a  great  deal  of  attention.  Upon  the  walls  of  the 
room  were  placed  enlarged  photographs  of  field  explorations. 

The  entire  collection  was  labelled  with  neat  printed  labels  for  all 
specimens  and  a  large  display  label  for  cases  together  with  maps  show- 

340  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications, 

ing  location  of  all  important  finds.  The  photographs  and  drawings  were 
also  labelled,  so  that  it  was  an  easy  matter  for  visitors  to  examine  the 
collection  intelligently  without  the  aid  of  a  guide  book. 

The  personnel  of  the  Jury  in  the  section  of  Archaeology,  passing 
upon  our  exhibit  was  as  follows: 

Prof.  M.  H.  Saville,  Columbia  Univ.  Chairman. 
Dr.  J.  C.  Alves  de  Lima,  Brazil,  Vice  Chairman. 
Dr.  G.  G.  MacCurdy,  Yale  Univ.,  Secretary. 
Madam  Zelia  Nuttall,  Mexico. 

This  committee  was  unanimous  in  awarding  to  our  Society  the 
Grand  Prize  for  the  most  complete  and  besft  arranged  archaeological  ex- 
hibit in  the  Exposition  —  thus  giving  us  priority  over  the  exhibits  of  all 
other  states  and  other  countries.  The  committee  further  honored  our 
Society  by  awarding  me  as  the  Curator,  the  Gold  Medal,  for  the  suc- 
cessful and  valuable  explorations  made  among  the  Ohio  mounds  by  our 
Society  under  my  supervision.  The  Committee  especially  commended  the 
exhumations  in  the  Gartner  and  Adena  mounds. 

During  the  meeting  of  the  International  Congress  of  Arts  and 
Science,  September  19-25,  1904,  I  was  invited  to  read  a  paper  before 
the  Department  of  Anthropology,  Section  of  Archaeology,  and  presented 
a  paper  upon  the  results  of  the  explorations  of  the  Harness  Mound.  I 
was  also  elected  Secretary  of  the  Section. 

During  my  stay  in  St.  Louis  I  was  invited  to  speak  upon  the  archaeo- 
logical work  in  Ohio  before  the  members  of  the  Missouri  Historical  So- 
ciety; to  teachers  of  several  high  schools  upon  the  Cahokia  Group  of 
inounde  and  to  several  scientific  clubs  upon  the  explorations  in  Ohio. 

I  also  received  the  following  letter  from  the  Department  of  Anthro- 
polog>'  which  may  be  of  some  interest: 

St.  Louis,  U.  S.  A.,  November  15,  1904. 

Doctor  Wm.  C.  Mills.  Ohio  State  Exhibit,  Anthropolo'^y  Building. 

My  Sir:  —  With  the  approval  of  thf  Direcior  of  Exhibits 
under  authority  vested  in  him  by  the  Presidct^t  »^f  the  Louisiana  Purchase 
Exposition  Company,  and  in  reco|2jnition  of  ilio  cnnfi.Unce  rcimsed  in 
your  abilities  and  training,  1  have  the  honor  to  dc>ip:vitc  you  Honorary 
Superintendent   of  Arch.Tolo^y  in   this   nei)artnient. 

This  action  is  inspired  larjjely  by  the  desire  to  conv(  v  to  you  some 
token  of  appreciation  not  merely  of  the  hicjh  value  »»f  vour  special  ex- 
hibit in  the  Anthropology  Buildinp:  but  of  the  scientinc  and  scholarly 
character  you  have  constantlv  aided  in  giving  lo  thi^  Dei^artment. 

In  case  you  find  it  consistent  with  your  duties  toward  the  institution 
and  state  you  have  so  e^Ficientlv  represented  to  prepare  a  general  report 
on  the  arch.Tolf "gic  exhibits  of  the  Department.  T  should  greatly  appre- 
ciate the  favor  and  shotild  tnke  much  pleasure  in  incorporating  the 
same  in  the  general  report  of  the  Departmeri  for  nublication  by  the 
Exposition  Company. 

With  assurances  of  consideration.   T  renin iii. 

Yours   respect fullv. 

W.    J.    McGee,    Chief. 

Tzi'cntieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  341 

During  my  work  at  the  exposition  the  members  of  the  Mis- 
souri Historical  Society  did  much  to  make  my  stay  in  St.  Louis  pleas- 
ant and  profitable,  planning  many  excursions  for  our  entertainment  and 
in  many  other  ways  making  our  stay  most  enjoyable. 

I  wish  to  thank  the  officers  and  members  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee who  have  aided  me  in  the  great  undertakings  of  the  past  year 
which  have  been  crowned  with  such  splendid  success. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

W.  C.  Mills. 

Following  the  report  of  the  Curator,  the  Secretary  submit- 
ted brief  reports  from  the  Chairmen  of  the  Committees  on  Ft. 
Ancient  and  Serpent  Mound,  as  follows: 


The  Committee  on  Fort  Ancient  have  made  several  visits  to  the 
Fort  during  the  past  year.  They  found  the  grounds  well  kept  under 
the  care  and  supervision  of  Mr.  Warren  Cowan,  who  has  been  the 
custodian  for  a  number  of  years.  The  various  improvements  made  from 
year  to  year  are  beginning  to  show  very  favorably.  The  grounds  are 
growing  more  beautiful  continually,  and  arc  a  delight  to  all  who  visit 
them.  The  buildings  are  kept  in  good  order  and  everything  about  the 
Fort   shows  constant  care. 

Signed.  B.  F.  Prince.  Chairman. 


On  Saturday.  November  5,  1904,  the  committee  on  Serpent  Mound, 
consisting  of  Messrs  Harper,  Randall  and  Martzolff,  spent  the  day  at 
Serpent  Mound  R^rk.  The  committee  found  it  in  excellent  condition. 
The  grounds  are  covered  with  a  thick  growth  of  grass  and  everything 
gave  evidence  of  good  care.  The  mound  itself  is  in  a  perfect  state  of 
preservation,   being  protected  by  a  heavy  sod  which  prevents  erosion. 

The  custodian,  Mr.  Daniel  Wallace,  is  careful  and  painstaking  in 
his  duties.  He  looks  after  the  fences  and  buildings  of  the  park  and 
maintains  them  in  splendid  shape.  The  Society  is  certainly  fortunate 
in  having  such  an  efficient  guardian  of  its  property. 

The  Serpent  Mound  Park  is  becoming  more  popular  each  year,  being 
\isited  by  hundreds  of  people  annually.  The  care  and  preservation  of 
this  pre-historic  earthwork  by  our  Society  is  being  appreciated  not 
only  by  archcTologists  in  all  lands  but  by  the  officials  of  our  state  govern- 
ment and  especially  by  the  students  of  archieology  in  Ohio. 

C.  L.  Martzolff    Chairman. 

342  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

The  reports  of  the  committees  as  submitted  were-  received 
and  ordered  placed  on  file. 

The  report  of  Assistant  Treasurer  E.  F.  Wood,  in  behalf  of 
Treasurer  S.  S.  Rickley,  was  as  follows : 

[For  the  year  ending  February  1,  1906.] 


Balance  on  hand,  February  1st,  1904 $1,005  90 

Life  Membership  Dues   -. 250  00 

Active  Membership  Dues 99  00 

Books  sold 80  50 

Subscriptions    21  00 

Refunded  8  20 

Interest 121  05 

From  Treasurer  of  State: 

Appropriation  for  Current  Expenses 2,458  57 

Appropriation  for  Publications  2,228  20 

Appropriation  for  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition 2,251  24 

Appropriation  for  Field  Work,  Ft.  Ancient  and  Serpent 

Mound 1,773  66 

Total   $10,297.32 


Express  and  Drayage $114  14 

Field  Work 209  30 

Care  of  Fort  Ancient 351  72 

Care  of  Serpent  Mound  379  75 

Sundry  Expenses   . : 33  92 

Publications    2.201  55 

Job  Printing  '. 81  00 

Expenses  of  Trustees  and  Committees   224  80 

Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition   2.'i54  13 

Salaries   (3)    2.(K)0  00 

Museum  and  Library  oOH  05 

1  ransferred  to   Permanent   Fund 130  00 

Postage    00  07 

Balance  on  hand,  February  1st .    10(i5 1 .222  29 

Total   $10, -297  32 

Total   amount   of    Permanent    Fund $4,2<K)  00 

Respectfully  submitted, 

S.   S.   RiCKLY,    Treasurer. 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc,  343 

The  report  of  the  assistant  treasurer  was  received  and  or- 
dered placed  on  file. 


Following  the  reports  of  the  officers  was  held  the  election 
of  five  trustees  for  the  ensuing  year.  The  secretary  announced 
that  those  whose  terms  matured  at  this  time  were :  Prof.  G.  Fred- 
erick Wright,  Oberlin ;  Col.  James  Kilbourne,  Columbus ;  Prof. 
C.  L.  Martzolflf,  New  Lexington;  Judge  J.  H.  Anderson,  Co- 
lumbus; and  Mr.  R.  E.  Hills,  Delaware  (selected  at  the  meeting 
of  the  Executive  Committee  on  September  19,  1904,  to  fill  out 
the  unexpired  term  of  Prof.  J.  P.  MacLean,  resigned).  After 
some  discussion  as  to  the  procedure  to  be  followed  in  the  election 
of  these  trustees,  it  was  moved  by  Mr.  E.  F.  Wood  and  seconded 
by  Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter,  that  the  five  trustees  whose  time  expires 
at  this  meeting,  be  nominated  and  re-elected,  and  that  the  rules 
of  the  society  be  suspended  and  the  secretary  be  authorized  to 
cast  the  ballot  of  the  society  for  the  five  men  named.  This  mo- 
tion was  declared  carried.  (Ten  yeas,  six  nays,  and  several  not 
voting).  The  secretary,  in  accordance  with  the  action  of  the 
meeting  thus  taken,  cast  the  ballot  as  instructed,  and  the  five 
men  designated  were  declared  elected  as  trustees  of  the  society 
to  serve  for  three  years ;  that  is,  until  the  annual  meeting  in  1908. 

The  secretary  here  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Trustees  (.Septem- 
ber 19,  1903),  after  the  death  of  Trustee  Hon.  A.  R.  Mclntire, 
the  committee  selected  Judge  Rush  R.  Sloane,  Sandusky,  to  fill 
the  vacancy.  The  election  of  Judge  Sloane,  according  to  the 
law  of  the  society,  could  be,  however,  only  until  the  next  annual 
meeting,  which  was  held  June  3,  1904.  Judge  Sloane  was  not 
present  at  the  meeting  being  absent  in  Europe,  and  no  action  was 
taken  in  the  matter.  Therefore,  in  accordance  with  the  consti- 
tution, which  states: 

Sec.  I,  Art.  HI.  Trustees  "shall  serve  for  three  years,  each, 
from  the  time  of  their  election,  or  until  their  successors  are  elected 
and  qualified," 

It  is  encumbent  upon  this  meeting  to  take  some  action  in 
regard  to  the  trusteeship  in  question.     It  was  moved,  seconded 

344  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

and  carried  that  the  rules  be  suspended  and  that  the  secretary 
cast  the  ballot  for  Judge  Rush  R.  Sloane  as  trustee  for  the 
next  ensuing  year,  namely,  from  this  annual  meeting  to  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  society  in  1906.  This  the  secretary  did  and  Judge 
Sloane  was  declared  elected. 

-  The  Board  of  Trustees,  therefore,  as  now  constituted  and 
for  the  ensuing  year  will  be  as  follows : 

TERMS  EXPIRE   IN    1906. 

J.  Warren  Keifer  Springfield. 

Bishop  B.  W.  Arnett Wilberforce. 

Hon.  S.  S.  Rickly Columbus. 

Mr.  G.  F.  Bareis Canal  Winchester. 

Judge   Rush   R.   Sloane Sandusky. 

TERMS   EXPIRE   IN    1907. 

General  R.   Brinkerhoff Mansfield. 

Hon.  M.  D.  Follett Marietta. 

Hon.  D.  J.  Ryan Columbus. 

Rev.  H.  A.  Thompson Dayton. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter Chillicothe. 

TERMS   EXPIRE    IN    1908. 

Prof.  G.  Frederick  Wright Oberlin. 

Col.   James    Kilbourne Columbus. 

Hon.   R.   E.   Hills v Delaware. 

Prof.  C.  L.  MartzolflF New  Lexington. 

Judge  J.  H.  Anderson Columbus. 


Rev.  N.  B.  C.  Love,  Toledo,   1906. 
Col.  J.  W.  Harper,  Cincinnati,  190(5. 
Hon.  M.  S.  Greenough,  Cleveland.  1907. 
Prof.  M.  R.  Andrews,  Marietta,  1907. 
Prof.  B.  F.  Prince.  Springfield,  1908. 
Mr.  E.  O.  Randsrll,  Columbus,  1908. 

The  routine  business  of  the  society  having  been  practically 
completed,  President  Brinkerhoff  stated  that  he  thought  the  sub- 
ject of  securing  from  the  legislature  an  appropriation  for  a  suit- 
able building  for  the  use  of  the  society  ought  to  be  considered 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc,  346 

and  some  anticipatory  action  taken  at  this  meeting,  although  he 
did  not  know  exactly  what  form  such  action  should  assume.  He 
stated  the  desirability  of  a  building,  alluding  to  the  magnificent 
buildings  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society,  which  cost  nearly 
$600,000  and  was  furnished  by  the  state,  and  the  New  York 
Historical  Society  building  which  is  now  being  erected  and  which 
when  completed  will  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $700,000,  which 
amount,  however,  has  been  obtained  by  private  subscriptions 
from  the  wealthy  members  of  the  society.  He  said  there  had 
been  a  diversity  of  opinion  among  the  trustees  as  to  where  such 
a  building  of  our  society  should  be  located,  whether  "down 
town"  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  where  it  would  be  easily  accessible 
to  the  public,  or  whether  on  the  campus  of  the  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity where  it  would  not  be  so  accessible  to  the  public  but 
would  be  in  closer  touch  with  the  university  and  the  educational 
interests  of  the  state.  Personally,  at  first  he  had  favored  the 
city  location,  but  had  become  converted  to  the  idea  that  it  would 
be  difficult  to  get  the  legislature  to  provide  a  separate  site  for 
such  a  building,  the  state  not  owning  any  ground  in  the  city 
which  could  be  properly  assigned  for  such  a  purpose:  whereas, 
the  State  University  had  plenty  of  ground  which  would  cost 
the  state  nothing,  and  moreover  the  trustees  of  the  university 
would  welcome  its  location  on  their  grounds  and  supply  light, 
heat  and  many  other  necessary  expenses  for  its  maintenance. 

This  subject  elicited  much  discussion,  and  it  was  finally  de- 
cided that  the  matter  be  referred  to  the  Executive  Committee 
with  the  direction  that  they  take  the  matter  up  at  the  earliest 
possible  moment  and  make  such  report  and  at  such  time  to  the 
society  as  the  committee  might  deem  advisable. 

Prof.  Mills  desired  to  say,  while  the  building  matter  was 
being  discussed,  he  thought  it  only  due  the  university  that  it  be 
credited  with  doing  all  that  was  possible  under  existing  circum- 


stances  for  the  society.  Thev  had  given  the  society  the  use  of  a 
large  part  of  the  building  known  as  Page  Hall,  and  in  fact,  were 
doing  their  utmost  to  care  for  the  present  needs  of  the  museum 
and  library.  There  certainly  could  be  no  complaint  on  the  part 
of  the  society  against  the  Trustees,  President  or  other  officers 
of  the  university  as  thev  were  in  hearty  sympathy  with  the  work 

346  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  the  society  and  were  prepared  to  do  everything  possible  and 
legitimate  in  the  furtherance  of  its  progress. 

The  President  at  this  point  introduced  Prof.  J.  H.  -Beal,  of 
Scio  Collee:e,  a  life  member  of  the  society  and  formerly  a  mem- 
her  of  the  lep^islature.  Prof.  Beal  in  a  few  graceful  \vords  ac- 
knowledged his  interest  in  the  society,  complimenting  its  publi- 
cations and  work,  and  stated  facetiously  that  he  belonged  to  that 
section  of  the  society  w^hich  Mr.  Hunter  had  designated  as  "the 
crank  section,"  namely,  the  archaeological  branch.  He  had  vis- 
ited nearly  all  of  the  prehistoric  works  of  the  Mississippi  Valley, 
and  hoped  to  visit  in  due  time  all  those  he  had  omitted.  He 
thought  one  of  the  chief  purposes  of  this  society  should  be  to  get 
the  people  of  Ohio  interested  in  the  preservation  of  the  prehistoric 

Mr.  Archer  B.  Hulbert,  a  life  member  of  the  society  and  now 
the  distinguished  author  of  "Historic  Highways,"  was  present  and 
spoke  in  a  complimentary  vein  of  the  work  of  the  society,  saying, 
however,  that  in  his  travels  al)0ut  the  state  he  had  concluded  that 
the  society  was  more  popularly  known  for  its  archaeological  work 
than  for  its  historical  work.  He  thought  the  society  ought  to 
strengthen  its  work  along  the  line  of  the  collecting  of  publications 
of  original  historical  papers,  mentioning  as  an  example  the  origi- 
nal publications  in  the  British  Museum  of  Boquet's  Expedition  into 
Ohio  in  1764.  He  thouc:ht  there  was  a  great  field  for  activity 
among  the  individual  members  of  the  society  in  seeking  out 
valuable  original  manuscripts  and  securing  them  for  the  society 
for  publication.  There  were  already  in  the  librar}'  of  the  Wis- 
consin Historical  Society  and  the  Carnegie  Library  at  Pittsburg 
many  valuable  documents  pertaining  to  the  early  history*  of  Ohio, 
copies  of  which  could  be  secured  for  the  Quarterly  of  the  society. 

Prof.  John  D.  H.  McKinley.  a  life  member  of  the  society, 
said  a  few  words  complimentary  of  the  work  of  the  society  and 
especially  emphasizing  the  apparent  need  of  the  society  for  a  per- 
manent home  for  the  manuscripts  and  documents  which  the  pre- 
vious speakers  intimated  that  we  ought  to  collect.  It  was  diffi- 
cult to  secure  these  valuable  documents  so  loner  as  we  have  not 
permanent  and  secure  quarters  for  their  safety  and  accessibility. 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  347 

He  realized  that  the  next  great  field  for  the  energies  of  this  soci- 
ety  is  in  harmonious  action  concerning  a  building. 

Prof.  Frederick  Starr,  the  eminent  ethnologist  of  Chicago 
University,  being  present  as  the  guest  of  the  society,  was  called 
upon  for  an  expression  of  his  views.  Prof.  Starr  proved  to  be 
a  fluent  and  most  interesting  speaker.  He  stated  that  he  had 
been  greatly  interested  in  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting;  that 
his  knowledge  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical 
Society  began  at  the  Buflfalo  Exposition,  where,  under  the  (direc- 
tion of  Prof.  W.  C.  Mills,  our  Curator,  there  was  a  most  com- 
mendable exhibit  of  the  archaeological  department  of  the  society 
and  a  gold  medal  awarded  the  society  as  it  thoroughly  deserved. 
He  was  connected  with  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  at 
St.  Louis  as  Lecturer  on  the  subject  of  ethnology'  and  instructed 
a  class  of  students  for  many  weeks  during  the  continuance  of  the 
exposition.  He  saw  much  of  the  exhibit  of  our  society  and  of 
the  work  accomplished  by  Prof.  Mills.  He  particularly  com- 
mended the  efficiency  with  which  Dr.  Mills  explained  to  the 
teachers,  school  children,  visitors  and  '^archaeological  cranks"  the 
objects  of  interest  which  the  exhibit  of  the  society  presented. 
Prof.  Starr  said  he  was  somewhat  familiar  with  the  publications 
of  our  society  and  that  they  were  exceedingly  high-grade  in 
character  and  form.  He  knew  of  none  better.  Years  ago  he 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Prof.  F.  W.  Putnam  of  the  Peabody 
Museum,  and  was  familiar  with  the  history  of  the  securing  of 
Serpent  Mound  by  Prof.  Putnam  through  the  influence  of  the 
Boston  ladies  for  Harvard  University  and  its  subsequent  transfer 
to  our  society.  That  was  a  much  desired  achievement  both  for 
Prof.  Putnam  and  the  Ohio  Society,  in  whose  hands  it  ought  to 
be.  The  possession  now  by  the  Ohio  society  of  Fort  Ancient 
and  Serpent  Mound,  the  two  greatest  and  most  interesting  relics 
of  the  mound  builders  in  the  United  States,  places  this  society 
permanently  in  the  forefront  of  archaeological  institutions  in  this 
country ;  and  naturally  makes  it  conspicuous  throughout  the 
United  States  and  the  world  at  large.  He  commended  the  work 
of  Secretary  Randall  as  active  executive  of  the  society,  and  for  his 
work  in  the  historical  department  and  then  emphatically  expressed 

348  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

himself  to  the  effect  that  the  society  should  secure  a  building  that 
would  be  exclusively  its  own  and  not  be  combined  with  any  other 
state  interest  such,  for  instance,  as  the  state  library. 

The  remarks  of  Prof.  Starr  met  with  most  hearty  approval 
on  the  part  of  the  meeting,  which  then  adjdurned. 


Immediately  following  the  adjournment  of  the  annual  meet- 
ing of  the  society  there  was  held  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees.  There  were  present  at  this  meeting,  Judge  J.  H. 
Anderson,  Prof.  M.  R.  Andrews,  Mr.  G.  F.  Bareis,  Gen.  R. 
Brinkerhoff,  Judge  M.  D.  Follett,  Hon.  M.  S.  Greenough,  Hon. 
R.  E.  Hills,  Mr.  W.  H.  Hunter,  Col.  John  W.  Harper,  Prof.  C. 
L.  Martzolff,  Prof.  B.  F.  Prince,  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall,  Judge  Rush 
R.  Sloane,  Prof.  G.  Frederick  Wright. 

Secretary  Randall  called  the  meeting  to  order.  Prof.  G. 
Frederick  Wright  was  asked  to  act  as  temporary  chairman.  Sec- 
retary Randall  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  annual  meeting  of  the 
trustees,  which  were  approved  without  alteration  except  that  the 
name  of  W.  H.  Hunter  should  be  inserted  in  the  list  of  the  trustees 
selected  to  serve  on  the  Executive  Committee.  His  name  occurred 
in  the  minutes  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Executive  Committee 
but  without  indicating  his  authority  to  so  act. 

The  trustees  immediately  j^rocccdcd  to  the  election  of  officers 
for  the  ensuing  year.  The  officers  elected  unanimously  were: 
President,  Gen.  R.  Brinkerhoff:  First  Vice  President,  Mr.  G.  F. 
Bareis:  Second  Vice  President,  Prof.  G.  Frederick  Wright: 
Treasnrer,  Hon.  S.  S.  Rickly:  Assistant  Treasnrcr,  Mr.  E.  F. 
Wood;  Secretary  and  Editor,  Mr.  II.  O.  Randall:  Curator  and 
Librarian,  Prof.  W.  C.  !Mills.  The  Trustees  selected  to  serve  on 
the  Executive  Committee  in  addition  to  the  officers  who  are  ex- 
officio  members,  were,  Messrs.  Greenough,  Hunter,  Martzolff, 
Prince  and  Ryan. 

Prof.  Martzolff  called  the  attention  of  the  trustees  to  the  fact 
that  Mr.  Obadiah  Brokaw,  of  Stockport,  Morgan  County,  had 
erected  a  monument  on  the  site  of  the  Big  Bottom  Massacre. 
Since  erecting  such  monument  Mr.  Brokaw  is  anxious  in  regard 
to  the  future  care  of  the  same  and  the  ground  immediately  sur- 

Tiveiilieth  Anmial  Meeting,  Etc. 









■i    ■   . 

I      jR 


1  & 


m  i 




.,  *£*     * 


■■■■^-Tl^-  .-    ,-                .V-  -w 



t  Anclrnt  Station. 

360  Ohio  Arch,  atid  Hist.  Society  Publications. 


rounding  it  In  an  interview  between  Prof.  Martzolff  arid  Mr. 
Brokaw  on  this  matter,  the  latter  had  intimated  that  he  might  be 
willing  to  accept  the  services  of  the  society  in  some  scheme  of 
co-operation  in  regard  to  the  future  care  of  the  monument  and 
property.  This  subject  was  finally  referred  to  the  Executive 
Committee  for  discretionary  action. 

A  committee  of  three,  consisting  of  Trustees  Randall,  Wright 
and  Ryan  was  appointed  to  revise  the  constitution  and  by-lawS 
and  present  that  revision  to  the  members  of  the  society  at  the  next 
annual  meeting. 

The  question  of  salaries  for  the  officers  receiving  compensa- 
tion for  services  was  referred  to  the  Executive  Committee  with 
power  to  act.  The  Y.  M.  C.  A.  was  thanked  for  use  of  their 
rooms  for  the  annual  meeting. 


The  proceedings  of  the  annual  meeting  on  the  afternoon  of 
Friday,  June  2d,  were  fittingly  followed  in  the  evening  by  a  lec- 
ture given  by  Prof.  Frederick  Starr,  of  Chicago  University,  in 
the  Auditorium  of  the  Ohio  State  University.  Prof.  Starr's 
subject  was  "The  Aztecs  of  Mexico,'*  a  subject  with  which  the 
professor  is  not  only  exceedingly  familiar,  but  upon  which  he  is 
probably  the  highest  living  authority.  Prof*.  Starr  has  visited 
Mexico  many  times  during  the  past  years  and  made  lengthy  and 
most  careful  studies  of  the  remains  of  the  ancient  Aztec  tribe. 
His  lecture  was  intensely  interesting,  bringing  as  it  did  the  sub- 
ject at  first  hand  before  the  audience.  It  was  illustrated  by  stere- 
optican  views  especially  prepared  by  Prof.  Starr.  The  lecturer 
gave  a  detailed  account  of  the  historic  Aztec  tribe  of  Indians, 
the  extent  of  the  territory  over  which  they  held  dominion,  their 
form  of  government,  civilization  and  such  of  their  history  as  has 
been  preserved  to  the  memory  of  the  present  j^^eneration.  It 
would  not  be  possible  to  do  justice  to  the  lecture  by  attempting 
even  a  synopsis  of  it  in  these  pages.  Prof.  Starr  overthrew  many 
])revailing  ideas  concerning  the  nature  of  the  Aztec  people  and 
particularly  controverted  the  universally  read  descriptions  of 
that  people  by  such  distinguished  authors  as  Prescott  and  Lew 
Wallace,  whose  portrayals  of  the  Aztecs,  the  lecturer  stated,  be- 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  361 

long  more  to  the  realm  of  popular  fiction  thaa  to  that  of  accurate 
history.  The  lecturer  gave  it  as  a  result  of  his  studies  that  there 
was  probably  no  racial  relationship  between  the  Aztecs  and  the 
so-called  Moimd  Builders  of  the  Mississippi  and  Ohio  Valleys. 


On  Saturday,  June  3d,  the  society  for  the  benefit  of  its  mem- 
bers and  invited  guests,  conducted  an  excursion  to  Fort  Ancient. 
The  party  consisted  of  some  sixty  in  number,  among  whom  were 
Governor  and  Mrs.  Myron  T.  Herrick:  Col.  Webb  C.  Hayes, 
Cleveland;  Gen.  J.  Warren  Keifer,  Springfield;  Hon.  M.  S. 
Greenough  and  Miss  Greenough,  Cleveland ;  Prof,  and  Mrs.  G. 
Frederick  Wright,  Oberlin ;  Prof.  I'rederick  Starr,  University  of 
Chicago;  Prof,  and  Mrs.  W.  C.  Mills;  Hon.  Tod  B'.  Galloway; 
Gen.  R.  Brinkerhoflf,  Mansfield;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Geo.  F.  Bareis  and 
Miss  Bareis,  Canal  Winchester;  Mr.  E.  O.  Randall;  Dr.  C.  S. 
Means  and  Master  Russell  Means;  Prof.  M.  R.  Andrews,  Mari- 
etta; Col.  J.  W.  Harper,  Cincinnati;  ]Miss  Kate  R.  Blair;  Prof. 
W.  R.  Kersey;  Prof.  G.  H.  MacKnight;  Prof,  and  Mrs.  Herbert 
Osborn ;  Miss  Anna  Russell ;  Mr.  D.  E.  Phillips ;  Mr.  J.  W.  New- 
ton ;  Miss  Alice  Brown ;  Miss  Martha  J.  Maltby ;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
C.  A.  Covert  and  Miss  Florence  Covert ;  Mrs.  N.  E.  Love  joy  ;  Mr. 
L.  S.  Wells;  Rev.  R.  H.  Cunningham;  Mrs.  Francis  Sessions; 
Prof.  J.  H.  Beal,  Scio;  Prof.  Frank  Cole;  Miss  Gertrude  Hill,  Los 
Angeles,  Cal.;  Mr.  Sherman  Randall;  Mr.  John  L.  W\  Henney; 
Mr.  E.  F  Wood;  Mr.  R.  H.  Piatt  and  Masters  Robert  and 
Rutherford  Piatt;  Mr.  P.  M.  Wetmore ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  O.  K. 
Ellis;  ^Ir,  Clarence  Metters;  Hon.  Alex.  Boxwell,  Red  Lion; 
Mr.  L.  B.  Freeman,  District  Passenger  Agent  of  Pennsylvania 
Lines,  in  charge  of  the  party. 

The  party  arrived  at  the  fort  about  noon  and  after  partaking 
of  a  lunch  at  the  station  inn  proceeded  in  carriages  up  the  hill 
to  the  fort.  A  halt  was  mad^e  at  the  Pavillion  in  the  Old  Fort, 
where  speeches  were  made  by  Governor  Herrick,  Prof.  Wright, 
Prof.  Starr,  and  Prof.  Mills,  introduced  by  Mr.  Randall. 
Prof.  Mills  made  a  brief  statement  of  the  general  plan  of 
the  fort  and  contour  of  the  earthworks.  Prof.  Wright  gave  a 
short  history  of  the  explorations  which  had  been  made  among 

362  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

the  mounds,  emphasizing  the  fact  that  foreigners  —  especially 
the  Englishmen  —  thought  it  worth  while  to  take  relics  from  the 
American  remains  to  the  British  and  other  museums.  He  said 
that  in  fact  to-day  to  study  certain  relics  of  American  Mound 
Builders  it  is  necessary  to  go  to  Salisbury,  England,  which  Prof. 
Wright  expects  to  visit  this  summer.  It  is  only  in  the  last  fifteen 
years,  he  continued,  that  Ohio  has  been  alive  to  the  subject.  But 
the  work  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society 
represents  progress  in  this  line,  as  the  crowded  quarters  of  the 
society  now  reveal.  The  legislature  should  appreciate  the  value  of 
these  things  so  that  we  may  have  a  building  in  Columbus  to  hold 
them.  A  building  which  will  be  the  pride  of  the  country.  All 
scholars  of  archaeology  should  rejoice  in  the  work  of  this  society 
for  the  past  ten  years. 

Prof.  Starr  expressed  a  hope  that  in  the  future  many  other 
famous  remains  of  the  mound  builders  might  come  into  the  pos- 
session of  the  archaeological  society  and  be  preserved,  as  Fort 
Ancient  and  Serj^ent  Mound  now  are.  But  he  said  you  must 
have  the  people  of  the  state  behind  you,  you  must  have  a  legisla- 
ture of  sense  and  you  must  have  a  governor  who  will  be  in  sym- 
pathy with  you  and  not  veto  appropriations  for  such  purposes. 
You  know  there  is  an  old  saying,  "New  York  for  homes,  Pennsyl- 
vania for  barns,  but  Ohio  for  schools."  It  is  true.  I  congratulate 
you  upon  your  schools  of  Ohio.  Because  of  these  schools  you 
have  Fort  Ancient  and  Serpent  Mound  saved. 

Governor  Herrick,  who  followed,  answered  Prof.  Starr  by 
saying  that  the  people  mi.s^ht  expect  even  more  of  the  Executive 
than  merely  to  refrain  from  vetoinj^f  measures  which  the  Icsjisla- 
ture  nii.c:ht  pass  in  behalf  of  the  society.  We  should  contribute 
our  part  towards  tlio  preservation  of  the  works  for  those  who 
come  after  us,  he  said.  **I  agree  with  Prof.  Wright  that  we  in 
Ohio  can  afford  to  look  after  these,  and  I  trust  and  hope  that  our 
state  exchequer  from  year  to  year  can  spare  something  to  devote 
to  this  purpose.  T  conji^ratulate  the  people  of  Ohio  that  the  evi- 
dences are  that  the  race  which  lived  here  so  lon.e  ago  w^ere  a 
virile  race  even  as  we  are  to-day.*' 

Members  of  the  party  then  strolled  to  various  portions  of 
the  Old  and  New  Forts  at  their  leisure,  inspecting  the  exten- 

Twentieth  Annual  Meeting,  Etc.  353 

sive  and  mysterious  embaiikmenl  and  mounds,  enjoying  the 
beauty  of  the  natural  scenery  which  was  in  full  splendor  of 
spring  verdure;  and  the  delightful  weather,  for  — 

"What  is  so  rare  as  a  day  in  June? 
Then,   if  ever,  come  perfect   days; 
Then  Heaven  tries  (he  earth  if  it  be  in  tunc. 
And  over  it  sQftly  her  warm  ear  lays." 

Vol.  XIV.— 23. 


VOL.  XIV.    No.  3.         l^^  dcJJL  J^Y'  '"^ 


There  has  just  appeared  from  the  press  of  Bowen  &  Slocum,  Indian- 
apolis and  Toledo,  a  "History  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin,"  from  the 
earliest  account  to  its  organization  into  counties.  The  authoj  is  Dr.  Charles 
Elihu  Slocum,  a  life  member  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Histor- 
ical Society;  he  has  contributed  many  interesting  and  valuable  articles  to 
its  Quarterly,  and  for  many  years  has  been  an  indefatigable  and  enthusi- 
astic student  of  early  Ohio  history.  The  work,  as  its  name  indicates,  pre- 
sumably deals  with  only  the  northwestern  part  of  the  state,  one  of  the 
richest  sections  in  historic  lore,  but  Dr.  Slocum's  book,  which  contains 
some  GoO  pages  of  nearly  500  words  to  the  page,  naturally  and  at  times 
necessarily  deals  with  facts  and  events  pertinent  to  the  history  of  the 
entire  state.  This  book  is,  therefore,  to  a  very  great  degree,  a  history  of 
Ohio.  Indeed,  both  from  its  local  limitation  and  its  treatment  of  certain 
phases  general  to  the  whole  state,  it  becomes  not  only  valuable  but  is 
really  an  indispensable  addition  to  the  historical  bibliography  of  Ohio. 
The  interest  of  this  book,  therefore,  is  a  general  one  as  well  as  special. 

Dr.  Slocum  with  untiring  zeal  has  gone  largely  to  the  initial  sources 
for  his  information,  namely,  the  original  documents,  as  far  as  accessible, 
in  the  libraries  of  Canada,  England  and  the  United  States.  This  gives  a 
double  vijue  to  his  work.  He  has  begun  at  the  very  beginning,  his  open- 
ing chapter  being  upon  the  geology  of  the  Maume  River  basin,  a  most 
scholarly  summary  of  the  geological  and  topographical  phases  of  the 
portion  of  the  state  in  question.  He  discusses  the  earliest  evidences 
of  prehistoric  man,  following  it,  of  course,  with  the  narratives  of  the  first 
explorers,  namely  the  French  and  the  British. 

The    long   and    complicated   contests    between    the   French    and    the 
British  for   the   possession  of  this  part  of  the   Northwest   Territory  are 
entertainingly  related.     Dr.  Slocum  has  made  a  comprehensive  and  devoted 
1  study  of  the  character  and -history  of  the  American  Indian,  particularly  of 

the  races  and  tribes  of  the  American  savages  which  occupied  at  various 
times  the  Ohio  country.     He  has  with  much  faithfulness  and  painstaking 
'  told  of  their  character,  mode  of  life,  warfare,  and  their  various  relatioii- 

f  ships  with  the  French.  English  and  the  Americans.     Dr.  Slocum  through- 

out the  entire  book  insists  upon  designating  the  ''American  Indian"  as  the 


Editorialana.  855 

"Aborigine,"  which  may  be  in  itself  a  proper  appellation,  but  which  is  so 
seldom  used  by  other  writers  that  in  this  instance  it  often  tends  to  the 
confusion  of  the  reader  as  for  example  when  he  speaks  of  "The  French  and 
Aborigine  War"  instead  of  the  "French  and  Indian  War"  as  it  was  known. 
Dr.  Slocum  has  accomplished  a  great  work.  We  know  of  no  historical 
monograph  on  this  part  of  American  history  which  so  thoroughly  and 
correctly  shows  up  the  continued  and  persistent  treachery  of  the  British 
Government  in  its  dealings  with  the  Indians,  whom  they  at  will  cajoled, 
employed  and  betrayed  as  allies  in  iheir  warfare,  first  with  the  French  and 
subsequently  with  the  Americans.  The  author  succinctly  recounts  the 
various  British  and  Indian  expeditions  into  Ohio  previous  to  and  during 
the  period  of  the  American  Revolution.  Dr.  Slocum  clearly  portrays  in 
proper  color  and  relief  the  relation  of  this  western  history  to  the  colonial 
history  in  the  success  of  the  Americans  in  their  war  with  England  and 
the  organization  of  the  American  republic,  which  was  the  result  of 
that  war. 

The  geographical  terfitory  which  this  history  specifically  covers 
embraces  many  of  the  most  important  and  picturesque  events  in  the 
earliest  history  of  our  state,  such  as  the  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  the  Con- 
federation of  Tccumsch.  the  Expeditions  of  Scott,  Wilkinson,  Harmar, 
St.  Clair,  and  particularly  that  of  Anthony  Wayne;  also  the  chief  western 
incidents  of  the  War  of  18 Ti. 

The  early  pioneer   history  is  followed  by  chapters  on  the  drainage 

)  system  of  the  Maumcc  River  Basin  and  the  organization  of  the  counties 
in    the    Northwest.     His   last   chapter    is    devoted    to   the    development   of 

'  coninumication.  pnl)lic  lands,  roads — private  and  public  —  schools,  libra- 
ries and  so  on.     Dr.  Slocum  writes  in  a  clear,  concise,  indeed  rather  com- 

.  pact  style,  and.  although  the  book  is  as  we  have  indicated,  rather 
vohiminous,  there  is  no  waste  material  and  the  contents  consist  of 
nothing  hut  purely  liistorical  matter.  The  whole  scheme  is  on  the  plane 
of  liigli  historical  character.  The  value  of  the  book  is  not  marred  by  any 
biographical  >ketchc-  or  historical  gossip,  as  the  slang  phrase  is  "It  is 
genuine  go(Kl>  all  the  way  through."  and  the  doctor  has  made  a  most 
valuable  anrl  interesting  addition  to  the  historical  literature  not  only  of  our 
own  state  but  to  the  Northwest.  It  is  copiously  illustrated  with  half-tone 
cuts,  maps,  and  so  on.  The  mechanical  effects  of  the  book  might  be 
improved  in  some  respects,  but  for  this  the  author  may  not  be  responsible. 
This  book  deserves  to  be  in  every  library  in  the  country,  and  no 
library  in  Ohio  with  any  pretense  to  historical  literature  of  the  Buckeye 
State  will  be  complete  without  it. 



The  2d  day  of  May,  1497,  was  one  of  the  most  eventful 
for  great  results  for  good  of  any  in  human  history.  On  that 
day,  John  Cabot,  a  Venetian  by  birth,  but  who  was  then  living 
at  the  old  sea-faring  town  of  Bristol,  on  the  west  coast  of  Eng- 
land, with  eighteen  hardy  British  sailors  weighed  anchor  on  the 
small,  but  good  ship  "Matthew,"  and  passed  out  upon  the  broad 
and  turbulent  waters  of  the  Atlantic  on  a  voyage  of  discovery. 
It  is  probable,  but  not  certain,  that,  his  son,  Sebastian,  accom- 
panied him  on  this  voyage.  The  adventure  was  entirely  at  the 
expense  of  Cabot.  He  had,  however,  obtained  from  King  Henry 
Vn.,  royal  permission  to  carry  the  British  flag,  and  was  com- 
missioned to  "seek  out,  discover  and  find  whatever  lands,  coun- 
tries,  regions  or  provinces  of  the  heathens  or  infidels,  in  what- 
ever part  of  the  world  they  may  be  which  before  this  time  have 
been  unknown  to  all  Christians." 

Further,  he  was  required,  if  he  should  be  so  fortunate  as 
to  return,  to  report  at  the  port  of  Bristol  and  to  "take  a  fifth 
part  of  the  whole  capital,  whether  in  goods  or  money  for  our 
use."  The  return  was  made  in  the  following  August,  but  with- 
out "goods  or  money,"  and  with  nothing  but  a  vague  report  that 
they  had  discovered  land  in  the  north  Atlantic,  hitherto  unknown 
to  the  civilized  world. 

*A11  that  could  be  reported  of  the  voyage  was  that  after 
leaving  the  port  of  Bristol,  the  vessel  held  her  way  to  the  west- 
ward, and  late  in  June  they  came  in  sight  of  land,  and  after  sailing 
some  leagues  to  the  south  along  the  coast,  they  went  ashore  and 
so  were  the  first  Europeans  to  set  foot  on  the  continent  of  North 
America.  They  had  no  thought  that  they  were  standing  upon 
the  shore  of  a  great  and  hitherto  unknown  continent,  or  that  their 
discover^'  of  land  in  these  far  oflF  waters  was,  or  would  become 

Vol.  XIV.— 24.  (357) 

358  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

of  any  special  importance  or  significance.  They  were  not  look- 
ing for  a  new  continent,  but  were  hoping  to  reach  the  east  coast 
of  Asia,  known  in  Europe  since  the  time  of  Marco  Polo,  as 
"Cathay."  Cabot  did  not  live  to  know  that  he  had  discovered 
a  great  new  continent,  which  was  then  and  had  been  for  many 
thousands  of  years  occupied  by  a  race  or  races  of  savages,  whose 
energies  had  been  spent  in  the  hunt  of  wild  beasts  and  in  waging 
war  upon  each  other,  which  wars  between  savage  tribes  and 
nations  were  wars  of  extermination  in  so  far  as  they  could  makie 


The  place  of  Cabot's  landing  has  not  been  definitely  deter- 
mined and  probably  never  can  be,  but  a  committee  appointed  by 
the  Royal  Geographical  Society  of  Canada,  reported  in  1895, 
that  the  weight  of  evidence  is  that  it  was  on  Cape  Breton,  which 
is  on  the  extreme  north  east  coast  of  the  Province  of  Nova 
Scotia.  At  the  place  of  their  landing  they  found  no  human 
inhabitants,  but  did  find  snares  and  devices  for  taking  fisli  and 
game,  which  were  evidently  designed  by  human  minds  and 
wraught  out  by  human  hands.  But  wherever  it  was,  they  seem 
to  have  unfurled  and  planted  the  British  flag  and  made  some 
kind  of  proclamation  to  the  effect  that  they  took  possession  of 
the  land  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain.  Nothing 
could  seem  to  be  more  idle  or  meaningless  than  this  proclamation 
or  outcry  to  the  winds  and  waves  of  this  unknown,  desolate 
rock-bound  coast,  and  yet  it  became  in  time  to  be  the  basis  of 
whatever  title  Great  Britain  had  to  the  continent  of  North 

After  Cabot,  numerous  explorers  came  to  our  shores,  but 
they  seem  to  have  been  satisfied  with  coasting  along  the  shores 
with  no  purpose  or  effort  to  penetrate  the  interior,  or  learn  what 
lay  hidden  behind  the  desolate  coast  line.  It  was  not  until  1534 
that  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Lawrence  River  was  discovered  by 
Jacques  Cartier,  and  it  was  not  until  the  next  year  (1535)  that 
any  successful  attempt  was  made  to  explore  the  interior  of  the 
northern  portion  of  the  continent  to  which  the  St.  Lawrence 
was  the  great  highway. 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places,  359 


In  that  year  (1535)  Jacques  Cartier,  a  French  navigator^ 
ascended  the  St.  Lawrence  to  the  point  of  the  present  site  of 
Montreal.  The  great  Lachine  rapids  prevented  further  progress. 
This  was  thirty-eight  years  after  Cabot's  discovery  of  the  coast, 
during  which  time  no  special  effort  seems  to  have  been  made 
l)y  English  or  other  European  navigators  to  penetrate  the  interior 
of  the  northern  portjon  of  the  continent,  or  to  learn  anything 
of  its  nature  or  conditions.  This  inaction  was  in  strange  con- 
trast with  the  activity  of  the  Spaniards  in  their  enterprises  far- 
ther to  the  the  south.  It  was  some  fifteen  years  after  Cabot's 
discovery  that  the  Spaniards  first  saw  or  set  foot  on  the  North 
American  continent,  and  yet  before  Cartier's  discovery  of  the 
St.  Lawrence,  they  had  overrun  and  conquered  Mexico,  and 
Peru ;  and  it  was  but  four  years  later  that  De  Soto  penetrated 
Louisiana,  Alabama,  Georgia,  Mississippi,  Missouri  and  Arkan- 
sas, and  in  1642  wearied,  worn  and  exhausted  from  three  years 
of  wide  and  fruitless  wanderings  in  search  of  gold  and  treasures, 
died  on  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  and  was  buried  beneath  its 
turbid  waters.  But  it  is  stranger  still  that  the  matter  of  interior 
exploration  was  allowed  to  rest  with  nothing  added  to  the  geo- 
graphical information  of  the  interior,  beyond  Cartier's  exploits 
for  the  long  period  of  sixty-eight  years. 

It  was  not  until  1603  *hat  Champlain  appeared  upon  the 
scene,  filled  with  the  spirit  of  adventure  and  discovery,  and  deter- 
mined to  penetrate  the  recesses  of  the  vast  and  gloomy  wilderness 
and  bring  to  light  the  secrets  it  had  held  hidden  for  so  many 



Samuel  Champlain,  a  French  navigator,  sailed  up  the  St. 
Lawrence  in  1603  and  reached  the  point  (Montreal)  where  Car- 
tier  had  stopped  sixty-eight  years  before.  He  was  a  most  am- 
bitious and  self-reliant  man,  capable  of  great  efforts  and  of  won- 
derful endurance.  He  was  not  then  equipped  for  further  ex- 
plorations, but  resolved  that  he  would  return  at  the  earliest  time 
possible  and  explore  the  depths  of  the  vast  and  gloomy  forest 

t)QO  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist  Society  PubliccUions. 

that  stretched  out  before  him  in  every  direction  as  he  stood  on 
the  top  of  Mount  Real  and  viewed  the  wondrous  scene  as  Car- 
tier  had  done  in  1535.  It  was  five  years  before  he  could  carry 
out  bis  purpose,  but  in  i6o8  he  re-appeared  on  the  St  Lawrence 
CQuipped  not  only  for  explorations,  but  for  the  founding  of  a 
colony  in  the  new  world.  On  the  vessel  with  him  came  a  "French 
lad**  then  about  eighteen  years  of  age,  Stephen  Brple,  destined 
to  become  the  greatest  interior  explorer  of  his  time  and  to  lead 
a  most  singular  and  strenuous  life  and  end  with  a  most  tragic 

When  Champlain  reached  the  site  of  the  present  city  of 
Quebec,  be  determined  that  there  he  would  found  his  colony  and 
$0  proceeded  to  clear  the  space  between  the  river  bank  and  the 
stupendous  cliflFs  upon  which  the  City  of  Quebec  now  stands, 
and  to  erect  log  houses,  where  he  proposed  to  spend  the  winter 
before  proceeding  with  his  intended  explorations.  Brule  assisted 
in  this  work  and  so  became  one  of  the  founders  of  the  City  of 
Quebec,  now  the  most  interesting,  historically  considered,  of  any 
city  on  the  continent. 

The  winter  was  exceedingly  severe  and  the  colony  suffered 
greatly,  but  the  spring  brought  relief  and  Champlain,  having 
made  an  alliance  with  the  Hurons  and  Algonquins,  set  out  for 
the  Iroquois  country,  which  was  what  is  now  embraced  in  the 
State  of  New  York.  The  Iroquois  were  the  fiercest  and  most 
\^ar-like  of  all  the  tribes  known,  and  after  they  had  been  sup- 
plied with  fire  arms  by  the  Hollanders  and  English,  they  carried 
their  war  expeditions  from  the  coast  of  New  England  to  the 
Mississippi  and  from  the  extreme  of  the  northern  lakes,  and  to 
Virginia  and  the  Carolinas.  They  swept  from  Ohio  the  Eries, 
one  of  their  own  tribe,  and  all  other  tribes  having  before  that 
time  had  occupancy  within  the  borders  of  the  states  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio,  Indiana  and  most  of  Illinois.  Those  wide  and  sav- 
age excursions  and  campaigns  could  only  be  carried  on  by  means 
of  the  "water-ways"  which  were  connected  by  "carrying  places/' 
by  the  French  called  "portages." 

It  is  the  purpose  of  this  paper  to  set  out  as  accurately  as 
we  can,  the  main  thoroughfares  which  were  traveled  by  the 
Aborigines  in  their  savage  forays,  and  by  whom  they  were  first 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places. 


seen  and  traveled  by  white  men.     Miss  Lucy  Elliot  Keeler  has 
aptly  denominated  these  highways  as  "the  roads  that  run." 

Champlain  had  learned  from  the  Indians  that  there  was  an 
ample  water-way  from  the  St.  Lawrence  to  the  Atlantic  at  the 
ipresent  port  of  New  York  and  the  intention  was  to  ascCild  tht 
Richelieu,  which  is  the  outlet  of  the  waters  of  Lakes  George  and 
Champlain,  and  by  carrying  their  birch  canoes  from  the  head  of 
those  waters  over  the  "carrying  place"  to  reach  the  waters  Of 

Hudson  River  as  they  flowed  down  from  the  Adirondack  Mdun- 
tains,  and  so  surprise  and  destroy  the  villages  of  the  Iroquois 

in  the  Mohawk  Valley.  Rut  the  plan  failed,  as  when  near  the 
head  of  I.^ke  Champlain  they  unexpectedly  met  with  a  strong 
war  party  of  ihe  Iroquois  when  a  battle  ensued  in  which  Cham- 
])laiii  and  his  Indian  allies  were  successful  and  vanquished  their 
oncniies  with  great  slaughter.  This  was  the  first  time  that  fire 
arms  had  been  used  in  Indian  warfare  among  the  northern   In- 

362  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

dians,  and  the  Iroquois  were  so  terrified  by  the  noise  and  deadly 
execution  of  fire  arms  in  the  hands  of  the  Frenchmen  that  they 
fled  in  every  direction  and  were  pursued  and  slaughtered  in  great 
numbers  by  the  savage  allies  of  Champlain.  Soon  after  this 
decisive  battle,  Champlain  and  his  Indian  allies  returned  to  the 
St.  Lawrence,  from  whence  he  sailed  for  France,  and  the  In-' 
dians  returned  to  their  own  country.  He  was,  however,  again 
on  the  St.  Lawrence  the  next  spring  ( 1610)  where  he  had  engaged 
to  meet  the  Hurons  and  Algonquins  near  the  mouth  of  the  Rich- 
iclieu  River.  Champlain  arrived  in  advance  of  his  Indian  allies, 
and  encamped  awaiting  their  coming.  While  waiting  there,  word 
'was  received  by  him  that  the  Hurons  had  surrounded  a  barricade 
of  one  hundred  Iroquois,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Richelieu,  where 
a  desperate  battle  was  being  waged.  He  and  the  Indians  with 
him  hurried  to  the  assistance  of  the  Hurons.  The  barricade  was 
stormed  and  all  the  warriors  within  were  killed  or  taken  prisoners. 
Not  one  escaped.  After  this  battle  Champlain  arranged  to  re- 
turn to  France  but  with  the  agreement  to  return  the  next  spring 
(161 1 ).  It  was  further  arranged  that  the  Hurons  should  take 
the  young  man  Brule  to  their  far  off  Huron  country  and  that 
Champlain  was  to  take  with  him  to  France  a  young  Huron  (Sav- 
ignon),  selected  by  his  tribe  for  that  purpose.  They  were  to 
meet  again  in  June,  161 1,  and  exchange  hostages.  This  was 
accordingly  done. 

In  this  year  spent  with  the  Hurons  Brule  had  acquired 
their  language  and  habits  of  life  and  wa^able  thereafter  to  act 
as  an  interpreter  for  Champlain  in  his  intercourse  with  the  Hu- 
rons and  Algonquins  both  as  to  war  and  trade. 

Champlain  made  in  all  ten  visits  to  the  St.  Lawrence  from 
1603  to  1633,  during  which  time  he  had  learned  from  the  Indians 
much  concerning  the  lakes  and  rivers  of  the  north-west,  but  as 
for  himself  he  discovered  or  first  saw  no  lakes  or  rivers  of  im- 
portance except  Lake  Champlain  and  the  Richelieu  River.  He 
wandered  far  and  wide  in  many  directions  but  it  cannot  be  claimed 
for  him  that  he  was  the  original  first  white  man  to  discover  or 
see  any  of  these  great  natural  highways  except  as  before  men- 
tioned. In  all  his  wide  wanderings.  Brule  seemed  to  have  been 
in  advance  of  him.     Nevertheless,  Champlain  is  entitled  to  the 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places,  363 

credit,  in  large  part  at  least,  for  directing  the  discoveries  made 
by  Brule. 

Champlain  has  been  frequently  and  generally  accredited  with 
being  the  first  "white  man"  to  see  the  waters  of  Lake  Ontario, 
but  this  claim  cannot  be  allowed,  as  it  is  surely  incorrect.  In 
fact,  it  can  have  no  support,  except  upon  the  assumption  that  the 
explorations  of  Brule  were  the  explorations  of  Champlain. 

In  the  month  of  September,  1615,  Champlain  had  concen- 
trated his  few  Frenchmen  and  many  Indians  of  the  Huron  and 
Algonquin  tribes  at  Lake  Simcoe  in  the  Huron  country,  with  a 
view  of  invading  the  country  of  the  Iroquois,  but  before  the  war- 
riors had  all  assembled,  Brule  with  twelve  Hurons  was  dispatched 
to  notify  the  Carantouans,  who  were  allies  of  the  Hurons  and 
other  Canadian  tribes,  and  who  had  promised  to  assist  them  in  the 
invasion  of  the  Iroquois  country. 

I^ke  Simcoe  is  directlv  north  from  the  mouth  of  the  Humber 
river,  near  where  the  city  of  Toronto  now  stands.  It  was  but 
three  or  at  most  four  days'  travel  for  Brule  and  the  Indians  with 
him  to  reach  the  upper  or  western  end  of  Lake  Ontario  and  by 
crossing  that  end  of  the  lake  they  would  be  within  the  Iroquois 
country  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River;  and  so  if 
they  were  fortunate  enough  to  escape  the  fierce  Iroquois,  while 
passing  through  their  country,  would  reach  the  Carantouan  vil- 
lages by  the  shortest  and  quickest  route  possible. 

The  Carantouan  Indians  were  at  that  time  living  on  the 
upper  waters  of  the  Susquehanna  in  northern  Pennsylvania. 
Brule  and  his  Indian  escorts  reached  the  Carantouan  villages 
without  mishap  or  delay  and  urged  that  tribe,  friendly  to  the 
Canadian  Indians  and  relentless  enemies  of  the  Iroquois,  to  fur- 
nish ^\fi  hundred  warriors,  which  they  had  promised,  to  join 
with  Champlain  and  his  allies  in  an  attack  upon  Onondaga  village. 

Brule  set  out  from  Lake  Simcoe,  directly  south,  on  the  8th 
K}{  September,  161 5,  and  some  days  later,  Champlain  with  his 
Indian  allies  started  for  the  mouth  of  the  Trent  River,  which 
is  near  where  the  city  of  Kingston,  Canada,  now  stands.  Brule's 
route  took  him  direct  to  the  mouth  of  the  Humber  river  (Toronto). 
That  tliev  traveled  with  all  speed  and  haste  may  be  assumed,  as 
their  mission  was  to  notify  the  Carantouans  to  be  present  near 

964  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  'Society  Publications. 

the  village  of  Onondaga  by  the  time  that  Champlain  should  reach 
this  important  stronghold  which  was  the  objective  point  of  the 
expedition.  Champlain  and  his  allies  on  the  other  hand  had  a 
much  longer  and  more  difficult  route.  They  were  required  to 
take  with  them  canoes  for  the  entire  party  so  as  to  cross  the 
numerous  streams  and  small  lakes  which  intervene  between  Lake 
Simcoe  and  the  mouth  of  the  Trent  River.  They  were  also  re- 
quired to  stop  at  different  times  in  order  to  procure  a  supply  of 
game  and  fish  for  their  sustenance.  Brule  reached  the  Caran- 
touan  villages  without  hindrance  or  delay,  but  the  Indians  were 
slow  in  assembling,  and  with  their  feasting  and  dancing  always 
incident  to  going  to  war  much  delay  was  had  and  he  was  not 
able  to  bring  them  to  the  point  of  attack  until  Champlain  and 
his  Canadian  Indians  had  been  repulsed  at  the  above  named 
village.  Champlain's  retreat  was  by  the  same  line  by  which  he 
came,  and  he  finally  reached  the  Huron  country  where  he  was 
compelled  to  spend  the  winter  with  them  on  the  shores  of  Lake 
Huron  (now  called  Georgian  Bay).  "The  roads  that  run*'  had 
been  congealed  into  ice  and  the  thawing  suns  of  spring  had  to 
be  awaited. 

Brule  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Humber  and  stood  upon  the 
banks  of  Lake  Ontario  many  days,  if  not  weeks  before  Champlain 
reached  the  mouth  of  the  Trent  River  near  Kingston,  from  which 
point  he  first  viewed  the  waters  of  Ontario.  The  route  taken 
by  Brule  with  his  Indian  guides  to  Lake  Ontario  was  less  than 
half  the  distance  of  the  route  taken  by  Champlain,  and  it  is  certain 
that  Brule  not  only  saw  Lake  Ontario  but  crossed  it  before  Cham- 
plain had  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Trent  river.  l^)()tli  Champlain 
and  Brule  had  lonji;  been  familiar  with  the  fact  that  such  a  lake 
existed  but  neither  of  them  had  before  that  time  seen  its  waters. 
The  best  and  shortest  route  from  the  Huron  country  to  Ontario 
and  the  St.  Lawrence  was  that  which  Brule  took  to  reach  Lake 
Ontario  and  thence  along  the  north  side  of  that  lake  to  its  outlet, 
and  thence  along  the  descending  waters  of  the  St.  Lawrence  to 
Montreal  and  Quebec.  But  in  the  time  of  war  between  the  In- 
dians  in  Canada  and  the  Jrocjuois  this  route  could  not  be  used 
except  in  such  force  as  to  he  able  to  contend  with  such  parties 
of  hostile  savages  as  might  he  met.     This  is  what  caused  the 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places. 



Hurons   and   Algonquins   to  adopt  the   long,   difficult   and  cir- 
cuitous route  of  the  Ottawa,  Lake  Nipissing  and  the  French  River 

in  order  to  reach  their  homes  along 
the  borders  of  Lake  Huron  and  Lake 

This  great  water-way  leading  from 
the  waters  of  New  York  Harbor  to 
the  St.  Lawrence  is  about  four  hun- 
dred and  fifty  miles  in  length,  with 
only  seven  or  eight  miles  of  portage 
or  "carrying  place."  The  Hudson 
river  furnishes  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty  miles  of  this  water-way,  and 
lakes  George  and  Champlain  and  the 
Richelieu  about  three  hundred  miles. 
It  was  a  singular  coincidence  that 
at  the  same  time  Champlain  was  ex- 
ploring and  making  war  on  the  wa- 
ters of  the  lake  which  bears  his  name, 
^^^^  ^.  J    ,  v^  Henry  Hudson,  an  English  naviga- 

p^  /    !  tor,  was  exploring  the  waters  of  the 

Hudson  river  which  bears  his  name, 
so  in  the  same  year  this  entire  water- 
way was  made  known  to  Europeans. 
The  Hudson  river  was  not,  as  is 
generally  assumed,  discovered  by 
Hudson,  but  by  Giovanni  da  Verraz- 
zano  in  1524,  who  was  sailing  under 
a  commission  from  Francis  I.  of 
France.  Verrazzano  sailed  into  what 
is  now  the  port  of  New  York  and 
some  little  distance  up  the  Hudson. 
This  was  eighty-five  years  before 
Henry  Hudson  -saw  that  stream.  In 
the  meantime  the  French  fur  traders  had  penetrated  that  river  at 
least  as  far  as  tlie  present  city  of  Albany,  but  it  was  not  until  the 
year  1609  that  the  entire  water-way  from  the  St.  Lawrence  to 
the  j)()rt  of  New  York  became  known  to  Europeans. 

366  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist,  Society  Publications. 

For  what  thousands  of  years  this  great  route  was  known 
and  used  by  the  Aborigines  can  neyer  be  known,  but  certainly 
from  the  remote  time  when  human  beings  came  to  inhabit  that 
part  of  the  country.  Since  the  coming  of  Jivhite  men  with  a  view 
of  possessing  the  country,  there  has  been  innumerable  war  expe- 
ditions conducted  along  this  great  water  ro^te  between  the  French 
and  their  Canadian  allies  and  the  English  and  their  allies,  the 
Iroquois.  Important  battles  and  massacres  and  conflicts,  of  every 
ijature,  have  since  that  time  taken  place  on  these  waters  and  along 
their  shores.  It  is  not  within  our  purpose  to  enumerate  even  im- 
portant war  expeditions,  but  we  will  be  pardoned  for  recalling 
a  few  of  the  later  and  more  important  engagements  which  took 
place,  in  which  "white  men"  were  engaged,  as  showing  the  im- 
portance of  this  route  as  considered  by  the  French  and  English 
and  .the  people  of  our  colonies. 

On  the  i6th  of  April,  1755,  a  commission  was  issued  to  Col. 
William  Johnson  of  New  York,  appointing  him  major  general  of 
the  forces  to  be  sent  by  this  route  to  Canada  to  expel  the  French 
from  Crown  Point,  where  they  had  strongly  entrenched  them- 
selves. Sir  William  was  to  have  in  his  commnad  3,500  colonists 
and  British,  and  1,000  Indians.  He  commenced  his  forward 
movement  early  in  August,  1755,  and  on  the  14th  of  August 
arrived  at  Fort  Edward  where  he  was  joined  bv  250  more  In- 
dians. In  the  meantime  Baron  Dieskau,  in  coniniand  of  the 
French  and  their  Indian  allies,  was  marshalling  his  forces  to  resist 
the  incursion  of  Sir  William  and  his  army. 

CJn  the  7th  of  September  the  forces  met  and  a  desperate 
battle  ensued,  which,  after  varying  fortunes,  resulted  in  favor  of 
Sir  William  and  his  forces.  Sir  William  and  liaron  Dieskau 
were  both  wounded  and  the  latter  was  taken  prisoner  and  sent 
to  New  York  and  thence  to  England.  He  was  succeeded  in  com- 
mand by  Montcalm,  who,  on  July  8,  1758,  with  3,600  men  suc- 
cessfully defended  Ticonderoga  against  the  British  (General  Aber- 
crombie  who  assaulted  that  place  with  14,000  men,  of  which  he 
lost  2,000  killed  and  wounded. 

This  water-wav  was  also  the  route  taken  bv  (jen.  Robert 
Montgomery  in  command  of  the  continental  troo])s  in  the  invasion 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  367 

•of  Canada  in  1775.  He  succeeded  in  taking  all  the  forts  on  these 
waters  and  along*  the  St.  Lawrence  until  he  reached  the  City  of 
Quebec,  which  was  the  great  objective  point,  where,  in  an  assault 
made  upon  that  stronghold  December  31st,  1775,  his  forces  were 
repulsed  with  heavy  loss.  General  Montgomery  being  among  the 

General  Burgoyne  was  placed  in  command  of  the  British 
Canadian  forces  in  America  when  he  arrived  early  in  1777.  He 
came  with  a  large  British  (Hessian)  force  of  about  8,000  troops 
to  the  St.  Lawrence  River  where  he  invited  the  Indians  to 
join  him,  many  of  whom  did  so.  He  advanced  along  the  line 
of  the  Richelieu  and  Lake  Champlain  and  Lake  George,  until 
he  reached  the  headwaters  of  the  last  named  lake,  with  a  view 
of  taking  possession  and  holding  the  line  of  the  Hudson  River, 
but  his  plans  were  frustrated.  He  was  hindered,  delayed  and 
defeated  at  Stillwater,  New  York,  September  19th,  and  again 
at  Freeman's  Farm,  October  7th,  and  was  compelled  to  surrender 
with  his  whole  army  near  Saratoga,  October  17,  1777.  So  it  will 
be  seen  that  this  great  highway  from  the  waters  of  the  St.  Law- 
rence to  the  waters  of  the  Atlantic  at  New  York  has  been,  within 
historic  times,  a  great  military  highway. 

Henry  Hudson  was  most  fortunate  in  having  his  name 
stamped  upon  this  important  river.  Not  only  the  Hudson  river 
received  his  name,  although  not  discovered  by  him,  but  Hudson's 
Bay  and  Hudson's  Strait  will  forever  bear  his  name,  although  he 
was  not  the  original  discoverer  or  navigator  of  either. 

It  is  certain  from  maps  and  charts  of  former  navigators, 
particularly  that  of  Sebastian  Cabot,  that  Hudson's  Bay  had  been 
entered  and  partially  explored  nearly  a  hundred  years  before 
Hudson  entered  those  waters.  It  was  on  this  voyage  to  Hud- 
son's Bay  that  he  met  his  sad  fate.  The  ship's  crew  mutinied 
and  placed  him  and  his  son  and  seven  of  the  seamen  in  an  open 
boat  and  set  them  adrift  on  the  desolate  and  gloomy  waters  of 
Hudson's  Bay.  No  trace  of  them  was  ever  found,  although 
when  the  facts  became  known  in  England  a  searching  expedition 
was  sent  out  to  look  for  them.  They  undoubtedly  perished  in  the 
waves  of  that  storm-swept  and  lonely  sea. 

368  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

e'tienne  (Stephen)  brule. 

As  we  have  before  seen  Stephen  Brule  came  to  Quebec  in 
1608  which  was  the  second  visit  of  Qiamplain  to  the  waters  of 
the  St.  Lawrence.  He  wad  with  Champlain  at  the  battle  on 
the  lake  now  known  by  that  name,  in  1609.  He  remained  on  the 
St.  Lawrence  during  the  winter  of  1609-10,  when  he  again  joined 
Champlain  in  a  war  expedition,  and  participated  in  the  biattle  of 
June,  1610,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Richelieu  River,  where  a 
hundred  Iroquois  who  had  barricaded  themselves,  were  entirely 
destroyed  by  Champlain  and  his  Indian  allies.  In  June,  1610^ 
he  went  to  spend  a  year  with  the  Hurons  in  their  country  on  the 
waters  of  Lake  Huron  at  the  foot  of  what  is  now  called  Georgian 
Bay.  His  route  was  up  the  Ottawa  River  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Mattawan,  thence  up  that  stream  to  the  "carrying  place"  leading 
to  Lake  Nipissing,  thence  across  that  lake  to  its  overflow  the 
French  river,  thence  down  that  river  to  the  waters  of  Lake  Huron, 
and  thence  along  the  east  coast  of  that  great  lake  to  the  country 
of  the  Hurons.  Brule  was  certainly  the  first  "white  man"  or 
European  that  ever  passed  over  any  part  of  that  long  and  diffi- 
cult route  or  saw  any  of  these  lands  or  waters.  In  the  spring 
of  161 1,  he  returned  by  the  same  way,  when  the  Indians  came  to 
barter  their  furs  on  the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  to  ex- 
change him  for  "Savignon"  the  young  Indian  whom  Champlain 
had  taken  to  France  the  year  before. 

In  July  (1611)  Champlain  returned  to  France  and  Brule 
remained  among  the  Indians  of  Canada  for  two  years  and  until 
Champlain 's  return  in  1613.  During  this  time  he  roamed  far 
and  wide  in  the  wilds  of  the  Indian  country. 

In  161 5  Champlain  was  again  on  the  St.  Lawrence  and  agreed 
to  go  with  the  Hurons  and  Algonquins  to  the  Huron  country  with 
a  view  from  there  of  invadinj?  the  Ononda<j:a  country  which  was 
in  the  very  center  of  the  Iroquois  tribes.  Their  principal  village 
was  in  the  vicinity  of  Oneida  Lake,  New  York.  The  place  of 
assembling  was  Lake  Simcoe  in  the  Huron  country  and  about  one 
hundred  miles  north  of  the  present  city  of  Toronto, 

As  we  have  before  seen,  Brule  separated  from  Champlain 
and  his  arniv  and  left  them  at  Lake  Simcoe,  and  with  two  birch 

Heater  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  369 

-canoes  and  twelve  Indians  for  an  escort,  descended  by  way  of 
numerous  small  lakes  and  other  waters  to  the  mouth  of  the  Hum- 
ber  River.  This  was  to  the  Indians  a  well  known  highway  by 
which  Lake  Huron  and  Lake  Ontario  were  connected,  and,  except 
in  times  of  war,  was  the  best  and  most  desirable  route  from  the 
Huron  country  to  the  St.  Lawrence.  Brule  crossed  the  upper 
end  of  Lake  Ontario  to  a  point  at  or  near  the  Niagara  River 
and  from  thence  passed  entirely  through  the  Iroquois  country  to 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Susquehanna,  in  Pennsylvania.  After 
the  defeat  at  Onondaga,  of  Champlain  and  his  allies,  Brule  was 
compelled  to  retrace  his  way  to  the  Carantouan  villages. 

During  the  winter  of  1615-1616,  the  restless  spirit  of  Brule 
impelled  him  to  explore  the  Susquehanna  to  its  mouth  where  it 
empties  into  the  Chesapeake  Bay  from  which  he  returned  again 
to  the  Carantouan  country,  and  the  next  spring  the  Carantouans 
gave  him  an  escort  of  five  or  six  warriors  to  act  as  guides  to 
pilot  him  back  to  the  Huron  villages.  He  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  Senecas  while  passing  through  their  country  and  narrowly 
escaped  death  by  torture.  However,  he  ingratiated  himself  with 
the  Senecas,  and  the  next  spring  (1617)  returned  to  his  Huron 
friends.  Here  he  seems  to  have  rested  and  occupied  himself 
in  the  Indian  fashion  of  hunting  and  trapping  until  the  next 
spring  (1618),  when  he  returned  with  the  Hurons  as  they  went 
to  the  St'.  Lawrence  to  trade.  Here  he  met  Champlain,  from 
whom  he  had  been  separated  for  almost  three  years,  and  related 
to  him  his  various  and  remarkable  adventures.  In  the  last  named 
year  Champlain  returned  to  France,  but  Brule  remained  among 
the  Indians.  Champlain  says  of  him  that  he  had  at  that  time  been 
**eight  years  with  the  Indians"  and  had  acquired  their  various 

When,  in  1618,  Brule  had  arrived  from  the  Indian  country 
and  met  Champlain  at  Three  Rivers  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  he  was 
urged  by  Champlain  to  continue  his  exploration  to  the  northward 
and  westward  from  the  mouth  of  the  French  river  from  which 
country  they  had  received  reports  of  copper  mines  and  had  in 
fact  seen  specimens  of  copper  which  the  Indians  brought  from 
that  country.  It  is  probable  that  in  the  summer  of  1618  or  1619 
he  went  north  along  the  North  Channel  to  the  country  of  the 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

Beavers,  who  then  had  their  homes  in  the  region  east  of  the  falls 
of  the  St.  Mary's.     In  the  summer  of  1821  he  was  again  on  the  St. 

Lawrence  from  which  he  returned  to  the  Huron  country  where 
he  met  his  future  companion  and  fellow  voyager,  GrenoUe. 

The   following   diagram   will   sufficiently   indicate  the  lines 
which  Brule  traveled  as  the  first  "white  man." 




In  1621  Brule  was  again  in  the  Huron  country  from  which 
place  with  a  companion,  a  young  Frenchman  named  Grenolle, 
he  started  for  an  extended  exploration  to  the  north'  and  west 
with  a  view  of  ascertaining  the  character  not  only  of  the  lakes 
and  rivers  and  Indian  tribes  but  to  locate  if  possible  the  copper 
mines  of  which  they  long  had  been  informed  existed  in  that 
country.  Leaving  the  Hurons  they  urged  their  canoe  past  the 
mouth  of  the  French  river  and  proceeded  northward  past  the 
Manitoulin  islands  along  the  North  Channel  to  the  falls  of  St. 
Mary's.  The  entire  distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  French  river 
to  the  falls  of  St.  Marys  was  unexplored  (unless  by  Brule  in 
1618  or  1619)  and  to  Europeans  unknown,  except  by  such  in- 
definite and  vague  reports  as  they  might  have  received  from  the 
Indians.  There  is  but  little  that  is  definite  about  this  expedition 
to  Lake  Superior,  but  as  they  were  on  an  expedition  of  general 
discovery  with  the  intention  of  enlarging  the  geographical  knowl- 
edge of  the  white  man.  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  two  such  ven- 

Water  Higlnvays  and  Carrying  Places.  371 

turesome  spirits  as  Brule  and  Grenolle  would  have  stopped  short 
at  the  falls  of  St.  Mary's.  They  would  naturally  and  necessarily 
want  to  know  more  about  the  waters  beyond  from  which  this 
vast  overflow  of  clear,  cold  water  came,  rushing  over  one  of 
the  most  stupendous  and  beautiful  rapids  in  the  world.  Stand- 
ing on  the  banks  of  the  rapids  they  necessarily  looked  out  upon 
the  waters  of  Lake  Superior  and  so  were  the  first  white  men  to 
see  and  discover  the  greatest  fresh  water  body  on  the  globe. 
They  were  gone  on  this  expedition  for  a  period  of  two  years, 
which  would  give  them  ample  time  to  have  reached  the  head  or 
western  end  of  Lake  Superior  where  are  now  the  cities  of  Du- 
lutli  and  Superior.  The  exact  point,  however,  to  which  they 
urged  their  canoe  is  not  known,  but  as  one  of  their  main  objects 
was  to  solve  the  question  as  to  the  *' North  Sea,"  now  known  as 
Lake  Superior,  it  is  impossible  to  suppose  that  they  stopped  short 
of  their  main  purpose.  That  they  went  on  the  waters  of  Lake 
Superior  to  a  nation  that,  to  some  extent  at  least,  worked  the 
copper  mines,  of  which  they  had  previously  heard,  there  can  be 
no  doubt,  as  they  brought  back  with  them  a  large  ingot  of  copper 
whicli  could  not  have  been  had  short  of  the  region  of  Lake  Su- 
perior. It  is  strong  evidence  of  their  having  reached  the  extreme 
head  of  Lake  Superior  that  the  Indians  say  that  the  journey 
from  the  Huron  country  was  thirty  days,  while  Brule  reported 
it  as  four  hundred  leagues,  showing  that  Brule's  estimate  was 
his  own  and  not  what  he  had  learned  from  the  Indians. 

The  historian  Sagard  says  that  Grenolle  reported  "that  a 
nation  living  one  hundred  leagues  from  the  Hurons  worked  in 
a  copper  mine  and  that  he  had  seen  among  them  several  girls 
who  had  the  ends  of  their  noses  cut  off  having  committed 
offenses  against  chastity." 

Sagard  (one  of  the  early  priests  to  visit  the  Huron  waters) 
who  met  and  traveled  with  Brule  and  Savignon  on  their  return 
trip  down  the  Ottawa,  says  of  Brule  "that  this  bold  voyager,  with 
a  I'Venchman  named  Grenolle,  made  a  long  journey  and  returned 
with  an  ingot  of  red  copper  and  with  a  description  of  Lake  Su- 
f)crior  who  defined  it  as  very  large,  requiring  nine  days  to  reach 
its  upper  extremity  and  discharging  itself  into  Lake  Huron  by 
a  fall." 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

It  is  possible  and  even  probable  ihat  Brule  was  the  first  white 
nian  to  see  the  stupendous  falls  of  Niagara.  He  was  in  that  im- 
mediate vicinity  at  least  on  two  occasions  as  early  as  1615-16, 
which  was  before  any  other  European  had  visited  that  region. 
It  may  be  assumed  that  Brule,  who  was  so  intensely  inclined  to 
see  all  objects  and  places  of  interest,  would  not  have  allowed 
\iagara  to  escape  him. 

The  last  few  years  of  Brule's  life  he  remained  entirely  with 
the  Hurons,  who  in  1632  for  some  unknown  cause  barbarously 
murdered  him  after  a  residence  among  them  of  more  than  twenty 
years.  Their  savagery  did  not  stop  at  his  death.  It  is  most 
revolting  says  Parkman,  that  "In  their  wild  and  horrible  ferocity 
to  take  vengeance  on  their  victim,  they  feasted  upon  his  lifeless 

The  following  diagram  will  sufficiently  indicate  the  lines 
■which  Brule  and  Grenolle  traveled  as  the  first  "white  men." 



For  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  Friar  Joseph  Le- 
Caron  received  credit  generally  for  having  been  the  first  white 
man  to  pass  up  the  Ottawa  and  the  first  to  discover  the  waters  of 
lakes  Nipissing  and  Huron,  and  it  is  only  of  late  years  that  this 
error  has  been  corrected.  Modern  investigation  has  shown  that  he 
was  entitled  to  no  such  distinction.  He  in  fact  discovered  noth- 
ing whatever  which  added  to  the  geographical  knowledge  of 
the  country.  He  was  a  devout  and  zealous  priest  in  the  Catholic 
Church,  and  ardently  anxious  to  convert  savages  to  his  faith,  but 

WoAer  Highways  and  Carrying  Places,  97J 

he  was  in  no  sense  ah  explorer  and  deserves  no  credit  as  such. 
He  did  not  leave  France  until  May,  1615,  and  in  dtte  time  arrived 
at  Quebec  with  three  other  priests  of  the  Catholic  Church.  Ht 
was  assigned  to  establish  a  mission  among  the  Huronsj  many  of 
whom  were  then  near  Montreal  where  they  had  come  to  trade 
with  the  French,  and  he  went  direct  to  that  place.  Champlaiii 
had  arranged  with  the  Indians  there  assembled  to  join  them  irf 
a  campaign  against  the  Iroquois  before  mentioned.  LeCarort 
had  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  that  expedition,  but  finding  the 
Hurons  having  finished  their  bartering  with  the  French  trader3 
on  the  St.  Lawrence,  were  about  to  return  to  their  own  country 
preparatory  to  their  campaign  against  the  Iroquois,  he  determined 
to  accompany  them.  He  had  no  connection  with  the  intended 
incursion  into  the  country  of  the  Iroquois.  That  had  been  ar- 
ranged for  by  Champlain  and  the  Indians,  and  LeCaron  simply 
availed  himself  of  the  opportunity  to  obtain  access  to  the  Hurorf 
villages  with  a  view  only  of  propagating  his  religious  faith.  The 
Indians  with  whom  LeCaron  traveled  left  the  St.  Lawrence  ort' 
the  first  of  July,  161 5.  It  was  necessary  for  Champlain  to  post- 
pone his  departure  for  a  few  days,  but  on  the  9th  of  July,  he,  with 
Brule  and  another  French  lad  (probably  GrenoUe)  left  the  St. 
Lawrence  to  join  in  the  expedition  against  the  Iroquois.  He 
reached  the  Huron  country  a  few  days  after  LeCaron  and  the 
Indians  with  whom  he  traveled,  but  Brul6  had  been  for  five  yearil 
in  that  country  and  had  made  yearly  trips  with  the  Hurons  to  the 
St.  Lawrence  along  the  route  of  Lake  Nipissing  and  the  Ottawa 
river,  and  was  as  familiar  with  the  route  and  the  country  as  the 
Indians  themselves. 

Years  before  LeCaron  ever  saw  an  Indian,  Brule  had  lived 
with  them  and  had  acquired  the  language  of  different  tribes  iif 
the  regions  where  he  had  been;  and  he  went  along  now  wittt 
Champlain  as  his  interpreter  of  the  languages  of  the  various 
tribes.  The  claim  as  to  LeCaron  was  based  upon  nothing  more 
substantial  than  the  fact  that  the  Indians  with  whom  he  traveled 
reached  the  Huron  country  a  few  days  in  advance  of  Champlain. 
Most  of  the  early  writers  concerning  the  history  of  that  tim^ 
mention  Brul6  as  having  gone  to  live  with  the  Indians  in  th^ 
summer  of  t6io.  but  they  seem  to  have  fallen  into  the  habit  0# 

Vol.  XIV.— 20. 

874  Ohio'  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

not  considering  him  in  their  narrations.  But  when  it  comes  to 
naming  the  "first  European"  or  "white  man"  in  connection  with 
these  explorations  and  discoveries  Brule  cannot  be  ignored,  but 
must  be  given  place  in  history  which  rightly  belongs  to  him. 
LeCaron  left  the  Huron  country  in  the  spring  of  1616,  as 
soon  as  the  waters  were  free  from  ice.  He  was  only  a  few  months 
in  that  country  during  which  time  he  was  attending  to  his  relig- 
ious duties  and  made  no  incursions  or  discoveries.  Brule  had 
left  him  there  when  he  went  on  the  campaign  against  the  Iroquois 
and  when  he  returned  to  the  Huron  villages,  Le  Caron  had  been 
gone  from  that  country  more  than  a  year. 


John  Nioolet,  a  young  Frenchman,  arrived  at  Quebec  in  the 
spring  of  1618  and  was  immediately  sent  by  Champlain  to  the 
Ottawa  country  to  learn  the  language  in  use  among  the  Ottawa 
tribes.  He  remained  with  them  two  years,  during  which  time 
he  saw  not  a  single  white  man.  Subsequently  he  made  his  home 
for  several  years  with  the  Nipissings  from  whence  he  was  re- 
called by  the  government  to  the  St.  Lawrence  and  employed  as 
an  interpreter  and  commissary.  He  went  again  among  the  In- 
dians where  he  remained  from  1629  to  1632.  This  was  during 
the  time  that  Quebec  was  in  the  possession  of  the  English,  from 
which  place  he  held  himself  aloof  and  remained  away  during 
that  time  in  the  remote  country  of  Lake  Nipissing.  He  returned 
to  the  St.  Lawrence  in  1633  and  the  next  year  (1634)  was  se- 
lected by  Champlain  to  go  upon  an  exploring  expedition  to  the 
regions  further  west  than  had  yet  been  visited  by  white  men. 
The  expedition  was  in  the  interest  of  the  "Association  of  one 
hundred"  who  desired  to  enlarge  their  knowledge  of  the  Indian 
tribes  and  country  with  a  view  of  extending  the  fur  trade,  of 
which  they  then  had  a  monopoly.  A  still  further  object  was  to 
locate,  if  possible,  the  copper  mines  of  which  they  had  heard 
so  much  from  Brule  and  Grenolle  and  the  Indians  around  the 
up|)er  lakes.  Nicolet  was  selected  to  make  a  venture  into  this, 
at  that  time,  unknown  country  except  as  to  such  information  as 
they   had    received    from   the   natives.     They   had    heard   of   the 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places,  375 

Winnebagoes  who  were  at  that  time  located  west  of  Lake  Mich- 
igan, and  Nicolet  was  especially  instructed  to  visit  them  and  also 
any  other  tribes  who  might  be  found  in  that  region. 

It  was  in  1634  that  Nicolet  started  on  his  mission.  He  pur- 
sued the  usual  route  by  way  of  the  Ottawa,  Nipissing  and  the 
French  river,  and  at  the  mouth  of  the  French  river  he  turned 
north  and  west  as  Brule  and  Grenolle  had  done  thirteen  years 
before.  He  held  his  way  along  the  north  shore  of  the  Huron 
waters  to  the  falls  of  St.  Marys,  as  Brule  and  Grenolle  had  done. 
From  the  falls  he  turned  south  along  the  St.  Mary's  river  to 
where  it  enters  the  waters  of  Lake  Huron,  and  from  that  point 
commences  his  original  explorations  and  discoveries.  He  pro- 
ceeded along  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Huron,  past  the  Straits 
of  Mackinaw,  around  the  north  and  west  shores  of  Lake  Michi- 
gan until  he  entered  the  waters  of  Green  Bay.  From  Green  Bay 
he  proceeded  up  the  waters  of  Fox  River  to  near  the  carrying 
place  from  that  stream  to  the  waters  of  the  Wisconsin  river  and 
there  ended  his  original  or  first  "white  man's"  discoveries. 

Nicolet  returned  to  the  St.  Lawrence  and  was  employed  in 
important  relations  mostty  at  Three  Rivers  and  Quebec  until  1642, 
when  he  lost  his  life  by  the  upsetting  of  a  boat  in  which  he  was 
hurrying  on  a  mission  of  mercy  to  save  an  Iroquois  from  being 
tortured  by  the  Algonquins  who  had  captured  him. 

Nicolet  was  a  devout  Catholic  but  not  a  Jesuit.  His  life 
and  character  and  conduct  in  his  intercourse  with  the  numerous 
Indian  trilx^s  was  such  that  they  all  reposed  the  greatest  confi- 
dence in  him  in  life  and  entertained  the  highest  respect  for  his 
memory  of  which  their  natures  were  capable. 

The  diagram  on  paj^e  376  will  in  a  measure  show  the  route 
of  original  discovery  to  which  Nicolet  is  entitled  to  credit. 


In  1669,  Talon,  then  Intendant  of  Canada,  sent  Joliet  with 
a  young  French  companion  to  explore  and  locate  if  possible  the 
copper  regions  of  Lake  Superior.  He  failed  in  his  mission  in 
so  far  as  the  copper  regions  were  concerned,  but  they  made  a 
most  important  excursion  over  waters  that  had  not  before  that 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

time  been  reached  or  seen  by  any  European.  On  their  return 
from  the  northern  lakes,  they  coasted  down  the  west  shore  of 
Lake  Huron  and  visited  the  Pottawattamies  then  living  on  that 
shore.  The  Pottawattamies  had,  at  that  time,  never  seen  a  white 
man.  From  the  Pottawattamie  country  they  coasted  on  down 
the  west  shore  of  Lake  Huron  to  the  point  where  the  waters  of 
that  lake  flow  south  through  the  St.  Clair  and  Detroit  rivers. 
From  there  these  daring  explorers  held  their  way  with  the  current 


of  these  rivers  until  they  reached  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie, 
Thence  they  proceeded  along  the  northern  coast  of  Lake  Erie 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Grand  River  not  far  west  of  Niagara  Falls, 
They  turned  up  Grand  River  (now  the  home  of  the  Senecas) 
and  proceeded  to  a  point  near  the  present  city  of  Hamilton,  On- 
tario, where  they  met  LaSalle  and  the  Sulpitian  priests.  They 
were  the  first  Europeans  to  navigate  or  see  the  waters  along  the 
route  which  they  took  from  the  northern  end  of  Lake  Huron  to 
a  point  near  the  city  of  Hamilton.  The  information  which  they 
imparted  to  LaSalle  and  the  priests  as  to  the  waters  over  which 

iVater  Highways  and  Carrying  Places. 


they  had  just  passed,  and  the  condition  of  the  Pottawattamie 
nation  determined  the  priests  to  go  at  once  to  that  country  as  a 
field  for  ihf  I'xcrcise  of  their  reHgious  proclivities.  It  was  here 
that  they  purled  with  LaSalle  wlio  held  firmly  to  his  purpose  of 
exploring  tlie  Ohio  River  country. 

Jol'ct  and  his  companions  are  entitled  to  be  considered  tlie 
first  wliit"  rii'.'n  or  Europeans  to  pass  over  any  portion  of  these 
waters  'iv"r  i\'iich  now  passes  by  far  the  greatest  commerce  of 
any  inland  waters  in  the  world. 

Thf-  fol'owinij  diagram  will  indicate  the  lines  of  original 
travel  tpVen  bv  Joliet  and  his  companion. 


In  1672,  Frontenac,  then  Governor  of  Canada,  and  Talon, 
the  Intendant,  determined  to  send  an  expedition  to  the  regions 
further  west  than  had  yet  been  visited  by  white  men  and  to  search 
out  and  locate  the  great  Mississippi  river  and  to  learn  as  much 

878  ,  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hisf.  Society  Publications. 

as  possible  of  any  tribes  that  they  might  meet  with.  Their  pur- 
pose was  largely  mercenary,  their  object  being  to  secure  a  knowl- 
edge of  new  tribes  and  new  regions  so  as  to  enlarge  the  fur  trade 
on  the  St.  Lawrence.  Jolliet  was  selected  by  them  for  this  ser- 
vice, for  which  he  was  in  the  highest  degree  fitted.  He  had  been 
bom  at  Quebec  and  brought  up  in  the  wilderness  of  the  lake  coun- 
try and  was  intelligent,  hardy  and  daring,  thoroughly  versed  in 
the  habits  of  the  Indian  tribes.  He  had  already  made  long  ex- 
cursions to  the  lake  country  and  had  made  valuable  discoveries 
of  new  routes  of  travel  by  water  and  of  new  tribes  of  Indians. 
He  was  to  have  associated  with  him  Father  Marquette  who  had 
seen  service  as  a  missionary  at  the  falls  of*  the  St.  Mary's  and  at 
LePoint  (Apostles  Islands)  on  the  south  side  of  Lake  Superior. 
While  stationed  in  these  places  as  a  priest  of  the  Catholic  Church, 
Marquette  had  learned  much  concerning  Lake  Michigan  and  the 
Mississippi  and  Illinois  rivers.  He  had  come  in  contact  with 
numerous  members  of  the  tribes  occupying  the  vast  region  to  the 
south  and  west  of  Lake  Superior  and  greatly  desired  to  explore  it. 

JoHet  reached .  Mackinaw  oii'  this  expedition  in  the  fall  of 
1672  with  instructions  to  Marquette  to  join  him  in  the  proposed 
venture  which  gave  great  pleasure  to  the  ardent  priest,  as  it 
was  in  harmony  with  his  own  desires.  They  spent  the  winter 
in  preparing  for  the  journey  and  in  informing  themselves  as  fully 
as  possible  concerning  the  regions  and?  tribes  they  were  to  visit. 

On  the  17th  of  May,  1673,  they  embarked  in  two  canoes  with 
five  men.  These  two  frail  canoes. were  destined  to  carry  them 
from  "the  snows  of  Canada  to  the  more  congenial  clime  of  Ar- 
kansas" and  to  tide  them  over  thousands  of  miles  of  water  which 
had  never  before  been  disfurbed  by  a  white  man's  canoe.  From 
Mackinaw  around  the  north  and  west  shore  of  Lake  Michigan 
they  passed  over  the  same  route  which  had  been  traveled  by  Nico- 
let  thirty-nine  years  before  until  they  reacTicd  the  wafers  of  Green 
Bay.  From  there  they  ascended  the  Fox  river  to  the  carrying 
place  from  the  waters  of  that  river  to  waters  of  the  Wisconsin 
river.  This  carrying  place  was  near  the  point  at  which  Nicolet 
had  turned  back.  It  was  but  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  waters 
of  one  river  to  the  waters  of  the  other,  but  tlie  way  was  so  intri- 


Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  379 

cate  through  the  vast  field  of  wild  rice  which  grows  in  such  abun- 
dance in  that  region  as  to  require  the  services  of  Indian  guides 
to  pilot  the  way  through  them.  When  they  reached  the  waters 
of  the  Wisconsin  they  dispensed  with  their  guides  and  proceeded 
for  six  days  to  descend  the  Wisconsin  to  its  mouth  where  it  empties 
into  the  mighty  Mississippi.  When  their  canoes  shot  out. on  the 
waters  of  that  the  greatest  of  rivers  on  the  continent  the  adventur- 
ers were  greatly  rejoiced,  and  well  they  might  have  been  as  they 
had  at  last  discovered  and  were  upon  the  waters  of  the  long 
sought  for  Mississippi.  The  voyagers  turned  south  with  the 
current  of  the  river  and  proceeded  for  more  than  a  thousand 
miles.  They  passed  the  rriouth  of  great  rivers  emptying  into  the 
Mississippi  and  found  many  tribes  of  natives  inhabiting  the  shores, 
most  of  whom  proved  friendly.  They  did  not  change  their  course 
until  they  had  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas  river  where 
DeSoto  had  crossed  the  Mississippi  132  years  before.  At  this 
point  they  were  able  to  determine  that  the  Mississippi  flowed 
into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  which  was  an  unsettled  question  up  to 
that  time.  From  this  point  on  the  17th  of  July,  1673,  they  com- 
menced their  return  up  the  Mississippi  and  proceeded  with  great 
difficulty  and  considerable  delay  on  account  of  the  illness  of  Mafr 
quette  until  they  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois,  into  whicl^ 
they  turned  their  canoes  and  urged  them  up  that  placid  stream 
to  the  important  Indian  village. of  Kaskaskia.  They  found  the 
people  of  this  very  important  village  friendly,  and  after  sofhe  stay 
there,  the  Indains  kindly  piloted  them  up  to  the  mouth  of  the  Des 
Plaines,  up  which  they  proceeded  to  the  carrying  place  over  into 
the  Chicago  river.  They  then  coasted  up  the  west  shore  of  Lake 
Michigan  to  Green  Bay  which  they  had  left  four  months  before. 
Jolliet  proceeded  at  once  to  the  St.  Lawrence  while  Marquette 
remained  at  Green  Bay. 

Marquette  and  Joliet  are  entitled  to  credit  for  having  been 
the  first  white  men  to  pass  from  the  carrying  place  between  the 
Fox  river  and  the  Wisconsin  to  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas  arid 
on  their  return  from  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois  to  the  mouth  of 
what  is  now  the  C'hicaj^o  river,  thence  along  the  western  coast 
to  Lake  Michigan  to  (irecn  Bay. 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

The  {ollowing  diagram  will  show,  in  a  manner,  the  routes 
tsi^r  which  Marquette  and  JolHet  are  entitled  to  be  considered 
(he  original  navigators  and  explorers. 


When  Marquette  and  JoUet 
reached  Green  Bay  in  the  fall 
of  1673  the  former  was  in  in- 
firm health  and  rested  at 
Green  Bay  for  gearly  a  year, 
but  his  health  being  in  part 
restored  he  determined  to  re- 
turn to  the  Ilhnois  river  as  he 
had  promised  the  Indians  he 
would  do.  The  course  taken 
by  Marquette  and  associates, 
two  of  whom  were  French, 
was  along  the  west  side  of 
Lake  Michigan  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Chicago  river.  He  pur- 
sued the  route  from  that  point 
to  some  distance  inland  where 
he  suffered  a  relapse  and  was 
compelled  to  spend  the  winter 
in  a  rude  hut  constructed  by 
his  French  companions.  They 
suffered  fjreatly  during  the 
winter,  but  in  the  spring  of 
1674,  Marquette  renewed  his  efforts  to  reach  liis  Indian  friends 
on  the  Illinois  with  a  view  of  establishing  a  mission  among  them. 
He  succeeded  in  this  and  was  most  joyfully  received  by  the 
natives.-  He  administered  religious  instruction  to  tlii'ni  for  a  short 
lime,  but  his  health  was  such  that  he  was  rc'(|uired  to  make  an 
effort  to  return  to  his  mission  at  S.  Ignacc.  A  numhcr  of  Indians 
accon)))anied  liim  up  the  Illinois  river  to  the  mouth  of  ihe  Kan- 
kakee; thence  up  that  lonely  and  crooked  stream  for  several  hun- 
dreds of  miles  until  they  reached  a  jxiint  near  wJicre  is  now  the 



■   V'      W"" 


f  ; 

-aa.  y">j 






Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  S81 

city  of  South  Bend,  Indiana,  where  there  was  a  short  carrying 
place  of  about  four  miles  from  the  Kankakee  over  to  the  head- 
waters of  the  St.  Josephs  of  Lake  Michigan,  and  there  it  seems 
the  Indians  left  him.  From  there  he,  with  his  two  French  com- 
panions, floated  down  that  river  to  its  mouth  where  it  empties 
into  the  east  side  of  Lake  Michigan.  From  this  point  his  faith- 
ful escorts  proceeded  for  several  days  north  along  the  east  shore 
of  Lake  Michigan  until  his  strength  entirely  failing  him,  and 
himself  realizing  that  death  was  upon  him,  requested  his  com- 
panions to  take  him  on  shore  that  he  might  die  in  peace.  His 
every  request  was  complied  with.  A  rude  shelter  was  prepared 
for  him  where,  after  a  few  days  and  nights  of  devotion,  he  passed 
peacefully  away,  and  was  buried  at  the  place  of  his  death  on 
the  desolate  and  lonely  east  shore  of  Lake  Michigan. 

In  reviewing  the  lives  and  characters  of  the  priests  of  the 
Catholic  Church  who  energized  among  the  Indians  of  that  time, 
or  of  any  time,  Marquette  was  clearly  the  most  celebrated  and 
most  beloved  by  the  Indians.  He  died  in  1674  at  the  age  of  38 
years,  but  his  name  has  a  permanent  place  in  the  history  of  liis 

The  two  French  companions  of  Marquette  on  his  last  voy- 
age proceeded  to  Mackinaw,  which  place  they  reached  in  safety 
and  are  entitled  to  be  considered  the  first  Europeans  to  coast  along 
the  eastern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan  from  the  point  where  Mar- 
quette was  buried  to  the  Straits  of  Mackinaw. 

The  diagram  on  page  382  will  sufficiently  show  the  route 
taken  by  Marquette  on  his  return  from  the  Illinois  river  in  1674. 
This  route  had  never  before  been  traversed  by  white  men. 


La  Salle  came  to  Montreal  from  France  in  1666.  His  equip- 
ment for  whatever  experiences  he  might  have  in  his  career  in 
the  New  World  was  that  he  was  well  fitted  mentally  and  physi- 
cally to  meet  whatever  fortunes  or  misfortunes  might  befaU 
him.  His  ambition  and  his  courage  were  unbounded  and  not 
unmixed  with  greed  of  gain.  He  had  visions  not  only  of  wealth 
but  of  dominion  and  empire.     Before  his  time  extensive  explo- 

382  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  PubUcations- 

rations  had  been  made,  but  he  sooa  learned  from  contact  with 
the  Indians,  especially  the  Senecas,  a  party  of  whom  had  wintered 
at  his  quarters  in  r668-6g.  of  still  vaster  regions  that  were  as  yet 
unexplored  and  unseen  by  while  men.     He  heard  especially  of 

the  waters  of  the  Ohio,  some  of  which  headed  in  the  Seneca 
country  and  to  which  his  Seneca  friends  offered  to  guide  him. 
He  knew  that  the  waters  of  the  Ohio  would  reach  the  great  Miss- 
issippi river  and  finally  flow  into  the  sea.  hut  where  and  into  what 

Water  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  383 

sea  was  the  great  mystery.  It  is  probable  that  his  hope  in  this 
first  exploration  to  the  Ohio  country  was  that  he  might  reach 
the  Mississippi;  and  in  all  probability  he  would  have  done  so 
had  his  crew  remained  loyal  to  him. 

This  expedition  was  organized  in  1669  at  LaChine,  near 
Montreal.  At  the  same  time  the  Sulpitian  priests  at  LaChine 
were  organizing  an  expedition  for  the  purpose  of  searching  out 
and  converting  to  their  faith  such  Indian  tribes  as  they  might 
find  in  the  unknown  country  of  the  Ohio.  The  two  expeditions 
were  united  in  the  beginning.  LaSalfe  had  procured  four  canoes 
and  seven  men,  while  the  Sulpitians  had  their  own  canoes  and 
their  own  men.  The  members  of  this  expedition  were  all  French- 
men and  would  have  to  procure  guides  from  the  Indians  when 
they  reached  the  upper  end  of  Lake  Ontario.  On  the  6th  of 
July,  1669,  they  proceeded  up  the  St.  Lawrence  river  to  Lake 
Ontario  and  along  the  south  shore  of  that  lake  to  a  point  not 
far  east  from  the  mouth  of  Niagara  river  where  the  expedition 
rested  while  LaSalle  visited  the  village  of  the  Senecas  with  a 
view  of  obtaining  guides  to  the  Ohio.  He  failed  to  secure  guides, 
as  he  had  hoped,  and  as  the  season  was  getting  late  the  expedition 
again  moved  forward  along  the  south  shore  of.  Lake  Ontario, 
past  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  river  and  proceeded  until  they 
reached  an  Indian  town  near  where  the  city  of  Hamilton,  Canada, 
now  stands.  While  at  this  village  he  learned  of  two  young 
Frenchmen  being  near  by,  and  there  for  the  first  time  Joliet  and 
LaSalle  met.  Joliet,  as  before  stated,  was  returning  from  the 
expedition  which  he  had  undertaken  at  the  instance  of  Talon  in 
search  of  the  copper  regions  of  Lake  Superior.  This  meeting 
caused  a  separation  of  La  Salle's  party  from  the  missionary  party. 
Joliet  told  them  of  the  Pottawattamies  who  greatly  needed  relig- 
ious instructions,  and  the  missionaries  determined  to  go  at  once 
to  their  spiritual  rescue  while  LaSalle  adhered  to  his  original  pur- 
pose of  visiting  the  valley  of  the  Ohio.  The  home  of  the  Potta- 
wattamies was  at  that  time  in  the  country  west'  of  Lake  Huron. 

It  is  conclusive  that  Joliet  in  returning  from  his  search  for 
copper  mines  in  1669  coasted  the  west  shore  of  Lake  Huron  for 
the  reason  that  he  visited  the  Pottawattamies  and  reported  their 
spiritual  condition  to  the  priests  who  were  with  LaSalle  when 


Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

they  met  near  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario.  The  Pottawattamies 
occupied  the  country  west  of  Lake  Huron  and  in  order  to  visit 
them  Joliet  necessarily  had  his  course  along  the  west  shore  of 
that  lake. 

The  missionaries  failed  in  their  purpose  to  reach  the  Pot- 
tawattamies. but  passed  up  the  eastern  side  of  Lake  Huron,  and 

the  north  channel  until  they  reached  the  falls  of  Si.  Marys,  frtan 
which  place  they  returned  hy  the  way  of  Lake  Xipissing  and  the 
Ottawa  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  having  discovered  nothing  and  ac- 
complished nothing.  LaSalle  succeeded  in  carryiiii;  out,  in  large 
part,  his  original  plan.  Just  what  course  he  look  alter  separating 
from  iho  missionaries  is  not  known  with  entire  certaiiitv,  but  it 

Heater  Highways  and  Carrying  Places.  ^S5 

may  be  assumed  that  he  passed  near  the  head  of  Niagara  river 
■  and  along  the  south  and  east  side  of  Lake  Erie  to  a  point  oppo- 
site Chautauqua  Lake.  From  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua  Lake 
there  was  a  well  known  and  much  used  carrying  place  of  about 
eight  miles.  From  there  the  route  was  over  the  waters  of  Chau- 
tauqua Lake  to  its  outlet  near  Jamestown,  New  York,  from 
where  the  overflow  waters,  united  with  the  other  streams,  flow 

into  the  Alleghany  river  near  Warren,  Pennsylvania,  and  thence 
descend  to  the  Ohio.  It  was  by  this  route  that  the  French  sub- 
scquoiitly  sent  a  force  two  hundred  strong  to  take  possession  of 
the  Ohio. 

Not  much  is  recorded  of  this  excursion  of  LaSalle  except 
that  it  extended  down  the  Ohio  to  the  falls  at  Louisville,  Ken- 
lucky.  Here  most  of  his  men  deserted  him  and  he  was  compelled 
to  return  almost  if  not  entirely  unaccompanied.  His  way  of  re- 
turn has  not  lx;en  definitely  determined,  but  it  was  necessarily 
by  way  of  the  Big  Miami  and  the  Maumee  (then  called  Miami 

386  Ohio  Arch,  and  Hist.  Society  Publications. 

of  the  Lake)  or  by  way  of  the  Scioto  and  Sandusky  rivers.  No 
other  routes  were  at  that  time  opened  to  him.  Whichever  of  these 
routes  he  may  have  taken  he  was  the  first  white  man  to  have 
passed  over  it.  The  probabiHties  are  that  he  went  by  the  Big 
Miami  and  the  Maumee  to  Lake  Erie,  but  it  is  not  certain,  and 
not  much  can  be  claimed  in  respect  to  it. 

Between  the  ending  of  this  expedition  and  the  undertaking 
of  his  next  important  voyage  of  discovery  there  elapsed  a  period 
of  about  nine  years.  In  the  meantime  he  was  exceedingly  en- 
gaged with  important  affairs  along  the  St.  Lawrence  and  in 
France,  to  which  country  he  had  in  the  meantime  made  several 

In  1679  ^^  planned  a  voyage*  over  Lake  Erie,  through  the 
Detroit  and  St.  Clair  rivers  and  over  Lakes  Huron  and  Michigan 
with  a  view  of  reaching  and  exploring  the  Mississippi  river,  as 
well  as  engaging  in  the  fur  trade.  In  furtherance  of  this  plan 
lie  built  on  the  Niagara  river  above  the  falls  a  vessel  of  forty- 
five  or  fifty  tons  with  which  to  navigate  the  great  lakes.  They 
named  the  vessel  the  "Griffin."  There  were  three  friars  of  the 
Sulpitian  order  in  the  party  that  sailed  on  the  "Griffin,"  among 
whom  was  Father  Hennepin,  a  man  of  considerable  learning  and 
a  ready  and  somewhat  graceful  writer,  and  had  considerable 
talent  for  describing  places  where  he  had  never  been  and  things 
that  he  had  never  seen.  He  immortalized  himself  by  stories 
which  he  related  and  books  which  he  published  when  he  re- 
turned to  France  which  have  secured  for  him,  for  all  time  to 
come,  the  appellation  of  "the  most  impudent  liar."  Nothing 
could  exceed  his  audacity  in  this  respect. 

The^  expedition  started  in  the  summer  of  1679  from  the 
Niagara  river  and  passed  safely  over  Lake  Erie,  Lake  Huron 
and  through  the  Straits  of  Machinaw  until  they  reached  Green 
Bay  on  the  waters  of  Lake  Michigan.  Here  the  vessel  was 
loaded  with  a  rich  cargo  of  furs,  and  LaSalle  sent  it  back  to 
Niagara  in  charge  of  his  pilot  and  five  men.  The  vessel  was 
never  heard  of  afterwards.  It  was  lost  somewhere  between  Green 
Bay  and  its  destination  the  Niagara  river.  From  this  point  (Green 
Bay)  LaSalle  determined  to  push  forward  to  the  Illinois  country, 
and  in  pursuance  of  this  purpose  passed  down  the  west  shore  of 

Wafer  Highways  and  Carrying  Places. 


Lake  Michigan  and  around  the  south  end  to  the  St.  Joseph  river. 
From  Green  Bay  to  the  mouth  of  the  Chicago  river  the  route  had 
been  traversed  by  Marquette  and  Joliet  several  years  before ;  but 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Chicago  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  St 
Joseph,  LaSalle  and  his  party  were  the  first  white  men  to  traverse 
it.  From  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  to  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois, 
and  on  to  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas  river  the  route  had  all  been 
explored  before  this  expedition  of  LaSalle.  When  LaSalle  and 
his  party  reached  Illinois  country  he  determined  to  build  a  fort 

and  establish  a  camp  as  a  basis  for  further  explorations.  But 
from  this  place  LaSalle  was  compelled  to  return  to  Lakes  Erie 
and  Oiilario,  leaving  the  colony  on  the  Illinois  in  charge  of  his 
faithful  Tonty  with  instructions  as  to  its  conduct  and  manage- 
ment in  his  absence ;  and  at  the  same  time  he  instructed  Hennepin 
to  proceed  down  the  Illinois  to  its  junction  with  the  Mississippi 
and  to  make  such  other  and  further  explorations  as  opportunity 
might  afford. 

In  the  meantime,  pursuant  to  the  instructions  of  I^Salle, 
Hennepin  with  two  French  companions  (Michael  .Accau  and  a 
man  known  as  Picard  du  Gay),  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Illinois,  thence  up  the  Mississippi  t