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Full text of "An illustrated history of Sonoma County, California. Containing a history of the county of Sonoma from the earliest period of its occupancy to the present time"

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^^^^,,^ATED  HlSTo,^^ 


ofoiA  County 


Containing-  a  History  <>f  tin'  County  of  Sommia  fiMm  tlic  Earliest   Period 

of  its  Occupancy  to  the  Tresent  Time,  to<,'ethev  witli   (Himpses  of 

its  Prospective  Future;    witli   Profuse  Illustrations  of  its 

Beautiful  Scenery,  Full-Page  Portraits  of  some  of 

its    most    Eminent    Men,    and   Biograjdiical 

Mention  of  Many  of  its  I'ioneers  and 

also  of  Pi-onnnent   Citizens 

of  To-day. 



11;!   Ada.m.n  St.,  Ciiicm.o,   Ii.linoi.^. 
1  b  8  l> . 








A  CnAPTEn  OP  C'F.NTrniF.s. 

California  Discovered— Origin  of  Name— Sir  Francis  Dralie— Monterey  Bay  Discovered  by  Viscaino— San 
Franciscan  Friars  Plant  the  Cross  at  San  Diego— Bay  of  San  Francisco  Discovered— Monterey  Founded  and 
Mission  Establislied— San  Francisco  Bay  Explored —Presidio  and  Mission  Established  al  San  Francisco— Call, 
fornia  Weak  and  Defenseless — Ceutury  Ends  and  no  Settlement  North  of  Verba  Buena  -         -        .        .        4-11 


The  Kt'ssians  at  Ross. 

The  Russian  American  Fur  Companj- — Razanof  Visits  San  Francisco  in  1805 — Fishinir  for  Otter  along  the 
Coast— In  1809  Kuskof  Anchored  in  Bodega  Bay— In  1811  the  Russians  Established  Fort  Ross— What  the 
Frenchman,  Durant  ('illy,  said  of  Ross  in  1838 — Ross  a  Busy  Bee-Hive  of  Industry  -  -        -         -         12-19 


The   SpANIAKtlR  NonTTT  OF  THE  Bay. 

After  Forty  Vears  the  Spaniards  Secure  Lodgment  North  of  San  Francisco — A  Branch  Mission  Established  at 
San  Rafael  in  181S— Exploring  Expedition  under  Captain  Argiiello  in  1821 — In  1823  Padre  Altimira  Visited 
Petalnma  and  Sonoma  Valleys  and  Chose  Sonoma  as  a  Mission  Site — Missicra  Dedicated  as  San  Francisco 
Solano,  April  4,  1824 20-28 

rUAlTER   IV. 

The  RrssTASs  and  Ross  to  a  CoNoi.rsiON. 

The  Russians  Realize  Ihey  have  too  Narrow  a  Fiehl — Will  Buy  more  Territory  or  Sell  their  Establishments — 
Overtures  not  well   Received  by  Mexican  Authorities — Vallejo  Comniandante  at  Sonoma  in  18:J4 — Russians 
Sell  to  Captain  John  Sutter  in  1811  and  Depart  for  Alaska— P>idwell  and  Beunitz  at  Ross — Fort  Ross  in  188S 

CHAITEi;   V. 


Governor  Figueroa  Sets  on  Foot  a  Coloni/alion  Enterprise — Attempts  to  Establish  Settlements  at  Pelaluma 
and  Santa  Rosa  in  18:!:!— In  183.j  Sonoma  Laid  Out  and  made  the  Center  of  Military  Power  and  Secular  Coloni- 
zation North  of  the  Bay — Vallejo  Authorized  to  Otler  C'olonists  Grants  of  Land — Becomes  the  Controlling 
Power — Makes  an  Alliance  with  Indian  Chief  Solano — In  18:38  Sinall-Pox  Among  the  Indians-        -  37-44 



The  C'ArTi'UE  of  Sonoma. 

Mexican  Kule  Neariiig  ils  EdJ — California  Leaders  Quarreling  Among  Themselves — War  Expected  Between 
United  Stales  and  Jlexico— Americans  in  a  Ticklish  Position — What  Larkin  was  Expected  to  do — What  Fre- 
mont did  do — Bancroft's  Instructions  to  Commodore  Sloal — Vallejo — Sutter — Fremont  and  Gillespie — Midnight 
Attack  by  Indians — Fremont's  Uelurn  Down  the  Sacramento  Valley — Sonoma  Captured — Capture  of  Vallejo — 
Taken  to  Sacramento — How  Received  by  Fremont Ah-M 

ciTArTER  vn. 

The  Bkah  Flag — Stars  and  STRirEs. 

Kevolutionists  Found  a  New  Government — Hear  Flag  Adopted — How  and  by  Whom  JIade — Captain  Ide  Issues 
a  Proclamation — Lieutenant  Missroon  Arrives — Killing  of  Cowie  and  Fowler  at  Santa  Rosa — Battle  of  Olom. 
Jiali — Castro  Leads  Troops  Across  the  Bay — Fremont  Hastens  to  Sonoma — Goes  to  San  Bafael — C'alilornia  Bat- 
talion Organized — Fremont  Starts  After  Castro — Captain  Montgomery  Dispatched  Lieutenant  Revere  to  Sono- 
ma with  an  American  Flag,  and  July  9  the  Bear  Flag  came  down  and  the  Stars  and  Stripes  went  up  -        57-G!l 


The  Past  and  Present. 

The  Bear  Flag,  how  male— Names  of  Kevolutionists — State  Seal — General  M.  G.  Vallejo — General  .7.  A 
Sutter— Sonoma  District  Pioneers — Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West  ....-.-      70-SS 


Military  and  Politicat.  History. 

Sonoma  Under  Jlililaiy  Rule — Civil  OtHcers  Appointed — How  Justice  was  Administered — Constitutional  C(Ui- 
vention — First  Election — California  Admitted  into  the  Union — Machinery  of  Civil  Government  Set  in  Motion — 
Agitation  of  County  Seat  Removal— Santa   Rosa  Chosen — Early  Court  Accommodations — County  Buildings 
- -        -        -        .       89-101 


Location  and  Topograi'iiv. 

Boundaries  of  Sononia  Cnunty—Her  Mountain  Ranges — Forests  and   Valleys  ....  103-106 


American  Occvpation. 

Sonoma  a  Central  Point  after  the  Bear  Flag  Revolution— Efl'ect  of  Discovery  of  the  Mines— F.  G.  Blume's 
Staleraent— First  Settlers  at  Petaluma— Bachelor  Ranches— County  as  it  was  in  1854— Assessor's  Report  for 
1855 — First  Fair  in  Sonoma  County 107-117 


Reminiscent  of  a  Third  op  a  C'enti'ry  Aoo. 

An  Epitome  of  the  First  Year's  Record  of  the  Sonoma  County  Journal— The  Geysers  in  185(i— The  Petaluma 
Hunters  in  18(iO 118-l'i8 

The  Coi  nty  Developing. 

Immigration  Pours  into  Sonoma  County -Products  of  Country  Between  Pelalumaand  Bodega— Santa  Rosa  and 
Russian  River  \  alleys— The  Year  18(it— Land  Troubles— Bodega  War— Healdsburg  War— .Muldrew  Shadow- 
Miranda  Grant — Bnjori|ues  (irant  -  -         - ItiO-Hl 

rjONf  Biffs. 



Basalt  Rock — Asbestos — Chromic  Iron — Cinnabiir — Suli>luir — Coi^per — Fossil  Uemains — Petri  fad  ions     14'i-147 


MExrcAN  Land  Grants  of  Sonoma  County. 

ItancUos  Musalacon — ^Colate — Giiilicos — Canada  lie  Pogolome — Llano  de  Santa  liosa— El  Molino — Ilnichica — 
Yulpa — Guenoc — Soloyome — I'odega — Blucher — Callajomi — Muniz — Lagnna  de  San  Antonio — Arroyo  de  San 
Antonio — Senode  IMalconies— Uoblar  de  la  l\[isera— Canada  de  la  loniva — Eslero  Americano — German — Peta- 
liima — San  Miguel — 'I'zabaco — Caslamayome — Cabeza  de  Santa  Kosa — Agua  Caliente         .        -        -        14y-lo6 


Haii.ways,  Highways,  Water  Courses  and  Bays. 

San  Francisco  and  Northern  Pacific  Railroad — North  Pacific  Coast  Railroad — Santa  Rosa  and  Carquinez  Rail- 
road—Public Highways — The  Last  Stage  Driver — Rivers  and  Water  Courses— Bays  and  Coves— Colonel  Peter 
Donahue  -         - -  ir)7-104 


Events  in  Chronoi-ogicai,  Order. 

A  Record  of  Years — Incidents — Accidents — Discove.ies — Developments,  etc.  ....  ]fi.")-170 


Indian  Mass.^cres. 

Ill-fated  Sonoma  Countians — Doctor  Smeathman— Canfield,  Van  Ostrand  ami  Borton — Barnes — .Jndson, 
Woodworth,  Baker  and  Old  Benjamin — Leihy — Mrs.  Sallie  Ann  Canfield 171-177 


Sonoma  and  Marin  County  Agricultural  Society. 

When  Organized — Its  Changes  in  Organization — Its  Fairs  and  Officers — Change  of  Location  of  Fair  Grounds — 
Its  Good  Ett'ect  on   Our   Industries 178-1H3 


Nature's  Laboratory- The  Geysers. 

The  Geysers — Visited  in  ISOri  by  Vice-President  Schuyler  Colfax  and  Samuel  Bowles,  Editor  of  the  Springfield 
.Massachusetts,  liepuhlican — What  Mr.  Bowles  Wrote — Clark  Fos.s — The  Eartluiuake,  1808  184-188 


Redwood  Forests. 

E.\tent  of  Redwood  Forests — Lumber  Output  of  Mills — Colonel  Aimstrong's  Grove — A  ilousterTree — The  Big 
Bottom  Forests,  etc.  .        -        . 18!I-UI4 


Names  Belonging  to  History. 

President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  Geneial  William  T.  Sherman  and  Secretary  of  War  Alexandei'  Kauisey— Culo- 
nel  Rod  .Matheson—.Iolin  Miller  Cameron — Salmi  Morse-         -  - 1!I5-'J00 


Animals  Native  of  Sonoma  County — Grizzly,  Brown  and  Black  Bear — Panther-Fox— Wolf— Coyote— Wild 
Cat— Mounrain  Cat— Elk,  Deer,  Antelope,  etc. 201-204 

Our  Flora  anm   Conikera.        -        .        .        .  205-209 


CHAPTEll  XX\'. 
"  I.o  Till-;  Poou  Indian." 

The  Imliaus— Mission  Record  of  Tribal  Kaines— Vallejo's  Esliiuatp  of  their  Niimlier— Number  at  Time  of 
American  Settlement— Complexiou  and  Stature— How  they  Lived— Tlieir  Implements— Interview  with  Cask., 
bel  and  Jose  Viquaro — John  Walker's  Statement ;;iO-'2i:i 

General  Htstory  to  a  CoNcirPsiox. 

From  1870  Onward — The  Southern  Counties  Open  to  Settlement— Its  Etieft— Sonoma  Prospers  Without  a 
Change  in  Iler  Industries— Grain  and  Potatoes  not  Grown  so  Largely— Stock,  Hay  ami  Fruit  Growing— Kail- 
ro.ids  Stimulate  the  Lumber  Business— Statistical  and  Otherwise — Sonoma  County's  Future  '.'H-SiO 

Santa  Rosa. 

Town.ship  History- Growth  of  tlie  Cily— liusine^s  Interests- Aildress  of  Hon.  G.  A.  Johnson— Churches- 
Schools — The  Press .  2i3-242 



Township    History— Origin    of    Name- Chronological— Business    Interests— Churches— The   Press     24:^-'2(i4 

Township  IIistoriks. 

Mendocino— Clovcnlale— Sonoma— Analy—Boilega  —  Russian  River  —Washington— Redwood— Ocean  —  Salt 
Point — Ivuighl's  Valley  — Vallejo 2(i5-:i0(i 



Abraham,  Isidore 20!) 

Adams,  John 43!) 

Agnew,  S.  J Cy'SH 

Aguillon,  Camille TUT 

Akers,  Stephen T3G 

Alexander,  J.  .M 2T0 

Alexander,  L.  M 311 

Allen,  Otis .SOo 

Allen,  S.I :i82 

Amesbury,  William 722 

Anderson,  L.  S (iT5 

Anderson,  T.  H.  B 48;i 

Andrews.  Robert 581 

Arata,  B 402 

Auradou,  J.  A (i:W 

.\iistin,  Charles 400 

Austin,  James 'MH 

Austin,  J.S ry.M 


Baer,G.  B 2TT 

Bailey,  J.  II 4fi(j 

Bailitr,John 588 

Baker,  A.  .M 729 

Bale,  Edward  T 70:i 

Barhani,  .1.  A .'U.5 

Barlow,  S.  Q .531 

Barnes,  E.  H fi40 

Barth,  Adam  T:^3 

Bayler,  John .")11 

Baylis,  T.  F  r,7-> 

Bell,  R.  W ()l(i 

Berry,  B.  B  818 

Berry,  S.  B ;i22 

Bidwell,  Ira 41.5 

Bloch,  George 809 

Bodwell,  C.  A 008 

Bolle,  Henry 830 

Bohlin,  F.  A" 427 

Bouton,  Andrew 477 

Bowman,  J.  H 497 

Braunern,  William 725 

Briggs,  Robert 419 

Brooke,  T.J 407 

Brooks,  Elmout 507 

Brown,  F.T 700 

Brown,  fl.  C ,507 

Brown,  John 398 

Brotherton,  T.  W 331 

Bryant,  D.  S 338 

Burnett,  A.  G    400 

Burnham,  Albert 708 

Burris,  L.  W 088 

Butt,  Allied 026 

Byce,  L.  C 548 

Byington,  H.  W .59!) 


Cady,  M.  K 434 

Caldwell,  Albert .545 

Campbell,  Joseph   578 

Campbell.  J.  T OOi 

Cantield,  W.  D 078 

Cary,  Bartley 7  Ki 

Carithers,  D.  N 42!) 

Carr,  Mark 41!) 

Carriger,  C.  C 08;i 

Caniger,  Nicholas 009 

Carroll,  Patrick  415 

Cassiday,  Samuel 2."j8 

(;assidy,  J.  W  405 

Castens,  Henry GT2 

Cavanagh,  John 560 

Chalfanl,  J.  K .554 

Champion,  John 541 

Chaniplin,  C.  C 584 

Chart,  Obed .591 

Chase,  M.  E .' 500 

Chauvet,  Joshua .525 

Clark,  Benjamin ....412 

Clark,  James 532 

Clitlord.  Rev.  G.  B 077 


CoiUlin?,  G.  R 440 

C'otfey,  lleury ('•i4 

C'olgau,  E.  P.' 00!) 

Colson  limtliers 587 

C'orastock,  William 40'2 

Cooper,  S.  K 'UD 

Cooper,  K.  M 4:)4 

Cooper,  James ...  .004 

Conuer,  Joliu   -ilG 

Cottle,  B.  H 2o8 

Crais,  O.  W 4i;8 

Cralle,  L.  J OJO 

Crane,  Joel . .  .■"'.">(! 

Crane,  ]{i)ljert 40.') 

Curtis,  J.  II 478 


Davidson,  J.  ¥. 404 

Davidson,  S.  E 408 

Davis,  G.  W.  ikE.  W 707 

Davis,  H.  II 488 

Davis,  U.  S 403 

Davis,  \V.  S 008 

De  Haj'  Brothers 715 

Delalieia,  H.  II   440 

Dfumau,  Hod.  Ezekial   543 

De  Turk,  Isaac 310 

Dickenson,  J.  K 404 

Dickenson,  AV.  L 303 

Diet/.,  Gerhard 725 

Drayeiir,  A.  ct  Brollicr     510 

Dresel,  Julius 500 

Dunn,  M.  H 040 

Dunu,T.  M 504 

Duuz,  C.  J 452 

Eardlev,  W.  J 522 

Edwards,  J.  L 384 

Ely,  Elisha 311 

Esppy,  G.  T 590 

Evans,  E.  W.  M 450 


Farrar,  M.  C 503 

Far(|uar,  C.  H 442 

Ferguson,  J.  N 543 

Ferguson,  W.  W 542 

Fitield,  E.  J 307 

Fitield,  W.  E     390 

Fischer,  G.  F 50!) 

Fisher  it  Kinslow 005 

Fisk,  Kev  S.  b 541 

Filch,  II.  D 403 

Fowler,  E.J 026 

Fowler,  J.  E 023 

Fowler,  S.  C 623 

Fowler.  !S.L 624 

Fox,  Henry 333 

Frasee,  C.  b 407 

Fulkerson,  .lohii 328 

Fulkerson,  Kirliard 327 

Fulkerson,  S.  T 330 

KulkersoM,  T.  W 329 

Fulton,  Thomas 524 

Gale,  D.  I{ 612 

Gale,  Otis 521 

Gallaway,  A.  J 3f5 

Gannon,  J.  P 310 

Gaver,  A.  P (103 

Gearini;,  Charles 717 

Gibson,  John 565 

Gibson,  J.  K 568 

Glaisler,  T.  S 5.  9 

Glynn,  F.  B .563 

Gobbi,  P.  &  J.  J 321 

Goodman,  L.  S 702 

Goss,  Johu 605 

Grainger,  W.  C 338 

Granice,  II.  II ',81 

Grant,  C.  F 405 

Grant,  J.  I) 404 

Green,  P.  F 091 

Gregson,  James 330 

Grillith,  E.J 412 

Glover,  CD 410 

Gundlach,  Jacob 499 

Gunn,  J.  0.  B 540 


llafhl,  Conrad 100 

Hall,  George 585 

Hall,  J.  W - 487 

Hall,  L.  B  487 

Hall,  Robert 517 

Haran,  Owen  428 

Hardin,  J.  A 400 

Ilardin,  L.  A 009 

Harmon,  G.  AV 485 

Harris,  Jacob 4.50 

Harris,  T.  L 300 

Harris,  G.  S 087 

Hartsock,  Mrs.  I.  M 030 

Ilasbrouck,  H.  B 484 

Haskell,  Barnabas 310 

Haskell,  W.  B 320 

Hathaway,  E.  L 731 

Hayden,  E..\\ 440 

Hayne,  W.  H 445 

Heaton,S.  O 028 

Hendri.x,  Lewis  020 

Higgins,  Asa 701 

Hill,  Dickson  it  Goodl'ellow 454 

Hill,  J.  M 451 

Hill,  William....    352 

Hilton,  W.  H 001 

Hinkle,  J.  B 530 

Hoatr,  O.  H .503 

Holloway,  J.  C 530 

Holmes,  H.  P 728 

Hoist,  Peter 582 

Hood,  William 3.'0 

Hooper,  G.  F 047 

Hopkins,  S.  J 540 

Howe,  Roben 017 

Howell,  Orrin.' 619' 

Hubbard,  Henry 504 

Hudson,  David 710 

Hudson,  11.  W 411 

Hudson,  Martin 700 

Hunt,  J.  II 444 

Huntley,  G.  W 481 

Huntley,  Will 372 


Ink,  W.  V 442 

Ivancuvich,  George 331 


Jewett,  D.  G 308 

Jewetl.  E.  G 515 

Johnson,  G.  A 3S0 

Johnson.  3.7. 421 

Jones,  W.  D 480 


Kelly,  J.  W 378 

Kennedy,  G.  H 526 

Killam,  A.  F 724 

King,  G.  F 0.50 

King,  John 435 

Kirch,  Henry 431 

Knapp,  A.  H 734 

Knapp,  W.  L 583,  Charles 714 

Kraucke,  P.  W 5.1 


Lal'ranclii,  Giuseppi   732 

Lang,  J.B (io2 

Lapum,  Hicks 537 

Laughlin,  A.  D 450 

Laughlin,  J.  H 408 

Laughlin,  J.  M 432 

Lauler,  Nathan  A;  Co 4-18 

Lee,  A.  G 731 

Le  Febvre,  O.  j>1 508 

Lehn,  Charles 5Ul 

Leininger,  Joseph. . .     6~<7 

Lewis,  J.  B 470 

Lewis,  R.  E 380 

Lewis,  W.  A 606 

Light,  E.  H 712 

Likens,  Levi 730 

Lippitt,  E  S 037 

Litchtield,  Duraiit 638 

Litchfield,  Jlarliu 600 

Longmore,  William 607 

Loomis,  F.  C 514 

Losee,  J.  A 035 

Luce,  Jirah 345 

Luce,  M.  Y 493 

Ludwig,  T.  J 370 

Lyon,  R.  B 711 


Manion,  William 370 

Mauion,  W.  U 379 

Manuel,  II.  C 676 

Martin,  Jlrs.  F.  Jlcti 642 

Martin,  W.  II ..406 

Mather,  J 348 

Matheson,  Col.  Rod   340 

Matthews,  C.  W 523 

Mayuard,  F.  T .585 

McChristian,  Owen 598 

McChristian,  Patrick 5.0 

McClelland,  Buchanan 711 

JlcCoimell,  W.  E (i.50 

McDonnell,  William 492 

McGaughev,  L.  J 401 

McGee,  J.  Il (iOO 

JIcHarvey,  Cliarles 041 

McMeaus.A.  C 344 

McNabb,  J.  II 2.57 

McXear,  J.  A  518 

Meacham,  Alonzo 643 

Mecham,  Harrison 084 

Melson,  J.R 425 

Merchanl,  T.  S 66!) 

Merrill,  J.  P 546 

Meyer,  Claus 583 

Micliaels,  Augu>l 700 

Michaelson,  L.  C .630 

Millingtou,  Setli 555 

Miller,  A.J 420 

Miller,  C.  S 66ii 

Miller,  O.  T 51(i 


Miller,  T.  B :547 

iMills,  A.  J 547 

Moore,  A.  P oOl 

Moore,  Koberl 6«1 

Mordecai,  ThoiiKis 480 

Morris,  J.  II.  1' 35S 

Morrow,  E.  E 574 

Mulgrew,  F.  B 691 

Mulgrew,  J.  F 351 


Nay,  S.  A 453 

Near,'C.  D ms 

Norton,  L.  A 424 


O'Brien,  Joliu 08!) 

Oliver,  J.  S U'Jo 

Ormsby,  G.  W 43:i 

On,  .Julius 718 

Overton,  A.  P :J32 

Overton,  J.  II 714 


Paulieco,  F.  J 051 

Pajre.  T.  S ()^6 

Parker,  Freman 511 

Parkerson,  C.  J 737 

Parks,  I).  H 474 

Passalacjua,  F 723 

Patty,  L.  H 570 

Pearce,  George 682 

Pepper,  J.  T 401 

Pepper.  W.  H 48!) 

Peny,  C.  A 604 

Peters,  A.  N 422 

Peters,  J.  T 482 

Peterson,  A.  .1 350 

Petitdidier,  N 728 

Philips,  Waller 575 

Piezzi,  Victor 367 

Piggott,  .1.  K 473 

Pond,  C.  H 270 

Poulson,  O.  P  721 

Pratt,  E.  F 6.55 

Pressley,  .1.  G 580 

Prindle,  William 426 

Proctor,  T.J 377 

Puniphrev,  A 671 

Putnam,  D.  W.  C 513 

Putnam,  T.  C 507 

Katkliir,  W.  G 620 

Hagle,G.  J 388 

Kagadale,  ,1.  W 309 

Range,  Charles 505 

Kankin,  .J.  II 420 

Uasthen.  Henry 472 

Keid,  .1.  B 397 

Iteiners,  C.  A ,574 

I'.icksecker.  L.  E 0.59 

Uidgwav,  .Jeremiah 436 

l!ol)in.son,  W.  .J 519 

Kodgers,  A.  W 358 

Hodgers,  J.  P 345 

Rogers,  E.  A 343 

Rose,  J.  R  .579 

Ross.  Ijo.nsoTi 55S 

Kufus,  Ernst .538 

Runyon,  Arraslead 325 

Russell,  W.  F 671 

Rutledge,  Thomas 690 

f^arguisson,  Cornelius 557 

Sauhorn,  G.  N .560 

Savage,  C.  W 735 

Sbarboro,  Andrea 48S 

Scanimon,  CM 459 

Schmidt,  Peter 727 

Schniltger,  C.  II 594 

.Schocken,  Solomon 450 

Schroder,  John   094 

Seaman,  J.  F 6.52 

Sears,  Franklin 517 

Seavey,  S.  A 391 

Shattuck,  D.  O 5.52 

Shaw,  I.  E 459 

Shaw,  S.  H 409 

Shaw,  William 690 

Simi,  G 673 

Simpson  &  Roberts 674 

Sink,  W.  D 713 

Skillman,  Theodore- 088 

Smith,  R.  P 662 

Snyder,  J.  R 413 

Soidale  &  Giacomini 4!)8 

Spencer,  B.  M ...  334 

Springer,  ChrislopI 726 

Stamer  &  FeUhneyer  065 

Stearns,  F.  R 5.!6 

Steele,  Frank 726 

Stephens,  William 705 

Stevens,  Lester 534 

Stewart,  David 497 

Stewart.  D.  R 609 

Stolen,  P.  N 615 

Stridde,  Charles 335 

Sti'ong,  John 704 

Stuart,  A   B 341 

Stuart,  A.  McG 342 

Stuart,  C.  V 430 

Sullivan,  I.  W  349 

Surryhne,  Edward 690 

S wain,  R.  ,M 392    ' 

Sylvester,  D.  n' 512 


Talbot,  Coleman .559 

Talbot,  Holmau 507 

Taylor,  J.  S 4.55 

Taylor,  O.  A 047    ; 

Thompson,  A.  J 6.54 

Thomson,  E.  P 053 

Tivnen,  John 462 

Torr,  C.  L 0.53    ; 

Torrance,  S.  H 573 

Trapet,  J.  B 551 

Trip]),  11.  L 548    I 

Tupper,  G.  A 3.55    [ 

U.  ! 

Underbill,  J.  G 3.57 


Vallejo,  M.G 72    I 

Vollmar,  P.  II 013 

M'agele,  Conrad   . .  .732 

Walden  i  Co 509     - 

AValls,  David 501 

A\'alters,  Sol 709 

Warboys,  J.  W 365 

Ward,  T.  M 667 

Ware,  A.  15 ,5.52 

Wartield,R.  H 644 

Warner,  A.  L 469 

\\'egener,  Julius 580 

Weguer,  Edward 481 

Weils,  I^leasaut 317 

Wells,  W.  R 314 

Weske,  Adolph 535 

Weyl,  Henry 443 

Whallon,  Murray 656 

V\'hite,  Harrison 381 

White,  J.  H 673 

Whitney,  A.  L.  i:  Co 617 

Whitney,  A.  P 447 

Whitney,  W.  B 681 

Wightman,  Chauncev 504 

Wilbert,  P .".   , ','77 

Wilcox,  W.  O 411 

Wiley,  J.  W 597 

Williamson,  J.  R 723 

Wilson,  J.  E : 430 

Wilton,  T.G 314 

Winans,  D.  M 6M2 

■Winkle,  Henry 619 

Winkler,  Clayton 627 

Winter,  T.  S 502 

Woodward,  C.  W 615 

Woodworth,  FA 373 

■\Voolsev.  E.  W 576 

Worth, "W.  H 3.55 

Wright,  F.  C 3.58 

Wright,  W.S.  M 479 


Yandle.  F.  J 6.55 

York,  C.  W 6-18 

Young,  B  S 374 

Young,  J.  S 592 


Zaitnian.  William 555 

Zimiuerniau,  George 503 


Allen,  Otis,  Residence  of 394 

Adams,  John 438 

Auradou,  J.  A 632 

Bouton,  Andrew,  Residence,    Or- 
chard and  Nursery  of 476 

'Briggs,  Robert 418 

Colgan,  E.  P 698 

Dickenson,  W.  L 360 

Dickenson,  W.  L  ,  Residence  of.  .361 
Glynn,  F.  B.,  Residence  and  Mills 

of 562 

Johnson,  G.  A Frontispiece 

McChristian,  Patrick .528 

Poulson,  O.  P 720 

Proctor,  T.  J 376 

Ragsdale,  J.  W   308 

Runyon,  Annslead 324 

Scammon.  C.  M 4.58 

Shearer,  M.  M 223 

Sonoma  County  Court-House. .  . .   99 
Stamer  &  Feldmeyer,   Residence 

and  Winery  of 064 

Stewart,  David 496 

Stuart,  A.  B 340 

Wiley,  J.  W 596 



tT  first  seeming  the  writing  of  a  county 
history  does  not  present  the  features  of  a 
difficult  task,  but  tlie  work  once  entered 
upon,  it  is  found  tliat  the  very  narrowness  of 
the  field  but  serves  to  perplex  and  render  more 
intricate  the  labor.  As  an  integral  part  of  the 
warp  and  woof  of  a  great  State  it  requires 
great  care  and  nice  discernment  to  determine 
where  the  shades  of  legitimate  county  history 
end  and  State  history  begins.  This  is  more 
particularly  true  of  Sonoma  County  than  of  any 
other  county  in  the  State,  for  she  is  the  warp 
beam  back  to  which  is  traceable  every  thread  of 
California  history  since  it  passed  under  the 
dominion  of  the  .Vmcricans.  Nowhere  else  in 
the  State  is  there  presented  such  a  tangled  skein 
of  history  to  unravel  as  in  this  same  Sonoma 
County.  At  the  very  outset  we  are  confronted 
with  four  distinct  and  different  conditions  of 
humanity,  each  fulfilling  an  allotted  life-work — 
all  living  history.  Compassed  by  different  envi- 
ronments, and  battling  with  that  destiny  that 
marks  the  fittest  for  survival,  each  has  a  claim 
for  recognition  and  Justice  from  the  pen  of 
truthful,  impartial  history.  Indians,  Russians, 
Spaniards  and  Americans  will  each,  in  turn,  re- 
ceive tliat  attention  and  consideration  that  the 
importance  of  their  respective  being  and  life- 
mission  may  seem  to  warrant.  There  is  now 
but  a  sad  remnant  of  Sonoma  County  Indians 
left.  Soon  they  will  all  have  passed  away.  Of, 
and  about  them,  coming  generations  will  have 

a  right  to  expect  to  find  in  the  pages  of  history 
some  authentic  account.  So,  too,  of  the  Rus- 
sians, who,  in  the  early  years  of  the  century, 
and  even  before  the  Spaniards  had  tempted  her 
wilds,  had  established  a  colony  in  the  northern 
end  of  the  now  Sonoma  County,  it  will  be  per- 
missible to  give  as  extended  an  account  as  can 
be  safely  vouched  for  as  being  accurate  and  au- 
thentic. This  Eussian  occupation  doubtless  ac- 
celerated the  coming  hither  of  those  under 
Spanish  authority,  and  whatever  there  was  of 
friction  on  account  of  this  seeming  joint  occu- 
pancy of  this  territory  by  Spaniard  and  Musco- 
vite, comes  within  the  legitimate  scope  of  Sonoma 
County  history.  Of  the  Spanish  occupation 
and  rule,  it  will  be  our  aim  to  use  just  discrimi- 
nation in  drawing  conclusions  between  the  con- 
flicting statements  and  claims  of  the  difierent 
historians  of  that  period.  For  two  decades  pre- 
vious to  the  hoisting  of  the  Dear  Flag  at 
Sonoma,  and  which  ultimated  in  the  termina- 
tion of  Spanish  rule  on  this  coast,  there  seems 
to  have  existed  an  anomalous  condition  of  attairs 
in  California.  Under  the  old  Spanish  rule,  the 
San  Franciscan  friars  had  been  granted  liberal 
privileges,  and  with  indomitable  energy  and  zeal 
had  extended  their  missions  coastwise  from  San 
Diego  to  the  center  of  the  Territory.  ,\s  the 
honey  bee  is  said  to  be  tlic  forerunnei-  of  civili- 
zation, so  too,  Mexican  immigration  seems  to 
have  followed  with  sleepy  stops  the  paths  made 
safe   iiy   the    mori^   detci-mincl     ['adres.      These 


missions,  whether  or  not  they  filled  the  full 
measure  of  expectations  in  the  civilizing  and 
Christianizing  of  the  aborigines  of  California, 
certainly  paved  the  way  for  the  advance  of  a 
higher  order  of  civilization.  These  ecclesiastical 
institutions,  under  the  exclusive  dominion  of  cul- 
tured ])riest3  of  Castilian  nativity,  were  con- 
ducted with  a  strict  regard  to  system  and 
business  methods  little  understood  by  the  im- 
migrants from  Mexico  who  followed  in  their 
wake.  Rich  in  herds  and  with  granaries  well 
stored  with  cereals,  these  missions  became  pur- 
veyors to  the  advancing  colonists,  as  well  as  the 
army  of  soldiers  sent  hither  by  the  Mexican 
Government.  In  this  thrift  of  the  missions, 
their  seeming  strength,  lurked  the  concealed 
danger  that  ultimated  in  their  doom.  As  slow 
as  had  been  the  progress  of  Spanish  coloniza- 
tion, yet  in  1821,  when  Mexico  threw  off  the 
Castilian  yoke,  a  liberal  share  of  California's 
population  were  natives  of  the  Territory.  The 
better  class  had  received  the  advantages  of  as 
liberal  culture  as  the  parochial  schools  of  the 
missions  afforded,  and,  naturally  enough,  began 
to  assert  themselves  as  factors  in  the  political 
affairs  of  the  Territory.  Mexican  independence 
achieved,  those  here,  natives  of  Spain  became 
the  subjects  of  suspicion  and  surveillance;  and 
in  this  class  was  embraced  all  the  mission 
priests,  who  certainly  laid  themselves  open  to 
watchfulness  by  stubbornly  refusing  to  take  any 
oath  of  allegiance  to  the  newly  fledged  Repub- 
lic of  Mexico.  In  setting  in  motion  the  new 
machinery  of  Territorial  Government,  as  ad- 
ministered from  the  City  of  Mexico,  there  came 
to  the  surface  yet  another  disturbing  agency, 
that  gained  force  with  the  advancing  years,  and 
that  was  a  growing  animosity  between  those 
native  of  California  and  those  sent  hither  by  the 
^lexican  Government  to  fill  either  civil  or  mili- 
tary positions.  AYith  that  superciliousness  not 
uncommon  to  those  who  have  basked  in  the 
sunshine  of  a  higher  and  more  refined  civiliza- 
tion, the  Mexicans  sent  hither  to  fill  positions 
of  honor  and  emolument,  evinced  a  contemptu- 
ous regard  for  those  whose  educational  advan- 

tages and  social  opportunities  had  been  confined 
to  the  circumscribed  limits  of  mission  and 
pueblo.  This  naturally  met  with  the  resent- 
ment at  the  hands  of  the  "  native  sons  "  that  it 
merited.  This  simply  shadows  forth  existing 
conditions  in  California  twenty  years  anterior 
to  the  commencement  of  American  rule,  and 
may  be  epitomized  thus:  The  mission  padres 
intuitively  realized  that  republican  govern- 
ment was  the  beginning  of  the  end  of  the  life- 
work  to  which  they  had  consecrated  the  best 
years  of  their  existence.  The  Government  of 
Mexico,  with  an  empty  treasury,  had  already 
set  lustful  eyes  upon  the  wealth  of  these  mis- 
sions, the  accumulations  of  years  of  depriva- 
tion, toil  and  danger,  and  as  hush-money  to 
conscience  was  willing  to  devote  a  share  of  the 
loot  to  the  aid  of  colonization  in  California. 
The  governing  classes  of  the  Territory  were  not 
averse  to  this  confiscation  of  mission  wealth, 
for  they  had  already  become  used  to  exacting 
from  the  padres  a  liberal  share  of  their  sup- 
port—  and  then  the  fact  that  the  Padres  were 
natives  of  Spain  was  sufficient  to  sanctify  the 
rigorous  end  contemplated.  And,  finally,  the 
native  Mexicans  had  a  contempt  for  native  Cali- 
fornians  and  the  latter  had  a  very  warm  hatred 
for  the  former — in  truth,  everybody  appears  to 
have  been  jealous  and  suspicious  of  everybody 
else.  A  sorry  beginning  for  experiment  of  re- 
publican government,  certainly  I  And  to  add 
to  the  seething  of  this  kettle  of  broth,  within 
the  decade  following  Mexican  independence 
there  began  to  straggle  into  the  Territory,  over 
the  crest  of  the  Sierras,  the  hated  Americans; 
more  dreaded  than  the  denizens  from  the  frigid 
north  who  had  so  unceremoniously  established 
themselves  at  Fort  Ross.  It  was  a  rather  cheer- 
less prospect,  this,  for  a  Territorial  government 
that  was  constantly  receiving  floridly  written 
orders  from  the  parent  government  to  guard 
every  avenue  of  entrance  to  the  Territory  against 
the  encroachments  of  foreigners,  with  no  seem- 
ing thought  or  attempt  to  satisfy  the  cravings 
of  an  empty,  Territorial,  military  exchequer. 
These  fulminations  from  the  ancient  city  of  the 


Aztecs,  that  were  usually  months  in  reaching 
tlie  C!alit'urnia  government  at  Monterey,  are 
only  useful  now  to  siiow  how  dense  was  the 
ignorance  then  in  reference  to  the  extent  and 
t()pogra[)hy  of  California.  AVhy,  a  thousand 
American  colonists  might  have  entered  the 
mirtlicrn  end  of  the  Territory  and  sown  and 
gathei-ed  a  cmp  witliont  the  Governor  of  Cali- 
fornia knowing  anything  al)Out  it.  As  the 
years  came  and  went  the  Territorial  authorities 
were  more  and  more  brought  to  a  realization  of 
the  fact  that  the  snow-capped  Nevadas  could  not 
1)0  accounted  a  safe  wall  of  protection  against 
invasion  from  the  P^ast.  With  but  a  few  forts 
scattered  from  San  Diego  to  San  Francisco,  and 
they  garrisoned  by  soldiers  numerically  few,  and 
they,  proverbially  on  the  ragged  edge  of  revolt 
on  account  of  arrearages  of  pay,  it  is  not  a  mat- 
ter of  wonder  that  California  became  tlie  poach- 
ing ground  of  hunters,  trappers  and  all  kinds  of 
adventurers.  The  drift  of  such  was  naturally 
toward  the  northern  end  of  the  Territory.    Tliis, 

together  with  a  view  of  circumscribing  as  much 
as  possible  the  occuj)ation  by  the  Russians,  evi- 
dently hastened  the  inauguration  of  military 
authority  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay.  While 
this  must  be  accounted  a  very  important  event 
in  writing  up  the  annals  of  Sonoma  County,  it 
should  not  1)0  allowed  to  overshadow  the  fact 
that,  as  had  been  usual  in  California,  the  cross 
had  long  jireceded  the  sword-  -in  truth,  right 
here  met,  and  were  planted  in  Sonoma  County 
soil,  the  cross  of  the  Catholic  church,  thus  far 
north  on  the  circuit  of  its  mission  from  Home, 
and  the  triune  cross  of  the  (ireek  church,  re- 
lating back  to  the  Czar  of  Russia,  and  thus  far 
southward  on  its  mission  of  pointing  weary, 
earth-laden  humanity  to  the  haven  of  peace 
and  rest  above.  In  future  chapters  will  be 
found,  as  nearly  as  possible,  in  chronological 
order,  all  mattersof  im|)ortauce  relating  to  Cali- 
fornia, and  to  Sonoma  County,  particularly, 
from  the  time  that  civilized  man  first  visited  it, 
down  to  the  ])resent  time. 


A  (dHAPTBI?  of  (dBNTURIES.    . 



CAr.IKORNIA    DISCOVERED    IN    1542    BV    JlAN      RoDRIG  LEZ    CaBRII.M) ORK.IX     OF      THK     XAME SlE 

Francis  Drake  in  1579 — the  wonderful  things  he  saw  in  Marin  County — Montekev 
v>ky  discovered  by  viscaino  in  1g03 a  complete    blank    in    history  for  a  period  of 

160    YEARS THE    SaN    FrANOISCAN    FrIAES    PLANT    THE    CROSS    AT    SaN  DiEGO,    J  UNE    11,   1769 

IN  July,  1769,  a  party  start  overland  for  San  Diego  to  establish  a  mission  at  Mon- 
terey— failing  to  recognize  Monterey  they  continued  on  north,  and  on  the  2d  of 
November  discovered  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco — Monterey  was  founded,  a  mission 
established;  and  from  there  in  1772  ax  expedition  started  to  explore  the  Bay  oi- 
San  Francisco — following  around  the  eastern  shore  of  the  bay,  on  the  27th  of  March 

THEY    CAME    TO    SaN    PaIJLO    BaY,    AND    DOUBTLESS    HAD  A   VIEW  OF    SoNOMA    CoUXTV  HILLS    AND 

MOUNTAINS — IN    1775  San  Fraxcisco   Bay  was  explored  by  water — IN   1776    a   presidio 

AND    MISSION    was    ESTABLISHED    AT    SaN    FrANCISCO THE    Y'EAR    PREVIOUS      BoDEGA     BaY      HAD 


ESTUARY-    OF     SaN    PaBLO    BaY    WAS    NAVIGATED     TO     ITS      HEAD — DOUBTLESS    PeTALUMA    CrEEK 

— California  weak  and  defenseless — the  century  ends  and  no  settlement  north  of 
Yerba  Buena. 

fHERE  is  nothing  more  attractive  to  the 
general  reader,  and  more  especially  those 
in  early  life,  than  thrilling  narrative  of 
danger  and  adventure  in  the  exploration  and  settle- 
ment of  frontier  territories.  A  desire  to  placate 
this  somewhat  morbid  desire  for  sensational  read 
ingsays  a  very  great  temptation  in  tlie  way  of  the 
historian  to  draw  somewhat  upon  his  imagina- 
tion for  his  facts.  However  palatable  tliis  might 
be  to  the  reader  of  the  present,  it  would  be  a 
fraud  upon  coming  generations,  who  will  have 
a  riglit  to  expect  at  the  hand  of  the  historian  sub- 
stantial accuracy  in  the  recital  of  historical 
events  to  be  handed  down  to  tliein.  With  this 
conception  of  what  should  be  the  highest  aim 
of  history,  we  turn  to  trace  the  first  rays   of 

civilization  cast  upon  territory,  now  within  the 
confines  of  Sonoma  County.  This  necessitates 
a  review  of  the  early  discovery  and  final  settle- 
ment of  California  by  the  Spaniards. 

Of  course  tliere  is  great  obscurity,  and  con- 
sequent contiicting  opinions  among  historians 
relative  to  who  was  the  actual  discovei-er  of 
California,  and  from  whence  the  derivation  of 
the  name.  The  weight  of  the  best  authority, 
however,  confers  upon  Juan  Rodriguez  Cabrillo, 
a  Portuguese  navigator  in  tlie  Spanish  service, 
the  honor  of  liaving  first  visited  the  waters  of 
our  golden  shores  and  set  foot  upon  California 
soil.  Cabrillo  had  under  liis  command  two 
Spanish  exploring  vessels,  and  there  seems  little 
doubt  that  on  the  28th  of  September,  1642,  an- 


cliorage  was  reached  in  what  is  now  San  Diego 
liarbor,  althongli  the  name  tlien  given  was 
'•  San  Mignel." 

Tlie  date  of  discovery,  tlms  disposed  of,  tlie 
next  consideration  is  as  to  the  probable  origin 
of  the  name,  California.  Upon  this  point  there 
is  even  a  wider  di\ergence  of  opinion  among 
writers  than  as  to  who  was  the  discoverer  of 
the  country.  Upon  this  subject  Hubert  Ilowe 
Bancroft,  who  is  in  a  position  to  arrive  at  as 
accurate  conclusions  on  disputed  historic  points 
as  any  living  man,  says:  "The  name  was  ap- 
plied between  1535  and  153U  to  a  locality.  It 
was  soon  extended  to  the  whole  adjoining  re- 
gion ;  and  as  the  region  was  supposed  to  be  a 
group  of  islands,  the  name  was  often  given  in 
plural  form, '  Las  Californias.'  "  Whence  came 
the  name  thus  applied,  or  applied  by  C(')rtez 
as  has  been  erroneously  believed,  was  a  ques- 
tion that  gave  rise  to  much  conjecture  before 
the  truth  was  known.  The  Jesuit  missionaries 
as  represented  by  Venegas  and  Clavigero,  sug- 
gested that  it  might  have  been  deliberately 
made  up  from  Latin  or  Greek  roots;  but  favored 
the  much  more  reasonable  theory  that  the  dis- 
coverers had  founded  the  name  on  some  mis- 
understood words  of  the  natives.  These  theories 
have  been  often  repeated  by  later  wi'iters,  with 
additions  rivalling  each  other  in  absurdity.  At 
last  in  1862  Edward  E.  Ilale  was  so  fortunate 
as  to  discover  the  source  whence  the  discover- 
ers obtained  the  name.  An  old  romance,  the 
Serga/<  of  Esplandian,  by  Ordonez  de  Mon- 
talvo,  translator  of  Amadh  of  GauJ,  printed 
])crhaps  in  1510,  and  certainly  in  editions  of 
1519,  1521,  1525  and  152G  in  Spanish,  men- 
tioned an  island  of  California,  "  on  the  right 
hand  of  the  Indies,  very  near  the  Terrestrial 
Paradise,"  peopled  with  black  women,  gritfins, 
and  other  creatures  of  the  author's  imagina- 
tion. There  is  no  direct  historical  evidence  of 
the  aj)plication  of  this  name;  nor  is  any  needed. 
No  intelligent  man  will  ever  question  the  ac- 
curacy of  Ilale's  theory.  The  number  of  Span- 
ish editions  would  indicate  that  the  book  was 
popular   at  the  time  of  th",  discovery;    indeed 

Eernal  Diaz  often  mentions  the  Amadis  of 
Gaul  to  which  the  esj>landi(ni  was  attached." 
This  seems  to  set  at  rest  definitely  and  forever 
the  question  of  the  origin  of  the  name  Cali- 

lieverling  to  Cabrillo's  discovery  of  this 
coast,  it  only  remains  to  say  that  that  intrepid 
mariner  died  on  one  of  the  islands  off  from  the 
Santa  Barbara  coast  supposed  to  be  San  Miguel, 
from  the  effects  of  a  broken  arm,  on  the  3d  of 
January,  1543,  and  there  rests  in  an  unmarked 
grave.  Theie  were  other  visitors  to  this  coast 
following  its  discovery,  but  of  their  going  and 
coming  comparatively  little  is  known,  until  Sir 
Francis  Drake  puts  in  an  appearance,  and  finds 
a  harbor,  where  he  enters  to  make  repairs  on 
his  vessel,  the  Golden  Hind,  on  the  23d  of 
July,  1579.  What  harbor  was  entered  by  Drake 
is  yet,  and  perhaps  always  will  be,  a  serious 
bone  of  contention  among  historians.  The  dis- 
putants are  about  equally  divided  between  the 
Bay  of  San  Francis^co,  Drake's  Bay  (so  called) 
in  Marin  County,  and  Bodega  Bay  in  Sonoma 
County.  Hubert  Ilowe  Bancrolt,  in  his  recently 
published  history  of  California,  seems  to  be  in 
some  donbt  himself,  but  as  he  evidently  con- 
siders Drake  a  prince  of  prevaricators,  he  gives 
him  the  benefit  of  the  donbt,  and  signifies  his 
belief  that  the  harbor  now  called  Drake's  Bay 
was  his  by  right  of  discovery.  But  this  is  of 
small  moment  now,  for  all  the  records  of  Drake's 
visit  to  the  coast  are  so  extravagant  and  dis- 
torted that  the  conferring  of  his  name  upon  an 
indentation  in  thecoast  even  as  small  as  that  just 
below  Point  Ileyes  was  more  than  he  merited. 
In  order  that  tiie  reader  ma}'  judge  for  him 
self  in  reference  to  the  degree  of  importance 
to  be  attached  to  Drake's  statements,  we  give  a 
sample  of  what  was  described  as  having  occurred 
at  the  harbor  where  his  vessel  was  being  re- 

"  The  arrival  of  the  English  in  California 
being  soon  known  throughout  the  country,  two 
persons  in  the  character  of  embassadors,  came 
to  the  Admiral  and  informed  iiim,  in  the  best 
manner  they   were  alile,  that   the    King   would 


assist  him  if  he  might  be  assured  of  coming  in 
safety.  Being  satisfied  on  this  point,  a  numer- 
ous company  soon  appeared,  in  front  of  wliich 
was  a  very  comely  person  bearing  a  kind  of 
scepter,  on  whicli  hung  two  crowns  and  three 
cliains  of  great  lengtii;  the  cliains  were  of 
bones  and  tiie  crowns  of  net-work  curiously 
wrought  with  feathers  of  many  colors.  Next 
to  the  scepter-bearer  came  the  King,  a  hand- 
some, majestic  person,  surrounded  by  a  number 
of  tall  men,  dressed  in  skins,  who  were  fol- 
lowed by  the  common  people,  who,  to  make  the 
grander  appearance,  had  painted  their  faces  of 
various  colors,  and  all  of  them,  even  the  chil- 
dren, being  loaded  with  presents.  The  men 
being  drawn  up  in  line  of  battle,  the  Admiral 
stood  ready  to  receive  the  King  within  the  en- 
trance of  his  tent.  The  company  having  halted 
at  a  distance,  the  scepter- bearer  made  a  speech 
half  an  Iiour  long,  at  the  end  of  which  he  be- 
gan singing  and  dancing,  in  which  he  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  King  and  all  his  people — who, 
continuing  to  sing  and  dance,  came  quite  up 
to  the  tent;  when,  sitting  down,  the  King  tak- 
ing off"  his  crown  of  feathers,  placed  it  on  the 
Admiral's  head,  and  put  upon  him  the  other 
insignia  of  royalty;  and  made  liim  a  solemn 
tender  of  his  whole  kingdom.  All  of  which 
the  Admiral  accepted  in  the  name  of  the 
Queen,  his  sovereign,  in  hope  these  pi'oceed- 
ings  might  one  time  or  other  contribute  to 
the  advantage  of  England.'" 

This  dish  of  taff"y  secured  for  Drake  knight- 
hood at  the  hands  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  who,  in 
conferring  the  title,  said  "  that  his  actions  did 
him  more  honor  than  his  title.*'  And  all  this 
is  reputed  to  have  transpired  close  by  Sonoma 
County  over  three  hundred  years  ago. 

The  only  definite  discovery  of  real  merit  after 
that  of  t'abrillo,  was  the  discovery  of  Monterey 
Bay  by  Yiscaino  in  1603.  Thenceforward  for 
a  period  of  100  years,  so  far  as  relates  to  civil- 
ization, complete  silence  brooded  over  what  is 
now  called  California.  No  doubt  during  those 
long  years  the  aborigines  were  filled  with  won- 
der and  conjecture  as  to  what  had   become  of 

the  bearded,  white  strangers,  who  in  big  canoes 
propelled  by  wind  had  come  and  gone  for  the 
period  of  a  generation.  As  common  as  was  great 
longevity  of  life  to  those  untutored  children  of 
nature,  the  e^'cs  that  had  beheld  either  Cabrillo 
or  Vizcaino  had  long  been  closed  in  death  be- 
fore that  eventful  morning  of  April  11,  17G9, 
when  Juan  Perez  brought  the  San  Antonio  to 
anchor  in  the  l>ay  of  San  Diego.  On  board  of 
this  vessel  were  two  Franciscan  friars,  Juan 
Viscaino  and  Francisco  Gomez,  with  all  the 
necessary  church  appurtenances  necessary  for 
the  establishing  of  two  missions.  Aside  from 
the  crew  there  were  a  few  carjjenters  and  black- 
smiths, together  with  a  cargo  of  miscellaneous 
supplies.  The  Indians  were  friendly,  and  still 
had  a  traditional  knowledge  of  the  former  visit- 
ors to  this  coast.  In  addition  to  those  who  took 
jjassage  on  the  San  Antonio,  others  to  the 
number  of  over  one  hundred,  and  among  them 
Father  Junipero  Serra,  started  overland  from 
lower  California.  They  reached  San  Diego  on 
the  first  of  July.  It  required  some  time  for 
needed  preparation,  and  on  Sunday,  the  16th  of 
July,  with  all  the  ceremonies  common  to  such 
occasions,  Father  Serra  blessed  and  planted  the 
cross,  around  which  was  to  cluster  memories  of 
the  first  permanent  establishment  of  civilization 
in  California. 

We  have  neither  time  and  space,  nor  does  it 
come  within  the  scope  of  this  county  history, 
to  enter  into  a  minute  detail  of  the  struggles 
and  vicissitudes  which  followed  the  line  of  the 
establishing  of  missions,  and  the  slow'  march  of 
civil  government  up  the  California  coast.  Our 
object  will  have  been  accomplished  when  we 
have  made  complete  the  chain  of  Spanish  occu- 
pancy from  the  founding  of  the  first  mission, 
San  Diego  de  Alcala,  at  San  Diego,  down  to  the 
founding  of  the  last  mission  San  Francisco 
Solano,  at  Sonoma. 

On  July  14,  1769,  Tartola,  with  sixty  men, 
including  fathers  Juan  Crespi  and  Francisco 
Gomez,  started  from  San  Diego  for  the  purpose 
of  founding  a  mission  at  Monterey.  Tiieir 
wanderings  were    l)y  devious    and    sometimes 


rugged  trails,  as  they  deemed  it  necessary  to 
keep  near  tlie  coast  in  order  not  to  miss  the 
liaven  of  their  destination.  But  mountains 
insnrnionntable'drove  tlieni  to  lower  levels,  and 
they  seem  to  iiave  coine  down  the  Salinas  Val- 
ley and  reached  Monterey  Bay  just  ojiposite  the 
present  town  of  Castroville.  Lo(jking  at  the 
bay  from  the  land,  they  failed  to  recognize  it 
as  the  object  of  their  search.  The  pine  point, 
where  is  now  Pacific  Grove  Ketreat,  served  to 
till  the  description  of  the  navigator  who  had 
tlescribed  Monterey  Bay,  but  after  exploring  it 
by  land  as  far  south  as  Carniello  they  concluded 
that  the  bay  tiiey  were  looking  for  lay  further 
to  the  north;  and,  acting  upon  this  decision, 
they  resumed  their  inarch. 

As  unfortunate  as  was  this  mistake  to  those 
weary,  foot-sore  pilgrims,  tliey  had  the  compen- 
sating honor  of  making  a  discovery  of  more 
importance  to  the  world  than  the  short  delay 
in  fonnding  a  mission  at  Monterey,  for  on  the 
2d  of  JSovember  they  discovered  the  great  Bay 
of  San  Francisco,  destined  to  become  one  among 
the  most  consequential  harbors  in  the  world. 
But  their  orders  were  to  found  a  mission  at 
Monterey,  and  like  good  Catholics  the^'  wei-e 
obedient  to  the  mandate  given  them;  and  being 
now  convinced  that  that  bay  was  the  one  lying 
under  the  shadow  of  Point  Pinos,  already  vis- 
ited by  them,  they  set  out  on  their  return  jour- 
ney, and  ou  the  28th  of  November  again  reached 
Monterey,  and  passing  over  the  hills  to  Car- 
mello  Bay,  they  pitched  camp  and  remained 
until  the  10th  of  December,  taking  a  general 
survey  of  the  surrounding  country.  Grass  was 
now  abundant  for  their  animals,  but  game 
and  even  iish  were  scarce.  A  mule  was  killed, 
and  its  flesh,  together  with  that  of  the  sea-gulls, 
was  used  to  husband  the  flour  that  was  already 
reduced  to  fourteen  small  sacks.  At  a  council 
held  it  was  decided  to  retrace  their  steps  to 
San  Diego.  On  an  eminence,  probably  near  where 
now  stands  the  old  San  Carlos  Mission,  a  cross 
was  planted,  at  the  foot  of  which  was  buried  a 
document  giving  a  brief  sketch  of  the  jouriiey- 
inifs  and  discoveries  of  Partola  and    his   com- 

pany. On  the  11th  they  started  southward 
following  the  general  road  np  which  they  had 
come,  and  without  any  serious  mishap  or  ad- 
venture reached  San  Diego  on  January  24, 1770. 
While  this  expedition  failed  in  the  accomplish- 
ment of  the  object,  for  which  it  had  been  in- 
augurated, it  is  certainly  entitled  to  precedence 
in  the  very  fnjnt  rank  of  all  e.xplorations  ever 
undertaken  by  the  Spaniards  in  California.  It 
must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  years  of  over 
a  century  and  a  half  had  run  their  course  since 
keel  had  furrowed  the  Bay  of  San  Diego,  at 
the  time  the  San  Antonio  with  the  missionaries 
landed  there  in  the  spring  of  1769.  It  was 
only  three  months  after  the  effecting  of  this  foot- 
hold to  civilization  on  this  coast,  and  two  days 
before  the  formal  inauguration  of  the  mission 
at  San  Diego,  that  Partola  and  his  pilgrims 
started  forth  for  a  journey  of  several  hundred 
miles,  through  the  wilds  of  California.  They 
were  like  a  rudderless  vessel  at  sea,  without 
chart  or  compass,  save  that  on  their  left  they 
knew  that  the  waves  of  the  broad  Pacific  were 
ceaseless  in  their  throbbing  pulsations  along 
California's  shore.  Of  the  interior  they  knew 
nothing.  They  had  every  reason  to  believe  that 
it  was  populous  with  barbarians;  and  yet  with 
all  these  dangers  staring  them  in  the  face  they 
went  forth  and  achieved  the  results  already  nar- 
rated. To  erect  a  monument  to  the  memory 
of  the  members  of  that  expedition  would  be 
useless;  for  more  enduring  than  marble  or 
granite  shaft  is  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco,  which 
they  discovered. 

If  we  may  be  permitted  the  e.xpression,  the 
happy  mistake  of  Partola  and  his  fellow  ex- 
plorers had  added  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco  to  the 
geography  of  the  world.  It  now  seems  inex- 
plicable why  it  was  not  at  once  made  the  center 
from  which  radiated  other  Spanish  occupancies  of 
the  coast.  But  it  must  be  remembered  that 
California  belonged  to  Mexico,  and  Mexico  be- 
longed to  Spain.  It  can  well  be  understood 
that  orders  and  mandates  transmitted  through 
the  course  of  so  circuitous  a  route,  and  so  ham- 
pered by  all  the  formalities  of  red  tape,  so  dear 


to  Spanisli  officials,  were  very  old,  and  some- 
times of  impossible  fulfillment  when  they 
reached  this  coast.  And  to  still  more  compli- 
cate matters  there  seems  to  have  been  little 
nnity  of  feeling  and  action  between  the  Padres 
who  were  alone  intent  upon  founding  missions 
for  the  Cliristianization  of  barbarians,  and  the 
military  who  were  looking  to  colonization  as  the 
ultimate  means  of  establishing  permanent  civil 
government  on  this  coast.  In  a  double  sense, 
it  was  a  "  house  divided  against  itself."  The 
bonds  of  sympathy  that  had  united  Spain  and 
Mexico  were  becoming  strained;  and  there  was 
a  growing  estrangement  between  civil  and 
church  polity  in  California  which  plainly  indi- 
cated that  the  twain  could  not  move  harmoni- 
ously forward  upon  parallel  lines  in  the  same 
field.  Either  left  to  a  free  territory,  would  have 
acquired  vigor  and  strength  from  the  very  diffi- 
culties to  be  surmounted;  but  occupying  a 
common  field  and  aiming  at  cross  purposes  was 
productive  of  enervation  and  inaction.  The 
Padres,  at  first  only  seemingly  fired  by  an  hon- 
est zeal  in  behalf  of  the  spiritual  welfare  of  be- 
nighted luunanity,  were  not  proof  against  the 
cravings  for  wealth  and  dominancy  when  their 
llocks  and  herds  began  to  be  numbered  by  the 
thousands,  and  they  naturally  became  obstruc- 
tionists to  the  large  acquirement  of  lands  by 
those  who  came  as  colonists  to  seek  homes  in 
this  land  of  productive  soil  and  genial  clime. 

While  missions  were  being  founded  at  incon- 
sequential places  along  the  coast,  and  inland,  to 
the  southward,  the  waters  of  the  Pacific  contin- 
tinued  to  silently  ebb  and  flow  through  the 
great  Golden  Gate.  Three  years  had  run  their 
course  since  Partola  and  his  adventurous  ex- 
plorers had  set  foot  on  the  sand  dunes  skirting 
the  Pay  of  San  Francisco,  before  further  at- 
tempt was  made  at  exploration  to  the  north. 
And  as  strange  as  it  niay  seem,  it  was  a  San 
Francisco  bay  under  the  lea  of  Point  Reyes 
that  was  yet  the  objective  point  by  the  Padres 
who  wished  to  found  a  mission  that  would  do 
suitable  honor  to  San  Francisco,  their  patron 
saint.     With   this  dominant   idea  still  in  view. 

on  March  20,  1772,  Commandante  Fajes,  with 
Crespi,  twelve  soldiers,  a  muleteer,  and  an  In- 
dian, left  Monterey  for  the  north.  The  Partola 
expedition  had  settled  the  matter  that  the  San 
Francisco  bay  of  which  they  were  in  search 
could  not  be  reached  by  a  land  expedition 
around  the  west  side  of  the  inland  sea  they  had 
encountered.  Hence  Fajes  and  his  party  de- 
termined to  pass  around  it  to  the  east.  In  this 
attempt  they  discovered  San  Pablo  Pay  on  or 
about  the  27th  of  March,  1772.  And  right 
then  and  there  is  probably  the  first  time  that 
the  eyes  of  civilized  man  had  a  view  of  the  hills 
and  mountains  now  compassed  within  tiie 
bounds  of  Sonoma  County.  They  passed  upon 
the  south  shore  of  Canjuinez  Straits,  and  on- 
ward to  the  junction  of  tlie  Sacramento  and 
San  Joaquin  rivers;  then,  turning  southward 
passed  east  of  Mount  Diablo,  going  across  the 
mountains,  striking  the  trail  up  which  they  had 
traveled  somewhere  in  Santa  Clara  Valley;  and 
thence  continued  on  their  way  back  to  Monte- 
rey. Considering  the  number  of  men,  this  was 
among  the  most  notable  expeditions  on  i-ecoi'd. 
Old  Spain,  with  a  seemingly  more  intelligent 
appreciation  of  the  importance  of  this  newly 
discovered  harbor  to  her  possessions  on  the 
Pacific  coast  than  had  either  the  Mexican  or 
California  authorities,  became  very  importunate 
to  have  it  speedily  occupied.  Orders  were 
cheap,  but  the  available  means  and  colonists 
were  not  so  readily  obtainable.  I'nt  Lieutenant 
Agala  set  out  with  an  expedition  from  Monte- 
rey, on  the  San  Carlos,  and  entered  the  harbor 
of  San  Francisco  on  the  first  day  of  August, 
1775.  He  spent  over  forty  days  in  explorations 
of  the  harbor,  but  neither  the  map  nor  diary 
of  this  survey  is  preserved.  Several  of  the 
officers  landed  several  times  on  the  iu)rthern 
shore  of  the  bay,  and  mention  is  made  that 
Canizares  was  sent  to  explore  the  noi'tliern 
branch  of  the  "  round  bay  "  (San  Pablo),  going 
up  to  fresh-water  rivers,  and  bartering  beads  for 
fish  with  many  friendly  natives.  They  may 
possibly  have  navigated  Petahima  Creek,  but 
this  is  uncerhiin. 


'  The  year  following,  on  SepteiriLer  17tii,  under 
the  direction  of  Comniandante  Moraga,  the 
presidio  of  San  Francisco  was  duly  inaugurated 
amid  the  firing  of  cannons,  ringing  of  bells  and 
all  the  formalities  usual  to  typify  absolnte 
Spanish  possession.  The  San  Carlos  had  just 
arrived,  and  Captain  Quiros,  Canizares  and  Re- 
ville,  master  and  mate,  participated  in  the  lay- 
ing of  the  corner-stone  of  this  the  future 
metropolis  of  the  Pacific  coast.  Something 
over  one  hundred  persons  were  present  on  that 
occasion.  Rij^ht  then  and  there  it  became  a 
fi.xed  finality  that  civilization  held  the  keys  to 
the  Golden  Gate  to  the  Pacific  coast.  In  order 
to  punctuate  this  so  as  to  rivet  the  attention  of 
the  reader,-  we  borrow  the  language  of  a  writer 
in  the  Overland  Monthly  who  says:  "On  that 
same  17th  of  September,  on  the  other  side  of  the 
continent,  Lord  Howe's  Hessian  and  British 
troops  were  revelling  in  the  city  of  New  York." 
We  might  supplement  this  with  the  observation 
that  if  it  took  from  1776  to  1823  for  Spanish 
occupation  to  extend  its  lines  from  San  Fran- 
cisco to  Sonoma,  it  should  somewhat  break  the 
force  of  carping  criticism  in  reference  to  the 
time  consumed  by  Moses  aiul  the  children  of 
Israel  in  their  emigration  from  Egypt  up  to 
the  land  of  Canaan.  But  in  this  we  anticipate 

On  the  23d  of  September,  Quiros,  Canizares 
atid  Cambon  took  the  ship's  boat  and  went  on  a 
voyage  of  discovery  up  the  bay.  The  year 
])revious,  on  the  3d  of  October,  Bodega  y  Ca- 
dra,  in  the  schooner  Sonora.,  had  entered  the 
bay  named  at  the  time  Bodegfl.  The  parties 
who  started  out  on  this  exp)loration  of  the  bay 
from  the  ])rcsidio  of  what  is  now  San  Francisco, 
was  imbued  with  the  idea  prevalent  then  that 
there  was  a  strait  connecting  that  bay  with 
Bodega.  It  was  but  natural  that  they  should 
seek  a  satisfactory  solution  of  this  question. 
They  started  on  the  23d  of  September  and  re- 
turned on  the  29th.  Mr.  Bancroft,  in  speaking 
of  Quiros  and  this  expedition,  says:  "Although 
prevented  from  e.xploring  the  great  river,  he 
was  able  to   settle  another  disputed    (piestiou. 

and  proved  that  the  'round  bay'  (San  Pablo), 
had  no  connection  with  Bodega;  for,  sailing  in 
that  direction,  he  had  discovered  a  new  estuary 
and  followed  it  to  its  head,  finding  no  passage 
to  the  sea,  and  beholding  a  lofty  sierra  which 
stretched  toward  the  west  aiuI  ended,  as  Quiros 
thought,  at  Cape  Mendocino.  This  was  proba-/ 
bly  the  first  voyage  of  Europeans  up  the  wind- 
ings of  Petaluma  Creek."  And  thus  it  is 
probable  that  contemporaneous  with  the  date  of 
our  declaration  ot  national  independence  on  the 
Atlantic  side,  Quiros  and  his  companions  vis- 
ited the  very  site  upon  which  Petaluma  now 

The  next  mention  we  find  that  has  any  con 
nection,  either  near  or  remote,  with  Sonoma 
County,  is  the  visit  of  Captain  George  Van- 
couver to  this  coast  in  1792.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  Drake,  in  his  very  florid  recital  of 
what  had  occurred  on  his  visit  to  this  coast,  had 
accepted  from  the  "  King  "  everything  far  and 
near  as  a  generous  gift  to  his  Queen,  and  in 
consideration  of  the  striking  resemblance  of 
the  sand  dunes  around  Point  Reyes  to  the 
chalky  sea  bluffs  of  Great  Britain  had  named 
his  newly -discovered  country  "  New  Albion." 
Vancouver  seems  to  have  had  faith  in  the 
Drake  fiction,  and  with  true  Briton  stubborn- 
ness persisted  in  applying  the  name  New 
Albion  to  this  coast  as  far  south  as  San  Diego. 
While  his  mission  was  ostensibly  one  of 
scientific  research  and  observation,  it  evidently 
excited  distrust  of  English  designs  in  the  mind 
of  Governor  Arrillaga.  Vancouver  had  arrived 
at  San  Francisco,  Governor  Arrillaga  being  at 
Monterey,  the  capital.  Unwittingly  the  C!om- 
mandanto  of  San  Francisco,  in  genuine  Spanish 
hospitality,  had  not  only  given  Vancouver  a 
hospitable  reception,  but  had  furnished  him  an 
escort  of  soldiers  to  guard  him  on  a  snrt  of 
picnic  into  the  interior,  as  far  iidand  as  the 
mission  of  Santa  Clara.  For  tliis  indiscretion 
Commandante  Sal  received  a  not  unmerited 
reprimand  from  Arrillaga;  for  Vancouver  in 
his  report  of  this  visit  shows  that  he  took  in 
the  whole  situation;  that  Spain,  with  a  few  rusty 


(•aiiiKins  and  scarcely  soldiers  enough  to  man 
thein,  was  lioldinir  peaceable  possession  of 

The  story  of  British  vessels  hovering  along 
the  Pacific  coast  of  course  was  transmitted  to 
both  Mexico  and  Spain,  eliciting  the  usual  in- 
junction to  the  Governor  of  (,'alifornia  to  keep 
all  foreign  vessels  from  landing  in  Pacific  coast 
harbors.  How  such  orders  could  be  enforced 
when  there  were  not  more  cannon  at  the  San 
Francisco  Presidio  than  there  are  fingers  to  a 
human  hand  (and  at  some  of  the  sea  coast  mis- 
sions the  two  or  three  cannon  possessed  were 
not  even  mounted),  it  is  difficult  to  understand. 
Ibit  the  mainsprii  g  to  all  authority  in  Califor- 
nia had  evidently  reached  the  conclusion  that 
something  heroic  must  be  done.  The  whole 
story  is  told  by  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft  in  the 
following  extract: 

•'Together  with  his  order  reijuiring  precau- 
tions against  the  English  and  other  foreigners 
with  a  special  view  of  keeping  Spanish  weak- 
ness from  their  knowledge,  and  subsequently, 
tlie  viceroy  fmnounced  his  intention  of  remedy- 
ing that  weakness  by  strengthening  the  four 
presidios  and  by  the  immediate  occupation  of 
Bodega.  Tlie  16th  of  J  uly  Arrillaga  sent  in  a 
report  on  the  state  and  needs  of  Californian  de- 
fenses. A^ancouver,  nnwisely  permitted  to  in- 
vestigate, had  been  surprised  to  find  California 
so  inadequately  protected,  and  the  Spaniards 
seem  to  have  realized  the  utter  insufficiency  of 
their  coast  defenses  at  about  the  same  time;  but 
nothing  was  accomplished  in  171*3  l)eyond  an 
unsuccessful  attempt  to  occupy  Bodega  Port. 
Tills  Bodega  scheme  and  the  whole  project  of 
strengthening  the  California  defense  were  de- 
vised by  Viceroy  Revilla  Giedo,  and  urged  most 
ably  in  his  report  of  April  12,  1793,  a  docu- 
ment which  covers  the  whole  northern  question 
from  a  Spanish  standpoint,  and  although  little 
consulted  by  modern  writers,  is  a  most  important 

'•After  giving  a  complete  history  of  his  sub- 
ject the  distinguished  author  argues  that  dis- 
tant and  costly  outposts   in   the  north   are  not 

desirable  for  Spain;  and  attention  should  be 
given  exclusively  to  the  preservation  and  utili- 
zation of  tiie  establishments  now  existing  in 
California,  and  to  prevent  the  too  near  appi'oach 
of  any  foreign  power.  To  this  end  Bodega 
should  be  held,  and  the  English  plan  of  making 
a  boundary  of  San  Francisco  Bay  be  thus  de- 
feated. Probably  this  one  measnre  may  suffice 
in  the  north;  Nootka  may  be  given  up,  and 
Fnca,  and  also  the  Entrada  de  Heceta,  or  Co- 
lumbia River,  unless  it  should  prove  to  aft'ord  a 
passage  to  the  Atlantic  or  to  New  Mexico.  *  * 
"  Because  of  its  supposed  excellence  as  a  har- 
bor, and  because  of  its  vicinity  to  San  Francisco, 
making  its  occupation  by  England  equivalent  to 
an  occupation  of  that  harijor  for  purposes  of 
contraband  trade,  it  was  decided  to  found  a 
Spanish  settlement  at  Bodega.  Moreover,  there 
were  rumors  that  foreigners  were  already  taking 
steps  in  that  direction.  To  this  end,  the  10th  of 
February  the  viceroy  announced  the  giving  of 
orders  to  the  commandante  at  San  Bias  to  des- 
patch a  schooner  and  long-boat  for  the  service, 
and  Arrillaga  was  directed  to  go  to  San  Francisco 
to  meet  the  vessels.  He  gave  orders  the  20th  of 
March  to  have  a  road  opened  from  San  Francisco 
across  to  Bodega.  These  instructions  came  up 
on  the  Acanzaza,  which  arrived  at  San  Francisco 
on  the  24:th  of  July.  Arrillaga  obtained  boats 
from  the  vessels,  set  across  some  thirty  liorses, 
and  on  the  5th  of  August  Lieutenant  Goycolchea, 
with  a  sergeant  and  ten  men,  set  out  to  open 
the  road  and  to  meet  at  Bodega.  Matute,  who 
with  the  Sutil  and  Me.cleana  had  probably  been 
sent  direct  to  that  port  from  San  Bias.  Unfor- 
tunately 1  have  not  found  Goycolchea's  diary 
which  was  sent  to  Mexico,  and  we  know  abso- 
lutely nothing  of  either  the  exploration  by  sea 
or  land,  save  that  Matute  returned  to  San  Fran- 
cisco on  August  12th,  and  five  days  later  Arril- 
laga informs  the  viceroy  that  the  occupation  of 
Bodega  is  put  off  for  this  year.  The  postpone- 
ment proved  to  be  a  permanent  one,  for  some 
unexplained  cause,  and  the  ten  soldiers  and  five 
mechanics  with  some  stores  intended  for  Bodega 
were  retained  by  Sal  at  San  Francisco." 


So  nearly  came  Sonoma  County  to  civilized 
occupancy  before  the  commencement  of  the  cur- 
rent century.  The  only  other,  ami  more  defi- 
nite statement,  of  Spanish  visitation  to  territory 
now  within  Sonoma  County  jurisdiction  during 
the  early  years  of  this  century,  is  that  in  Sej)- 
tember  of  1810.  Moraga,  a  Spanish  officer, 
visited  l)odega,  '■  discovering  and  exploring  to 
some  extent  a  fertile  valley  in  that  region,  to 
whicli,  however,  lie  gave  no  name." 

Thus,  in  a  hurried  way,  have  we  followed  the 
fortunes  of  the  Catholic  cross  northward  from 
San  Diego  until  it  wtis  securely  planted  at 
Lone  Mountain.  Over  a  third  of  a  century  had 
been  marked  on  the  dial  of  time,  and  yet  that 
emblem  of  Cliristianity  was  yet  nnplanted  on 
the  northern  side  of  the   Ijay.     The  tloci<s   and 

herds  of  the  nineteen  established  missions  had 
increased  until  their  numbers  were  pressing  upon 
the  utmost  limits  of  pasture  supply.  The  opu 
lence  of  the  Padres,  taken  in  conjunction  with 
the  fact  that  they  were  being  made  largely  to 
bear  the  burthen  of  civil  and  military  govern- 
ment, seemed  to  have  somewhat  dampened  their 
ardor  in  mission  work;  at  least  so  far  as  related 
to  venturing  uut  into  new  and  unexplored  fields. 
Here,  for  the  pi-esent,  we  place  a  perioil  to 
Spanish  occupation,  and  turn  to  hyperliDrean 
latitudes  to  note  the  southward  coming  of  the 
Greek  triune  cross.  Before  the  close  of  our 
next  chapter  these  emblems  of  two  mighty 
churches,  one  being  carried  northward  and  the 
other  southward,  will  have  met  and  been  planted 
within  the  limits  of  Sonoma  County. 




The  IIussian-Amkuican   Frii  Company — Razanof,   its  head  JtANAUEii,  visits  San   Franiisco  in 
1805 — EETriixs   TO  Alaska  with  a  cakcii)  hf  whicat — nsiiiNci    for    sea  ottkr   along    the 

COAST    becomes    common THE    MA(;Nn'lI>E    OF    THE    lilSINKSS IN     1809,     KuSKOF,      AN      OFFICER 

OF  THE  Alaska  Fir  Company,  anchorkd  in  TIodioua  Bav,  anii  with  a  lak(;e  numiser  of 
Aleut  fishkumen  who>[  he  p,Ror(iHT  ■\vrrii  him,  spent  ekmit  months  fishixo  and  explor- 
ing— IN  Isll  THE  Russians  came  hack  to  Bodega  with  an  outfit  to  found  a  settle- 
ment— thev  establish  Fort  Ross — were  the  first  to  estap.lish  a  permanent  settlement 
IN  Sonoma  County — the  California  authorities  object,  but  the    Russians    stay — they 


Duiiaut  Cilly,  said  OF  Ross  in  1828 — what  varied  occupations  Russians  followed 

THEV    r.UILT    SEVERAL    VESSELS lioSS    A     liUSY    BEE-HIVE    oF    INDUSTRY. 

1 1 1 1  jE  Spain  was  alwaj'S  in  a  state  of  nn- 
rest  coast  possessions,  slie  was  not 
bronglit  face  to  in  regard  to  the  security 
of  her  Pacific  face  witli  any  real  danger  until  in 
the  first  decade  of  the  present  century,  At  first  it 
was  England  and  France  toward  which lier  appre- 
hensions were  directed,  with  an  occasional  spasm 
of  suspicion  that  the  United  States  had  a  lust- 
ful desire  for  expansion  in  this  direction.  Of 
course  Spain  was  having  spats  and  wars  witli 
other  European  powers,  and  tlie  people  of  Cal- 
ifornia, when  informed  as  to  the  government 
with  which  Spain  for  tiie  time  being  was  em- 
broiled, naturally  felt  uneasy  when  a  vessel 
carrying  the  flag  of  such  government  was  seen 
liovering  along  the  California  coast. 

The  possessions  of  Russia  up  north  had  been 
turned  to  account  and  were  then  under  the 
dominion  of  the  Russian-American  Fur  Com- 
pany.    As  Russia  and  Spain  were  then   as  near 

at  peace  as  was  coinpatible  with  nations  always 
in  armed  expectancy  of  war,  no  serious  danger 
to  California  seemed  to  be  apprehended  from 
that  source.  Rut  there  were  causes  at  work 
that  turned  tiie  attention  of  Alaska  authorities 
southward.  The  provision  supplies  they  were 
dependent  on  from  Russia,  on  account  of  ad- 
verse winds  and  other  unavoidable  causes,  did 
not  always  reach  tliem  in  season,  and  as  a  result, 
several  times  the  gaunt  wolf  Famine  stalked  in 
their  midst.  Hunger  knows  no  law,  and  in  its 
presence  the  amenities  usually  observable  be- 
tween nations  at  peace,  are  liable  to  be  set  at 
naught.  In  1805  the  newly  appointed  Russian 
Chamberlain,  NicholiPetrovich  Razanof, reached 
Sitka  at  a  time  wiien  the  inhabitants  were  in 
sore  distress  for  food  supplies.  lie  had  a  ves- 
sel laden  with  such  articles  as  bethought  would 
be  needed  by  the  presidios  and  missions  of 
California    and    came   down    to   San    Francisco. 


Kazanof  was  too  great  a  diplomat  to  let  the 
Spaniards  know  the  real-condition  of  att'airs  at 
Alaska.  He  had  to  feel  his  way  carefully,  for 
the  authorities  were  under  injunctions  to  en- 
courage no  trade  with  foreign  vessels.  The 
missions  had  plenty  of  wlieat,  just  what  he  most 
coveted,  and  he  had  many  articles  of  utility  and 
ornament  that  the  Californians  needed  and 
wanted.  To  make  a  long  story  short,  Kazanof 
returned  to  Alaska  with  liis  vessel  well  stowed 
with  wheat.  And  more  than  this,  it  did  not 
escape  his  keen  eyes  that  the  whcjle  coast 
north  of  San  Francisco  was  lying  idle  and  un- 
productive. And  another  thing  he  did  not  fail 
to  observe  was  that  the  waters  abounded  with 
sea  otter.  This  same  thing  seems  to  have 
been  taken  in  by  the  lynx-eyed  Yankees  even 
before  Itazanof  visited  this  coast,  for  we  find  it 
recorded  that  in  1803-'4  Captain  Joseph  O'Cain, 
in  the  American  vessel  (TC'aiii,  made  a  sea 
otter  j)oacliing  expedition  along  the  coast,  going 
certainly  as  far  south  as  San  Diego,  and  being 
rewarded  with  a  take  of  1,100  otter-skins. 

Arrillaga  had  been  appointed  Governor  of  Cal- 
ifornia, and  on  his  arrival  at  Monterey,  the  cap- 
ital, in  1806,  one  of  his  tirst  pronunciamentos 
was  a  determination  to  put  an  end  to  illicit 
and  contraband  trade.  lie  expressed  liimself 
cognizant  of  the  fact  that  instructions  from  the 
head  government  had  been,  if  not  entirely 
evaded,  at  least  loosely  obeyed,  and  that  he 
should  not  connive  at  such  flagrant  abuses.  His 
intentions  were  doubtless  honest,  but  then, 
humanity  is  fallible !  Thenceforward  there 
were  always  vessels  hovering  along  the  coast, 
and  it  seemed  remarkable  how  often  they  run 
out  of  water,  or  provisions,  or  had  to  make  some 
needed  repairs,  and  found  excuses  for  anchoring 
for  a  time  near  some  coast  mission.  The  (iov- 
ernor  of  California  and  his  handful  of  military 
could  froth  and  fume  as  much  as  they  pleased, 
but  then  what  could  they  do  about  it  'i  While 
these  coast  poachers  in  Spanish  waters  may  not 
have  direct  connection  with  Sonoma  (J(jnnty 
history,  yet  their  meanderings  were  all  con- 
verging toward  IJodcgii    Bay   and    tlic   ultiiiiate 

occupation  of  the  country  from  that  point  north- 
ward by  the  Russians.  In  truth,  the  only  way 
to  convey  to  the  readers  an  intelligent  concep- 
tion why  the  Russians  made  this  long  skip  from 
Alaska  to  Ross,  is  by  taking  into  account  the 
wealth  offered  by  the  sea  as  well  as  the  pro- 
ductiveness of  the  shore.  In  1806  Captain 
Jonathan  Winship,  in  the  American  vessel 
CrCdin,  with  his  brother  Nathan  as  mate,  made 
a  seaotter  expedition  on  this  coast.  They  were 
acting  under  the  auspices  of  the  Russian-Amer- 
ican Fur  Company,  and  were  accompanied  by 
northern  Indians  and  canoes  to  do  the  lishing. 
The  Farallone  Islands  were  found  a  fruitful 
field  of  operation.  In  September  uf  that  year 
Captain  Winship  returned  to  Alaska  with  5,000 
otter-skins.  In  October  of  1806  Captain  Camp- 
bell, another  American  under  contract  with  the 
Alaska  Fur  Company,  and  accompanied  by 
Aleut  tishermen  with  twelve  bidaskes  (tishing 
boats),  passed  a  season  on  this  coast  and  re- 
turned to  Alaska  in  August  of  1807  with  1,230 
otter-skins.  In  1807  Captain  Winship  was 
back  to  the  coast  again  accompanied  by  fifty 
native  hunters  from  Alaska,  and  his  objective 
point  seems  to  have  been  the  Farallone  Islands. 
How  great  was  his  success  may  he  known  from 
the  fact  that  he  i-etnrned  north  in  April.  Sev- 
eral other  vessels  are  mentioned  as  having 
fished  along  the  coast,  and  in  every  instance 
they  are  reported  to  have  made  a  profital)le 
catch  of  sea-otter.  Although  outside  of  the 
chronological  order  of  occurrences  to  be  re- 
corded in  this  history  we,  in  order  to  make 
clear  the  magnitude  of  the  sea-otter  fisheries 
along  this  coast,  (piote  the  following  from 
Hubert  Howe  Bancroft's  History  of  California: 
"  On  April  1,  1811,  the  Albatross  sailed  for  the 
north,  leaving  the  O'Cain  to  look  after  atfairs 
on  the  lower  coast,  andreturnedto  the  Farallones 
to  leave  supplies.  Then  she  went  to  Drake  Bay. 
where  she  was  joined  by  the  (/Cain,  and  Isabel 
on  the  11th  of  May.  Here  the  two  vessels  re- 
mained a  month,  often  communicating  with 
the  different  gangs  of  hunters  l)y  means  of 
boats.        In    .June     the    AUj((tri)Ss    went    south 


again  and  was  occupied  in  picking  up  for  tinal 
departure  the  luinters  and  the  product  of  their 
labors  for  l)oth  ships;  and  on  the  I'Jtli  she  sailed 
for  the  north,  arriving  at  the  Russian  settle- 
ments in  August.  After  repairing  the  ship  and 
discharging  his  Indians,  Winship  returned 
down  the  coast  and  anchored  on  the  27th  of 
September  at  tiie  South  Farallones.  The  2d  of 
October,  taking  on  board  all  the  hunters,  except 
Rrown  with  seven  Kanakas,  the  Albatross 
sailed  for  the  Islands,  so  loaded  with  furs  that 
some  water-casks  had  to  be  broken  up  and  the 
hemp  cables  carried  on  deck."  Ky  reference  to 
a  note  in  the  work  above  quoted  from,  we  tind 
that  the  Alhatross,  for  the  seasons  of  1810 
and  1811  took  74,526  fur  seal  skins,  of  which 
73,402  were  taken  at  the  P'arallones.  Besides 
these  there  is  enumerated  among  the  pelts  248 
beaver,  21  raccoon,  6  wild-cat,  153  land-otter. 
4  badger,  5  fox,  58  mink,  8  gray  squirrel.  1 
skunk,  11  muskrat  and  137  mole  skins.  The 
estimated  value  of  this  cargo  of  furs  at  Canton, 
China,  was  .$157,397.  A  Captain  Smith  is  re- 
puted to  have  visited  the  Farallones  in  1808 
accompanied  by  a  band  of  Kadiac  Indians  and 
quite  a  Heet  of  bidaskes,  remaining  two  years 
and  departing  with  130.000  seal,  beside  many 
otter  skins.  Alvarado  is  the  anthority  for  the 
statement  that  there  were  months  when  2,500 
sking,  worth  $90  each,  were  exported.  In 
order  not  to  speak  hap-hazard  upon  this  subject 
we  interviewed  General  AI.  G.  Vallejo,  par- 
ticularly in  reference  to  the  subject  of  sea-otter 
(»n  this  coast,  and  we  have  it  from  his  own  lips 
that  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco  and  all  the  bays 
and  estuaries  along  tlie  coast  were  swarming 
with  them  in  the  early  decades  of  the  century. 
But  we  return  to  the  year  1809.  That  year 
was  made  memorable  to  Sonoma  County  from 
the  fact  that  on  .the  8th  of  January  Kiiskof,  an 
officer  of  the  Russian  Fur  Company  on  the 
Kadiac.  I'etrof  master,  entered  Bodega  Bay  and 
remained  there  continuously  until  the  29th  of 
August.  It  seems  to  have  been  a  mission  of 
observation,  exploration  and  fishing  combined. 
Friendly  relations  with  the  Indians  of  the  sur- 

rounding country  were  established  and  a  few 
temporary  habitations  erected.  While  we  sliall 
always,  in  referring  to  this  bay  designate  it 
Bodega  Bay.  the  reader  should  be  apprized 
that  the  Russians  called  it  "  Roumiantzof  Bay.'" 
Through  tlie  natives  Governor  Arrillaga  soon 
learned  of  the  presence  of  a  large  Russian  ves- 
sel at  Bodega  and  that  the  crew  had  erected 
huts  on  shore.  The  number  of  persons  given 
by  the  Governor  as  belonging  to  the  KadUic, 
were  forty  Russians  and  150  Indians,  including 
twenty  women.  Fifty  canoes  were  reported  as 
having  been  crossed  over  from  Huymenes  Bay 
to  Pt.  Boneta.  And  here  it  is  in  place  to 
explain  in  order  that  the  carrying  of  these 
canoes,  called  by  the  Russians  '•  bidaskes,'"  may 
the  more  readily  be  understood  by  the  reader. 
They  were  constructed  with  a  very  light,  flex- 
ible frame,  over  which  was  stretched  a  sheath- 
ing of  sealskins  so  sown  together  as  to  render 
the  seams  impervious  to  water.  The  hunter 
could  readily  take  his  boat  on  his  back  and 
carry  it  a  long  distance.  The  Aleuts  were  ex- 
perts in  the  handling  of  these  tiny  crafts  and 
did  not  hesitate  to  venture  quite  a  distance  out 
to  sea  in  them. 

A  stay  of  over  seven  mouths  at  Bodega  had 
enabled  Kuskof  to  form  a  very  intelligent 
opinion  as  to  wliether  or  not  there  was  any- 
thing in  that  latitude  worth  the  Russian  Fur 
Company's  further  attention.  He  seems  to 
have  reached  an  affirmative  conclusion.  As  he 
took  back  with  him  over  2,000  otter-skins  as 
tangible  evidence  to  the  company  of  the  worth 
of  the  field  in  which  he  had  been  tarrying,  it 
probably  did  not  require  much  urging  on  his  part 
to  induce  his  co-laborers  at  Alaska  to  seek  a 
foothold  in  this  more  southern  and  genial  clime. 
Referring  to  this  visit  of  Kuskof  to  Bodega  Bay, 
Air.  Bancroft  says:  "The  native  chiefs  were 
made  friends  by  the  distribution  of  petty  gifts, 
and  there  is  not  much  doubt  that  they  made, 
either  now  or  the  next  year, .  some  kind  of  a 
formal  cession  of  territory  to  the  new-comers. 
The  price  paid,  according  to  the  statement  of 
the  natives  in  later  years,  as   Payeras  tells  us, 


was  "three  Idaiikets,  tliree  ))airsof  breeches,  twu 
axes,  three  hoes,  and  some  heads."  It  was  upon 
Russian  title  derived  through  this  jnunilicent 
purchase  price  paid,  that  Colonel  Muldrcw, 
nearly  half  a  century  later,  gave  a  great  deal 
of  disquiet  to  the  American  settlers  all  along 
the  coast  from  Toniales  Bay  to  Cape  Mendocino. 
Raranof,  the  Chamberlain  of  Alaska,  douljtless 
acting  on  instructions  from  St.  Petersburg,  took 
immediate  stejis  to  found  a  settlement  on  the 
California  coast.  To  this  end,  an  expedition 
was  fitted  out  and  placed  under  the  control  of 
Knskof,  who,  on  the  Chirikof  v{\i\i  all  necessary 
implements  and  supplies,  left  Alaska  late  in 
1811  or  early  in  1812  for  his  new  field  of 
operations.  Of  this  expedition  l>ancroft  sajs: 
"  There  were  in  the  company  ninety-five  men  of 
Russian  blood,  including  twenty-five  mechanics, 
and  probably  eighty  Aleuts  in  a  hunting  fleet 
of  forty  bidaskes.  The  arrival  seems  to  have 
been  in  March  or  April  of  1812,  though  of 
this  and  immediately  succeeding  events  there 
is  no  detailed  record.  The  Aleuts  were  sent 
out  to  hunt  otter  along  the  coast,  apparently 
with  instructions  not  to  enter  San  Francisco 
Bay,  for  it  was  best  not  to  oflfend  the  Spaniards 
just  at  this  time.  The  Russians  prepared 
timber  for  several  months.  When  all  was 
ready  the  Aleuts  were  recalled  to  aid  the  me- 
chanics, and  everybody  went  to  work  with  a 
will  on  a  foi't  and  other  necessary  buildings, 
and  in  tlie  course  of  a  few  months  a  fortified 
village  had  arisen  on  the  shores  of  New  Albion. 
The  site,  selected  probably  during  the  previous 
viirit,  was  some  eighteen  miles  above  Hodega 
Ray,  called  by  the  natives  Mad-shui-nui,  in 
latitude  38°  33',  loniritude  123°  15'  accordinor 
to  Russian  observations,  and  the  fort  with  its 
ten  cannons  was  erected  on  a  blutt'  some 
hundred  feet  or  more  above  the  sea.  *  '^  '■■ 
All  was  completed  and  ready  for  occupation 
early  in  September.  On  September  10th,  or 
August  30th  of  the  Russian  calendar,  the  name- 
day  of  Emperor  Alexander,  the  establishment 
was  formally  dedicated  with  great  festivities 
and  named    Ross,  from    the   root  (jf  the  name 

Russia,  a   name  extending   far    back  into  an 

From  that  day  dates  the  permanent  occupancy 
of  Sonoma  County  by  civilized  man.  Fort  Ross 
was  something  more  than  a  mere  station  for  the 
rendezvous  of  a  fleet  of  fishing  bidaskes.  In  a 
very  few  years  it  had  become  a  manufacturing 
community,  largely  furnishing  various  kinds  of 
supplies  to  the  less  skilled  Spaniards  south  of 
the  Bay  of  San  Francisco.  Of  this  we  sliall 
speak  more  fully  hereafter.  Their  ccjining  to 
Ross  was  most  certainly  an  infringement  upon 
the  territorial  rights  of  Spain.  P>ut  they 
claimed,  or  pretended  to  claim,  that  by  right 
of  discovery  made  by  Sir  Francis  Drake  New 
Albion  extended  south  to  San  Francisco  Bay. 
The  Spaniards  on  the  other  hand  claimed  that 
Spanish  dciminion  extended  north  to  the  Straits 
of  Fuca.  Through  the  natives  (for  the  S|mnish 
authorities  at  San  Francisco  had  as  yet  made 
little  atteni])t  at  exploi-ation  north  of  the  bay), 
the  Spaniards  were  made  aware  of  the  presence 
and  operations  of  ihe  Russians  at  Bodega  and 
Ross.  As  in  duty  bound,  an  envoy  was  sent 
to  Ross  to  learn  the  objects  and  aims  of  the 
Muscovites.  The  information  olttained  was 
duly  transmitted  by  the  Comniandante  of  San 
Francisco  to  the  (lovernor  at  Monterey;  and  the 
governor  in  turn  communicated  the  information 
to  the  Viceroy  of  Mexico,  and  thus  it  was  started 
on  its  course  to  the  ultimate  end,  the  myal 
presence  in  Spain.  Back  through  this  tortuous 
channel,  after  a  long  lapse  of  time,  came  the 
injunction  to  the  Commandante  of  San  Francisco 
that  he  must  have  the  Russians  march  on.  Just 
how  he  was  to  enforce  this  order,  with  four 
rusty  cannons,  when  the  fort  at  Ross  bristled 
with  ten  cannons  of  larger  caliber,  the  King 
of  Spain  did  not  point  out.  But  ink  was 
cheaper,  and  not  half  as  dangerous  as  powder, 
and  the  result  was  a  wordy  correspondence  be- 
tween  the  (-Jovernor  of  California  and  Knskof. 

For  several  years  the  communication  between 
the  California  authorities  and  those  at  Ross 
was  as  slow  as  the  courtship  between  deaf 
mutes,  so  far  as  related  to  the  right    or   wrong 


of  Russian  occupancy  here.  It  could  not  well 
l)e  otlienvise.  The  Governor  of  CalitbrniH 
could  oidy  act  on  authority  from  the  Viceroy 
at  the  city  of  Mexico;  and  the  Viceroy  derived 
his  power  from  the  King  of  Spain.  On  the 
other  hand  Kuskof  at  Fort  Ross  looked  to  the 
Chamberlain  of  Alaska  for  his  instructions,  and 
the  Chamberlain  took  his  commands  from  the 
Czar  of  Russia.  And  thus  it  came  to  pass  that 
the  conflicting  interests  of  two  of  the  miglity 
powers  of  Europe,  for  a  time,  centered  right 
here  within  our  own  Sonoina  County.  While 
a  i:;reat  many  orders  of  a  mandatory  character, 
rei^uiring  the  Russians  at  once  and  immediately 
to  vacate  Ross  were  duly  delivered  to  Kuskof,  as 
coming  from  the  Viceroy  of  ]\[exico,  it  does 
not  seem  to  have  disturbed  the  friendly  amenities 
tiiat  appear  to  have  existed  between  the  Span 
iards  and  Russians  here,  for  they  seem  to  have 
done  a  great  deal  of  bartering  in  violation  of 
the  revenue  laws  as  intended  to  be  administered 
by  the  Mexican  authorities.  This  trade  was 
carried  on  by  means  of  Russian  vessels. 

Tiie  reader  can  keep  in  mind  that  year  after 
year  there  was  remonstrance  made  by  the 
Spanish  authorities  of  California  against  Rus- 
sian occupation  at  Ross,  always  accompanied  by 
the  fearful  admonition  that  the  Viceroy  of  Mex- 
ico would  admit  of  no  further  delay  in  the 
matter.  Moraga,  the  tirst  to  go  to  Ross  to  spy 
out  what  the  Russians  were  about,  was  sent 
back  to  Ross  late  in  1813,  and  according  to 
Spanish  account  delivered  to  Ivuskof  the  ulti- 
matum of  speed}'  departure  from  this  coast; 
while  Russian  record  of  the  same  occurrence  is, 
as  Bancroft  says:  "That  Moraga  on  this  second 
visit  brought  witl)  him  not  only  twenty  cattle 
and  three  horses  as  a  gift,  but  also  the  verlial 
announcement,  as  welcome  as  unexpected,  that 
Governor  Arrillaga  had  consented  to  an  ex- 
change of  commodities  on  condition  that  pend- 
ing the  Viceroy's  decision,  the  company's  ves- 
sels should  not  enter  the  ports,  but  transfer 
goods  in  boats.  Accordingly  Kuskof  at  once 
despatched  his  clerk  Slobodchikof  to  San  Fran- 
cisco with  a  cargo   which,  in  the  manner  pre- 

scribed, and  to  t!<e  value  of  $14,000,  was 
exchanged  for  bread-stulfs.  Trade  was  thus  con- 
tinued for  some  time,  but  no  particulars  are 
given.  That  this  traffic  was  allowed,  consider- 
ing the  urgent  needs  of  California,  is  not 
strange;  nor  is  the  silence  of  the  Spanish  record 
to  be  wondered  at,  since  the  trade  was  illicit. 
There  is  no  good  reason  to  doubt  the  accuracy 
of  the  Russian  statement. 

That  the  Russians  had  come  to  stay,  the  lo- 
cation selected  and  the  permanency  of  the  im- 
provements made,  amply  attested.  While 
Bodega  Bay,  by  them  called  Roumiantzof,  was 
a  desirable  harbor  so  far  as  ingress  and  egress 
of  vessels  were  concerned,  yet  it  did  not  seem 
to  till  Kuskof 's  conception  of  strategic  strength 
for  defensive  jjurposes.  The  site  selected  for 
Fort  Ross,  about  eighteen  miles  north  of 
Bodega,  could  hardly  be  improved  on  for  the 
purpose  designed.  The  following  pen-picture  of 
Fort  Ross  and  its  surroundings  is  a  translation 
from  a  French  book  written  by  Duhant  Cilly. 
The  author  spent  two  or  three  days  at  Ross  in 
1828.  This  is  a  very  accurate  description,  and 
the  more  to  be  prized  on  account  of  its  having 
been  written  so  long  ago: 

"At  eleven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  June, 
1828,  we  arrived  at  a  colony  which  the  Rus- 
sians had  named  Ross.  It  is  a  great  square  sur- 
rounded by  a  solidly  built  fence  of  boards 
twenty  feet  high.  This  fence  is  crowned  by 
large,  heavy  war  implements.  On  the  south 
west  and  northeast  angles,  are  two  turrets  of  a 
hexagon  shape,  pierced  with  port-holes,  for  pro- 
tection. Upon  the  four  sides  which  correspond 
with  the  four  important  points  are  port-holes 
with  cannon.  In  the  inside  of  the  square  are 
also  tield-pieces  of  bronze,  mimnted  on  w-agons. 
There  is  a  nice  house  for  the  commander  or 
director,  good  lodgings  for  the  subordinate  of- 
ficers, while  the  remainder  of  the  square  is 
taken  up  by  store-houses  and  work-shops.  A 
chapel  and  bastion  occupy  the  southeast  angle. 
The  fort  is  built  at  the  edge  of  an  elevated  piece 
of  land  about  two  hundred  feet  above  the  level 
of  the  sea.      To  the  right  and  left  are  ravines 

nrsTonr  of  sonoma   covnty. 

whicli  give  protection  against  attacks  from  the 
•  north  and  south,  while  tlie  steep  blnfl'  and  sea 
defend  the  west.  The  two  ravines  open  upon 
two  little  bays  which  serve  as  a  shelter  for 
sliipping.  All  the  dwellings  of  Ross  are  built 
of  wood,  but  they  are  built  well  and  strong.  In 
the  I'ooms  of  the  director's  dwelling  are  found 
all  the  conveniences  which  are  appreciated  by 
luiropeans  and  which  as  yet  are  unknown  in 
other  parts  of  L'alifornia.  On  the  outside  of  the 
S(|uare  are  buildings  regularly  ranged  for  sixty 
Russians,  and  low  huts  for  eighty  Kadiacs. 
Adjoining  these  are  huts  of  as  many  poor 
(native  ?)  Indians.  To  the  east  of  the  settlement 
the  ground  gradually  rises  to  a  great  height, 
which  protects  the  settlement  from  eastern 
winds.  These  hills  are  covered  with  thick 
forests.  The  slopes  are  divided  into  fields, 
fenced  in  squares,  for  grain,  French  corn,  pats, 
potatoes,  etc.  These  fences  ai-e  used  as  pro- 
tectors of  the  crops  against  enemies  and  wild 

Such  was  Fort  Ross  as  described  sixty  years 
ago.  So  far  as  location  and  general  details  are 
concerned,  it  is  very  accurate.  The  height  of 
the  mesa  on  which  the  fort  stands  is  placed 
at  too  high  a  level  above  the  sea,  and  the 
palisade  wall  of  the  fort  is  given  about  eigiit 
feet  greater  height  than  it  really  had.  That 
the  Russians  were  well  prepared  to  defend 
themselves  against  attack  is  evidenced  by  a 
note  in  Bancroft's  History  which  says:  "  Kuskof 
brought  eight  pieces  of  artillery  in  1812,  which 
number  was  soon  increased  to  fifteen  or  twenty, 
and  even  to  fort}'  of  various  caliber  by  1841  as 
it  seems.'' 

But  few  of  Sonoma  County's  most  intelligent 
citizens,  we  apprehend,  are  fully  advised  in 
reference  to  the  magnitude  and  importance  of 
the  operations  of  this  Russian  colony  that 
planted  the  standard  of  civilization  here.  The 
oldest  men  among  us  were  but  mere  boys  when 
the  whole  coast  of  this  county  from  the  Estero 
Americano  to  the  Gnalala  River  were  teeming 
with  life  and  enterprise.  Aleuts  in  bidaskes 
were  exi)ioring  every  bay,  cove  and    estuary   in 

quest  of  sea-otter,  seal  and  acqnatic  fowls. 
Coming  from  the  frigid  north  where  everything 
was  utilized  that  would  appease  hunger  or  pro- 
tect the  body  from  the  chilling  winds  of  the 
bleak,  hyjjerborean  climes,  they  gathered  and 
utilized  much  that  by  the  less  provident 
Spaniards  south  of  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco, 
would  have  been  esteemed  of  no  value.  But 
Fort  Ross  was  something  more  than  a  mere 
fishing  station.  As  already  stated  they  gave 
to  Bodega  Bay  the  euphonious  name,  Roumi- 
antzof;  to  the  country  and  streams  northward 
they  gave  names  of  equally  as  hard  enunciation 
to  American  tongues.  The  country  between 
Bodega  Bay  and  Russian  River  they  called 
Kostromitinof;  to  Russian  River  they  gave  the 
name  Slavianki;  while  to  the  country  adjacent 
to  Ross  itself,  they  gave  the  name  Khlebnikof. 
In  reference  to  the  character-  and  number  of 
inhabitants  at  Ross  after  it  was  founded,  Mr. 
Bancroft  says:  "So  far  as  I  can  judge  from  the 
complicated  and  contradictory  statements  of 
different  M'riters,  Russian  and  foreign,  there 
were  at  Ross,  after  the  foundation  was  fairly 
effected,  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  men  of  Rus- 
sian blood,  and  from  fifty  to  one-hundred  and 
twenty  Aleuts.  No  Russian  women  came  to 
California,  except  perhaps  the  wives  of  one  or 
twt)  of  the  officers  in  the  later  years;  but 
both  Russians  and  Aleuts  married  or  cohabited 
with  native  women,  so  that  at  the  last  the  three 
races  were  inextricably  mixed  in  the  population 
of  Ross.  This  population,  including  the  native 
Californians  who  became  permanent  residents, 
may  be  estimated  as  having  varied  from  150 
to  400.  All  to  a  certain  extent  in  the  service 
of  the  company,  though  many  cultivated  small 
pieces  of  ground  and  traded  the  products  on 
their  own  account.  The  Russians  were  ofticers, 
chiefs  of  hunting  parties,  and  mechanics;  the 
Aleuts  were  hunters,  fishermen,  and  laborers; 
the  Californians  were  laborers  and  servants;  all 
were  to  a  certain  extent  farmers  and  ti'aders  and 

AV^hile  there  was  a  (ireek  chapel,  as  already 
stated,    at  the   fort,    tJiere    is    nnthing  to  show 

IIIST(il!Y    <iF    SONOMA     COUNTY. 

that  tliere  was  ever  a  regular  chaplain  assigned 
to  the  station.  Under  authorization  of  the 
bishop  one  of  tlie  officers  officiated  at  funerals, 
solemnized  marriages  and  administered  the  ordi- 
nance of  l)a])tism. 

As  this  coast  had  been  a  common  poaching 
grouiiil  tor  vessels  engaged  in  taking  sea-otter 
for  neaily  a  decade  before  the  advent  of  the 
llussians  here,  large  returns  from  that  kind  of 
hunting  were  not  of  long  duration  and  the 
Russians  naturally  turned  their  attention  to 
mixed  industries.  Bancroft,  wlio  from  his  vast 
I'esonrces  of  data  on  this  subject  is  in  a  position 
to  speak  with  great  accuracy,  says:  "As  the 
hunt  for  otter  became  less  and  less  protitalde, 
and  as  obstacles  interfered  with  perfect  success 
ill  way  of  trade,  the  agents  of  the  company 
turiKil  tlifir  attention  more  and  more  to  home 
industries  at  Itoss.  Agriculture  was  naturally 
one  of  the  most  imijortant  of  these  industries, 
and  results  in  this  brarich  are  shown  more  or 
less  complete  in  a  note.''  Referring  to  this 
note,  we  gather  the  following  information  in 
reference  to  the  Kussian's  farming  operations: 
Kuskof,  about  1821,  retired  from  command  at 
Koss,  and  was  succeeded  by  a  young  man,  Carl 
Schmidt.  Kuskof  died  in  Russia  in  1828.  In 
reference  to  farming  it  is  stated  that  all  the  fer- 
tile land  around  the  fort  was  cultivated,  and 
there  were  fields  two  miles  away.  In  182S  the 
amount  of  land  cultivated  in  various  fields  is 
stated  to  liave  been  about  175  acres.  Seeding 
was  done  in  November  and  December,  after  the 
first  rains.  Both  oxen  and  horses  werg  used  for 
farming  purposes,  and  in  rocky  places  Indians 
were  employed  to  spade  the  soil.  Vegetables 
were  raised  in  abundance  in  the  gardens,  in- 
cluding pumpkins  and  watermelons.  Pickled 
beets  and  cabbage  were  sent  to  Sitka.  Potatoes 
were  planted  twice  a  year,  but  the  yield  was  not 
large.  Wild  mustard  seed  was  gathered  for  ex- 
portation. Fruit  trees  did  well.  The  first 
peach-tree  brought  from  San  Francisco  in  1S14 
bore  in  1820.  Other  peach-trees  were  brought 
from  Monterey,  and  also  grape-vines  from 
Lima  in  1S17,  the  latter  bearino-    in    1823.      In 

1820, 100  trees,  apple,  pear,  cherry  and  peach 
were  set  out,  bearing  in  1828.  As  related  to 
wheat,  great  efforts  were  made  and  great  re- 
sults anticipated  in  1826,  but  there  was  not 
over  a  half  crop,  in  consequence  of  rust.  In 
1833  wild-oats  sprang  up,  and  thereafter  much 
of  the  land  that  had  been  tilled  around  Ross  had 
to  be  pastured.  Mice  and  gophers  had  become 
very  destructive.  Farming  was  then  trans- 
ferred to  the  month  of  Russian  River,  with 
much  success  for  a  couple  of  years;  but  received 
a  set-back  by  two  years  of  failure.  This  will 
give  a  general  idea  of  the  farming  operations  of 
the   Russians. 

In  reference  to  stock  we  find  the  following: 
Of  horned  cattle  there  were  about  sixty  in 
1817,  180  in  1821,  520  in  1829,  720  in  1833. 
and  1,700  in  1841;  horses  increased  from  ten 
in  1817  to  250  in  1829,  415  in  1833,  and  900 
in  1841;  there  were  IGO  sheep  in  1817,  800  in 
1822,  614  in  1829,  605  in  1833,  and  900  in 
1841;  and  swine  numbered  124  in  1821  and 
106  in  1829.  There  were  about  fifty  mules  in 
in  1841.  Many  cattle  were  killed  by  the  bears 
and  Indians.  I'ulls  used  to  come  into  the  fort 
with  lacerated  flesh  and  bloody  horns  after  en- 
counters with  bears.  In  the  last  fifteen  years 
216,000  pounds  of  salt  beef  and  17,(100  pounds 
of  butter  were  sent  to  Sitka.  Butter  brought 
about  thirty  cents  a  pound  at  Sitka.  Excellent 
leather  was  tanned  and  exported.  The  total 
product  in  good  years  of  cattle  and  sheep  was 
valued  at  8,000  rubles.  Bancroft  says:  "There 
was  hardly  any  article  of  wood,  iron  or  leather 
which  the  mechanics  of  Ross  in  the  early  years 
could  not  make  of  a  ijuality  sufficiently  good 
for  the  California  nuirUet,  and  to  the  very  last 
they  received  frequent  apjilications  from  the 
Spaniards.  But  in  the  later  yeai's  many^  minor 
articles  were  more  cheaply  obtained  from  Amer- 
ican and  English  traders.  Several  boats  were 
built  for  Spanish  officers  or  friars.  Timlierand 
tiles  were  not  only  sent  south,  but  north,  and 
even  in  some  instances  to  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
Pine  pitch  was  also  sent  to  Sitka  in  consider- 
able quantities,  in  barrels  which,  like  those  for 

iirsTonr  of  bonoma  county. 

iiiuat    and    other    exports,    wei'c    made    l)y  the 
Ross  coopers." 

iJut  the  Russians  were  even  more  than  fisher- 
men, farmers  and  artisans.  lii^ht  here  in 
Simonia  County  within  the  lirst  quarter  of  the 
present  century  not  less  than  four  schooners 
and  ships  were  built  and  launched,  the  carry- 
ing capacity  varying  from  160  to  200  tons. 
The  schooner  Rotnninatzof,  of  IBO  tons  burthen 
was  commenced  in  1816  and  launched  in  1818. 
Aside  from  the  labor  of  construction  its  cost 
was  20,212  rubles.  The  brig  Buldakof,  of  200 
tons  burthen,  a  copper-bottomed  vessel,  was  put 
on  the  ways  in  1819  and  completed  and  launched 
in  1820.  Its  cost  of  construction  was  about  80,- 
000  rubles.  These  vesselswereprincipally  built 
of  oak,  while  in  tlie  construction  of  the  latter 
ones  pine  and  redwood  seem  to  have  been 
])rincipally  used.  The  Vohja,  160  tons,  was 
begun  in  1821  and  was  finished  and  launched 
in  1822,  at  a  cost  of  about  36,189  rubles.  The 
Kidklifa,  of  200  tons  burthen,  was  put  on  the 
ways  in  1823,  and  completed  and  launched  in 
1824,  at  a  cost  of  35,248  rubJes.  These  vessels 
do  not  seem  to  have  been  of  long   service,  and 

this  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  when  we  take 
into  account  the  rawness  and  character  of  the 
wood  used  in  their  construction.  But  this  in 
no  wise  militates  against  the  cold  facts  of  his- 
tory that  when  oui'  oldest  men  we)-e  mere  boys, 
ship-building  was  carritd  on  right  here  in 
Sonoma  County.  We  have  been  thus  exact  in 
giving  dates  and  details  because  we  believe 
every  man,  woman  and  child  in  the  county 
ought  to  know  these  things.  Sir  William 
Blackstone  says  in  his  commentaries  on  the 
common  law  laid  it  down  as  a  rule  that  every 
English  gentleman  ought  to  know  and  under- 
stand the  groundwork  of  the  laws  of  the  country 
in  which  he  lived.  If  this  was  true  of  English 
gentlemen  as  related  to  a  knowledge  of  the  laws 
of  their  country,  how  much  more  essential  is  it 
that  every  one  laying  claim  to  intelligence  in 
our  midst,  should  at  least  have  a  correct  knowl- 
edge of  the  history  of  the  county  in  which  they 
live  !  Having  delineated  the  main  features  of 
Russian  occupation  of  Sonoma  County  up  to 
1830,  we  now  devote  a  cha]itcr  to  Sj)anish  pro- 
gress northward. 

iiismnv  OF  SONOMA   couNrr. 





SJ'thk  s;-'ANIaki'S  ^:oRTH  of  the  fay,  ;^ 





After   fortv    years  of  wattixc    the   Spaniards   sktre  a  i.ougment   north   of   Sax   F'RANnsco 

Bay A    BRANCH     MISSTON    Tn    Doi.ORES    AY  AS    ESTABLISHED    AT    SaX    RaFAKT.    IN    1818 IN    1821 


Cauqfinez;    traveled  n-   the  Sacramento  Valley,    i-iioiiAiiLY   m   Sha>ta,    then    crossed 

TOWARD    the    coast     AND    CAME    DOWN     RuSSIAN    RiVER    Vai.LKY  —  I  r    WAS     THE    MOST     EXTENDEI> 


NdRTII    (IF    THE   BAY" IN    1823    PaURE    AlTIMIRA,    WITH   A   SlITAnLE    ESCORT,    STARTED  Tn    Lix  Al  i: 

A  MISSION  site;  VISITED  Petaluma  Yall]:y,  Sonoma   Yallioy,  and   finally  chose  Sonoma- 


Francisco  Solano,"  was  duly  dedicated  Sunday,  the  4rii  day  of  April,  182-1  —  the 
Russians  at  Ross  sent  articles  of  decoration  for  the  church  at  Sonoma — fruit  trees 
and  \ineyards  planted — cattle,  horses  and  sheep  Mri.Tipi.Y,  AND  San  Francisco  Solano 


fORTY  years  had  come  anJ  gone  since  pre- 
sidio and  mission  was  founded  at  Yerba 
Buena,aiid  yet  no  fruitful  attempt  had  been 
made  to  establish  settlement  on  tlie  north  side 
of  the  bay.  And  the  lirst  movement  in  that 
direction  seems  to  have  been  impelled  by  a 
teeming  necessity.  At  the  mission  Dolores 
were  many  hundred  neophytes  who  had  been 
gatliered  in  from  the  many  Indian  tribes  south 
of  the  bay.  Among  these  Indian  converts  there 
was  an  increasing  and  alarming  mortality  from 
])ulmoHary  disease.  The  padres,  as  a  sanitary 
measure,  determined  upon  the  founding  of  a 
branch  mission  in  some  more  sheltered  and 
genial  clime  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay.  Tiie 
ju'esent  site  of  San  Rafael  was  the  location  de- 
termined upon.  The  establisliment  was  to  be 
more  in  the  nature  of  a  rancho,  witli  cliapel, 
baptistry   and    cemetery,    than   a    regularly  or- 

dained mission.  Padre  Luis  Gil  yTahoada  was 
detailed  to  take  charge  of  this  branch  establish- 
ment of  the  church.  In  reference  to  this  brancii 
mission  P>aucroft  says:  "The  site  was  proliably 
selected  on  tiie  advice  of  Moraga,  who  had 
several  times  passed  it  on  his  way  to  and  from 
Bodega;  though  there  may  have  been  a  special 
examination  Ijy  the  friars  not  recorded.  Father 
Gil  was  accompanied  by  Derran,  Abella,  and 
Sarria,  the  latter  of  whom  on  December  lith, 
with  the  same  ceremonies  that  usually  attended 
the  dedication  of  a  regular  mission,  founded 
the  assistencia  of  San  Rafael  Arcangel,  on  the 
spot  called  by  the  natives  Nanaguani.  Though 
the  establishment  was  at  first  only  a  l)ranch  of 
San  Francisco,  an  assistencia  and  not  a  mission, 
with  a  chapel  instead  of  a  church,  under  a 
supernumerary  friar  of  San  Francisco;  yet  there 
was  no  real   ditt'erence  between  its  manaij-einent 


and  that  of  the  other  missions.  The  luimber 
of  ncoiihytes  trausfei  red  at  first  is  supposed  to 
have  been  about  280,  but  there  is  but  very  little 
evidence  on  the  subject,  and  subsequent  trans- 
fers, if  any  were  made  in  eitlier  direction,  are  not 
recorded.  By  the  end  of  1820  the  population 
had  ineTcased  to  590.  In  1818  an  adobe  build- 
ing eighty  feet  long,  forty-two  feet  wide  and 
eighteen  feet  high  had  been  erected;  divided 
by  partitions  into  chapel,  padre's  house  and  all 
other  apartments  i'e(|uired,  and  furnished  be- 
sides with  a  corridor  of  tules.  Padre  Gil  y 
Taboada  remained  in  charge  of  San  Rafael  until 
the  summer  of  1819,  when  lie  was  succeeded  by 
Juan  Anioros." 

That  even  the  southern  eud  of  what  is  now 
Sonoma  County  was  yet  a  comparative  terra 
incognito  to  the  Spaniards,  is  evidenced  by  the 
fact  that  as  late  as  May,  1818,  on  the  occasion 
of  a  visit  of  President  Payeras  with  Comniandante 
Arguello  to  San  Rafael,  they  made  quite  an 
exploration  of  the  surrounding  country  and  re- 
ported having  seen  from  the  top  of  a  hill  "  the 
Canada  de  los  Olompalis  and  the  Llano  de  los 
Petalnmas."'  Thus,  as  Moses  viewed  the 
promised  land  from  the  summit  of  Mount  Pisga, 
did  priest  and  comniandante  from  the  summit 
of  a  Marin  County  hill  look  down  upon  Peta- 
luma  Valley  in  the  year  of  grace,  1818.  The 
comniandante  referred  to  in  this  connection  was 
Captain  Luis  Arguello.  Governor  Arrillaga 
having  died  in  1813,  Ai-guelio  filled  the  position 
of  acting  governor  until  Sola  was  appointed  to 
that  position.  Ai-guello  was  a  man  of  consider- 
able energy  and  dash,  and  it  was  but  natural 
that  Governor  Sola  should  select  him  for  a 
hazardous  enterprise.  Late  in  the  summer  of 
1821  the  Governor  determined  to  send  an  ex- 
ploring expedition  up  north.  As  this  was  one 
of  the  most  consccpiential  explorations  ever 
undertaken  under  Spanish  rule,  and  as  it  has 
an  intimate  connection  with  Sonoma  County, 
we  give  place  to  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft's  nar- 
ration of  the  meaniierings  of  the  expedition. 
which  is  as  follows: 

"Thirty  live    soldados  de  cuera  and    twenty 

infantes,  part  of  the  force  coming  from  Mon- 
terey, were  assembled  at  San  l"'rancisco.  Horses 
and  much  of  the  supplies  were  sent  from  Santa 
Clara  and  San  Jose  up  to  the  Strait  of  the  Car- 
quinez.  The  officers  selected  were  Captain 
Luis  Arguello,  Alferez  Francisco  de  Haro, 
Alferez  Jose  Antonio  Sanchez,  and  Cadet 
Joaquin  Estudillo,  with  Padre  Bias  Ordaz  as 
chaplain  and  chronicler,  and  John  Gilroy,  called 
the  'English  interpreter  Juan  Antonio.'  Some 
neophytes  were  also  attached  to  the  force,  and 
all  was  ready  for  the  start  the  18th  of  October. 
The  company  sailed  from  San  Francisco  at  11 
A.  M.  in  the  two  lanchas  of  the  presidio  and 
mission,  landing  at  Ruyuta,  near  what  is  now 
Point  San  Pedro,  to  pass  the  night.  Next  day 
they  continued  the  voyage  to  the  Carquinez, 
being  joined  by  two  other  boats.  Saturday  and 
Sunday  were  spent  in  ferrying  the  horses  across 
the  strait,  together  with  a  band  of  Ululatos  and 
Cauucaynios  Indians,  en  route  to  visit  their 
gentile  homes,  and  in  religious  exercises. 
Monday  morning  they  started  for  the  north.. 

"  The  journey  which  followed  was  popularly 
known  to  the  Spaniards  at  the  time,  and  since 
as  '  Arguello's  expedition  to  the  Columbia." 
The  Columbia  was  the  only  northern  region  of 
which  the  Spaniards  had  any  definite  idea,  or 
was  rather  to  them  a  term  nearly  synonymous 
with  the  northern  interior.  It  was  from  the 
Columbia  that  the  strange  people  sought  were 
supposed  to  have  come;  and  it  is  not  singular 
in  the  absence  of  any  correct  idea  of  distance, 
that  the  only  expedition  to  the  far  north  was 
greatly  exaggerated  in  respect  to  the  distance 
traveled.  The  narratives  in  my  possession, 
written  by  old  Californians,  some  of  whom  ac- 
companied Arguello,  are  unusually  inaccurate 
in  their  versions  of  this  affair,  on  which  they  • 
would  throw  Init  very  little  light  in  the  al)seuce 
of  the  original  diary  of  Father  Ordaz — a  docu- 
ment that  is  fortunately  extant. 

"Starting  from  the  strait  on  the  morning  of 
October  22,  Arguello  and  his  company  marched 
for  nine  days,  averaging  little  less  than  eight 
hours  a  day,   northward   up  the  valley  of  the 


Sai-rainento,  which  they  called  the  Jesus  Maria. 
The  names  of  raiiclierias  1  give  in  a  note.  Tliere 
is  little  else  to  be  said  of  the  march,  the  obsta- 
cles to  be  overcome  having  been  few  and  slight. 
Tlie  natives  were  either  friendly,  timid,  or 
slightly  hostile,  having  to  be  scattered  once  or 
twice  by  the  noise  of  a  cannon.  The  neophyte 
Rafael  from  San  Francisco  had  but  little  diffi- 
cujtv  in  making  himself  understood.  The  most 
serious  calamity  was  the  loss  of  a  mule  that  fell 
into  the  river  with  two  thousand  cartridges  on 
its  back.  There  were  no  indications  of  for- 

"On  the  30th,  to  use  the  words  of  the  diary, 
'the  place  where  we  are  is  situated  at  the  foot 
of  the  Sierra  Madre,  whence  there  have  been 
seen  by  the  English  interpreter,  Juan  Antonio, 
two  mountains  called  Los  Cuates — the  Twins — 
on  the  opposite  side  of  which  are  the  presidio 
and  river  of  the  Columbia.  The  rancherias  be- 
fore named  are  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Rio 
de  Jesns  Maria,  from  which  to-morrow  a  differ- 
ent direction  will  betaken.'  Accordingly  the 
the  31st  they  '  inarched  west  until  they  came  to 
the  foot  of  a  mountain  range,  about  fifteen 
leagues  from  the  Sierra  Nevada,  which  runs 
from  north  to  south,  terminating  in  the  region 
of  Bodega.'  Exactly  at  what  point  the  travel- 
ers left  the  river  and  entered  the  mountain 
range,  now  bounding  Trinity  County  07i  the 
east,  I  do  not  attempt  to  determine,  though 
it  was  evidently  not  below  Red  Bluff.  The 
distance  made  up  the  valley,  allowing  an  aver- 
age rate  of  three  miles  an  hour  for  sixty-eight 
hours,  the  length  of  the  return  march  of  ninety- 
six  hours  through  the  mountains,  at  a  rate  of 
two  miles  an  hour,  and  the  possible  identity  of 
Capa,  reached  in  forty-four  hours  from  Car- 
quinez,  with  the  Capaz  of  modern  maps  opposite 
Chico,  would  seem  to  point  to  the  latitude  of 
Shasta  or  Weaverville  as  the  northern  limit  of 
this  exploration. 

"  For  nine  days,  the  explorers  marched  south- 
ward over  the  mountains.  No  distances  ai'e 
given,  and  I  shall  not  pretend  to  trace  the  exact 
route    followed,   though   I  give  in  a  note   the 

names  recorded  in  the  diary.  Like  tiiose  in 
the  valley,  the  savages  were  not,  as  a  rule,  hos- 
tile, though  a  few  had  to  be  killed  in  the  ex- 
treme north;  but  their  language  could  no  longer 
be  understood,  and  it  was  often  diflicult  to 
obtain  guides  from  i-ancheria  to  rancheria.  The 
natural  difficulties  of  the  mountain  route  were 
very  great.  Many  horses  died,  and  four  pack- 
mules  once  fell  down  a  precipice  together.  The 
3d  of  November,  at  Benenue,  some  l)lue  cloth 
was  found,  said  to  have  been  obtained  from  the 
coast,  probably  from  the  Russians.  On  the  6th 
the  ocean  was  first  seen,  and  several  soldiers 
recognized  the  'coast  of  the  Russian  establish- 
ment at  Bodega.'  Next  day  from  the  Espinazo 
del  Diablo  was  seen  what  was  believed  to  be 
Cape  Mendocino,  twenty  leagues  away  on  the 
right.  Finally,  on  the  10th,  the  party  from  the 
top  of  a  mountain,  higher  than  any  before 
climbed,  l)ut  in  sight  of  many  worse  ones, 
aliandoned  by  their  guides  at  dusk,  \v\\\\  only 
three  days'  rations,  managed  to  struggle  down 
and  out  through  the  dense  undergrowth  into  a 

'•  And  down  this  valley  of  Libantiliyami, 
which  could  hardly  have  been  any  othei-  than 
that  of  the  Russian  River,  though  at  what  point 
in  the  present  Sonoma  County,  or  from  what 
direction  they  entered  it  I  am  at  a  loss  to  say,  the 
returning  wanderers  hastened;  over  a  route  that 
seems  to  have  presented  no  obstacles — doubtless 
near  the  sites  of  the  modern  Healdsburg  and 
Santa  Rosa — and  on  November  12th,  at  noon, 
after  twenty  hours'  march  in  three  da^'s,  arrived 
at  San  Rafael.  Next  day,  after  a  thanksgiving 
mass,  the  boats  arrived  and  the  w-ork  of  ferrying 
the  horses  across  to  Point  San  Pablo  was  be- 
gun. The  infantry  soldiers,  who  were  mounted 
durinor  the  expedition,  also  took  this  route 
home,  both  to  Monterey  and  San  Francisco. 
Thus  ended  the  most  extensive  northern  expedi- 
tion ever  made  by  the  Spaniards  in  California." 

By  reference  to  the  notes  referred  to  by  Mr. 
Bancroft  in  the  above,  it  is  (juite  certain  that 
Arguello  and  his  companions  reached  Russian 
River  at  or  near  the  present  site  of  Cloverdale. 


Be  that  as  it  may,  it  is  lieyoml  cavil  that  they 
were  the  tirst  Sj)aiiianis  to  traverse  the  central 
valleys  of  Sunoiria  County.  While  the  expedi- 
tion was  not  fruitfnl  of  far-reaciiing  results,  yet 
it  furnishes  an  importaut  leaf  to  local  history. 
iJeing  the  tirst  of  civilized  race  to  traverse  the 
territory  of  the  county  its  whole  length,  entitles 
that  little  hand  of  explorers  to  kindly  reniein- 
hrance  and  honorable  mention  in  her  annals. 

I'ut  the  time  was  close  at  hand  when  Sonoma 
County  which  had  lain  fallow  all  these  years, 
except  that  jjortion  of  seaboard  under  occupancy 
by  the  Russians,  was  to  come  under  Spanish 
domination.  The  establishment  of  a  new  mis- 
sion was  determined  upon.  The  causes  which 
impelled  this  movement  northward  will  seem 
.strange  to  the  readers  of  the  present  generation. 
In  the  language  of  Bancroft,  "  In  1822  at  a  con- 
ference between  Canon  Fernandez,  Prefect  Pay- 
eras,  and  Governor  Arguello,  it  had  been 
decided  to  transfer  the  mission  of  San  Francisco 
from  the  peninsula  to  the  '  northeastern  contra 
'■osta  on  the  gentile  frontier,'  a  decision  based 
on  the  comparative  sterility  of  the  old  site,  the 
insalubrity  of  the  peninsula  climate,  the  broad- 
ness of  tlie  field  for  conversion  in  the  north,  the 
success  of  the  experimental  founding  of  tlie  San 
liafael  branch,  and  not  improbably  a  desire  on 
the  part  of  two  of  the  three  dignitaries  to  throw 
tlie  few  fertile  ranchos  south  of  San  Francisco 
into  the  hands  of  settlers.  The  matter  next 
came  up  just  before  tlie  death  of  Payeras,  who 
seems  to  have  had  nothing  more  to  say  about  it. 
March  23,  1823,  Padre  Jose  Altimira,  very 
likely  at  Arguello's  instigation,  presented  to  the 
de]>utacion  a  memorial  in  which  he  recom- 
mended the  transfer,  he  being  a  party  naturally 
interested  as  one  of  the  ministers  of  San  Fran- 
cisco. On  April  9th,  the  deputacion  voted  in 
favor  of  the  change.  It  was  decreed  that  the 
assistencia  of  San  liafael  should  be  joined  again 
to  San  Francisco,  and  transferred  with  it,  and 
the  suggestion  made  that  the  country  of  the 
Petalumas  or  of  the  Canicaimos,  should  be  the 
new  site.  The  suppression  of  Santa  Cruz  was 
also  recommended.     The  Governor  sent  these 

resolutions  to  Mexico  next  day,  and  Altimira 
forwarded  copies  to  the  new  prefect,  Scnaii,un 
April  30th,  but  received  no  response. 

"  An  exploration  was  next  in  order,  for  the 
countiy  between  the  Suisunes  and  Petalumas 
was  as  yet  only  little  known,  some  parts  of  it 
having  never  been  visited  by  the  Spaniards. 
With  this  object  in.  view,  Altimira  and  the 
disputado,  Fi'ancisco  Castro,  with  an  escort  of 
nineteen  men  under  Alferez  Jose  Sanchez,  em- 
barked at  San  Francisco  on  the  25th  of  dune, 
and  spent  the  night  at  San  Rafael.  l!oth  San- 
chez and  Altimira  kept  a  diary  of  the  trip  in 
nearly  the  same  words.  *  *  *  The  explor- 
ers went  by  way  of  Olompali  to  the  Petal  unia, 
Sonoma,  Napa,  and  Suisun  valleys  in  succes- 
sion, making  a  somewhat  close  examination  of 
each.  Sonoma  was  found  to  be  best  adapted  for 
mission  purposes  by  reason  of  its  climate,  loca- 
tion, abundance  of  wood  and  stone,  including 
limestone  as  w^as  thought,  and  above  all  for  its 
innumerable  and  most  excellent  springs  and 
streams.  The  plain  of  the  Petaluma,  broad  and 
fertile,  lacked  water;  that  of  tlie  Suisunes  was 
liable,  more  or  less,  to  the  same  objection,  and 
was  also  deemed  too  far  from  the  old  San  Fran  ■ 
cisco;  but  Sonoma,  as  a  mission  site,  with 
eventually  branch  establishments,  or  at  least 
cattle-ranchos  at  Petaluma  and  Napa,  seemed  to 
the  three  representatives  of  civil,  military,  and 
Francisian  power  to  offer  every  advantage. 
Accordingly  on  July  ith,  a  cross  was  blessed 
and  set  up  on  the  site  of  a  former  gentile  ran- 
cherai,  now  formally  named  New  San  Francisco. 
A  volley  of  musketry  was  tired,  sex'eral  songs 
were  sung,  and  holy  mass  was  said.  July  ith 
might,  therefore,  with  greater  propriety  than 
any  other  date  be  celebrated  as  the  anniversary 
of  the  foundation,  though  the  place  was  for  a 
little  time  abandoned,  and  on  the  sixth  all  were 
back  at  Old  San  Francisco." 

We  cannot  give  the  reader  a  more  correct 
idea  of  this  tirst  exploration  of  the  southern  end 
of  Sonoma  County  than  is  given  in  the  language 
of  Padre  Altimira's  diary,  which  is  epitomized 
as  follows   in   Alley,  liowen  it  Co.'s    History  of 


Souoiiiii  County:  '•  The  I'adre  and  his  party  left 
San  Rafael,  where  a  mission  had  been  already 
founded,  on  the  25th  of  June.  1823,  and  during 
the  day  passed  the  position  now  occupied  by 
the  city  of  Petaluma,  then  called  by  the  Span- 
iards, '  Pnnta  de  los  Esteros,'  and  known  to  the 
Indians  as  '  Chocuale,'  that  night  encamping 
on  the  'Arroyo  Lema,"  where  the  large  adobe  on 
the  Petaluma  Rancho  was  afterward  constructed 
by  General  Vallejo. 

''Here  a  day's  halt  would  appear  to  have 
been  called,  in  order  to  take  a  glance  at  the 
beautiful  country  and  devise  jneans  of  further 
progress.     On  the  27th  they  reached  the  famous 

•  Laguna  de  Tolly,'  now,  alas,  nothing  but  a 
place,  it  having  fallen  into  the  hands  of  a  Ger- 
man gentleman  of  marked  utilitarian  principles, 
who  has  drained  and  reclaimed  it,  and  planted 
it  with  potatoes.  Here  the  expedition  took  a 
northeasterly  route,  and  entering  the  Sonoma 
Valley,  which  Father  Altimira  states  was  then 
so  called  by  former  Indian  residents;  the  party 
encamped  on  the  arroyo  of  '  Pulpula,'  where  J. 
A.  Poppe,  a  merchant  of  Sonoma,  has  a  large 
tish-breediug  establishment,  stocked  with  carp 
brought  from  Rhinefelt,  in  Germany,  in  1871. 
The  holy  father's  narrative  of  tiie  beauties  of 
Sonoma  Valley,  as  seen  by  the  new-comers,  are 
so  graphically  portrayed  by  himself  that  we 
cannot    refrain  from  quoting   his  own    words: 

•  At  about  3  1'.  M.,'  (June  28,  1823,)  '  leaving 
our  camp  and  our  boat  on  the  slough  near  l)y, 
we  started  to  explore,  directing  our  course  north- 
westward across  the  plain  of  Sonoma,  until  we 
reached  a  stream  (Sonoma  Creek)  of  aljout  five 
hundred  plumas  of  water,  crystalline  and  most 
pleasing  to  the  taste,  flowing  through  a  grove 
of  beautiful  and  useful  trees.  The  stream  flows 
from  some  hills  which  enclose  the  plain,  and 
terminate  it  on  the  north.  We  went  on,  pene- 
trating a  broad  grove  of  oaks;  the  trees  were 
lofty  and  robust,  aft'ordiug  an  external  source  of 
utility,  both  for  firewood  and  carriage  nmterial. 
This  forest  was  about  three  leagues  long  from 
east  to  west,  and  a  league  and  a  half  wide  from 
north  to  south.     The  plain  is  watered  by  another 

arroyo  still  more  copious  and  pleasant  than  the 
former,  flowing  from  west  to  east,  but  traveling 
northward  from  the  center  of  the  plain.  We 
explored  this  evening  as  far  as  the  daylight 
permitted.  The  permanent  springs,  according 
to  the  statement  of  those  who  have  seen  -them 
in  the  extreme  dry  season,  are  almost  innumer- 
able. No  one  can  doubt  the  benignity  of  the 
Sonoma  climate  after  noting  the  plants,  the 
lofty  and  shady  trees  —  alders,  poplars,  ash, 
laurel,  and  others — and  especially  the  abundance 
and  luxuriance  of  the  wild  grapes.  We  ^ib- 
served,  also,  that  the  launch  ma}^  come  up  tlic 
creek  to  where  a  settlement  can  be  founded, 
truly  a  most  convenient  circumstance.  AVe  saw 
from  these  and  other  facts  that  Sonoma  is  a 
most  desirable  site  for  a  mission.' 

"  Let  us  here  note  who  are  now  located  on 
the  places  brought  pi-ominently  forward  by 
Padre  Altimira.  The  hills  which  inclose  the 
valley  and  ont  of  whose  bosom  the  Sonoma 
Creek  springs,  is  now  occupied  by  the  residence 
and  vineyard  of  Mr.  Edwards.  The  forest  men- 
tioned covered  the  present  site  of  the  Leaven- 
worth vineyards,  the  Hayes'  estate,  and  the 
farms  of  Wrutten,  Carriger,  Harrison,  Craig. 
Herman,  Wohler,  Hill,  Stewart,  Wartield, 
Krous  ct  Williams,  La  Alotte,  Hood,  Kohler, 
Morris,  and  others.  The  second  stream  men- 
tioned as  flowing  northward  from  the  center  of 
the  plains,  is  the  '  Olema,'  or  flour-mill  stream, 
on  which  Colonel -George  F.  Hooper  resides, 
while  the  locality  in  which  he  states  are  innum- 
erable springs,  is  the  tract  of  country  where 
now  are  located  the  hacienda  of  Lachryma 
Montis,  the  residence  of  General  M.  G.  Vallejo 
and  the  dwellings  and  vineyards  of  llaraszthy, 
Gillen,  Tichner,  Dressel,  Winchel,  Gundlach, 
Rnbus,  Snyder,  Nathanson,  and  the  ground  of 
the  Buena  Vista  Vinicultural  Society.  The 
head  of  navigation  noted  is  the  place  since 
called  St.  Louis,  but  usually  known  as  the  Em- 

Of  this  first  exploration  of  the  country  round 
about  Petaluma  and  Sonoma,  every  incident 
will  be  of  interest  to   the   reader.     In    Padre 


Altiinira's  diarj,  note  is  inaile  of  the  killing  of  1 
a  bear  on  the   Petaluina   flat.      Mention  is  also 
made   that  their   first    night's    camp   (probal)ly 
near  where  the  old  Vallejo  adoba  now  stands.) 
was   with    eight    or    ten     Petalumas    ^Indian?) 
hiding  there  from  their  enemies,  the  Libantilo- 
queini,    Indians    of    Santa    Ivosa    Valley.       As 
alread}-  stated,    the  exploration  extended  as  far 
east  as  Suisun    Valley,  and    .Mtiniira  mentions   | 
tliat  uu  the  30th  of  June  they  killed  ten   bears. 
(_)n  returning  they  gave  the  Sonoma  Valley  a  | 
more    complete    examination    and    crossed    the  | 
mountains  back  into  the  upper  end  of  Petaluraa 
Valley  and  back  to  where  they  camped  the  first 
uight.      From  there  they  seem  to  have  taken  a   : 
pretty  direct  route  back  to  Sonoma,   probably' 
about  the  route  of  the  old   road  leading  from 
Petaluma  to  Sonoma.     This  was  on  the  3d  of 
July,  and    the  next  day  the  mission    location 
was  formally  established  at  Sonoma. 

The  prelate  upon  whose  decision  the  Alti- 
mira  enterprise  depended  for  a  full  fruition  had 
not  yet  been  heard  from.  Altimira  represented 
to  him,  and  with  a  great  deal  of  apparent  truth, 
that  "  San  Francisco  was  on  its  last  legs,  and 
that  San  Rafael  could  not  subsist  alone."  But 
the  desired  sanction  from  the  prelate  had  not 
yet  come,  (governor  Arguello  seemed  impa- 
tient of  delay  and  ordered  Altimira  to  proceed 
with  the  work  of  founding  the  new  mission,  an 
order  that  Padre  Altimira  seemed  to  be  only 
too  ready  to  obey,  for  he  seemed  to  have  been  a 
Hery,  impetuous  mortal,  with  more  zeal  than 
pi-udence.  On  the  12th  of  August  he  took 
possession  of  the  effects  of  the  San  Rafael  mis- 
sion by  inventory,  and  by  the  2;3d  he  was  on  his 
way  to  Xew  San  Francisco  with  an  escort  of 
twelve  men,  and  an  artilleryman  to  manage  a 
cannon  of  two  pound  caliber.  He  was  also 
accompanied  by  (juite  a  force  of  neophytes  as 
laborers.  By  the  25th  all  hands  were  on  the 
ground  and  the  work  i)f  planting  a  mission  cou)- 
menced.  At  the  end  of  a  week  tlie  work  had 
so  far  progressed  that  it  coidd  be  said  of  a  surety 
that  Sonoma  Valley  had  passed  under  the  do- 
minion of  civilized   man.     But  Altimira   was 

destined  to  have  his  Christian  forbearance 
tested.  The  jirelate  refused  to  sanction  the 
wiping  out  of  the  San  Rafael  mission.  While 
he  did  not  express  a  decided  opinion  on  the 
propriety  of  the  removal  of  the  San  Francisco 
mission,  he  expressed  amazement  at  the  hasty 
and  unauthorized  manner  in  which  the  deputa- 
cion  had  acted  in  the  premises.  On  the  31st  of 
August  this  decision  reached  the  Padre  at  New 
San  Francisco,  and  for  the  time  put  an  end  to 
his  operations.  That  this  interruption  did  not 
put  Altimira  in  a  very  prayerful  frame  of  mind 
is  evidenced  by  the  vinegar  and  gall  apparent  in 
his  epistolatory  record  in  connection  with  the 
subject.  In  a  letter  to  Governor  Arguello  in 
reference  to  the  prelate's  decision,  Altimira 
says:  "  I  wish  to  know  whether  the  deputacion 
has  any  authority  in  this  ])rovince,  and  if  these 
men  can  overthrow  j'our  honor's  wise  provis- 
ions. I  came  here  to  convert  gentiles  and 
to  establish  missions,  and  if  I  cannot  do  it  here, 
where  as  we  all  agree  is  the  best  spot  in  Cali- 
fornia for  the  purpose,  I  will  leave  the  country." 
As  a  plain  missionary  proposition  Padre  Alti- 
mira was  right;  but  as  an  ecclesiastical  fact  he 
was  restive  under  a  harness  of  his  own  choos- 
ing, and  was  wrong.  Sarriawas  then  president 
of  the  California  missions.  The  seijuel  to  the 
prelate's  decision  is  thus  recited  by  Bancroft: 
"A  correspondence  followed  between  Sarria  and 
Arguello,  in  which  the  former  with  many  ex- 
pressions of  respect  for  the  governor  and  the 
secular  government  not  unmixed  with  personal 
flattery  of  Arguello,  justitied  in  a  long  argu- 
ment the  position  he  had  assumed.  The  (gov- 
ernor did  not  reply  in  detail  to  Sarria'o 
arguments,  since  it  did  not  in  his  view  matter 
much  what  this  or  that  prelect  had  or  had  not 
approved,  but  took  tiie  ground  that  the  deputa- 
cion was  empowered  to  act  for  the  public  good 
in  all  such  urgent  matters  as  that  under  con- 
sideration, and  that  its  decrees  must  be  carried 
out.  During  tifty  years  the  friars  had  made 
no  progress  in  the  conversion  of  northern  gen- 
tries or  occupation  of  northern  territory:  and 
now  the  secular  authorities  proposed  to  take 


HISTORT    OF    S0N031A    COUNTY. 

cliarge  ut'  the  coiu^uest  in  tlie  temporal  aspect 
at  least.  The  new  establishment  would  be  sus- 
ta  ned  with  its  escolta  under  a  inajordomo,  and 
the  prelate's  refusal  to  authorize  Altimira  to 
care  for  its  spiritual  needs  would  be  reported  to 
the  authorities  in  Mexico. 

"  Yet,  positive  as  was  the  Governor's  tone  in 
general,  he  declared  that  he  would  not  insist  on 
the  suppression  of  San  Rafael;  and,  though 
some  of  the  correspondence  has  doulitless  been 
lost,  he  seems  to  have  consented  readily  enough 
to  a  compromise  suggested  by  the  prefect,  and 
said  by  him  to  have  been  more  or  less  fully  ap- 
proved by  Altimira.  By  the  terms  of  this 
compromise  new  San  Francisco  was  to  remain 
as  a  mission  in  regular  standing,  and  Padre 
Altimira  was  appointed  its  regular  minister, 
subject  to  the  decision  of  the  college;  T)ut 
neither  old  San  Francisco  nor  San  Rafael  was 
to  be  suppressed,  and  Altimira  was  to  be  still 
associate  minister  of  the  former.  Neophytes 
might  go  Voluntarily  from  old  San  Francisco  to 
the  new  establishment,  and  also  from  San  Jose 
and  San  Rafael,  jirovided  they  came  originally 
from  the  Sonoma  region,  and  provided  also  that 
in  the  case  of  San  Rafael  they  might  return  if 
they  wished  at  any  time  within  a  year.  New 
converts  might  come  in  from  any  direction  to 
the  mission  they  preferred,  but  no  force  was  to 
be  used." 

Under  these  conditions  and  restrictions  the 
tiery  Altimira  entered  upon  the  task  of  Chris- 
tianizing Sonoma  County  heathen.  While  he 
did  not  let  pass  an  opportunity  to  enveigli 
against  the  perverse  and  narrow-gauge  methods 
of  the  old  missions,  he  seems  to  have  entered 
with  the  zeal  of  a  Paul  into  his  missionary 
work.  Pancruft,  who  has  all  the  data  to  enable 
him  to  speak  with  absolute  certainty,  says: 
"Passion  Sunday,  April  4,  1824,  the  mission 
church,  a  somewhat  rude  structure  24  Ijy  105 
feet,  built  of  boards  and  whitewashed,  but  well 
furnished  and  decorated  in  the  interior,  many 
articles  having  been  presented  by  the  Russians, 
was  dedicated  to  San  Francisco  Solano,  which 
from  this  date  became  the  name  of  the  mission. 

Hitherto  it  had  been  properlj'  new  San  Fran- 
cisco, though  Altimira  had  always  dated  his 
letters  San  Francisco  simply,  and  referred  to 
the  peninsula  establishment  as  Old  San  Fran- 
cisco; but  this  usage  became  inconvenient,  and 
rather  than  honor  St.  F'rancis  of  Asisi  with  two 
missions  it  was  agreed  to  dedicate  the  new  one 
to  San  Francisco  Solano,  >  the  great  apostle  of 
the  Indies.'  It  was  largely  from  this  early  con- 
fusion of  names,  and  also  from  the  inconven- 
ience of  adding  Asisi  and  Solano  to  designate 
the  respective  Saints  Francis  and  Solano  that 
arose  the  popular  usuage  of  calling  the  two 
missions  Dolores  and  San  Solano,  the  latter 
name  being  replaced  ten  years  later  by  the 
original  one  of  Sonoma."' 

Elsewhere  we  have  said  that  right  here  in 
Sonoma  County  the  Catholic  and  the  Greek 
i  Cross  met,  and  it  but  lends  luster  to  the  pages 
of  history  to  record  that  though  coming  by 
different  roads  they  met  in  friendship;  for,  with 
deft  hands,  the  communicants  of  the  Greek 
church  at  Ross  shaped  gifts  for  ornamentation 
and  decoration  of  the  Catholic  mission  of  So- 
;  noma.  Altimira  remained  in  charge  at  Sonoma 
I  until  1826  when  he  was  superseded  by  Buena- 
ventura Fortuni.  Altimira  had  displayed  con- 
siderable energy  in  his  iield  of  labor,  for  at 
Sonoma  he  had  constructed  a  padre's  house, 
granary  and  seven  houses  for  the  guard,  besides 
the  chapel,  all  of  wood.  Before  the  year  1824 
closed  there  had  been  constructed  a  large 
adobe  30  by  120  feet,  seven  feet  high,  with 
tiled  roof  and  corridor,  and  a  couple  of  other 
structures  of  adobe  had  been  constructed  ready 
to  roof,  when  the  excessive  rains  of  that  season 
set  in  and  ruined  the  walls.  A  loom  was  set 
up  and  weaving  was  in  operation.  Quite  an 
orchard  of  fruit  trees  was  planted  and  a  vine- 
yard of  3,000  vines  was  set  out.  Bancroft  says: 
"  Between  1824  and  1830  cattle  increased  from 
1,100  to  2,000;  horses  from  400  to  725;  and 
sheep  remained  at  4,000,  though  as  few  as  1,500 
in  1826.  Crops  amounted  to  1,875  bushels  per 
year  on  an  average,  the  largest  yield  being 
3,945  in  1826,  and  the  smallest   510  in    182'^, 


when  wlieat  ami  barley  failed  completely.  At 
tlio  end  of  1824  the  mission  had  693  neophytes, 
of  whom  322  had  come  from  San  Francisco, 
153  from  San  Jose,  02  from  San  Rafael,  and  9() 
had  been  baptized  on  the  spot.  By  1830,  (ioO 
had  l)een  baptized  and  375  buried;  but  the 
number  of  neophytes  had  increased  only  to 
760,  leaving  a  margin  of  over  100  for  runaways, 
even  on  the  supposition  that  all  from  San 
Rafael  retired  the  first  year  to  their  old  home. 
Notwithstanding  the  advantages  of  the  site 
and     Altimira's    enthusiasm     the     mission     at 

Sonoma    was    not  prosperous    during  its   short 

Thus  far  we  have  followed  the  foi-tunesof  the 
cliurch  in  its  missionary  work  on  tins  side  of 
the  bay.  AVhile  it  was  not  as  fruitful  of  results 
as  the  church  probably  expected,  it  at  least 
paved  the  way  for  secular  occupation.  As  it 
had  been  in  the  south,  so  too  in  the  north  an  at- 
tempt at  colonization  was  sure  to  follow  in 
the  paths  made  easy  by  the  pluck  and  persever- 
ance of  the  padres.  We  again  turn  to  Ross 
and   ti'ace  Russian   occupation   to  a  conclusion. 



^^ tig^miMjB^g^-.  _. 





TlIK     RlSSIAN-i    AT      Ru>^S     IJECIX    Til     RKALIZK     THAT     THEV      H  A  \  K      lou     NAUKnW    A     FrKLI) WILI,     lU' V 


1!V     MkXK  AN     Al  TIK.IKITIES  — 1.\     1834:    VaLLEJO    WAS    COM.MANHAME    AT    iSi  iXUMA,    AXD    liEGAN    T(J 
L'H>K    SIIAKI'    AFIEl:     IH  K    Rl>MA.\S    AT    RoSS THE    RfSSIANS    i>I-IEl;     THEIR    I'KOPEKTV    EnK    SALE 

—  iNVE.NTtiHv   <iK  THEiK    i'i;oi'i;i;r V  —  IN  1841  THE   RrssLws    SELL  Til  Cai'taix   JdHX   A.   Sit- 
ter   AXII     lAKK    THEIli     DEl'ARTLKK     FiiR    AlASKA SuTTEK    TOi>K     MdST    (iF    THE    MOCK     AM)    MiME 

UF     THE      HOUSES    T'O     His     Sa(  RAM  i;XIc  i      ESTABLISHMENT RiDW  lOLL     AND     ReXXITZ      AT      Ri  i>s      AS 

SlTTEu's    AGENTS — A   TRII'    TO   RoSS    TWENTY-SEVEN    YEARS  AGO — ReNXITz's    STOKV    AlioUT    SHOUT- 
ING   A    (JKIZZLY'    BEAK FoRT    Ross    AND    ITS    SURROLNDINGS    IN    1888. 

^'S§(4A1N  \vt3  turn  to  tliat  busy  bee-liive  ot 
,-;xai  indiistrv,  the  Muscovite  settlement  at  Fort 
■^s^  Ross.  We  have  somewhat  in  advance  ^>f 
1880  shown  what  had  been  accomplished  by 
tliat  colony.  The  time  had  now  come  wlien  its 
futuru  u.vistence  had  to  be  determined.  There 
was  no  motive  for  tiie  Russians  to  hold  an.  occu- 
pancy limited  by  Rodetfa  Bay  on  the  south  and 
the  Gualala  River  on  the  north.  At  best, 
tiiere  was  but  a  narrow  bench  of  seaboard  avail- 
able for  either  farming  or  orazing  purposes. 
True,  there  was  a  wealth  of  forest  back  of  this 
mesa,  but  thev  had  already  learned  that  this 
timber  was  not  durable  as  material  for  ship- 
building. They  had  pretty  well  e\liauste<l  the 
sujiply  of  timber  from  which  pine  jjitch  ('(Uild 
be  manufactured.  Tan  bark  for  the  carrying 
on  of  their  tanneries  was  their  most  promising 
continuing  supply  for  the  future.  The  agents 
of  the  Alaska  Fur  Company  had  already  signi- 
fied to  the  California  authorities  a  willingness 

to  vacate  Fort  Ross  upon  payment  for  improve- 
ments. Through  the  intricate  evolutions  of  red 
tape  this  was  transmitted  to  the  viceory  of 
Mexico,  and  as  that  functionary  took  it  as  an 
evidence  that  tlie  Russian  colony  at  Ross  was 
on  its  last  legs,  refusal  was  made  on  the  ground 
that  the  Russians,  having  made  improvements 
on  ypanish  territory,  with  material  acquired 
from  Spanish  soil,  they  ought  not  to  e.xpect 
payment  for  the  same.  While  this  is  not  the 
language,  it  is  the  spirit  of  the  view  the  viceroy 
took  of  the  subject.  As  a  legal  proposition 
this  was  doubtless  true,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
at  any  time  after  1825  the  superintendent  at 
Ross  had  at  his  command  sufMcieut  of  the  arma- 
ment and  munitions  of  war  to  have  marched 
from  Ross  to  San  Diego  without  let  or  hin- 
drance, so  far  as  the  viceroy  of  Mexico  was 
concerned.  These  Dons  and  Hidalgos  seemed, 
however,  to  consider  their  rubrics  to  be  more 
powerful    than    swords   or   cannon.     As    their 



overtures  for  sale  had  been  thus  summarily  dis- 
posed of,  the  cold,  impassive  Muscovites  pursued 
the  eveu  tenor  of  their  way,  and  as  the  lauds 
around  Fort  Ross  became  exhausted  by  continu- 
ous farming  they  extended  their  farming  opera- 
tions southward  between  tlie  Russian  River  and 
Bodega  Bay,  and  ultimately  inland  to  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  present  village  of  Bodega  Corners. 
At  the  latter  i)lace  there  were  sevei-al  Russian 
graves,  in  the  midst  of  which  there  stood  a 
(xreek  cross,  long  after  the  Americans  came  into 
occupancy.  The  earliest  American  settlers  in 
that  neighborhood  aver  that  the  Russians  had  a 
grist-mill  some  two  or  three  miles  eastei'ly  from 
Bodega  Corners.  Certain  it  is  that  the  author- 
ities at  San  P'rancisco  had  notification  that  the 
Russians  contemplated  occupation  for  farming 
purposes  as  far  inland  as  the  present  site  of 
Santa  Rosa.  These  rumors,  whether  true  or 
not,  doubtless  accelerated  the  movement  of 
Spanish  colonization  in  that  direction. 

Governor  Wrangeli,  now  having  control  in 
Alaska,  seems  to  have  taken  an  intelligent  view 
of  the  whole  situation,  and  realized  that  unless 
the  company,  of  which  he  was  head  representa- 
tive, could  obtain  undisputed  possession  of  all 
the  territory  north  of  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco 
and  eastward  to  the  Sacramento,  it  was  useless 
to  attempt  a  continuance  at  Ross.  To  achieve 
this  end  the  Alaska  Company  was  willing  to  buy 
the  establishments  already  at  San  RafViel  and 
Sonoma.  The  fact  that  the  California  authori- 
ties submitted  these  2")ropositions  to  the  Mexican 
government,  now  free  from  the  yoke  of  Spanish 
rule,  would  indicate  that  by  them  such  a  propo- 
sition was  not  considered  in  the  light  of  a 
heinous  offense.  Alvarado  was  then  at  the 
head  of  the  California  government  and  no  doubt 
lie  looked  with  great  distrust,  if  not  alarm, 
upon  the  number  of  Americans  who  were  be- 
ginning to  find  their  way  into  California.  But 
General  Vallejo,  who  was  now  almost  autocrat 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco, 
was  not,  probably,  so  averse  to  Americans,  as  he 
had  already  three  brothers-in-law  of  Yardvce 
bluciil.      Through   these   kinsmen,  who   were  all 

gentlemen  of  good  intelligence  and  education, 
A^allejo  had  become  well  informed  in  reference 
to  the  push  and  energy  of  the  xVmerican  people, 
and  hence  it  is  quite  certain  that  he  did  not 
favor  any  permanent  occupancy  here  by  any 
European  power.  In  truth,  while  the  California 
government  had  confined  itself  to  wordy  pen 
remonstrances  with  the  occupants  of  Ross,  in 
1840  A'allejo  seems  to  have  made  quite  a  show 
of  calling  Rotclief,  the  then  sujieriutendent  at 
Ross,  to  accountability  for  having  allowed  the 
American  ship  Lausanne  to  land  and  discharge 
passengers  at  Bodega  as  though  it  were  a  tree 
port.  Some  of  these  passengers,  who  went  to 
Sonoma,  were  incarcerated  by  the  irate  Vallejo, 
and  he  even  sent  a  file  of  soldiers  to  Bodega  to 
give  warning  that  such  infractions  would  lead 
to  .serious  consequences  if  persisted  in.  This 
was  the  nearest  to  an  open  rupture  of  amicable 
relations  that  ever  occurred  between  Spaniard  and 
Muscovite  on  this  coast  that  we  find  any  record 
of,  and  this  could  not  have  been  of  a  very  san- 
guinary nature,  for  it  seems  that  Vallejo  and 
Rotchef  were  on  social  good  terms  afterward. 
The  proposed  accjuisition  of  territory  by 
Governor  Wrangeli  met  with  no  encouragement 
from  the  Mexican  Government,  in  reference 
to  this  matter  Bancroft  says:  "The  intention  of 
tiie  Russians  to  abandon  Ross  and  their  wish  to 
sell  their  property  there,  had,  as  we  have  seen, 
been  announced  to  Alvarado,  and  by  him  to  the 
Mexican  government,  before  the  end  of  18-10. 
In  January  1841,  Vallejo,  in  reporting  to  the 
minister  of  war  his  controversy  with  Rotchef 
and  Krupicurof,  mentioned  the  prop(jsed  aban- 
donment, taking  more  credit  to  himself  than  the 
facts  could  justify,  as  a  result  of  that  contro 
versy.  The  Russians  had  consulted  him  as  to 
their  power  to  sell  the  buildings  as  well  as  live- 
stock to  a  private  person,  and  he  had  been  told 
that  'the  nation  had  the  first  right,'  and  would 
have  to  be  consulted.  The  fear  that  impelled 
him  at  that  time  to  answer  thus  cautiously  was 
that  some  foreigners  from  tiie  Columbia  or  else- 
where might  outbid  any  citizen  of  California, 
and  thus  i-aise  a  question  of  sovereignty,  which 



might  prove  ti-unlilesoirie  in  the  future  to  Mexi- 
can interests.      \'allej\i  also   urged   tlie  govern- 
ment to   lurnisli  a   garrison,  and   authorize  the 
jilantino-  of  a  eolony  at  the  abandoned  post.      In 
I'el/ruarVi  Imwever,  Kostromitiiiot',  representing 
tlie  company,  proposed  to  sell   the  property  to 
Vallejo  himself    lor    !S30,000,  payable  half  in 
money  or  ijills  of  the   Hudson    Bay  Company, 
and  lialf  in  produce  delivered  at   Yei'ba  Bueiia. 
The  (xeneral  e.xpressed  a  willingness  to  make  tlie 
]iurchase,  but  could  not  pi'omise  a  definite  deci- 
sion   on    the    subject    before   July   or    August. 
I'emling  the  decision,  the  Russian  agent  seems 
to  liave  entered,  perhaps  secretly,  into  negotia- 
tions with  Joliii  A.  Sutter,  who  at  that  time  was 
not    disposed    to   buy    anything    but    moveable 
property.        Meanwhile    a    reply    came     from 
Mexico,  tiiough  by  no  means  a  satisfactory  one; 
since  the  government — evidently  with  some  kind 
of  an   idea  tliat   the  Russian  officials  had  been 
frightened  away,  leaving    a    flourishing  settle- 
ment to  be  taken  possession  of  by   the  Califor- 
uians — simply  sent  useless  instructions  about tiie 
details  of  occupation  and   form  of  government 
to  be  established.      In   July   Kostromitinof  re- 
turned from  Sitka,  and  negotiations  were  recom- 
mended.      Alvarado    was    urged    to    come    to 
Sonoma,     but    declined;     thongh     he    advised 
Vallejo  that  in  the  absence  of  instructions  from 
Mexico  the  Russians  had  no  right  to  dispose  of 
the  real  estate.     An  elaborate  inventory  of  the 
property  offered  for  sale  at  $30,000  was  made 
out,  but  Vallejo's  best  offer  seems  to  have  been 
$9,000  for  the  live  stock  alone." 

In  a  foot  note  Bancroft  gives  the  inventory  of 
property  offered  for  sale  whicli  is  as  follows: 
'•  St^uare  fort  of  logs,  1088  feet  in  circumfer- 
ence, twelve  feet  high,  with  two  towers;  com- 
mandant's house  of  logs  (old),  36x48  feet  double 
boarde<l  roof,  six  rooms  with  corrider  and 
kitchen;  ditto  (^new)  of  logs,  24x48  feet,  six 
rooms  and  corridor;  house  for  revenue  officers, 
22x60  feet,  ten  rooms;  barracks,  24x66  feet, 
eight  rooms;  three  warehouses;  new  kitchen; 
jail;  chapel,  24x36  feet,  with  a  belfry,  and 
a    well     fifteen     feet     deep.       Outside    of    the 

I  fort:  blacksmith  shop,  tannery,  liath-house, 
cooper's  shoji,  bakeiy,  carpenter's  shop,  two 
windmills  for  grinding,  one  mill  moved  by 
animals,  three  threshing  floors,  a  well,  a  stable, 
sheep-cote,  hog-pen,  dairy  house,  two  cow 
stables,  corral,  ten  sheds,  eight  baths,  ten 
kitchens,  and  twenty-four  houses,  nearly  every 
one  having  an  orchard.  At  Kostromitinof 
rancho,  house,  farm  buildings,  corral,  and  boat 
for  crossing  the  river  Slaviauka.  At  Khlebnikof 
rancho,  adobe  house,  farm  buildings,  bath,  mill, 
cori'al.  At  Tschernich,  or  Don  Jorge's  rancho, 
house,  sto  e,  fences,  etc.  At  Bodega,  warehouse 
30x60  feet,  three  small  houses,  bath,  ovens, 
corrals.  As  this  list  of  improvements  was 
made  out  by  Russian  hands  it  may  be  accepted 
as  a  true  statement  of  the  conditions  at  and  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Ross  in  the  last  year  of 
Russian  occupation  there.  The  only  omission 
of  consequence  seems  to  have  been  the  orchard 
some  distance  i)ack  of  the  fort,  on  the  hillside, 
and  a  vineyard  of  2000  vines  at  what  is  desig- 
nated "  Don  Jorge's  rancho."  In  reference  to 
this  rancho,  Belcher  in  his  notes  of  travel  in 
1837,  mentioned  a  i-ancho  between  Ross  and 
Bodega  claimed  by  a  ci-devant  Englishman  (D. 
Gorgy),  yielding  3,000  bushels  of  grain  in  good 

Governor  Alvora  as  well  as  Vallejo  evidently 
thought  that  they  had  Kostromitinof  in  a  corner 
so  far  as  his  ability  to  sell  the  Ross  property 
was  concerned,  and  their  only  real  concern  was 
lest  he  would  make  a  bonfire  of  the  buildings 
rather  than  leave  them  for  Mexican  occupation. 
But  in  this  they  were  mistaken,  for  a  purchaser 
was  found  in  Captain  John  A.  Sutter.  In  refer- 
ence to  the  sale  thus  consummated  Bancroft  says: 
"  Sutter,  like  Vallejo,  had  at  first  wished  to  pur- 
chase the  live-stock  only;  but  he  would  perhaps 
have  bought  anything  at  any  price  if  it  could 
be  obtained  on  credit;  at  any  rate,  after  a  brief 
hesitation  a  bargain  was  made  in  Septeml)er. 
Tiie  formal  contract  was  signed  by  Kostromi- 
tinof and  Sutter  in  the  office  of  the  sub-prefect 
at  San  Francisco,  with  Vioget  and  Leese  as 
witnesses,  December  13.      By  its  terms  Sutter 



was  put  ill  possession  of  all  the  property  at 
Ross  and  Bodega,  except  the  land,  as  specified 
in  the  inventory,  and  he  was  to  pay  for  it  in 
four  yearly  installments,  beginning  September 
1,  1842.  The  first  and  second  payments  were 
to  be  !?i5,000  each,  and  the  others  of  $10,000; 
the  first  three  were  to  be  in  produce,  cliiefiy 
wheat,  delivered  at  San  Francisco  free  of  duties 
and  tonnage;  and  the  fourth  was  to  lie  in  money. 
The  establishment  at  New  Helvetia  and  the 
property  at  Bodega  and  the  two  ranchos  of 
Khlebnikof  and  Tschernich,  which  property  was 
to  be  left  intact  in  possession  of  the  company's 
agents  were  pledged  as  guarantees  for  the  pay- 
ment. It  would  seem  that  Alvarado,  while 
insisting  that  the  land  did  not  belong  to  the 
company  and  could  not  be  sold,  had  yielded  his 
point  about  the  buildings,  perhaps  in  the  belief 
tiiat  no  purchaser  could  be  found ;  for  the  Kus- 
sians  say  that  the  contract  was  approved  by  the 
California  government,  and  it  is  certain  that 
there  was  no  official  disapproval  of  its  terms." 
It  will  be  borne  in  mind  that  Kostroinitinof, 
who  executed  this  contract  with  Captain  Sut- 
ter, was  the  head  officer  of  the  Alaska  govern- 
ment while,  at  the  time,  Liotchef  was  manager 
at  Ross.  When  it  came  to  a  delivery  of  the 
property  Sutter  seems  to  have  induced  Mana- 
ger Rotchef  to  give  him  a  writing  ante-dating 
the  contract  above  referred  to  one  day,  in  which 
Rotchef  certified  that  the  lands  held  by  the 
company  for  twenty-nine  years  was  inchuled  in 
the  sale  to  M.  Le  Capitaine  Sutter  of  the  other 
effects  of  the  comj^any  for  the  sum  of  §30,000. 
It  was  upon  the  shadowy  title  to  land  thus  ac- 
quired by  certificate  of  a  subordinate  officer 
who  haiVno  jiowcr  to  confirm  any  such  sale,  that 
Ilussian  title  to  land  along  the  coast  became  a 
stalking  spectacle  among  American  settlers  in 
after  years. 

Previous  to  this  sale  of  the  lioss  and  Uodega 
j)r()perty  to  Sutter,  a  portion  of  the  former  oc- 
cupants there  had  Ijeen  transferred  to  Alaska 
stations.  Manager  liotchef,  together  with  the 
remaining  emjdoyes  of  the  company,  took 
their  departuie  from   Ross   in    the   late  days  of 

1841  or  early  in  January  of  1842,  on  board  the 
Constantine,  bound  for  Alaska.  While  all  of 
them,  doubtless,  had  cherished  associations  and 
memories  of  the  land  to  which  they  returned, 
we  imagine  that  it  was  not  without  sore  and 
sad  hearts  many  of  them  watched  the  receding 
outlines  of  Fort  Ross  and  the  evergreen  forests 
that  forms  its  enchanting  back-ground.  Thus, 
in  a  day,  where  for  near!}'  a  third  of  a  century 
had  been  heard  the  ringing  of  hammer  and 
anvil;  the  noisy  labor  of  ship-carpenters  and 
calkers  and  the  din  of  coopers,  a  sudden  silence 
fell,  seemingly  like  that  which  hovered  over 
that  quiet  spot  just  south  of  the  fort  where  a 
(xreek  cross  marked  the  last  resting  place  of 
those  who  had  ended  their  life-work  there. 
Even  the  stock  that  had  been  reared  there  were 
gathered  together  and  driven  to  the  Sacramento 
valley  ranch  of  C!aptain  Sutter.  And  as  if  the 
hand  of  fate  had  turned  entirely  against  Ross, 
Sutter,  by  means  of  a  schooner  he  had  acquired 
in  the  purchase  from  the  Russians,  even  carried 
away  from  Ross  several  buildings  with  which 
to  adorn  the  inner  court  of  his  fort  at  New- 
Helvetia.  This  will  account  for  the  absence  at 
Ross  of  many  buildings  enumerated  in  the  cat- 
alogue at  the  time  of  sale  by  the  Russians.  As 
Fort  Ross  occupies  a  first  prominence  in  the 
history  of  Sonoma  Comity  it  will  not  be  out  of 
place  to  follow  its  history  to  its  end  in  this 

In  reference  to  the  departure  of  the  Rus- 
sians from  Fort  Ross,  Bancroft  says:  '-One 
Russian,  and  perhaps  several,  remained  on  the 
ranches  to  look  out  for  the  company's  interests. 
Sutter  sent  Robert  Ridley  to  assume  charge  for 
him  at  first;  but  John  J-iidwell  took  his  place 
early  in  1842,  and  was  in  turn  succeeded  iiy 
William  Bennitz  late  in  1843.  Meanwhile 
most  of  the  moveable  property,  including  the 
cannon,  implements,  and  most  of  the  cattle,  was 
removed  to  New  Helvetia.  Tiie  few  hundred 
cattle  left  behind  soon  l)ecame  so  wild  that  if 
meat  was  needed  it  was  easier  to  catch  a  deer 
or  bear.  The  Californians  made  no  effort  to 
occupy    the    abandoned   fortress;  since    having 


JlIsTOnr    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

virtually  consented  to  tlie  sale  of  everytliing 
l)Ut  the  land,  the  govern nient  liail  iio  pi'ojicrty 
tu  he  jiTdtected  there." 

As  already  stated  William  llennitz  took  jios- 
session  uf  the  Ross  propei-ty  as  Gutter's  agent 
ill  1843.  He  subsequently  leased  the  property, 
ill  about  1845,  and  still  later  purchased  the 
Imildings  and  fort  and  became  possessor  of  the 
Miiniz  or  Fort  Ross  grant  e.xtending  along  tiie 
coast  from  the  Russian  River  northward  to  a 
iioiiit  just  above  tiie  present  Timber  Cove. 
Mr.  liennitz,  with  liis  family,  lived  at  i'"ort  Ross 
until  1807,  when  he  sold  the  property  and  re- 
moved tci  ()akland.  In  1874  he  went  to  the 
Argentine  Repuliiic,  and  died  there  in  187('). 

The  writer  visited  Fort  Ross  twenty-seven 
years  ago,  when  the  palisade  walls  of  the  en- 
closure were  still  in  good  preservation,  as  also 
the  buildings  within,  together  with  the  (ireek 
ehapel  and  hectagonal  block-houses  described 
above  by  Duliant  Cilly.  As  even  then  the 
country  from  Bodega  to  the  Guaiala  River  was 
comparatively  unsettled  by  Americans,  we  will 
liere  introduce  our  description  of  the  trip  as  it 
appeared  under  the  caption  of  '-Editorial  Jot- 
tings by  the  Wayside,"  in  the  Anjv-s  of  July 
30,  1861: 

"  Leaving  Petaluma  in  the  afternoon,  a  few 
hours'  ride  brought  us  to  Blooinfield,  where  we 
were  greeted  by  numerous  friends;  and  accepted 
the  liospitality  of  our  old  friend  W.  B.  Wood, 
of  the  firm  of  Wood  it  .\rthur.  It  is  hardly 
necessary  to  inform  our  readers  that  this  flour- 
ishing village  is  located  in  the  center  of  Big 
Valley,  and  that  the  valley  and  upland  sur- 
rounding is  very  prolific  in  its  yield  of  cereals, 
'  spuds,'  and  Republicans.  A  dress  parade,  in 
the  evening,  of  a  company  of  youthful  zouaves, 
who  marched  to  music  extracted  from  a  tin  can, 
convinced  us  that  the  martial  spirit  of  that  vil- 
lage was  thoroughly  aroused,  and  that  with  such 
a  home-guard  Blooinfield  can  bid  defiance  to 
Davis  and  his  emissaries. 

"At  an  early  hour  in  the  morning,  we  were 
galloping  down  the  valley  in  the  direction  of 
Bodega  Corners.     On    either   side  of  the  road. 

and  as  far  as  the  eye  could  scan,  was  one  unin- 
terrupted vista  of  grain  fields,  in  every  stage  of 
harvesting,  from  the  gavels  that  were  drop]iing 
from  the  reapers  that  were  clattering  on  every 
hand,  up  to  the  shock  in  the  field  or  the  new 
made  stack  in  the  barnyartl.  Bodega  Corners 
is  on  the  Smith  grant,  and  consists  of  a  iiotel, 
two  stores,  a  Catholic  church,  blacksmith  shop, 
etc.  After  passing  the  Corners  we  were  with- 
out chart  or  compass,  having  entered  upon  a 
region  by  us  une.xplored.  For  several  miles  our 
course  lay  along  Salmon  Creek,  the  road  in 
many  places  being  arched  over  by  the  tangled 
wildvvood  through  which  it  was  cut;  then  taking 
a  bridle  trail  leading  over  a  mountain  that  over- 
looked the  deep  blue  ocean,  we  followed  its  zig- 
zag windings  to  the  month  of  the  Russian 
River.  Here  we  performed  a  feat  only  second 
to  that  of  Moses  and  his  followers  crossing  the 
Red  Sea  with  dry  sandals:  the  sea  swell  iiaving 
cast  up  a  barrier  of  sand  across  the  mouth  of 
the  river,  forming  a  bridge  upon  which  we 
crossed,  without  our  steed  dipping  his  feet  in 
water.  He  evidently  regarded  it  as  a  dangerous 
undertaking,  for  every  time  the  surf,  after  re- 
ceding as  if  to  gather  strength,  would  come 
rolling  up  hissing  and  seething,  narrowing  the 
space  down  to  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  between  the 
deep  river  on  the  one  hand  and  the  briny  deep 
on  the  other,  he  would  attempt  to  take  the  back 
track,  apparently  having  lost  all  confidence  in 
either  our  prudence  or  judgment.  Across  the 
river,  our  course  lay  along  the  coast;  and  as 
Fort  Ross  was  twelve  miles  distant,  without  a 
liuman  habitation  intervening,  we  whiled  away 
the  hours  by  noting  the  ever-varying  land8ca])e 
or  watching  tlie  surf  as  it  broke  in  a  long  line 
of  white  spray  against  the  rock-bound  coast;  or 
anon  the  eye  would  be  relieved  by  the  appear- 
ance of  a  coaster,  with  fullrspread  canvas, 
gliding  over  the  billows  with  the  grace  of  a  sea 
gull.  Passing  over  a  spur  of  the  mountain 
clothed  with  a  heav}'  forest  of  redwood  and  fir, 
we  entered  an  opening  from  whence  we  looked 
down  upon  Fort  Ross,  on  the  level  plain  below. 
"  Before   proceeding   further,   it   may  not«be 


out  of  place  to  inroiiii  niir  reiiders  tliat  Fort 
Koss  was  tuiiiidcd  soiiiu  lil'ty  years  ago  by  Rus- 
sian!-, who  settled  at  that  point  for  the  pui'pose 
of  capturing  sea  otter;  which  pursuit  they  fol- 
lowed for  perhaps  twenty  years.  Aside  from 
the  fort  buildings,  enclosed  by  a  higli  and  sub- 
stantial palisade  wall  over  one  hundred  yards 
square,  there  was,  at  one  period,  some  sixty 
dwellings;  but  they  have  crumi)leil  and  passed 
away.  After  tliey  left  this  coast,  the  property 
changed  hands  several  times;  but  was  purchased 
by  the  present  proprietor,  Mr.  Bennitz,  eight- 
een years  ago,  and  he  has  been  in  occupation 
ever  since. 

''As  we  descended  the  slope  toward  the  Fort 
we  felt  as  if  approaching  a  spot  entitled  to  a 
prominent  place  in  the  antiquity  of  our  State. 
The  Greek  churcli  of  Russian  architecture  that 
forms  one  corner  of  the  quadrangle;  the  two- 
story  hectagonal  sentry-house  of  solid  hewn 
tiinlier,  forming  the  diagonal  corners  of  the  pali- 
sade, and  witli  loop-lioles  for  cannon  and  small 
arms;  and  the  massive  gates  wliicli  protect  the 
front  entrance;  conjured  up  to  our  mind  con- 
jectures of  the  scenes  of  which  it  was  the 
theater,  long,  long  years  ago. 

'•  Having  a  letter  of  introduction  to  Mr. 
I'ennitz,  we  dismounted,  and  the  ponderous 
gate  yielded  to  our  pressure  and  swung  back 
creaking  upon  its  rusty  liinges.  All  the  ap- 
pointments inside  were  in  keeping  with  those 
without;  strength  and  durability  predominating 
over  tlie  ornamental.  The  substantial  dwelling, 
the  outhouses  ranged  around  tlie  square,  the 
well  in  the  center,  the  four  huge  mastitis  of  the 
St.  Bernard  and  Newfoundland  l)reed  that 
fondled  around  us  as  we  approached  the  dwell- 
ing, completed  a  picture  that  came  nearer  our 
conception  of  the  surroundings  of  some  of  the 
old  feudal  barons  than  anytliing  we  ever  expe- 
rienced before.  AVe  presented  our  letter  to  Mr. 
Hennitz,  wlio  is  a  very  intelligent  German,  and 
iu!  at  once  extended  to  us  the  hospitality  of  iiis 
mansion.  Mr.  liennitz  lives  in  a  woi'ld  by 
himself;  iiaving  a  domain  that  extends  from 
the  moutli  of  Russian  River,  eighteen  miles  up 

the  coast,  and  untenanted  except  by  liis  raijueros, 
who  are  stationed  at  various  points  to  take  care 
of  his  stock.  His  isolated  position  deprives  his 
children  of  the  advantages  of  a  public  school; 
but  to  atone  for  this  lie  has  employed  a  private 
teacher,  competent  to  impart  instruction  in  both 
the  English  and  (ilerman  languages. 

"  Refreshed  by  our  night's  sojourn  at  Fort  Ross 
wo  continued  on  our  journey  up  the  coast.  The 
first  place  worthy  of  note  above  the  Fort  is 
Timber  Cove.  Here,  our  late  fellow-townsman 
Mr.  KalkitKin,is  located, and  in  company  with  Mr. 
Snaple,  owns  a  mill  which  is  turning  out  aljout 
25,000  feet  of  lumber  every  twenty-four  iiuurs. 
Two  schooners  were  taking  in  cargoes  of  lumber 
for  San  Francisco  market.  The  [)roprietoi-s 
have  constructed  a  substantial  railway  extending 
from  the  mill  half  a  mile  up  the  canon,  down 
which  they  bring  saw-logs  on  a  car. 

Four  miles  above  Timber  Cove  we  passed 
Salt  Point.  Duncan's  mill  used  to  be  located  at 
this  place;  but  has  been  removed  to  a  point  two 
miles  distant  from  the  mouth  of  Russian  River, 
in  consequence  of  which  this  Point  has  lost 
considerable  of  its  importance,  as  is  manifest 
by  its  group  of  tenantless  houses;  but  its  qnarry 
of  excellent  stone,  considerable  of  wliich  is  be- 
ing shipped  to  the  navy  yards  at  Mai-e  Island, 
may  give  new  vigor  to  the  place. 

"  b'our  miles  beyontl  Salt  Point  we  passed 
Fisk's  mill.  This  mill  cuts  about  S,000  feet  of 
lumber  daily.  Its  supply  of  timiier  is  inex- 
haustible; and  we  hope  its  proprietors  may  reap 
the  rich  reward    wliich    their  enterprise  merits. 

"  I'y  noon  we  had  reached  a  distance  of  twen- 
ty miles  above  Fort  Ross,  and  we  stopped  for 
refreshments  at  the  Ranch  House  of  Dealer,  the 
claimant  of  the  German  grant.  Here  is  a 
stretch  of  plain  extending  np  and  down  the 
coast  for  ten  miles,  that  is  unsurpassed  in  beaiitv 
of  location  or  fertility  of  soil  anywhere  between 
Point  Reyes  and  I'oint  Arenas.  The  plain 
varies  from  one-(|uarter  to  two  miles  in  breadth, 
and  with  just  sufficient  incline  from  the  footliills 
to  the  beach  to  afford  a  splendid  sea  view.  The 
mountains    borderinii;    it    arc    er)\'ered    with    a 



perfect  wildt-riiess  of  forest,  of  incalculable 

"Ten  miles  more  had  to  be  traversed  up  the 
coast  before  we  turned  our  face  homeward;  and 
Chris.  Stingle,  of  the  Hauch  House,  volunteered 
to  act  as  our  guide  and  companion.  AVe  were 
soon  dashing  pellniell  over  the  plain  up  the 
coast;  Chris,  in  the  meantime  entertaining  us 
by  relating  hunting  adventures  and  pointing  out 
spots  where  he  liad  killed  elk,  bear,  or  other 
game  of  lesserconsequence.  Five  miles  brought 
us  to  the  crossing  of  the  Gualala  Kiver,  where 
we  entered  Mendocino  County.  Here  the 
mountains  closed  in  upon  the  beach,  and  timber 
stood  so  close  upon  the  brink  that  if  uprooted 
it  would  fall  in  the  surf  lielow.  Up  to  this 
point  we  had  found  the  roads  and  trails  reasona- 
bly good,  but  those  five  miles  from  the  Gualala 
to  Fish  Rock  were  the  concentrated  essence  of 
break-neck  roads.  Deep  gorge  after  gorge  lay 
athwart  our  way,  and  in  many  places  a  false  step 
would  have  precipitated  both  horse  and  rider 
down  to  certain  destruction.  Before  reaching 
this  point  we  had  been  so  indiscreet  as  to  inform 
our  companion  that  we  had  had  considerable 
equestrian  experience,  and  as  he  took  the  lead 
and  did  not  dismount,  a  sense  of  honor  prompted 
us  to  remain  in  the  saddle  even  at  the  risk  of 
our  neck. 

"At  Fish  Rock  there  is  a  mill  in  process  of 
erection,  in  which  will  be  placed  the  machinery 
formerly  used  in  the  Perkins  mill,  Bodega. 
This  is  a  good  location,  thei-e  being  an  inex- 
haustible supply  of  good  timber  and  a  secure 
harbor  for  vessels  to  lay  while  receiving  cargoes 
of  lumber. 

"  We  returned  to  the  Ranch  House  that  night, 
and  as  tired  as  we  were,  we  did  ample  justice  to 
the  bachelor  fare  of  Chris,  and  his  two  com- 
panions. In  the  morning  we  were  in  saddle 
bright  and  earl}',  and  accompanied  by  our  com- 
panion of  the  previous  day,  who  accompanied 
us  several  miles  on  our  return,  started  on  our 
way  down  the  coast.  We  had  rode  about  two 
miles  when  the  practiced  eye  of  Chris,  spied 
a  grey  fox  between  us  and  the  beach.     It  allowed 

us  to  approach  within  forty  paces,  when  a  shot 
from  our  revolver  warned  it  to  seek  safety  in  the 
chapjjarel  on  the  foot-hills  half  a  mile  distant. 
The  chase  across  the  level  plain  was  spirited 
.and  exciting,  our  horses  seeming  to  enjoy  the 
sport,  strained  every  nerve  to  overhaul  his  fox- 
ship,  and  succeeded  several  times  in  doing  so 
and  attempted  to  jump  upon  him,  but  with  the 
cunning,  characteristic  of  his  tribe,  by  tacking 
and  doubling  he  finally  outgeneraled  us  and 
reached  cover.  So  ended  our  fox  chase.  A  few 
miles  further  un  we  parted  with  our  companion 
and  continued  on  our  course  down  the  coast 
alone.  At  night-fall  we  were  again  welcomed 
to  the  hospitality  of  the  Fort  Ross  mansion. 
The  next  day  being  the  Sabbath,  the  rest  for 
which  it  was  set  apart  was  needed  by  both  our- 
self  and  our  jaded  horses,  but  as  circumstances 
rendered  our  immediate  return  necessary, we  bade 
our  host  and  his  excellent  lady  good-by  at  eight 
o'clock  in  the  morning  and  at  eight  o'clock  in 
the  evening  arrived  in  Petaluma,  having  rode 
forty-five  miles  mostly  over  a  very  mountainous 

At  the  time  of  our  visit  to  Fort  Ross  above 
described,  Mr.  Bennitz  related  to  us  many  thrill- 
ing adventures  in  connection  with  his  residence 
there.  Some  years  later  we  wrote  a  series  of 
California  sketches  entitled  "Wayside  Memo- 
ries" and  one  of  the  sketches  under  the  caption 
of  "  A  Random  Shot"'  was  a  recital  of  an  occur- 
rence near  Fort  Ross,  as  related  to  us  by  Bennitz. 
We  reproduce  it  here: 

"Said  Mr.  Bennitz:  'At  the  time  1  purchased 
the  Fort  Ross  property  there  were  around  and 
in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Fort  a  large  num- 
ber of  Indians.  Voluntarily  they  have  become 
almost  a  part  of  the  estate  and  as  obedient  to 
my  orders  as  if  mind,  soul  and  body.  I  then 
raised  a  large  amount  of  grain,  and  had  thou- 
sands oi'  head  of  cattle,  which  gave  me  ample 
opportunity  to  utilize  the  labor  of  these  untu- 
tored aborigines.  As  my  influence  over  them 
mainly  depended  on  the  kindness  and  considera- 
tion with  which  they  were  treated,  I  let  no 
opportunity  pass  to  give  them   evidence  of  my 


regard  Inr  tlifir  plunMiiu  and  welfare.  They, 
like  all  Indians  1  know  ul',  were  passionately 
fund  of  personal  decoration,  and  for  ornamenta- 
tion prized  nothini;-  more  higlily  than  the  plu- 
mage of  birds.  Ono  tlay  my  Indians  wei-e  noticing 
some  vultures,  or  ('alifornia  condors,  on  the 
pine  trees  some  distance  up  the  mountain  side 
back  of  the  Fort,  and  1  overheard  them  express- 
ing a  wisii  that   they  had  some  of  the  feathers. 

"■Saying  nothing  I  quietly  took  my  gun  and 
sallied  forth,  determined  if  possibe  to  gratify 
their  desire.  i>y  tackino;  backward  and  forward 
along  the  mountain  side  I  gradually  worked  my 
way  up  to  the  trees  where  the  vultures  were. 
The  heavy  foliage  of  the  pines  prevented  my 
getting  a  ready  view  of  the  game  I  was  seeking. 
With  my  gun  cocked  and  the  muzzle  pointing  up 
I  was  moving  cpiietly  side- wise  with  eyes  peer- 
ing into  the  canopy  of  l)oughs,  when  I  was 
startled  by  tlie  breaking  of  a  stick  close  to  my 

"  '  (_)ne  look  was  enough  to  set  every  hair  of 
my  head  on  end  I  Not  much  over  the  length  of 
my  gun  from  me  stood,  erect  on  its  hind  feet,  a 
grizzly  bear  of  monster  size — at  the  time  he 
seemed  to  me  ten  feet  high!  By  impulse,  I 
wheeled,  brought  my  gun  to  a  level,  and  with- 
out any  attempt  at  taking  aim,  fired.  The  bear 
pitched  forward  upon  me  and  we  fell  together — 
my  gun  flying  out  of  ray  hands,  and  some  dis- 
tance away.  I  was  frightened  beyond  the  power 
of  language  to  express.  The  bear  and  I  had 
fallen  together,  but  I  had  given  myself  a  rolling 
lurch  down  the  mountain  which,  for  the  moment, 
took  rae  out  of  the  reach  of  his  dreaded  jaws. 
This  advantage  w;is  not  to  be  lost;  and  1  kept 
going  over  and  over  without  any  regard  to 
elegance  of  posture,  until  I  had  got  at  least  two 
hundred  yards  from  where  1  fi'll;  and  when  I 
stopped  rolling  it  was  a  problem  with  me  which 
I  was  most,  dead  or  alive. 

'"1  ventured  upon  my  feet  and  looked  cauti(jus- 
ly  around,  but  could  see  no  grizzly.  To  borrow  a 
miner'sexpression,  'I  began  prospecting  around.' 
I  had  an  earnest  desire  to  get  hold  of  my  gun, 
but  a  dislike  to  the  neigjliborhood  in  which  we 

had  parted  company.  With  the  utmost  caution 
I  woi'ked  my  way  up  to  a  position  overlooking 
the  s|)ot  where  1  and  the  grizzly  together  fell. 
To  my  surpiise,  and  gratification  as  well,  there 
lay  the  bear  stretched  at  full  length,  and  dead. 
My  random  shot  had  proved  what  seldom  occurs 
to  grizzly  bears,  a  dead  shot.  That,'  said  Mr. 
Bennitz,  knocking  the  ashes  out  of  an  elegant 
meerschaum,  'was  the  biggest  scare  of  my 
life.'  ■• 

AVhile  we  have  carried  our  chapter  descrip- 
tive of  Ross  beyond  the  limits  of  Russian  occu- 
pation we  feel  warranted,  on  account  of  its 
historic  surroundings,  in  tracing  its  history  to  a 
conclusion  in  this  chapter.  As  already  stated, 
William  Eennitz  sold  the  Ross  property  in  1867, 
Charles  Fairfax  and  a  man  named  Dixon  being 
the  purchasers.  They  managed  the  property 
for  a  few  years,  when  Fairfax  died.  In  winding 
up  the  estate  and  business  of  the  firm  it  became 
necessary  to  sell  the  property.  J.  W.  Call  be- 
came the  purchaser  of  the  upper  and  much  the 
larger  proportion  of  the  ranch,  on  which  stands 
the  old  Fort  Ross  buildings;  and  of  the  south- 
erly end  Aaron  Schroyer  bought  a  large  'tract. 
These  gentlemen  are  practical  in  their  ideas  of 
business  and  the  property  is  now  so  handled  as 
to  yield  a  profit.  After  a  lapse  of  twenty-seven 
years  we  visited  Ross  in  October,  1888.  We 
found  a  great  change  from  conditions  as  thev 
were  when  Dennitz  lived  there.  Through  the 
very  center  of  the  grounds  once  enclosed  Iiy  a 
heavy  stockade,  now  a  county  road  runs.  The 
Bennitz  residence  is  converted  into  a  public 
hotel,  and  a  building  once  used  as  quarters  for 
Russian  officers  is  now  a  saloon.  In  an  outside 
building  is  a  store  and  postotficc.  The  towers 
in  what  was  the  diagonal  corners  of  the  fortress 
are  now  roofless,  and,  in  consequence?  of  the 
worm-eaten  condition  of  the  K>gs  are  canting 
over,  and  it  is  only  a  (picstion  of  time  when 
they  will  topple  to  the  ground.  The  (ireek 
chapel  yet  stands  erect  with  roof  and  belfry  in 
fair  preservation;  but  is  no  longei-  used  for  holy 
purposes.  Even  the  Russian  cemetery  to  the 
south  of  the  fort,  that  was  quite  plainly  visible 

uiarour  of  ho^^/oma  vounty. 

twenty-seven  years  ago  is  now  nearly  obliter- 
ated. Accompanied  by  Mr.  Call  we  visited  the 
old  liiissian  orchard  half  a  mile  back  from  the 
fort.  Tiie  fence  made  of  heavy  split  boards  by 
the  liussians  is  still  in  fair  preservation.  We 
entered  and  plucked  Spanish  bellflower  apples 
from  trees  planted  by  the  Russians,  back  of 
1820.  -The  twenty  or  thirty  apple,  plum  and 
prune  trees  yet  standing  are  moss-covered  and 
their  bark  honey-combed  by  the  busy  bills  of 
birds.  AVe  went  back  still  further  and  took  a 
walk  through  the  redwood  forest  of  new  growth 
that  has  sprung  up  from  stumps  of  trees  first 
cut  by  the  liussians  when  tiiey  settled  at  lloss. 
><'ot  over  half  a  dozen  of  the  old  redwood  forest 
trees  are  standing  in  the  grove,  and  but  for 
the  fact  that    the    stumps  are  there   yet   from 

whicli  the  present  forest  sprang,  we  should  not 
have  recognized  it  as  a  forest  growth  of  the 
present  century.  The  trees  have  made  mai'vel- 
ous  growth.  Having  a  pocket  rule  with  us  we 
measured  a  tree  that  was  four  and  a  half  feet  in 
diameter;  and  we  were  assured  by  Mr.  Call  that 
there  were  trees  in  the  grove  full  live  feet  in 
diameter.  This  grove  is,  doubtless,  of  from 
.sixty  to  seventy-live  years'  growth.  We  are 
thus  e.xact  and  explicit  in  reference  to  this  forest 
of  new  growth  because  we  know  there  is  a  wide- 
spread fear  that  in  consequence  of  the  rajjidity 
with  which  our  redwood  forests  are  being  con- 
verted into  lumber,  that  species  of  timber  will 
ultimately  become  extinct.  Kight  there,  uver- 
shadowing  old  Fort  IJoss,  is  the  refutation  (.if 
such  fallacy. 



me::!co  urges  colonisati  north  of  m  mim. 

•r^r^  ,J-,1J ^r^i^rrzrr^Torr;^^^  ^^-^-^  ^'^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^  jjIzrp^J^rtJ^  ^^-^^; 



CtOVKRNoK    FkuKROA,    IX    ORF.niKNCE    Til    IXr^TRrrTIi  iXS    FROM     MkXICO    SETS    ON    FOriT    A    COI.OXIZATION 




IZED    TO    OFFER    COLONISTS    GRANTS    OF    LAND VaLLE.TO  BECOJIES    A    ci  iXTRi  )LI.INU    PI)\VE1£     IX    THE 


TRIBES     IN     SUIi.IEi  TIuN UNDER     HIS     MANAGEMENT    THE     MISSION     SaN     FraNCISCO     SolANO     WAS 


fCHEAUDIA  had  become  Governor  of 
California  by  appointment  of  the  Mexican 
(Tovernment.  He  was  ordered  as  early  as 
in  1827  to  establish  a  fort  on  the  northern 
frontier,  either  at  San  Rafael  or  San  Francisco 
Solano.  The  presence  of  the  Russians  at  Ross 
doubtle.-s  inspired  this  order,  and  then  such  a 
post  would  not  only  be  a  notice  to  those  Mus- 
covites that  they  must  not  venture  further 
south,  but  would  be  a  source  of  security  and 
protection  to  the  newly  founded  missions  as 
well.  The  (Tovernor  had  no  funds  to  put  in 
successful  execution  the  order.  The  next  year 
he  seems  to  have  ordered  a  i-econnoissance  for  a 
suitable  place  for  a  military  station,  but  nothing 
further  was  done  at  that  time. 

The  years  had  sped;  (Jalifornia  was  rent  with 
internal    disoord:   the    old    missions    Jiad    been 

looted  until  they  were  fast  going  to  ruin,  and 
on  the  14th  of  January,  1833,  Figueroa  arrived 
at  Monterey,  the  newly  appointed  (Tovernor. 
To  evolve  order  out  of  chaos  seemed  to  lie  his 
high  resolve.  B^igueroa  liad  received  special 
instructions  from  the  Mexican  Government  to 
push  occupation  and  settlement  of  the  northern 
frontier  with  energy.  In  obedience  to  these 
instructions  Alferez  Vallejo  was  ordered  to 
make  an  exploration,  select  a  site,  and  offer  land 
to  settlers.  To  aid  in  this  work  the  old  missions 
were  exjiected  to  bear  the  principal  expense. 
Either  through  inability  or  flagging  zeal  in  be- 
half ol' ;i  government  that  was  always  impecuni- 
ous, the  padres  did  not  respond  to  this  new  levy 
upon  their  resources.  Vallejo,  in  obedience  to 
orders,  made  a  tour  to  IJodega  and  Ross.  Tiiat 
fall  Vallejo  made  an  attempt  to  esta!)lisb  scttU'- 

UlSTOliY    Ub'    liONOMA    COUNT Y. 

ments  at  Petaluma  and  Santa  Rosa.  Bancroft 
says:  "Ten  heads  of  families,  tifty  persons  in 
all,  agreed  to  settle  at  the  former  place  (Peta- 
luma), hitherto  unoccupied;  but  the  padre  at 
San  Francisco  Solano,  hearing  of  the  project, 
sent  a  few  men  to  build  a  hut  and  place  a  band 
of  horses  at  that  point  in  order  to  estalilish  a 
claim  to  the  land  as  mission  property.  Two  or 
three  of  the  settlers  remained  and  put  in  crops 
at  Petaluma,  Yallejo  himself  having  ten  bushels 
of  wheat  sown  on  his  own  account.  The  padre's 
representatives  also  remained,  and  the  respective 
.claims  were  left  to  be  settled  in  the  future. 
Much  the  same  thing  seems  to  have  been  done 
at  Santa  Rosa,  where  a  few  settlers  went,  and  to 
which  point  the  padre  sent  two  neophytes  with 
some  hogs  as  the  nucleus  of  a  mission  claim.  All 
this  before  January  8, 1834:.  In  his  speech  of  May 
1st  to  the  deputacion,  Figueroa  mentioned  the 
plan  for  northern  settlement,  but  said  nothing 
to  indicate  that  any  actual  progress  had  been 
made.  Tlie  14tli  of  May,  however,  he  sentenced 
a  criminal  to  serve  out  his  term  of  punishment 
at  the  new  establishment  about  to  be  founded 
at  Santa  Rosa.  In  June  the  rancho  of  Petaluma 
was  granted  by  the  (xovernor  to  Yallejo,  and  the 
grant  approved  by  the  deputacion,  this  being 
virtually  an  end  of  the  mission  claim.  Respect- 
ing subsequent  developments  of  1834r-'5  in  the 
Santa  Rosa  Valley,  the  records  are  not  satisfac- 
tui'v;  but  Figueroa,  hearing  of  tiie  approach  of 
a  colony  from  Mexico,  resolved  to  malce  some 
preparations  for  its  reception,  and  naturally 
thought  of  the  northern  estalilishment,  which 
he  resolved  to  visit  in  person.  All  that  we 
know  positively  of  the  trip  is  that  he  started 
late  in  August,  extended  his  tour  to  Ross,  e.x- 
amined  the  country,  selected  a  site,  and  having 
left  a  small  force  on  the  frontier,  returned  to 
Monterey  the  12th  of  September.  To  these 
facts  there  may  be  added,  as  probal)ly  accurate, 
the  statements  of  several  Californians,  to  the 
effect  that  the  site  selected  was  where  Vallejo's 
settlement  and  Solano  neophytes  had  already 
erected  some  rude  Imildings,  that  the  new  place 
was  named  Santa  Anna  y  Farias,  in  hitnur  of  the 

President  and  Vice-President  of  Mexico,  and 
that  the  settlement  was  abandoned  the  next 
year,  because  the  colonists  refused  to  venture 
into  a  country  of  hostile  Indians." 

The  scheme  of  founding  a  frontier  post  at  or 
near  Santa  Rosa  seems  to  have  proved  a  failure; 
at  least  the  next  move  with  that  end  in  view 
was  in  the  direction  of  Sonoma,  where  the 
mission  San  Francisco  Solano  had  already  run 
its  course  under  ecclesiastical  rule,  and  was  then 
in  process  of  secularization  under  the  manage- 
ment of  M.  G.  Vallejo  as  cominissionado.  This 
failure  of  the  attempted  estalilishment  of  a 
settlement  at  Santa  Rosa  by  Governor  Figueroa, 
in  the  face  of  the  fact  that  eleven  years  previous 
Altimira,  taking  his  life  in  his  hand,  had  estab- 
lished a  mission  at  Sonoma,  inclines  us  to  take 
off  our  hat  in  reverence  to  that  padre,  although 
his  zeal  may,  at  times,  have  befogged  his  better 
judgment.  History  should  be  both  impartial 
and  just,  and  the  records  unmistakably  show 
that  the  Catholic  missionaries  had  occupied  the 
field  embracing  the  main  portion  of  Sonoma 
County  at  least  ten  years  Ijefore  the  military 
and  civil  authorities  exercised  dominion  here. 
Figueroa  still  adhered  to  his  policy  of  establish- 
ing a  frontier  settlement  and  garrison  north  uf 
San  Francisco  Bay. 

The  following,  the  letter  of  instruction  to 
Gen.  M.  G.  Vallejo  from  Governor  Jose  Fig- 
ueroa in  relation  to  the  locating  and  governing 
of  "a  village  in  the  valley  of  Sonoma,"  was 
transmitted  only  a  few  njonths  before  that  (Jov- 
ernor's  death: 


"  Comma  ml  ancy- General  of  Upper  California. 
"  Monterey,  June  24,  1835. 
"  In  conformity  with  the  orders  and  instruc- 
tions issued  by  the  Supreme  Government  of  the 
Confederation  respecting  the  location  of  a  village 
in  the  valley  of  Sonoma,  this  cominandancy 
urges  upon  you  that,  according  to  the  topo- 
graphical plan  of  the  place,  it  be  divided  into 
quarters  or  squares,  seeing  that  the  streets  and 
jil(i~af;  be  regulated  so  as  to  make  a  beginning. 
The  inhal>itants  are  to  be  governed  entirely  by 



said  plan.  This  govennnciit  ami  coiiuuandancy 
approves  entire!}'  of  the  lines  designated  by  you 
for  outlets — recognizing,  as  the  property  of  the 
village  and  public  lands  and  privileges,  the 
boundaries  of  1  Vt;iliini;i,  Agna  Culienta,  Tlan- 
chero  de  Iluertica,  l.ena  ile  Sur,  Salvador, 
Vallejo,  and  La  Vernica,  on  the  north  of  the 
city  of  Sonoma,  as  the  limits  of  its  property, 
rights,  and  privileges  —  requesting  that  it  shall 
be  commenc-ed  immediately  around  the  hillj 
where  the  fortification  is  to  be  erected,  to  pro- 
tect the  inhabitants  from  incursions  of  the 
savages  and  all  others.  In  order  that  the  build- 
ing lots  granted  by  you,  as  the  person  charged 
with  colonization,  may  be  fairly  portioned,  you 
will  divide  each  square  (inanzana)  into  four 
parts,  as  well  for  the  location  of  each  as  to  in- 
terest persons  in  the  planting  of  kitchen  gar- 
dens, so  that  every  one  shall  have  a  hundred 
yards,  more  or  less,  which  the  government  deems 
suttioient;  and  farther,  lots  of  land  may  be 
granted,  of  from  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  two 
hundred  yards,  in  openings  for  outlets,  for 
other  descriptions  of  tillage,  subject  to  the  laws 
and  regulations  on  the  sidiject,  in  such  manner 
that  at  all  times  the  uiunicipality  shall  possess 
the  legal  title. 

This  government  and  commandancj'-general 
otters  yon  thanks  for  your  efforts  in  erecting 
this  new  city,  which  will  secure  the  frontier  of 
the  republic,  and  is  contident  that  you  will  make 
new  efforts  for  the  national  entirety. 

"(iod  and  liberty.  Juse  Frot'KKOA. 

"  I)i)n  1\[.  (-1.  A',  Military  (Jommandante 
and  Director  (if  C'lildiii/CMtion  im  the  Northern 

Under  these  instructions  Vallejo  proceeded  to 
lay  out  and  found  the  pueblo,  giving  to  it  the 
Indian  name  of  Sonoma.  From  this  act  virtu- 
ally dates  the  real  Mexican  occupancy  of  Sonoma 
(jounty  under  military  and  civil  rule.  There  is 
but  little  of  record  during  the  balance  of  1825, 
anil  for  1826  the  most  important  mention  is 
that  Vallejo,  in  conjunction  with  Chief  Solano, 
went  on  an  exj>edition  to  punish  the  rebellions 

Yolos.  And  right  here  it  is  in  place  to  record 
the  fact  that  this  Chief  Solano  seems  to  have 
been  a  ruler  among  the  Indian  tribes  in  every 
direction.  General  Vallejo's  language  to  us 
was,  "  Solano  was  a  king  among  the  Indians. 
All  the  tribes  of  Solano,  Napa  and  Sonoma  were 
under  tribute  to  him."  Vallejo  made  a  treaty 
with  Solano  and  seems  to  have  found  in  him  a 
valuable  lieutenant  in  all  his  futui'e  dealings 
with  neighl)oring  Indians.  Now  that  a  pueblo 
had  been  established  at  Sonoma  with  Vallejo  as 
commandante  of  this  northern  district,  it  had 
become  an  important  factor  in  the  Territorial 
government  of  California.  Vallejo  was  then  in 
the  full  vigor  of  young  life,  tired  with  the  ambi- 
tion of  those  who  believed  that  to  them  belonged 
a  liberal  share  of  the  management  and  rule  in 
Territorial  government,  and  his  somewhat 
isolated  position,  which  necessitated  his  exercise, 
at  times,  of  almost  autocratic  power,  placed  him 
in  a  position  to  be  courted  by  those  even  in 
higher  authority.  That  he  should  use  his 
power  for  self-aggrandizement,  within  certain 
limits,  was  but  natural.  With  his  complicity 
in  the  revolutions  and  counter  revolutions  that 
in  rapid  succession  were  making  and  deposing 
California  governors,  forms  no  part  of  the  scope 
of  this  history,  and  we  shall  only  follow  his  acts 
in  their  Ijearings  upon  the  future  of  Sonoma 
County.  With  Vallejo  there  seems  to  have 
been  two  dominant  ideas,  and  both  had  founda- 
tion in  good,  practical  sense.  The  tirst  was 
that  the  Indians  had  to  be  subjected  to  a  strong 
hand,  and  when  so  subjected,  they  were  to  l)e 
the  subjects  of  protection  and  justice.  The 
second  was  that  the  greatest  danger  to  continued 
]\Iexiean  supremacy  in  California  was  from  the 
eastward.  While  there  may  have  been  a  degree 
of  selfishness  and  jealousy  to  inspire  it,  he  was 
none  the  less  correct  in  his  judgment  that  the 
Sutter  establishment  at  New  Helvetia  was  a 
center  around  which  clustered  dangers  imt 
properly  appreciated  by  the  (Jalifornia  govern- 
ment at  IVIouterey.  While  he  failed  to  arouse 
the  authorities  to  the  magnitude  of  the  danger, 
he  at  least  discharged   his  duty  as  an  (illicer  of 

UlsToUy    of    liONOMA    aoUNTY. 

that  government.  Tlie  triitli  was  tliat  Sutter, 
after  lie  transfen-ed  to  Jlelvetia  the  armament 
of  Ross  was  becoming  a  "power  behind  the 
tlirone  greater  tiian  the  throne  itself,"  and 
Vallejo  could  not  be  blind  to  the  fact  that  it 
was  liable  to  prove  a  "Trojan  horse  with  belly 
full  of  armed  destruction  ''  to  the  future  rule 
of  Mexico  in  California.  In  the  waning  days  of 
the  rule  of  Micheltorena,  Sutter  had  been 
clothed  with  power  which  almost  rendered  him 
potentate  of  the  Sacramento  Valley,  and  as  his 
establishment  was  the  iirst  to  be  reached  by 
immigration  from  the  east,  that  year  by  year 
was  increasing  in  volume,  he  did  not  fail  to 
improve  his  opportunity  to  add  to  the  strength 
of  his  surroundings. 

Although  somewhat  out  of  chronological 
order  it  is  in  place  to  follow  the  mission  of  San 
Francisco  Solano  to  its  end.  Bancroft  says: 
"  Father  Fortuni  served  at  San  Francisco  Solano 
until  1833,  when  liis  place  was  taken  by  the  Za- 
cuteean,  Josi-  de  Jesus  Maria  Gutierrez,  who  in 
turn  changed  places  in  March,  183i,  with  Pa- 
lire  Lorenzo  Qiiijas  of  San  Francisco.  Quijas 
remained  in  charge  of  ex-mission  and  pueblo  as 
acting  curate  throughout  the  decade,  but  resided 
for  the  most  part  at  San  Rafael.  Tiiough  the 
neophyte  population,  as  indicated  by  the  reports, 
decreased  from  7*50  to  (550  in  1834  and  550  in 
1835,  yet  there  was  a  gain  in  live-stock  and  but 
a  slight  falling  off  in  crops;  and  the  establish- 
ment must  be  regarded  as  having  Honrished 
down  to  the  date  of  secularization,  being  one  of 
the  ^tiw  missiolis  in  California  which  reached 
tlieir  iiighest  population  in  the  final  decade, 
though  this  was  natural  enough  in  a  new  and 
frontier  mission.  Mariano  C  Vallejo  was  made 
commissionado  in  1834,  and  in  1835-'6,  with 
Antonio  Ortega  as  majordomo,  completed  the 
secularization.  Movable  property  was  distribu- 
ted to  the  Indians,  who  were  made  entirely 
free,  many  of  them  retiring  to  their  old  ranche- 
rias.  A  little  later,  however,  in  consequence  ot 
troubles  with  hostile  gentiles,  the  ex-neophytes 
seem  to  have  restored  their  live-stock  to  the 
care  of  Ceneral    Vallejo,  who  iii^od  th(^  property 

of  the  ex-mission  for  their  benefit  and  protec- 
tion, and  for  the  general  development  of  the 
northern  settlement.  The  General  claimed  that 
this  was  a  legitimate  use  of  the  estate:  and  he 
would  have  established  a  new  mission  in  the 
north  if  the  padres  wouhl  have  aiiled  him. 
Doubtless  his  policy  was  a  wise  one,  even  if  his 
position  as  guardian  of  the  Indians  in  charge 
of  their  private  property  jiut  by  them  in  his 
care  was  not  recognized  b^'  the  laws.  Moreover, 
there  was  a  gain  rather  than  a  loss  in  live-stock. 
Thus  the  mission  community  haj  no  real  exist- 
ence after  183)),  though  Pablo  Ayula  and  Sal- 
vador Vallejo  were  nominally  made  administra- 
tors. The  visitador  made  no  visits  in  1839,  and 
apparently  none  were  made  in  1840.  I  suppose 
there  may  have  been  100  of  the  ox-neophytes 
living  at  Sonoma  at  the  end  of  the  decade,  with 
perhaps  500  more  in  the  I'cgion  not  relajised 
into  barbarism."'  And  here  ends  the  career  of 
the  mission  San  Francisco  Solano.  If  its  san- 
guine founder,  Padre  Altimira,  could  revisit  it, 
and  the  old  San  Francisco  mission  tliat  he 
thought  was  ••  on  its  last  legs  "  he  wouhl  learn 
how  fallible  is  human  judgment. 

Sonoma  was  now  a  pueblo  and  (Tcneral  M.  G. 
Vallejo,  ascommandante  of  the  northern  district, 
the  most  conspicuous  personage  in  this  latitude 
until  the  end  of  Mexican  i-ule.  As  such  it  is 
in  place  to  introduce  him  more  fully  to  the 
reader.  According  to  Bancroft  "he  was  the 
son  of  the  '  Sargento  distinguido  "  Jgnacio  ^'al- 
lejo  and  of  .\[aria  Antonia  l^ugo,  being,  on  the 
paternal  side  at  least,  of  pure  Spanish  blood, 
and  being  entitled  by  the  old  rules  to  prefix  the 
'Don"  to  his  name.  In  childhood  he  had  been 
*  the  associate  of  Alvarado  and  Castro  at  Monte- 
rey, and  his  educational  advantages,  of  which 
he  made  good  use,  were  substantially  the  same 
as  theirs.  Unlike  his  companions,  he  chose  a 
military  career,  entering  the  Monterey  company 
in  1823  as  a  cadet,  and  being  promoted  to  be 
alferez  of  the  San  Francisco  company  in  1827. 
He  served  as  habilitado  and  as  conimandante  of 
both  coni|>anies,  and  took  part  in  several  cam- 
paigns against  Indians,  besides  acting  as  fiscal  or 


defensor  in  various  military  trials.  In  1830  he 
was  elected  to  the  depntacion,  and  took  a  promi- 
nent part  in  the  opposition  of  that  body  to  Vic- 
toria. In  1832  he  married  Francisca  l^enicia. 
daughter  of  Joquin  C/arrillo,  and  in  1834  was 
elected  dipntado  snjdente  to  Congress,  lie  was 
a  favorite  of  Figueroa,  who  gave  him  large  tracts 
of  land  north  of  the  bay,  choosing  him  as  com- 
niissionado  to  secularize  San  Francisco  Solano, 
to  found  the  town  of  Sonoma,  and  to  command 
the  frontier  del  norte.  In  his  new  position  Val- 
lejo  was  doubtless  the  most  independent  man  in 
California.  His  record  was  a  good  one,  and 
both  in  ability  and  experience  he  was  probal)l3' 
better  fitted  to  take  the  position  as  command- 
ante  general  than  any  other  Californian."  This 
latter  position  was  conferred  upon  Yallejo  by 
Alvarado,  who  by  a  turn  of  the  revolutionary 
wheel  had  become  governor,  (xeneral  Vallejo 
was  unquestionably  the  right  man  in  the  right 
place  when  he  was  placed  in  control  at  Sonoma 
after  the  secularization  of  the  mission  San 
Francisco  Solano.  As  a  military  man  he  would 
not  brook  any  insubordination  to  his  will  or 
commands,  but  in  dealing  with  the  Indians  he 
seems  to  have  pursued  a  policy  wise  and  just 
beyond  anything  ever  before  attempted  in  Cali- 
fornia. In  the  Indian  Chief  Solano  he  saw  the 
ready  means  to  acquire  easy  control  of  all  other 
Indians  occupying  a  wide  sweep  of  country.  In 
making  Solano  his  friend  and  coadjutor  in  keep- 
ing distant  tribes  in  respectful  submission,  he 
seems  not  to  have  compromised  himself  in  any 
manner  so  as  not  to  hold  Solano  himself  subject 
to  control  and  accountability.  Having  been 
speaking  of  the  turbulence  of  southern  Indians 
for  the  years  from  1836  to  1840  Mr.  Bancroft 
says:  "Turning  to  the  northern  frontier  we  find 
a  diH'erent  state  of  things.  Here  there  was  no 
semblance  of  Apache  i-aids,  no  sacking  of 
ranches,  no  loss  of  civilized  life,  and  little  col- 
lision between  gentile  and  ('hristian  natives. 
The  northern  Indians  were  more  numerous 
than  in  the  San  Diego  region,  and  many  of  the 
tribes  were  brave,  warlike,  and  often  hostile; 
but  there  was   a  comparatively   strong   force  at 

Sonoma  to  keep  them  in  check,  and  General 
Vallejo's  Indian  policy  must  be  regarded  as 
e.xcellent  and  effective  when  compared  with  any 
other  policy  ever  followed  in  California.  True, 
his  wealth,  his  untrammelled  power,  anil  other 
circumstances  contributed  much  to  his  success; 
and  he  could  by  no  means  have  done  as  well  if 
placed  in  command  at  San  Diego;  yet  he  must 
be  accredited  besides  with  having  managed 
wisely.  Closely  allied  with  Solano,  the  Suisnn 
chieftain,  having  always — except  when  asked 
to  render  some  distasteful  military  service  to 
his  political  associates  in  the  south — at  his  com- 
mand a  goodly  numl)er  of  soldiers  and  citizens, 
made  treaties  with  the  gentile  tribes,  insisted 
on  their  being  liberally  and  justly  treated  when 
at  peace,  and  punished  them  severely  for  any 
manifestation  of  hostility.  Doubtless  the  In- 
dians were  wronged  often  enough  in  individual 
cases  by  Yallejo's  subordinates;  some  of  whom, 
and  notably  his  brother  Salvador,  were  with 
dilKculty  controlled;  but  such  reports  have  been 
greatly  exaggerated,  and  acts  of  glaring  injustice 
were  comparatively'  rare. 

"  The  Cainameros,  or  the  Indians  of  Cainama, 
in  the  region  toward  Santa  Rosa,  had  been  for 
some  years  friendly,  but  for  their  services  in 
returning  stolen  horses  they  got  themselves  into 
trouble  with  the  Satiyomis,  or  Sotoyomes,  gen- 
erally known  as  the  Guapos,  or  braves,  who  in 
the  sj)ring  of  1836,  in  a  sudden  attack,  killed 
twenty-two  of  their  number  and  wounded  fifty. 
Yallejo,  on  appeal  of  the  chiefs,  promised  to 
avenge  their  wrongs,  and  started  April  1st  with 
fifty  soldiers  and  one  hundred  Imlians  besides 
the  Cainamero  force.  A  battle  was  fought  on 
the  4th  of  April,  and  the  Guapos,  who  had  taken 
a  strong  j)Osition  in  the  hills  ot  the  Geyser  region, 
were  routed  and  driven  back  to  their  ranches, 
where  most  of  them  were  killed.  The  expedi- 
tion was  back  at  Sonoma  on  the  7th  without 
having  lost  a  man,  killed  or  wounded.  On  June 
7th  Yallejo  conchuled  a  treaty  of  peace  and 
alliance  with  the  chiefs  of  seven  tribes — the 
Indians  of  Yoloytoy,  (iuilitoy,  Ansatoy,  Ligna- 
ytoy,  Aclutoy,  Chnmptoy  and  the  Guaiios,  who 



had  voluntarily  come  to  Sonoma  for  that  pur- 
pose. Tlie  treaty  provided  tliat  tiiere  sliould  l)e 
friendsliip  between  tlie  trii)es  and  tlie  garrison, 
that  the  Cainauieros  and  Guapos  should  live  at 
peace  and  respect  each  otiier's  territory;  that  tlie 
Indians  shonid  give  np  all  fngitive  Cluijstians 
at  the  request  of  the  commandante,  and  that 
they  should  not  hurn  the  fields.  It  does  not 
appear  that  Vallejo  in  return  promised  anything 
more  definite  than  friendship.  Twenty  days 
later  the  compact  was  approved  by  Governor 
Chico.  A  year  later,  in  June,  1837,  Zampay, 
one  of  the  chieftains  of  the  Yoloytoy — town  and 
rancheria  of  the  Yoloy,  perhaps  meaning  of 
the  'tnles,'  and  which  gave  the  name  to  Yolo 
County — became  troublesome,  committing  many 
outi-ages  and  trying  to  arouse  the  Sotoyomes 
again.  The  head  chief  of  the  tribe,  however, 
named  Moti,  offered  to  aid  in  his  capture,  whicli 
was  effect'ed  by  the  combined  forces  of  Solano 
and  Salvador  Yallejo.  Zampay  and  some  of 
his  companions  were  held  at  first  as  captives  at 
Sonoma,  but  after  some  years  the  chief,  who  had 
been  a  terror  of  the  whole  country,  liecame  a 
peiiceful  citizen  and  industrious  farmer."' 

"In  January,  1838,  Tobias,  chief  of  the 
Gnilicos,  and  one  of  his  men  were  brought  to 
Sonoma  and  tried  for  the  murder  of  two  Indian 
fishermen.  In  March  some  of  the  gentile  allied 
tribes  attacked  the  Moquelumnes,  recovered  a 
tew  stolen  horses  and  brought  them  to  Soijoma, 
wliere  a  grand  feast  was  held  for  a  week  to  cele- 
brate their  good  deeds.  In  August  fifty  Indian 
horse-thieves  crossed  the  Sacrainento  and  ap- 
peared at  Suseol  with  a  band  of  tame  horses, 
their  aim  being  to  stampede  the  horses  at 
Sonoma.  Thirty-four  were  killed  in  a  Lattle 
with  Vallejo's  men,  and  the  rest  surrendered, 
the  chief  being  shot  at  Sonoma  for  his  crimes. 
On  October  6,  Vallejo  issued  a  printed  circular, 
in  which  he  announced  that  Solano  had  grossly 
abused  his  power  and  the  trust  placed  in  him, 
and  broken  sacred  compacts  made  with  the 
Indian  tribes  by  consenting  to  tlie  seizure  and 
sale  of  children.  Vallejo  indignantly  denied 
the  rumor  that  these  outrages  had   been  com- 

mitted with  his  consent,  declaring  that  Solano 
had  been  arrested,  and  that  a  force  had  been 
sent  out  to  restore  all  the  children  to  their 
parents."  \"al]ejo's  statement  in  regard  to  this 
back-sliding  of  Chief  Solano  is  that  evil-dis- 
posed persons  have  plyed  him  with  liquor  until 
he  was  so  dazed  as  not  to  be  master  of  his 
actions,  and  that  after  being  sobered  up  in  the 
guard-house  he  was  both  ashamed  and  penitent. 
In  this  year,  1838,  there  came  a  terrible 
pestilence,  the  small-pox,  which  made  sad  havoc 
among  the  Indians.  It  is  said  that  a  Corporal 
named  Ygnacio  lliramontes  contracted  the  dis- 
ease at  Fort  Koss  and  i-eturning  to  Sonoma  the 
disease  was  soon  broadcast  among  the  Indians. 
General  Vallejo  is  our  authority  that  the  In- 
dians died  by  the  thousands.  He  thinks  that 
not  less  than  75,000  died  in  the  territory  north 
of  the  bay  and  west  of  the  Sacramento  River. 
In  some  cases  it  almost  blotted  tribes  out  of  ex- 
istence. The  Indian  panacea  for  all  ills  was 
resort  to  the  sweat-house,  supplemented  by  a 
plunge  in  cold  water.  Such  being  their  remedy, 
it  may  well  be  believed  that  the  small-pox  left 
desolation  in  its  track.  Mr.  John  TValker,  of 
Sebastopol,  states  that  when  he  reached  the 
Yount  rancho,  iXapa  County,  in  18-1(5,  Mr. 
Yount  pointed  out  to  him  an  Indian  girl,  the 
sole  survivor  of  her  tribe  after  the  small- 
pox had  run  its  course.  Yount  stated  that  lie 
visited  the  rancheria  and  that  dead  Indians 
were  lying  everywhere,  and  the  only  living 
being  was  the  girl  referred  to,  she,  an  infant, 
was  cuddled  in  an  Indian/  basket.  At  Mr. 
Walker's  ranch  is  a  very  aged  Indian,  and 
through  an  interpreter  he  recently  informed  us 
that  during  the  prevalance  of  the  small-pox  his 
people  at  Sebastopol  for  a  long  time  died  at  the 
rate  of  fi'om  ten  to  twenty  a  day.  During  the 
present  year  (1888),  while  excavating  earth 
with  which  to  grade  a  road  near  Sebastopol  a 
perfect  charnel  of  human  bones  was  found, 
doubtless  where  the  small-pox  victims  of  1838 
were  buried.  As  stated  elsewhere,  that  pesti- 
lence paved  the  way  for  peaceable  occupation  of 
this  territory  liv  immigrants.     There  were   not 



enough  Indians  left  to  offer  any  serious  resist- 
ance to  tlie  free  occupancy  of  their  former 
liunting  grounds  by  civilized  !naii. 

In  1830,  as  an  evidence  that  colonization  was 
advancing  northward,  it  is  recorded  that  twenty- 
five  families  had  cast  their  lot  in  the  northern 
frontier.  Some  of  these  families,  doubtless, 
came  with  the  Hijar-Padres  colony  that  came 
from  Mexico  in  1834.  Many  of  those  colonists 
visited  Sonoma — then  San  Francisco  Solano — 
but  owing  to  political  complications  Hijar  was 
looked  upon  witJi  suspicion,  and  his  scheme  of 
founding  a  colony  came  to  nanglit.  It  is  said 
that  a  few  of  his  people  remained  north  of  the 
bay,  but  most  of  them  returned  south  to  the 
older  settlements.  We  find  I'ecord  of  a  young 
Irishman  named  John  T.  Reed  locating  in 
Santa  liosa  Township,  near  the  pi-esent  place  of 
Robert  Crane,  in  1837,  but  who  was  driven  out 
l)y  the  Indians.  And  also  the  location  near 
Santa  Rosa,  in  1838,  of  Senora  Maria  Ygnacia 
Lopez  de  ("arillo.  Of  the  first  attempt  to 
found  a  settlement  at,  or  near  Santa  Rosa,  there 
is  evidence  that  it  pruved  futile,  and  yet  we 
find  little  of  authentic  record  as  to  the  reasons 
why  the  enterprise  was  abandoned,  other  than 
that  settlers  did  not  feel  secure  in  so  advanced  a 
]iosition  among  untutored  savages.  We  find, 
also,  an  accredited  rumor  that  the  mission  San 
Francisco  Solano  was  destroyed  by  the  Indians  a 
few  years  after  it  was  founded.  This  story  must  be 
founded  on  uncertain  tradition,  for  we  have 
tbund  no  authentic  record  of  such  an  occurrence. 

We  have  thus  far,  up  to  1840,  found  little 
ditliculty  in  tracing  the  lines  of  reliable  history. 
But  the  nearer  we  get  to  the  final  end  which 
culminated  in  American  occupancy  the  more  we 
are  befogged  and  in  doubt  of  the  di\  idirig  line 
between  facts  and  fiction.  What  tin  intelligent 
reader  will  most  want  to  kuoiv  will  be  as  to  the 
actual  settlement  and  occupancy  of'  Sonoma 
County  by  Californians  prior  to  the  raising  of 
the  Bear  Hag  at  Sonoma.  If  we  take  as  our 
guide  the  various  Spanish  grants  and  the  dates 
of  their  reputed  occupancy  there  was  but  little 
ot  the  arable  laud  of  the  county  that   was   not 

already  the  habitation  of  civilized  man;  and  yet 
we  find  but  little  tangible  evidence  of  such 
advanced  conditions  of  civilization.  Vallejo 
had,  with  great  enterprise  and  labor,  reai'ed  an 
establishment  on  the  Petaluma  grant  that  even 
yet  stands  as  a  monument  to  his  energy  and 
enterprise.  The  Corrillos  had  made  lasting 
improvements  at  Santa  Rosa  and  Sebasto])ol. 
Mark  West  had  established  himself  at  the  creek 
that  bore  his  name,  and  had  erected  substantial 
adobe  buildings.  Henry  D.  Fitch  had  reared 
buildings  of  permanency  on  Russian  River, 
near  the  jjresent  site  of  Ilealdsburg;  Captain 
Stephen  Smith  had  established  a  residence  and 
mill  at  Bodega,  and  Jasper  Ofurrell  had  made 
a  good  show  of  permanent  occupancy  at  his 
place  in  the  red  woods.  Fort  Ross  had  now 
passed  into  the  hands  of  William  Eennitz,  and 
was  an  establishment  of  comparative  ancient 
date.  Outside  of  the  evidence  of  occupancy 
thus  enumerated,  except  those  of  Sonoma  \a\- 
ley,  there  wei-e  only  a  few,  and  they  of  so  transi- 
tory and  ephemeral  in  character  as  almost  to 
have  jiassed  from  the  memory  of  our  pioneer 
American  inhabitants.  For  a  time  Sonoma 
had  been  I'egarded  as  an  important  frontier  mil- 
itary station  by  the  California  government,  and 
seems  to  have  received  some  fostering  care  and 
assistance,  but  dniing  later  years  the  govern- 
ment seems  to  have  acted  on  the  princii)le  that, 
as  Vallejo  had  all  the  glor^'  of  defending  the 
frontier,  he  could  do  it  at  his  own  expense,  lie 
seems  to  have,  in  time,  tired  of  this  expensive 
luxury.  Bancroft  says:  "The  ])residial  com- 
pany in  1841-'43,  and  probably  down  to  its  dis- 
bandment  by  Vallejo  in  1844,  had  between  forty 
and  fifty  men  under  the  command  of  Lieut. 
Jose  Antonio  Pico;  and  there  were  besides 
nearly  sixty  men  lit  for  militia  duty,  to  say 
nothing  of  an  incidental  mention  by  the  alcalde 
of  100  citizens  in  his  jurisdiction.  ('aptain 
Salvador  Vallejo  was  commandante  of  the  post 
and  no  civil  authority  was  recognized  down  to 
the  end  of  1843,  from  which  time  municipal 
affairs  were  directed  l)y  two  alcaldes,  Jacob  P. 
Leese  and  Jose  de  la  Rosa,  holding  successively 



t.lie  first  alcaldia."  Tims,  it  will  be  seen,  tliat 
there  was  virtually  only  two  years  of  civil  rule 
here  previous  to  the  Bear  Flag  revolution. 
AVliile  "N'allejo  still  had  an  armament  embracing 
nine  cannon  of  small  caliber,  and,  perhaps,  two 
hundred  muskets,  yet  the  whole  military  estab- 
lishment seems  to  have  been  in  a  condition  of 
"  innocuous  desuetude."  The  only  notable  event 
of  local  importance  in  1845  was  a  raid,  seem- 
ingly made  by  Sonoma  rancheros.  upon  the 
Ross    Indians  to  secure  laborers.      Several    In- 

dians were  killed  and  loU  were  eaptint.d. 
William  Hennitz  complained  of  outrages  coni- 
•mitted  on  the  Indians  at  his  rauclio.  That 
such  matters  were  made  the  subject  of  court 
investigation  shows  that  civil  authority  was  l)e- 
ginning  to  assert  itself.  The  leading  offenders 
in  this  last  instance  of  Indian  mention  under 
Mexican  rule,  were  Antonio  Castro  and  Rafael 
fxarcia.  AVe  have  now  reached  the  beginning 
of  tlie  end  of  ^Vfexifan  rule,  the  conclusion  of 
which  will  be  found  in  the  next  chapter. 



Mexican  kii.k  ix  Cafjimibma   xeakink    its   knu — tiik   Califuknia    lkadkrs    (,iuakkei,in(.    amcuMt 


KORNIA   IN  a    riflCEISIl     rOSITION WHAT    L\  K'KIN  WAS  EXPECTED  TO  HO    -WHAT    P'uMoNT     DID     DO 

Bancroft's  instructions  to   Commodore  Sloat — Vallejo — Sutter — Fremont  and  Gilles- 


Sacramento  Valley — the  Americans  naturally  (;atiierei)  around  hiji — the  settlers  ripe 





N  historic  events  like  that  of  the  taliiiig  of 
Sonoma  and  the  hoisting  of  the  bear  flag, 
we  naturally  expect  to  Unci  some  continuity 
of  antecedent  causes  leading  up  to  the  occur- 
rence. Iiut  that  great  event  stands  out,  in  Ijold 
relief,  a  conspicuous  exception  to  the  rule.  Like 
Topsy  who  averred  "  I  was  not  born'd — 1  jes 
growed  up,"  the  15ear  Flag  party  seemed  to  be 
■laboring  under  equal  perplexity  as  to  their  or- 
igin and  ultimate  destiny.  The  happy  outcome 
of  their  venture  can  be  compressed  into  the  sin- 
gle sentence,  "All  is  well,  that  ends  well." 
Search  and  sift  history  as  we  may  there  can  be 
found  no  authentic  connection  between  the 
little  band  of  adventurers  and  any  responsible 
United  States  authority.  There  has  been  a  great 
deal  said  and  written  upon  the  subject  that 
inclines  the  casual  reader  of  history  to  believe 
that  the  taking  of  Sonoma  was  but  the  first  act 

in  a  well  matured  j)hiu  which  was  to  ultiiiiate 
in  placing  California  under  the  stars  and 
stripes  of  the  United  States;  but  wu  tiiul  noth- 
ing to  warrant  such  conclusion.  The  majority 
of  the  bear  flag  party  were  frontiersmen  witii 
more  nerve  than  education  and  to  believe  them 
capable  of  carrying  out  to  a  successful  conclu- 
sion the  secret  orders  of  United  States  Govern- 
ment authorities,  and  never  after  disclosing  the 
same,  would  be  too  great  a  tax  upon  even  ex- 
treme credulity.  It  is  true.  General  Fremont 
had  been  in  California  for  some  time,  ostensibly 
at  the  head  of  a  scientiflc  expedition,  but  with 
a  force  at  his  back  ample  to  render  secure  his 
travels  while  here,  but  till  now  it  has  never  been 
revealed  that  he  was  clothed  by  the  govern- 
ment that  he  represented  with  any  powers  of  a 
revolutionary  character.  While  his  attitude 
had    been  defiant  of  California   authority  and 



liis  hoisting  of  the  American  flag  on  Gabilan 
I'eak,  ahiiost  in  sight  of  the  California  capita], 
a  l)old  affront  to  Castro,  California's  military 
chieftain,  yet  there  is  no  evidence,  as  yet,  that 
his  acts  were  otlier  than  the  efl'ervescence  of  an 
individual  disposed  to  magnify  the  importance 
of  his  mission.  The  ettects  of  Fremont's  acts 
were' two-fold.  The  Californians  believing  him 
to  he  acting  under  instructions  from  his  govern- 
ment, iiatui'ally  believed  that  he  was  here  for 
the  purpose  of  fomenting  a  revolutionary  spirit 
among  foreigners  resident  here,  and  they  were 
more  disposed  than  ever  to  enforce  the  laws 
priihibitoryof  indiscriminate  immigration.  The 
American  settlers  finding  themselves  more  and 
more  the  objects  of  suspicion  by  the  California 
authorities,  luiturally  took  it  for  granted  that  as 
Fremont  had  l)een  the  instrninent  of  inciting 
the  authorities  to  a  more  rigid  enforcement 
against  them  of  existing  immigration  laws,  lie 
knew  what  he  was  about,  and  would  stand  by 
them  if  tronble  came. 

Aside  trom  the  fact  tluit  all  knew  that  war 
was  imminent  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico,  California  was  rent  and  torn  by  internal 
discord.  The  Territorial  government  had  ever 
been,  at  best,  a  weak  one,  but  during  the  past 
decade  it  had  gone  from  bad  to  worse,  until 
chaos  seemed  to  brood  over  the  TeiTitory  from 
Sonoma  to  San  Diego.  The  government  was 
divided;  one  part  being  administered  from  Los 
Angeles  and  the  other  from  Monterey,  and  each 
wing  in  open  revolt  against  tlie  authority  of  the 
other.  In  the  very  teeth  of  a  threatened  danger 
from  without,  Governor  Pio  Pico  at  Los  An- 
geles and  General  Castro  at  Monterey  were 
seemingly  only  intent  on  each  other's  overtiirow. 
The  action  of  Fremont,  already  referred  to,  in 
flaunting  the  stars  and  stripes  upon  Gabilan 
Peak  seems  to  have  brought  General  Castro  to 
sometliing  like  a  correct  appi-eciation  of  the 
fact  that  there  was  great  need  of  unification 
and  eti'ort  among  California  anthorities.  This 
he  tried  to  impress  upon  Pico  in  the  south,  but 
the  suspicious  governor  saw  fit  to  construe  the 
efforts  of  Castro  to  get  the  military   upon  a  de- 

fensive basis,  into  a  menace  to  himself;  and  the 
people  of  the  entire  South  seemed  to  be  in  en- 
tire accord  with  him  on  the  subject.  In  truth, 
the  peojile  of  the  lower  and  upper  portion  of 
the  Territory  seem  to  have  been  as  completely 
estranged  and  soured  against  each  other  as  if 
their  origin  had  been  from  distinct  races. 
Llence,  was  witnessed  the  pitiful  endeavor  of  Pio 
Pico  to  gather  together  a  force  sufficient  to  pro- 
ceed to  Monterey  for  the  purpose  of  sultjugat- 
ing  Castro,  at  the  very  time  the  latter  was 
eqnally  intent  upon  gathering  a  force  to  meet 
what  he  conceived  to  be  a  great  danger  on  the 
northern  frontier.  To  California,  the  early 
months  of  1846  seems"  to  have  been  a  dark 
period  to  all,  fruitful  of  junto  meetings  and 
dark-i'oom  cabals,  when  all  were  suspicious  of 
.each  othei-,  and  it  seemed  politic  for  no  man  to 
let  his  right  hand  kimw  what  his  left  hand  was 

"While  this  comlition  of  doubt  and  uncer- 
tainty was  nnmistakably  trne  as  related  to  the 
Californians,  it  was  only  less  trne,  in  a  modified 
degi-ee,  as  related  to  the  Americans  then  resi- 
dent here.  Wliile  they  were  united  in  heart 
and  sentiment,  they  were  completely  out  at  sea 
without  chart  or  compass,  in  the  face  of  a 
brewing  st<jrm.  If  Fremont's  action  in  Monterey 
County  had  encouraged  them  to  believe  that  he 
had  authority  to  raise  the  standard  of  revolu- 
tion in  California,  that  belief  must  have  re- 
ceived a  chill  when  he,  a  few  weeks  later,  with 
his  sixty  men  started  northward  to  Oregon, 
with  the  avowed  purpose  of  returning  east  by 
that  ronte.  That  this  was  not  a  strategic  move- 
ment on  his  part  is  evidenced  by  letters  he 
wrote  at  the  time  both  to  his  wife  and  his 
father-in-law,  Hon.  Thomas  II.  Benton. 

Thomas  O.  Larkin  was  the  secret  and  confi- 
dential agent  of  the  United  States  Government 
in  California  and  he  certainly'  had  no  commi>- 
sion  to  do  anything  in  the  direction  of  encour- 
aging the  raising  of  the  standard  of  revolt  in 
California.  Fremont's  conduct  seems  to  have 
been  to  him  a  complete  enigma.  Larkin's  in- 
structions were  to  feel  the  pulse  of  Californians 


as  well  as  Americans  in  reference  to  jieaceable 
annexatiun  to  the  United  States,  and  any  demon- 
stration on  the  part  of  the  Americans  in  the 
direction  of  violence  and  force  could  bnt  com- 
plicate and  render  more  ditticnlt  his  task.  lie 
had  sagacity  enough  to  understand  this,  and 
seems  to  have  directed  all  his  energies  in  the 
direction  of  a  j)eaceal)le  solution  of  the  problem 
he  was  to  assist  in  working  out.  It  must  be 
iiorne  in  mind  that  Tliomas  O.  Larkin  had  long 
been  a  resident  merchant  in  California  and  that 
his  intimate  connection  and  association  with  the 
leading  men  of  California,  both  natives  and 
foreigners,  peculiarly  fitted  him  for  this  labor  of 
paving  the  way  for  peaceable  annexation  of 
California  to  the  United  States,  l^ut  that  he 
was  not  taken  into  all  the  secret  councils  of  the 
nation  is  manifest  from  the  instructions  of  Hon. 
George  Bancroft,  the  then  secretary  of  war  un- 
der President  Polk,  under  date  of  June  24, 1845, 
nearly  a  year  before  war  was  declared  between 
the  United  States  and  Mexico.  The  secretary's 
instructions  to  Commodore  Sloat  were: 

"  If  you  ascertain  that  Mexico  has  declared 
war  against  the  United  States,  yon  will  at  once 
possess  yourself  of  the  port  of  San  Francisco, 
and  occupy  such  other  ports  as  your  force  may 
permit.  You  will  be  careful  to  preserve,  if 
possilile,  the  most  friendly  relations  with  the 
inhabitants,  and  encourage  them  to  adopt  a 
course  of  neutrality." 

On  the  13th  of  May,  1846,  war  was  declared. 
On  that  very  day  Secretary  Uancroft  again  in- 
structed Commodore  Sloat  to  cari-y  out  his  first 
orders  "with  energy  and  promptitude."  Only 
two  days  later  we  find  Secretary  Bancroft  writ- 
ing the  following  instructions  to  Commodore 
Sloat:  "  A  connection  between  California  and 
Mexico  is  supposed  scarcely  to  exist.  You  will, 
as  opportunity  offers,  conciliate  the  confidence 
of  the  people  of  California.  Yon  will  conduct 
yourself  in  such  a  manner  as  will  render  your 
occupation  t)f  the  country  a  benefit,"  etc.  In  a 
dispatch  dated  dune  8,  1840,  the  Aincriran 
Secretary  conies  out  a  little  plainer.  Ho  says: 
"  If  California  separates  herself  from  our  enemy, 

the  Central  Government  of  Mexico,  and  estab- 
lishes a  government  of  its  own  under  the  auspices 
of  the  American  Hag,  you  will  take  such  meas- 
ures as  will  best  promote  the  attachment  of  the 
people  of  California  to  the  United  States.  Von 
will  bear  in  mind  that  this  country  desires  to 
find  in  California  a  friend;  to  be  connected  with 
it  by  near  ties;  to  hold  possession  of  it,"  etc. 
On  July  12  he  speaks  still  plainer:  "The  ob- 
ject t>f  the  United  States  has  reference  to  ulti- 
mate ])eace,  and  if  at  that  peace  the  basis  of 
i\\Q  '•  utl  puasiiJetis'  shall  be  adopted,  the  (iov- 
ernment  expects  to  be  in  possession  of  Califor- 

While  the  instructions  to  Larkin  seem  to 
have  been  of  an  entirely  pacific  and  diplomatic 
character,  it  is  quite  evident  that  the  authori- 
ties at  Washington  did  not  intend  to  allow  the 
formalities  of  red  tape  to  stand  in  the  way  of 
the  acquisition  of  California. 

There  were  two  men  on  the  northern  frontiei-, 
both  occupying  commanding  positions,  and  each 
destined  to  fill  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  his- 
tory of  those  stirring  times.  One  was  General 
M.  G.  Vallejo,  and  the  other  Captain  John  A. 
Sutter.  At  this  time,  when  California  was 
Hearing  her  final  struggle  with  manifest  destiny, 
it  is  important  to  know  just  how  and  whei'e 
they  stood.  Much  has  been  said  and  written 
on  the  subject,  so  much  that  it  has  become  con- 
fusing and  difficult  to  always  determine  where 
history  ends  and  fiction  begins.  Vallejo  and 
Sutter  both  were  officers  of  the  California  gov- 
ernment and  as  such  owed  good  faith  and 
allegiance  to  their  country.  We  find  nothing 
to  warrant  the  conclusion  that  either  proved 
recreant  to  their  trust. 

Vallejo  evidently  had  a  very  sti-ong  premoni- 
tion that  California  had  reached  the  beginning 
of  the  end.  So  believing,  he  evidently  had  lit- 
tle heart  or  concern  about  the  personal  quarrels  of 
Pico,  Castro  and  other  factious  would-be  leaders 
of  California.  When  called  into  council  on  tiie 
alarming  condition  of  the  tiines,  he  was  free  to 
express  his  opinions,  and  so  far  as  reliable  evi- 
dence goes,  it  was  always  to  the  (jfiect  that  if 


it  eaine  to  the  worst  and  a  change  of  government 
had  to  be  made,  that  it  was  to  the  United  States 
that  California  could  look  for  the  strongest  arm 
of  jirotection   and    speedy    development  of  lier 
latent  resources.      While  those  were   his  senti- 
ments expressed  in   council    with    his   country- 
men, he  in   no  wise  seems   to    ha\e   abandoned 
hope  that  C'alif(.)rnia  might  yet  be  safely  steered 
through  her  dangers.     This  is  evidenced  by  two 
circumstances.     Governor  Pico  addressed  a  let- 
ter to  Valiejo,  probably  in  April,  in  which  he 
eluded  him  somewhat  sharply  for  his  apparent 
adhesion  to  Castro,  the  every  act  of  whom  Pico 
seemed    to   regard   as  dangerous    usurpation   of 
military'  power,  the  ultimate  aim   of  which  was 
the  overthrow  of  the  civil  government.   Vailejo's 
reply  to  Pico  was  both  temperate  and  patriotic. 
He  did  not  liesitate  to  admonish    Pico  that   he 
was  allowing  his  jealousy   to   befog   his   better 
judgment — that  Castro  was  making  an  etfort  to 
properly  face  a  real  danger,  and  he  warned  Pico 
that  the  time  had  come  when  unity  of  action 
was  imperative  if  California  would  continue  to 
exist  in  her  present  form.     He  pointed  out  to 
the  Governor  the  folly  of  expecting  a  General 
in  the  face  of  a  threatened  danger,  to  wait  for 
the  transmission  of  orders  such  a  long  distance  as 
intervened  between  Los  Angeles  and  Monterey. 
These  wise  and  temperate  counsels  of  Valiejo 
seem   to  have  been   wasted    upon  Pico,    for  he 
appears  to  have  gone  forward  in  his  endeavor  to 
marshal  a  sufficient  force  to  march  to  Monterey 
and   overthrow    Castro.      The   second    circum- 
stance which  shows  that  Yallejo  had   not  yet 
lost  all  hope  is  the  fact  that  early  in  June  Cas- 
tro visited  Sonoma  on  his  mission  uf  gathering 
war  supplies,  and  secured  a  large  number  of 
horses.     Of  these  horses  more   will   be  said   a 
little   further  on.     Of  what  occurred   between 
Yallejo  and  Castro  at  that  time  there  seezns  to 
be  little  of  record.      Intelligent  reflection  draws 
two  conclusions  somewhat  difficult  to  harmonize. 
That  a  matter  of  170  horses  was  furnished  by 
Valiejo   to  Castro   would  clearly   indicate  that 
the  former  was  willing  to  contribute  liberally 
otward  the  common  defense,  for  Castro  lacked 

the  power,  if  he  had  the  will,  to  exact  from 
Valiejo  forced  contributions.  The  next  ques- 
tion to  harmonize  with  a  cheerful  desire  of 
Valiejo  to  heartily  second  Castro's  seem i no- 
patriotic  eflbrts  is,  why  was  it  that  Sonoma 
with  an  armament  of  nine  cannons  of  various 
caliber,  and  at  least  two  hundred  muskets,  was 
not  brought  into  requisitiuii  in  a  time  of  such 
great  2ierii;  It  was  to  the  east  and  north  that 
Castro  was  looking  for  lurking  danger,  and  if 
that  General  and  Valiejo  were  working  together 
in  perfect  accord  it  seems  little  short  of  aniaziuir 
that  Sonoma  was  left  to  repose  in  sleepy  security 
without  a  cannon  shotted  or  a  musket  in  hand 
or  sentinel  to  signal  the  alarm  of  an  approach- 
ing foe. 

Of  Captain  John  A.  Sutter  little  need  be 
said.  Being  a  citizen  by  naturalization,  his 
position  was  ditferent  froni  that  of  Valiejo.  It 
is  trne  he  was  holding  position  under  the  Cali- 
fornia government,  but  his  attachment  to  the 
country  of  his  adoption  never  seems  to  have 
outweighed  his  own  personal  objects  and  aims 
in  busii.ess.  But  even  he  is  not  chargeable 
with  having  been  guilty  of  gross  perfidy  to  the 
laud  that  had  given  him  wealth  and  honor. 
This  is  evidenced  by  the  two-fold  fact  that  he 
took  pains  to  warn  the  government  at  Monterey 
that  a  man  named  Gillespie,  who  had  been  at 
Monterey  and  was  then  following  Fremont 
north,  was  a  secret  emissary  of  the  United 
States.  At  the  same  time,  and  with  possibly  a 
less  patriotic  motive,  he  again  called  the  atten- 
tion of  the  California  government  to  the  im- 
portance of  strengthening  itself  in  the 
Sacramento  Valley,  and  for  that  purpose  oft'ered 
to  sell  his  establishment  at  New  Helvetia.  This, 
on  his  part,  was  business,  simon  pure,  and 
should  not  be  allowel  to  counterbalance  too 
much  of  the  good  deeds  and  kind  offices  of  that 
historic  pioneer  to  the  weary,  travel-worn 
American  immigrants,  so  many  of  whom  en- 
joyed his  benefactions.  Sutter  was  a  man  of 
pretty  good  common  sense  and  was  not  blind  to 
the  fact  that  California  was  liable  to  be  in  an 
eruptive  state  atany  moment:  and.  like  Mic.iw- 


ber,  '>  was  just  waiting  tor  something  to  turn 

It  was  now  in  early  May  of  1846,  and  Gen- 
eral Fremont,  with  his  sixty  explorers,  was  well 
on  his  way  northward,  having  pitched  camp  on 
the  shores  of  Klamath  Lake.  General  Castro, 
doubtless  elated  at  having  achieved  a  bloodless 
victory  in  taking  the  abandoned  fort  of  F'remont 
on  Gabilan  I'eak,  was  now  seeking  new  fields 
of  glory.  Pio  Pico  was  yet  in  the  south  in- 
tent upon  marshaling  a  sufficient  force  to  war- 
rant him  in  visiting  the  northern  end  of  the 
Territory  of  which  he  was  governor.  Consul 
Larkin  was  inditing  confidential  epistles  to  all 
such  as  to  whom  he  thontrlit  could  be  entrusted 
the  secret  and  work  of  peaceable  annexation  of 
California  to  the  United  States.  General  il.  G. 
Vallejo  was  in  quiet  repose  at  Sonoma,  appar- 
ently having  converted  his  sword  into  a  plow- 
share, his  spear  into  a  jiruning  hook,  and  his 
martial  field-glasses  into  a  medium  through 
which  to  watch  his  herds  and  flocks  upon  a 
thousand  hills.  Captain  John  A.  Sutter  was 
looking  after  his  fields  of  waving  grain  at  Hawk 
Farm,  doubtless  anticipating  a  paying  harvest, 
for  the  incoming  immigration  expected  from 
over  the  mountains  was  variously  estimated  at 
from  1,000  to  5,000  souls.  The  hills  and  val- 
leys of  this  genial  clime  were  doubtless  clad  in 
verdure  and  flowers;  and  yet  the  very  air  was 
oppi'essive  with  the  forecast  of  revolution  and 
sanguinary  strife. 

A  new  Richmond,  with  closed  visor,  had  now 
appeared  upon  the  field.  He  anewered  to  the 
plain  name  of  Archibald  II.  Gillespie,  amd  had 
reached  Monterey  the  17th  of  April.  Larkin 
had  already  received  a  letter  from  James  Bu- 
chanan, the  then  Secretary  of  State,  informing 
him  that,  "  Lieutenant  Archibald  II.  Gillespie, 
of  the  marine  corps,  will  immediately  proceed  to 
Monterey,  and  will  probably  reach  you  before 
this  dispatch.  He  is  a  gentleman  in  whom  the 
President  reposes  entire  confidence.  He  has 
seen  these  instructions,  and  will  co-operate  as  a 
confidential  agent  with  you  in  carrying  them 
into  execution."'     Gillespie  was  a  month  behind 

time  in  reaching  Monterey  in  consequence  of 
unavoidable  delays  in  Mexico.  That  his  dis- 
patches to  Larkin  were  of  a  very  important 
and  secret  character  is  evidenced  by  the  fact 
that  lest  they  might  fall  into  Mexican  hands, 
Gillespie  had  memorized  them  and  then  de- 
stroyed the  paper  upon  which  they  were  written. 
On  reaching  Monterey  he  was  plain  Mr.  Gilles- 
pie, an  American  merchant,  traveling  for  the 
benefit  of  his  health.  He  was  also  the  bearer 
of  a  letter  of  introduction  from  Hon.  Thonjas 
H.  Benton  to  his  son-in-law.  General  Fremont, 
as  well  as  a  package  of  private  letters  from  the 
same  distinguished  statesman  to  the  "  Path- 
finder." After  lingering  a  little  at  Monterey, 
doubtless  to  give  color  to  his  assumed  character, 
Lieutenant  Gillespie  one  night  embarked  for 
New  Helvetia,  and  arriving  there  at  once  began 
to  arrange  for  an  escort  to  accompany  him  on 
the  trail  of  Fi-emont.  It  was  then,  as  already 
stated,  that  Captain  Sutter  conveyed  to  the  au- 
thorities at  Monterey  his  suspicion  that  Gilles- 
pie was  a  secret  emissary  of  the  United  States 
Government.  Lieutenant  Gillespie  made  all 
haste  northward.  Historian  Bancroft  gives  the 
following  graphic  account  of  this  journey  and 
the  tragic  occurrences  attending  it: 

"This  officer,  of  whose  arrival  I  will  have  more 
to  say  presently,  had  reached  Sutter's  April 
28th,  and  Lassen's  the  1st  of  May.  From  that 
point,  with  only  five  companions,  Lassen,  Xeal, 
Sigler,  Stepp  and  a  negro  servant  named  Ben, 
he  started  May  2d,  on  Fremont's  trail.  On  the 
7th  two  men  were  sent  in  advance,  and  the 
others  encamped  at  the  outlet  of  Klamath  Lake, 
unable  to  ford  the  river,  and  having  nothing  to 
eat  for  forty  hours.  On  the  morning  of  the  Oth 
a  party  of  Indians  made  their  appearance,  who, 
with  great  apparent  kindness,  gave  the  travelers 
a  fresli  salmon  for  food,  and  ferried  them  ovei- 
the  water  in  canoes.  After  a  day's  journey  of 
some  thirty  miles,  (iillespie  met  Fremont  at 
sunset,  at  a  stream  named  from  the  events  of 
that  night.  Ambuscade  Creek.  The  sixteen 
tired  travelers  retired  early  after  the  two  parties 
were  united  on  May  9th,  and  were  soon  sleep- 


iiig  souiully-  Freiuoiit  sitting  up  later  than  the 
rest  to  read  his  dispatches  and  letters  from 
liome.  The  Indians  were  deemed  friendly,  and 
no  watch  was  kept.  Just  before  midnight  the 
cam])  was  attacked  by  savages,  Basil  Lajeunesse 
and  a  Delaware  were  killed  as  they  slept,  by 
Itlows  from  axes.  The  sound  of  these  blows 
aroused  Carson  and  Owens,  who  gave  the  alarm; 
when  the  Indians  fled,  after  killing  with  their 
arrows  a  Delaware  named  Crane,  and  leaving 
(lead  a  chief  of  their  number,  who  proved  to  be 
the  very  man  from  whom  Gillespie  had  that 
morning  been  furnislied  with  food  and  aid 
further  south.  Next  morning  they  started 
northward  to  join  the  main  body,  burying  the 
bodies  of  their  slain  comrades  on  the  way.  The 
whole  party  started  on  the  lltli  down  the  east- 
ern side  of  the  lake,  wreaking  terrible  vengeance 
on  the  innocent  natives  along  the  route,  if  we 
may  credit  the  statement  of  Kit  Carson,  who 
played  a  leading  part  in  the  butcheries.  They 
reached  Lassen's  rancho  on  their  return  the 
24th,  and  a  few  days  later  moved  their  camp 
down  to  the  Buttes." 

This  awakens  the  reflection  that  the  greatest 
of  human  events  are  subject  to  the  modifying 
influence  of  currents  and  cross-currents;  for  had 
the  Indians  who  made  that  midnight  attack  been 
successful  in  their  evident  design  to  massacre 
all  in  that  unguarded  camp,  it  is  more  than 
probable  that  the  bear  flag  revolution  would 
never  have  formed  a  chapter  of  Sonoma  County 
history.  Mr.  Bancroft  expresses  the  opinion 
that  Gillespie's  meeting  with  Fremont  had 
nothing  to  do  with  the  latter's  return  north- 
ward— that  ''  the  Captain  had  nearly  deter- 
mined, on  account  of  the  difiiculty  of  crossing 
the  mountains  into  Oregon  on  account  of  the 
snow,"'  to  retrace  his  steps.  We  dissent  from 
this  view  of  the  subject.  If  Gillespie  was  only 
the  bearer  of  instructions  to  Fremont  couched 
in  the  same  language  of  diplomacy  as  that  used 
by  Secretary  Buchanan  in  imparting  to  Larkin 
the  duties  devolved  u])on  him  by  the  President, 
then  the  continued  presence  of  Fremont  could 
have  served  no  good  end.     In  truth,  his  con- 

tinued presence  would  be  detrimental  to  the 
very  object  Larkin  was  expected  to  achieve. 
Gillespie  must  have  had  full  knowledge  of  what 
Fremont  had  done  at  Gabilon  Peak,  and  as  he 
was  the  duly  accredited  secret  agent  of  the 
United  States  government  it  is  but  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  he  would  have  at  least  some  ad- 
visory influence  with  Fremont.  Then,  again, 
Fremont  and  Larkin  were  occupying  entirely 
difterent  positions,  and  it  is  quite  probable  that 
while  the  latter  was  expected  only  to  use  the 
weapons  of  diplomacy,  the  former  may  have 
been  accorded  discretionary  power,  if  circum- 
stances seemed  to  warrant,  to  use  more  weighty 
arguments.  But  outside  of  all  this  it  must  be 
remembered  that  Gillespie  had  placed  in  Fre- 
mont's hands  letters  from  Hon.  Thomas  II. 
Benton.  The  latter  was  just  as  near  to  the 
war-making  power  as  was  James  Buchanan,  antl 
he  was  under  no  trammel  to  measure  his  words 
with  red  tape.  While  he  was  not  in  a  position 
to  give  Fremont  either  instructions  or  orders,  it 
is  fair  to  presume  that  he  would  intimate  to  the 
husband  of  his  favorite  daughter  the  true  con- 
dition of  affairs  and  impress  upon  him  the  im- 
portance of  holding  himself  in  readiness  to 
improve  any  opportunities,  such  as  were  liable 
to  suddenly  arise,  for  preferment  and  position. 
To  believe  that  Fremont  had  an}'  serious  in- 
tention of  leaving  California  just  at  a  time  when 
he  mnst  have  known  that  right  here  and  then 
he  was  upon  the  very  eve  of  the  fruition  of  Ben- 
ton's most  ardent  expectation,  would  be  to  im- 
pute to  him  a  lack  of  regard  for  name  and  fame 
singularly  at  variance  with  reputed  character  of 
either  himself  or  Mr.  Benton. 

But  we  now  put  behind  us  matters  specula 
tive  and  enter  upon  the  domain  of  thrilling 
facts.  During  Fremont's  absence  north  there 
were  all  kinds  of  wild  rumors  afloat,  and  they 
lost  nothing  as  they  passed  from  mouth  to 
mouth.  Castro's  war  preparations  had  been 
magnifled  into  an  expressed  purpose  on  his  part 
to  drive  the  American  settlers  out  of  the  coun- 
try. It  was  rumored  and  so  believed,  that  the 
Indians  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  were  being 


incited  tu  an  iiprisiiifr  and  tliat  as  soon  as  the 
grain  fields  were  far  enough  advanced  to  be 
conihustible,  llie  torch  woiikl  be  applied.  Cap- 
tain Sutter  seems  to  have  given  credence  to 
these  stories,  tor  he  was  on  an  active  Indian 
campaign  against  some  of  tlie  lawless  tribes. 
Fremont  had  moved  camp  from  the  IJuttes  to 
Rear  Iliver,  near  where  Nicholas  now  stands.  It 
was  but  natural  that  his  camp  should  become 
tile  head  centre,  around  which  the  hopes  and  ex- 
pectations of  his  fellow-countrymen  should  clus- 
ter. The  settlers  knew  that  Gillespie  was  act- 
ing upon  some  authority  of  the  United  States 
government,  and  his  swift  haste  northward  af- 
ter Fremont,  and  the  latter's  e(j^ually  speedy  re- 
turn, had  to  them  a  significance  that  they  were 
close  to  exciting  times.  There  is  nothing  of  re- 
cord to  show  that  General  Fremont  either  coun- 
selled action,  or  quiet,  on  the  part  of  American 
settlers.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  passive  lis- 
tener to  the  recital  of  their  plans  and  grievances, 
but  somehow,  the  most  unlettered  of  those 
frontiersmen,  gathered  from  his  very  silence, 
assent  that  he  would  stand  between  tliem  and 
harm.  The  people  were  ripe  for  revolution  and 
the  favored  chance  to  strike  the  first  blow  op- 
portunely came. 

As  has  already  been  stated,  General  Castro's 
visit  to  General  Vallejo  in  the  first  week  of  June 
resulted  in  his  securing  170  horses.  Having 
achieved  this  much  toward  placing  himself  up- 
on a  stable  war  footing,  Castro  returned  by  boat 
to  Yerba  Buena,  entrusting  the  horses  to  the 
care  and  management  of  his  private  secretary, 
Francisco  Arce,  Lieutenant  Jose  Alaria  Alviso, 
and  an  escort  of  eight  men  for  safe  conduct  to 
Santa  Clara.  Leaving  Sonoma  with  the  l>and 
of  horses,  they  reached  what  is  now  Knight's 
Landing,  on  the  Sacramento  Iliver,  where  a 
crossing  was  effected,  and  on  June  8tli  they 
reached  Sutter's  Fort.  It  is  alleged  that  Arce 
told  some  one  on  his  I'oute  that  the  horses  were 
for  Castro,  and  to  he  used  in  driving  the  Amer- 
ican settlers  out;  but  this  was  probably  idle 
rumor.  But  whether  true  or  not,  it  served  to  in- 
tensify the  excitement,  which  was  now  at  about 

white  heat.  On  the  afternoon  of  June  9tii, 
eleven  or  twelve  Americans  started  on  the  trail 
of  Arce  and  Alviso  and  their  band  of  horses. 
These  men  are  said  to  have  started  from  the 
neighborhood  of  Fremont's  camp,  and  a  man 
named  Ilensley  is  the  authority  that  they  were 
sent  by  Fremont;  but  this  lacks  the  evidence 
that  should  back  a  historic  fact.  In  j)assing  New 
Helvetia,  this  company  was  increased  by  two 
new  recruits.  Ezekiel  Merritt  commanded  the 
expedition.  Of  its  members,  Sempel,  Henry  L. 
Ford  and  Granville  V.  Swift,  afterward  for 
long  years  a  resident  of  Sonoma  County,  are 
the  only  names  known  with  certainty.  Cross- 
ing the  American  River  late  iu  the  evening, 
they  made  their  first  stop  at  the  rancho  of  Allen 
Montgomery,  who  not  only  furnished  them  a 
supper,  but  he,  with  another  man,  accompanied 
them  to  lend  a  hand  at  striking  this  first  blow 
of  revolution.  Arce  and  Alviso  had  stopped  for 
the  night  at  the  rancho  of  Murphy,  using  his 
corral  for  their  horses.  Merritt  and  his  men 
camped  within  three  miles  of  the  place,  and  at 
early  dawn,  on  the  morning  of  the  ever  memor- 
able lOtli  of  June,  184:6,  swooped  down  upon 
the  unsuspecting  Arce  and  Alviso,  and  in  a 
trice  had  them  and  their  men  disarmed.  That 
Merritt  and  his  men  were  not  heartless  desper- 
adoes is  apparant  from  the  fact  that  they  allowed 
the  vanquished  to  retain  each  a  horse,  and  recog- 
nized Alviso's  claim  to  a  few  more  as  private 
property;  after  which  their  arms  were  restored 
to  them  and  they  were  made  the  bearers  of  a 
message  to  Castro,  that  if  he  wanted  his  horses 
he  could  come  after  them.  Arce  also  reported 
to  Castro  that  the  insurgents  had  declared  their 
purpose  to  take  Sonoma.  This  declaration  of 
their  intent  was  a  subject  of  official  announce- 
ment at  Monterey  two  days  before  Sonoma  was 
captured,  wliicli  proves  that  Arce  and  Alviso 
had  not  falsely  reported  the  utterance  of  Merritt 
and  his  followers.  The  revolutionists,  with  their 
band  of  horses,  were  back  to  the  neighborhood 
of  Fremont's  camp  within  forty-eight  hours  af- 
ter they  set  out  on  their  mission.  While  there 
seems  to  have  been   no  ]>reconcerted  action  on 

HISTonr    (IF    .sONfiMA     COUNTY. 

the  part  u\'  tlie  Aniuricau  settlers  in  this  high- 
handed act,  tliey  all  seemed  to  have  assented  to 
the  fact  tliat  tlie  bridges  had  been  burned  behind 
them,  and  all  they  had  to  do  now  was  to 
"light  it  out  on  that  line  if  it  took  them  all 

It  was  the  lltli  of  June  that  Merritt  and  his 
followers  returned  with  Castro's  horses.  They 
seem  to  have  acted  on  the  principle  of  '•  making 
hay  while  the  sun  shines,"  for  on  that  afternoon 
the  company  was  increased  to  twenty  men,  still 
led  by  lizekiel  ilerritt,  who  took  their  departure 
in  the  direction  of  Sonoma.  That  night  they 
reached  Gordon's  on  Cache  Creek  where  they 
halted  for  refreshments,  and  then  made  a  night 
march  to  Napa  Valley,  which  they  reached  on 
the  forenoon  of  June  12th.  In  Napa  Valley 
they  remained  two  days,  evidently  for  the  pur- 
pose of  strengthening  their  force;  which  they 
did  by  the  enrollment  of  twelve  or  thirteen 
additional  men.  The  force  now  numbered 
either  thirty-two  or  thirty-three,  who,  so  far  as 
is  now  ascertainable,  i-esponded  to  the  following 
names:  Ezekiel  Merritt,  AVilliam  B.  Ide,  John 
Grigsby,  Robert  Semple,  II.  L.  Ford,  William 
Todd,  William  Fullon,  William  Knight,  Will- 
iam Ilargrave,  Sam  Kelsey,  G.  F.  Swift,  Sam 
Gibson,  W.  W.  Scott,  Benj.  Dewell,  Thomas 
Cowie,  William  B.  Elliott,  Thomas  Knight, 
Horace  Sanders,  Henry  Booker,  Dav.  Hudson, 
John  Sears,  and  most  of  the  following:  J.  II. 
Kelly,  C.  C.  Griffith,  Harvey  Porterfield,  John 
Scott,  Ira  Stebbins,  Marion  Wise,  Ferguson, 
I'eter  Storm,  Pat.  McChristian,  Bartlett  Vines, 
Fowler,  Jolin  Gibbs,  Andrew  Kelsey,  and  Benj- 
amin Kelsey.  It  was  about  midnight  of  Satur- 
day the  13tli  of  June  that  this  motley  crowd  of 
frontiersmen  took  to  saddle  and  proceeded  across 
the  hills  intervening  between  Napa  Valley  and 
the  Pueblo  of  Sonoma.  J  ust  at  break  of  day 
they  reached  that  fortified  stronghold  of  north- 
ern California,  and  neither  baying  of  watch- 
dog nor  cackling  of  goose  ai'oused  the  sleeping 
Sonomans  to  a  sense  of  impending  danger. 
Every  reader  will  e.xpect  to  hear,  in  detail,  ex- 
actly wh;it  transpired  on  that  memorable  occa- 

sion. Hubert  Howe  Bancroft  has  in  his  pos- 
session many  of  the  original  documents  con- 
nected with  that  event,  or  authenticated  copies. 
He  is  certainly  in  a  position  to  give  as  near  the 
absolute  facts  in  connection  therewith  as  will 
ever  be  attaiiiable,  as  very  many  of  the  partici- 
pants in  the  capture  of  Sonoma  are  now  dead. 
We  have  had  from  General  Vallejo's  own  lips 
a  statement  of  the  individual  part  he  played  in 
the  event,  and  it  is  substantially  the  same  as 
recited  by  Mr.  Bancroft.  Believing  that  hist- 
orian Bancroft  gives  a  true  and  reliable  version 
of  the  whole  occurrence  we  incorporate  it  here. 
It  is  as  follows: 

''  At  dayl)reak  Vallejo  was  aroused  by  a  noise, 
and  on  looking  out  saw  that  his  house  was  sur- 
rounded by  armed  men.  This  state  of  things 
was  sufficiently  alarming  in  itself,  and  all  the 
more  so  by  reason  of  the  uncouth  and  even  fero- 
cious aspect  of  the  strangers.  Says  Semple: 
Almost  the  whole  party  was  dressed  in  leather 
hunting-shirts,  many  of  them  very  greasy;  tak- 
ing the  whole  party  together,  they  were  about 
as  rough  a  looking  set  of  men  as  one  could  well 
imagine.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  any 
one  woiild  feel  some  dread  in  falling  into  their 
hands.  And  Vallejo  himself  declares  that 
there  was  l)y  no  means  such  a  uniformit}-  of 
dress  as  a  greasy  hunting-shirt  for  each  man 
would  imply.  Vallejo's  wife  was  even  more 
alarmed  than  her  husband,  whom  she  begged  to 
escape  by  a  back  door,  but  who  deeming  such  a 
course  undignified  as  well  as  impracticaljle, 
hastily  dressed,  ordered  the  front  door  opened, 
and  met  the  intruders  as  they  entered  his  sala, 
demanding  who  was  their  chief  and  what  their 
business.  Not  much  progress  in  explanation 
was  made  at  first,  though  it  soon  became  appar- 
ent that  the  Colonel,  wdiile  he  was  to  consider 
himself  a  prisoner  was  not  in  danger  of  any  per- 
sonal violence.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Prudon  and 
Captain  Salvador  Vallejo  entered  the  room  a  few- 
minutes  later,  attracted  by  the  noise,  or  possibly 
were  arrested  at  their  houses  and  brought  there; 
at  any  rate,  they  were  put  under  arrest  like  the 
Colonel.     Jacob  P.  Leese  was  sent  for  to  serve 


as  interpreter,  after  whicli  imitnal  expliuiations 
progresised  more  favorably. 

•'  Early  in  the  ensuing  negotiations  between 
prisoners  and  filibusters,  it  became  apparent 
that  the  latter  had  neither  acknowledged  leader 
nor  regular  plan  of  operations  beyond  the  seizure 
of  government  projjerty  and  of  the  officers. 
Some  were  acting,  as  in  the  capture  of  Arce's 
horses,  merely  with  a  view  to  obtain  arms, 
animals,  and  hostage — to  bring  about  hostilities, 
and  at  the  same  time  to  deprive  the  foe  of  his 
resources;  others  believed  themselves  to  have, 
undertaken  a  revolution,  in  which  the  steps  to 
be  immediately  taken  were  a  formal  declaration 
of  independence  and  the  election  of  officers, 
Merritt  l)eing  regarded  rather  as  a  guide  than 
captain.  All  seemed  to  agree,  however,  that 
they  were  acting  under  Fremont's  orders,  and 
this  to  the  prisoners  was  the  most  assuring  feat- 
ure in  the  case,  ^'allejo  had  for  some  time 
favored  the  annexation  of  California  to  the 
United  States.  He  had  expected  and  often 
predicted  a  movement  to  that  end.  There  is  no 
foundation  for  the  suspicion  that  the  taking  of 
Sonoma  and  his  own  capture  were  planned  by 
himself,  in  collusion  with  the  filibuster  chiefs, 
with  a  view  to  evade  responsibility;  yet  it  is  cer- 
tain that  he  had  little  if  any  objection  to  an  en- 
forced arrest  by  officers  of  the  United  States  as  a 
means  of  escaping  from  the  delicacy  of  his  posi- 
tion as  a  Mexican  officer.  Accordingly,  being 
assured  that  the  insurgents  were  acting  under 
Fremont,  he  submitted  to  arrest,  gave  up  keys 
to  public  property,  and  entered  upon  negotia- 
tions with  a  view  to  obtain  guarantees  of  protec- 
tion for  non-combatants. 

"The  guarantees  sought  were  then  drawn  up 
in  writing  and  signed  by  the  respective  parties. 
The  originals  of  those  documents  are  in  my 
possession,  and  are  given  in  a  note." 

The  following  are  the  documents  referred  to 
by  Mr.  Bancroft: 

"Sonoma,  June  14,  184G. 

"Be  it  known  by  these  presents,  that,  having 
been  surprised  by  a  numerous  armed  force 
wiiich  took  me  j)risoner,.  witli  the  chief  and  offi- 

cers belonging  to  the  garrison  of  this  place  that 
the  said  force  took  possession  of,  having  found 
it  absolutely  defenseless,  myself  as  well  as  the 
undersigned  officers  pledge  our  word  of  lienor 
that,  being  under  the  guarantees  of  prisoners  of 
war,  we  will  not  take  up  arms  for  or  against  the 
said  armed  forces,  from  whlcli  we  have  received 
the  present  intimation,  and  a  signed   writing 
which  guarantees  our  lives,  families,  and  prop- 
erty, and  those  of  all  the  residents  of  this  ju- 
risdiction, so  long  as  we  make  no  opposition. 
M.  J.  Valle,to, 
Victor  Prudon, 

"  We,  the  undersigned,  have  resolved  to  es- 
tablish a  government  of  on  (upon?)  republican 
principles,  in  connection  with  others  of  our 
fellow-citizens,  and  having  taken  up  arms  to 
support  it,  we  have  taken  three  Mexican  officers 
as  prisoners,  Gen.  M.  J.  Vallejo,  Lieut. -Col. 
Victor  Prudon,  and  Capt.  D.  Salvador  Vallejo. 
having  formed  and  published  to  the  world  no 
regular  plan  of  governi^ent,  feel  it  our  duty  to 
say  it  is  not  our  intention  to  take  or  injure  any 
person  who  is  not  found  in  opposition  to  the 
cause,  nor  will  we  take  or  destroy  the  property 
of  private  indi\;iduals  further  than  is  necessary 
for  our  support.  Ezekiel  Merritt, 

R.  Semple, 
William  Fallox, 
Samiel  Kelsay." 

Mr.  Bancroft,  continuing  says:  "It  was 
natui-ally  to  be  expected,  under  the  circum- 
stances, that  the  arrested  officers  would  be  re- 
leased on  parole.  Such  was  evidently  the  view 
taken  on  both  sides  at  first.  Ford  says  there 
were  some  who  favored  such  a  course.  Leese. 
who  had  the  best  opportunities  for  understand- 
ing the  matter,  and  who  gives  a  more  detailed 
account  than  any  other  writer,  tells  us  that 
such  a  decision  was  reached;  and  finally,  the 
documents  which  I  iiave  presented,  Nos.  1  and 
2,  being  to  all  intents  and  purposes  regular  pa- 
role papers,  leave  no  doubt  u])on  the  subject. 
But    ut)W    difficulties    arose,    resjtectiiig    some 


phase  of  which  there  is  contradictory  testi- 

"Thus  far  only  a  few  of  tlie  insurgent  leaders 
had  entered,  or  at  least  remained  in  the  house; 
and  the  negotiations  liad  in  reality  been  con- 
ducted bj  Semple  and  Leese  very  much  in  their 
own  way.  Ide  testifies  that  Merritt,  Semple 
and  Wm.  Knight,  the  latter  accompanying  the 
expedition  merely  as  an  interpreter,  were  the 
first  to  eTiter  the  house,  while  the  rest  waited 
outside;  that  presently  hearing  nothing,  they 
became  impatient,  determined  to  choose  a  cap- 
tain, ami  elected  John  (Trigsl)y,  who  thereupon 
went  in;  and  after  waiting  what  appeared  an 
age,  the  men  again  lost  patience  and  called  upon 
the  writer,  Ide,  to  go  and  investigate  the  causes 
of  delav.  Now  the  discrepancies  in  testimony 
begin.  Ide  describes  the  slate  of  things  which 
met  his  view  as  follows:  'The  General's  gen- 
erous spirits  gave  proof  of  his  usual  hospitality, 
as  the  richest  wines  and  brandies  sparkled  in 
the  glasses,  and  those  who  had  thus  uncere- 
moniously met  soon  became  merry  companions; 
more  especially  the  merry  visitors.  There  sat 
Dr.  S.,  just  modifying  a  long  string  of  articles 
of  capitulation.  There  sat  ]V[erritt,  his  head 
fallen;  there  sat  Knight,  no  longer  able  to  in- 
terpret; and  there  sat  the  new-made  captain,  as 
mute  as  the  seat  he  sat  upon.  The  bottles  had 
well-nigh  vantpiished  the  captors!'  Leese  also 
states  that  the  brandy  was  a  potent  factor  in 
that  morning's  event;  but  aeconling  to  his  ver- 
sion, it  was  on  the  company  outside  that  its  in- 
lluence  was  e.xerted,  rendering  them  noisy  and 
unmanageable,  though  an  effort  had  been  made 
by  his  advice  to  put  the  liquor  out  of  reach.  I 
do  not,  however,  deem  it  at  all  likely  that  the 
leaders  drank  more  than  it  was  customary  to 
drink  in  a  Californian's  parlor,  or  more  than 
tliey  could  carry;  but  that  some  of  the  rough 
characters  in  the  company  became  into.xicated 
we  may  well  believe. 

"At  any  rate,  disagreement  ensued,  the  men 
refused  entirely  to  ratify  the  capitulation  made 
by  their  former  leaders,  insisting  that  the  pris- 
oners must  be  sent  to  the  Sacramento;   some  of 

them  were  inclined  to  be  insubordinate  and 
eager  for  plunder;  while  the  lawless  spirits  were 
restrained  from  committing  outrages  by  the 
eloquence  of  Semple  and  the  voice  of  the  ma- 
jority; yet  the  leaders  could  not  agree.  Cap- 
tain Grigsby  declined  to  retain  the  leadership 
that  had  been  conferred  upon  him.  So  William 
B.  Ide  was  chosen  in  his  stead,  and  the  revolu- 
tionists immediately  took  possession  of  all  pub- 
lic property,  as  well  as  of  such  horses  and  other 
private  property  as  they  needed,  at  the  same 
time  locking  up  all  citizens  that  could  be  found. 
It  would  seem  that  the  second  of  the  documents 
I  have  presented  was  torn,  and  the  third  drawn 
up  and  signed  at  an  early  stage  of  the  disagree- 
ments, after  it  became  apparent  that  it  might  be 
best  to  send  the  prisoners  to  the  Sacramento, 
the  signatures  showing  that  it  could  not  have 
been  later.  Vallejo,  though  not  encouraged  at 
seeing  that  the  leaders  were  not  j)ermitted  by 
their  followers  to  keep  their  promises,  was  not 
very  much  displeased  at  being  sent  to  New 
Helvetia.  He  was  assured  that  the  insurgents 
were  acting  by  Fremont's  orders;  his  own  views 
were  known  to  be  favorable  to  the  schemes  of 
the  United  States;  and  he  had  no  reason  to 
doubt  that  on  meeting  Fremont  he  and  his 
companions  would  at  once  be  released  on  parole. 
"Before  the  departure  of  the  prisoners  and 
their  escort  a  formal  meeting  of  the  revolution- 
ists was  held.  That  Semple,  secretary,  made  a 
speech  counselling  united  action  and  modera- 
tion in  the  treatment  of  the  natives,  and  that 
William  B.  Ide  was  chosen  captain,  is  all  that 
is  known  of  this  meeting,  except  what  we  may 
learn  from  Ide'  snarrative.  The  leaders  differed 
in  their  ideas,  not  only  respecting  the  dispo- 
sition to  be  made  of  the  prisoners,  but  about 
the  chief  object  of  the  movement.  Evidently 
there  had  been  no  definitely  arranged  plan  of 
operations.  Fremont  bad  succeeded  in  bring- 
ing about  a  state  of  open  hostility  without 
committing  himself.  Some  of  the  men  re- 
garded their  movement  as  merely  intended  to 
provoke  Castro  to  inake  an  attack  on  Fremont; 
or  at  least   they   dreaded   the   responsibility  of 


engaging  in  a  regular  revDJution,  especially 
when  it  was  learned  that  no  one  con  Id  produce 
any  definite  pi-omise  from  Fremont  in  black  and 
wl'.ite  to  support  such  a  movement.  Others 
were  in  favor  of  an  immediate  declaration  of 
independence.  That  such  differences  of  opinion 
did  exist  as  Ide  states,  is  in  itself  by  no  means 
improbable;  and  it  is  confirmed  to  some  extent 
by  the  fact  that  Grigsby  did  resign  his  leader- 
ship, and  by  the  somewhat  strange  circumstance 
that  three  such  prominent  men  as  Grigsby, 
]\Ierritt  and  Semple  should  have  left  Sonoma  to 
accompany  the  prisoners.  Ide  writes  that  when 
Grigsby  heard  that  no  positive  orders  from 
Fremont  could  be  produced,  liis  fears  of  doing 
wrong  overcame  his  patriotism,  and  he  inter- 
rupted the  speaker  by  saying:  '  (Tcntlemen,  I 
have  been  deceived;  I  cannot  go  with  you;  I 
resign  and  back  out  of  the  scrape.  I  can  take 
my  family  to  the  mountains  as  cheap  as  any  of 
you' — and  Dr.  S.  at  that  moment  led  liim  into 
the  house.  Disorder  and  confusion  prevailed. 
One  swore  he  would  not  stay  and  guard  the 
prisoners;  another  swore  we  would  all  have  our 
throats  cut;  another  called  for  fresh  horses;  and 
all  were  on  the  move,  every  man  for  himself, 
when  the  speaker  [Ide]  resumed  liis  efforts, 
raising  his  voice  louder  and  more  loud,  as  tlie 
men  receded  from  the  place,  saying:  '  We  need 
no  horses;  saddle  no  horse  for  me;  I  can  go  to 
the  Spaniards  and  make  freemen  of  them.  I  will 
lay  my  bones  here  before  I  will  take  upon  my- 
self the  ignominy  of  commencing  an  honorable 
work  and  tlien  flee  like  cowards,  like  thieves, 
when  no  enemy  is  in  sight.  In  vain  will  you 
say  yon  had  honorable  motives.  Who  will  be- 
lieve if?  Flee  this  day,  and  the  longest  life 
cannot  wear  out  your  disgrace!  Choose  ye  this 
day  what  you  will  be!  We  are  robbers  or  we 
must  becon<[uerors! '  and  the  speaker  in  despair 
turned  his  back  on  liis  receding  conqianions. 
With  new  hope  they  rallied  around  the  despond- 
ing speaker,  made  him  their  commander,  their 
cliief;  and  his  next  words  commanded  the 
taking  of  the  fort."  Subsequently  "  the  three 
leaders  of  the  party   of  the    pi'imitive    plan    of 

'  neutral  eonrpiest '  left  us  alone  in  our  glory." 
I  find  no  reason  to  doubt  that  this  version, 
though  somewhat  highly  colored,  is  in  sub- 
stance accurate;  that  Merritt,  having  captured 
horses  and  prisoners,  was  content  to  rest  on  his 
laurels;  that  Grigsby  was  timid  about  assuming 
the  responsibility  of  declaring  independence 
without  a  positive  assurance  of  Fremont's  co- 
operation; that  Semple,  while  in  favor  of  inde- 
pen  lence,  preferred  that  Sacramento  should  be 
the  center  of  operations,  uidess — what  Vallejo 
and  Leese  also  favored — Fremont  could  be  in- 
duced to  establish  his  headquarters  at  Sonoma; 
or  finally,  that  Ide  and  his  associate  influenced 
the  majority  to  complete  their  revolutionary 
work  and  take  no  backward  steps.  I  think,  how- 
ever, that  Ide  and  all  the  rest  counted  con- 
fidently on  Fremont's  support;  and  that  Semple 
and  Grigsby  were  by  no  means  regarded  as 
abandoning  the  cause  when  they  left  Sonoma. 

"It  was  about  11  a.  m.,  on  June  14th,  when 
the  three  prisoners,  accompanied  by  Leese  us 
interpreter  at  their  request  and  that  of  the 
captors — not  himself  a  prisoner  as  has  been 
generally  stated — and  guarded  by  Grigsby, 
Semple,  Merritt,  Ilargrave,  Knight  and  four  of 
five  others,  started  on  horses  from  Yallejo's 
herds  for  the  Sacramento.  It  will  be  most 
convenient  to  follow  them  before  proceeding  to 
narrate  later  developments  at  Sonoma.  Before 
starting,  and  on  the  way,  Vallejo  was  often 
questioned  by  ('alifornians  as  to  the  situation  of 
afiairs;  but  could  only  counsel  them  to  i-emain 
quiet,  announcing  that  he  would  probably 
return  within  four  or  live  days.  His  idea  was 
that  Fremont,  after  releasing  hiin  and  his 
companions  on  parole,  might  be  induced  to 
establish  his  headquarters  at  Sonoma,  an  idea 
shared  by  Semple,  Grigsby  and  Leese.  Relations 
between  captives  and  captors  were  altogether 
friendly,  except  in  the  case  of  some  hostile 
feeling  among  a  few  individuals  against  Don 

"  They  encamjied  that  night  at  Yaca's  rancho. 
No  special  pains  wei-e  taken  to  guanl  the  prison- 
ers, who,   with    Leese,  slept  on  a  |)ilf   of  >li:iw 


near  tlie  camp.  Yallejo  had  desired  to  travel 
all  night;  luit  the  men  declined  to  do  so,  having 
had  no  sleep  the  night  before.  Before  dawn  on 
the  morning  of  the  loth,  a  Californian  succeeded 
in  reaching  the  cai)tives,  and  informed  Yallejo 
tha't  a  company  of  his  countrymen  had  been 
organized  to  effect  his  rescue,  and  only  awaited 
his  orders.  The  Colonel  refused  to  permit  such 
an  attempt  to  be  made,  both  because  he  had  no 
reason  to  fear  any  unpleasant  results  from  his 
enforced  visit  to  the  Sacramento,  and  because 
he  feared  retaliation  at  Sonoma  in  case  an 
attempt  to  escape  should  bring  harm  to  any  of 
the  guards.  On  the  15th  the  party  reached 
Hardy's  place  on  the  Sacramento.  Here  Merritt 
left  the  others,  intending  to  visit  Fremont's  camp 
and  return  next  morning,  but  as  he  did  not 
come  back  Leese,  with  one  companion,  started 
in  the  forenoon  of  the  Itith,  also  in  quest  of 
Fremont.  Arriving  at  Allgeier's  place,  they 
Ioarne<l   that  the  Captain    had    moved  his  camp 

to  the  American  River;  and  starting  for  that 
point,  they  rejoined  their  companions  before 
arrival.  Here  Grigsby  presented  an  order  from 
Fremont  for  Leese's  arrest,  for  which,  so  far  as 
known,  no  explanation  was  given. 

"  Late  in  the  afternoon  they  reached  the 
camp,  and  the  prisoners  were  brought  into  the 
presence  of  Fremont.  That  officer's  reception 
of  them  was  very  different  from  what  had  been 
anticipated.  His  words  and  manner  were  re- 
served and  mysterious.  He  denied  when 
Yallejo  demanded  for  what  offenses  and  by 
what  authority  he  had  caused  their  arrest,  that 
he  was  in  any  way  responsible  for  what  had 
been  done;  declared  tiiat  thej'  were  prisoners  of 
the  people,  who  had  been  driven  to  revolt  for 
self-protection;  refused  to  accept  their  paroles, 
and  sent  them  that  same  night,  under  a  guard 
composed  in  part  if  not  wholly  of  his  own 
men — Kit  Carson  and  Merritt  being  sent  in  ad- 
vance— to  be  locked  up  at  Sutter's  Furt." 



■  ■     11     ■■     H     K»    aA^H    IX   l\    II    H 


ThK    PRISONKES    OCT    iiF    TIIK    WAY,    THE     REVOLrTIONIt^TS    CAME    DOWN    TO    THE    SERIOUS     fONC'ERNS    OF 
FOrNDINO    A    NKW     (ioVERNMENT THEY    ADOPT     THE    BeAR    Fi.AG H(i\V    IT    WAS    MADE    AND    TiY 

'\vii(i>[ — tiii:y   have  nine  cannons  and  two  m'NDREn  muskets — Captain  Ide  issues  a  proc- 


AND     (JETS     ASSURANCE     FUnM     THE     KKVor.UTIONISTS      THAT     TIIKY      Wir.l.    IHO     I '( iNSTDEKATE    OE    THE 

RIGHTS   UF    THE    FORMER    CITIZKNS    (iF    SoNoMA THE    Kir,I.IN(;   OF    CowIE    AND    FoWLEE    AT    SaNTA 

GER   SENT  TO  Fremont -- Fremont    hastens  to  Sonoma    with    ninety  men  —  goes  to  San 

IvAFAICr. RETURNS     TO    SoNOMA    AND    CELEIJEATES    THE     FoURTH    OF    Jui.V     THERE — ON    THE    5th 

the  California  Battalion  organize  with  Fremont  and  Gieee;spie  as  officers — Fremon-i- 


Captain-  MoNT(ioMEi:Y,  of  the  Portsmouth,  that  war  existed  p-etween  the  United 
States  and  Mexico,  he,  on  the  morning  of  the  9tii  of  Jui.y  dispatched  Lieutenant 
liEVEKE  TO  Sonoma    with  an  American  flag,  and  at  noon  of   that  day  the   bear    flag 

CAME    down    and    the    stars    and    stripes    went    IP. 

.g^^ENEPwAL  VALLEJO  certainly  had  a  riglit 
'livTP  to  lie  sHvprisid  at  tlie  foregoing  treatment 
W^  I'V  Fremont.  Tiiat  lie  appreciated  the 
real  condition  of  affairs  is  made  very  plain  by 
the  following  correspondence,  a  carefnl  perusal 
of  which  will  show  that  General  Vallejo,  when 
taken  prisoner  at  Sonoma,  felt  warranted  in 
looking  to  United  States  anthoritics  for  protec- 
tion. From  John  B.  Montgomery,  command- 
ing United  States  ship  Portsmouth,  he  certainly 
received  more  of  consideration  and  cheer  than 
from  (xeneral  Fremont,  and  yet  in  both  instances 
the  action  of  the  l>ear  Flag  party  seems  to  have 
been  repudiated  and  ignored  entirely.  Viewed 
from    tills   stniidnoint    it    is    not    a    matter    of 

wonder  that  Cajitain  Grigsby  and  others  of  the 
Bear  Flag  party  may  have  felt  a  tickling  sensa- 
tion aronnd  the  neck  when  they  ascertained 
that  their  taking  of  Sonoma  was  not  backed  by 
any  positive  anthority  from  Fremont  or  any 
body  else  clothed  with  United  States  authority. 
The  rank  and  file  of  the  Bear  Flag  party  evi- 
dently acted  npon  the  principle  that  a  "wink 
was  as  good  as  a  nod  of  assent;"  and  taking  their 
lives  in  their  hands  they  struck  the  blow,  and 
took  the  chances.  Like  John  Adams  who,  after 
affixing  his  name  to  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence, remarked,  "well,  if  we  hang,  we  ail 
hang  together,"  they  captured  Sonoma,  and  left 
to  tilt'  fntiirt'   what  the  outcome  of  the  venturi' 


should  be.     Tlio  t'ollowinc;  is  tlie  eorrespinulenee 
refeiTcd  to: 


'•  (ieneral  Vallejo's  niessaye  to  Captain  Mont- 
gomery, the  daxj  of  the  capture  of  Sonoma 
—  Montijom.ery's  reply  —  Lieutenant  Miss- 
roon's  account  of  the  revolutionists — Highly 
creditahle  conduct  of  the  Bears  — ■  Ide\i 
pledge  to  Missioon. 

"  United  States  Ship  Pokts.mihtii. 
"San  Franiisco,  Au^^ust  17,  1847. 
"  My  Deae  General: — I  am  now  about  to  sail 
for  Monterey,  and  avail  myself  of  tliis  mode  of 
expressing  to  you  my  regret  that  I  shall  thus 
most  probably  be  deprived  of  seeing  you  on 
your  contemplated  visit  to  Yerba  Buena  to- 
morrow, having  anticipated  much  pleasure  from 
this  event;  Init  you  well  know  how  little  we 
servants  of  the  public  are  left  to  the  disposition 
of  our  own  time. 

'*  I  reached  the  Portsmouth  from  Sonoma  very 
coinfortably  on  Friday  last  about  ti  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  greatly  pleased  with  my  visit, 
and  gratified  by  the  very  kind  and  hospitable 
attentions  of  my  esteemed  friends  there,  the  i-e- 
membrance  of  which  I  shall  long  continue  to 

"  In  compliance  with  your  e.xpressed  wisiies 
while  I  was  at  Sonoma,  I  herewith  inclose  you, 
my  dear  General,  copies  of  tiie  document  for- 
warded to  yon  by  De  la  Rosa  in  tlie  commence- 
ment of  the  late  revolution,  and  those  liaving 
reference  to  Lieutenant  Missroon's  visit  to 
Sonoma  b\-  my  ordei's,  with  overtures  to  the  in- 
surgent chief  in  behalf  of  prisoners  and  the 
helpless  inhabitants  of  that  place,  which  you  are 
at  liberty  to  use  as  you  shall  think  proper. 

''  From  Monterey  it  is  most  probable  1  shall 
make  a  cruise  to  the  southward,  and  am  not 
without  hopes  of  soon  returning  with  the  pleas- 
ing intelligence  of  peace  between  the  United 
States  and  Mexico,  which  I  feel  assured  will  be 
most  welcome  tidings  for  you  and  all  who  are 
interested  in  the  prosperity  of  California. 

''  Be  pleased  to  present  my  most  respectful  re- 

gards to  Madam  Vallejo  and  all  the  members 
of  your  interesting  family,  and  express  to  them 
my  uf  their  kind  hospitality  and  attention 
to  me  and  my  little  son  during  our  recent  visit; 
and  believe  me,  my  dear  General.  1  am  and 
shall  ever  be,  with  highest  esteem  and  friend- 
ship, sincerely  your  obedient  servant, 

"  John  B.  MoNT(io.MEKy. 
"Gen.  Guadalupe  Vallejo,  Sonoma." 

Statement  of  the  interview  hetween  Senor  Don 
Jose  de  la  Rosa  and  Vommander  John  B. 
Montgomery,  commanding  United  States 
ship  Portsmouth,  Lieutenant  W.  A.  Bart- 
lett,  United  States  Navy,  interpreter.  By 
order  of  the  commander,  John  B.  Mont- 

"  Don  Jose  de  la  Rosa,  on  coming  on  board 
the  ship,  desired  to  inform  Captain  Montgomery 
that  he  brought  information  from  Don  Guada- 
lupe Vallejo,  military  commandante  of  Sonoma, 
which  he  desired  to  give  the  moment  Captain 
Montgomery  could  receive  him. 

"  On  being  received  by  Captain  jMontgomery  I 
was  directed  to  act  as  interpreter,  when  Senor 
de  la  Rosa  proceeded  to  deliver  his  message, 
which  1  wrote,  as  follows: 

"  Don  Guadalupe  Vallejo  desires  to  inform 
Captain  ]\[ontgomery  of  the  proceedings  which 
took  place  at  Sonoma  yesterday  morning,  at  5 
o'clock.  There  arrived  at  Sonoma  a  party  of 
about  eighty  men,  as  they  said,  from  the  Sacra- 
mento. They  at  once  took  forcible  jiossession 
of  the  place,  and  posted  themselves  on  the 
"  Cuartel."  They  then  made  prisoners  of  Gen- 
eral Vallejo,  Captain  Don  Salvador  Vallejo,  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Don  Victor  Prndhon,  all  of 
whom  are  officers  of  the  Mexican  army. 

"  Then  a  Mr.  Merritt,  who  appeared  to  liave 
command  (U-  exercise  the  authority  with  the 
party,  handed  the  General  a  convention  demand- 
ing of  iiim  the  surrender  of  all  the  arms  and 
government  property  in  Sonoma,  which  place 
they  should  not  leave. 

"  The  General  replied  that  he  must  surrender 
to  the  force  in  arms,  and  did  so  surrender,  when 

niaroRT  of  sonoma  county. 

tiie  party  demanded  fiirtlier  that  all  the  above- 
named  ofticers  slionld  go  with  them  to  their 
eanip  on  the  Sacramento  liiver. 

"  General  Vallejo  tiien  re(|uested  them  to 
show  their  authority  or  determination  (ct/iajo  qtie 
jddiioy,  and  as  they  said  they  were  Americans, 
lie  desired  tliey  should  exhibit  tlieir  authority 
from  the  Government  of  tiie  United  States. 
They  replied  that  they  did  not  come  under  the 
authority  of  the  United  States;  but  having 
seen  a  proclamation  of  Gen.  Castro,  threatening 
to  drive  all  foreigners  out  of  the  country,  they 
hail  taken  up  arms  in  self-defense. 

'•  Tiiey  then  made  a  prisoner  of  the  Alcalde, 
and  told  him  that  if  any  person  in  the  place  or 
neighborhood  attempted  to  notify  other  places 
of  this  act,  or  raise  a  force  to  oppose  tliem,  they 
would  at  once  shoot  the  otKcers  they  tlien  held 
prisoners.  The  Alcalde  was  then  set  at  liberty, 
l)ut  told  that  if  he  did  not  prevent  any  opposi- 
tion to  them  he  would  also  be  shot. 

"  General  Vallejo  desires  to  inform  CJaptain 
Montgomery  of  these  facts,  and  to  ask  him  to 
use  his  authority  or  exert  his  intiuence  to  pre- 
vent the  commission  of  acts  of  violence  by  this 
party,  inasmuch  as  they  seemed  to  be  without 
any  effectual  head  or  authority.  To  this  end  he 
hoped  for  an  officer  to  be  sent  to  the  place,  or  a 
letter  that  would  have  the  effect  of  saving 
the  helpless  inhabitants  from  violence  and 

'•  Senor  Don  Jose  de  la  Rosa  was  directed  by 
(Teneral  Vallejo  (at  11  a.  m.  yesterday)  to  come 
with  this  message,  but  could  not  leave  until  3 
1'.  M.  A  few  moments  jjast  11  the  party  left  a 
garrison  of  twenty-five  men  at  Sonoma  pro- 
tected by  seven  pieces  of  cannon.  The  others, 
with  the  prisoners,  left  for  the  SacraiTUMito." 

Iitij/lt/  of  VomvKmder  MonfyoiiKiij  to  tin'  mcs- 
■sriye  of  General   Vdllejo. 

"  Sik: — You  will  say  to  General  Vallejo,  on 
my  part,  that  I  at  once  and  entirely  disavo■\^  this 
movement  as  having  proceeded  under  any 
authority  of  the  United  States,  or  myself  as 
the  agent  ot    my  Government    in  this   country. 

or  on  this  coast.  It  is  a  movement  entirely 
local, and  with  which  I  have  nothing  to  do;  nor 
can  I  in  any  way  be  induced  to  take  part  in  the 
controversy  whicli  belongs  entirely  to  the  inter- 
nal politics  of  California. 

"If  they  are  Americans,  as  they  avow  them- 
selves, they  are  l)eyond  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
laws  and  officers  of  the  United  States,  and  must 
now  take  all  the  responsibilities  of  the  position 
in  which  they  have  placed  themselves,  being 
answerable  to  the  laws  of  Mexico  and  Califor- 

"  I  have  now  for  the  first  time  heanl  of  this 
movement,  and  in  making  the  most  positive 
disavowal,  for  myself  and  for  my  Government, 
having  in  any  wise  instigated  or  aided  this.  I 
also  disavow  the  same  on  the  part  of  Captain 
Fremont,  United  States  topographical  engineer, 
now  in  the  country  for  scientific  purposes. 

"  If  my  individual  efforts  can  be  at  any  time 
exercised  to  allay  violence  or  prevent  injury  to 
innocent  persons,  it  shall  be  exerted;  but  as  an 
officer  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States 
I  cannot  have  anything  to  do  with  either  party. 
They  must  take  the  responsibilities  of  their  own 
acts.  From  what  has  already  transpired  I  think 
it  clear  that  no  violence  will  be  committed  on 
any  one  who  is  not  found  with  arms  in  their 
hands.  You  will  assure  General  Don  Guada- 
lupe Vallejo  of  my  sympathy  in  his  difficulties; 
but  I  cannot  positively  interfere  in  the  hical 
politics  of  California." 

Senor  de  la  Rosa  then  thanked  Captain  AFont- 
gomery  for  his  sentiments  and  sympatii}';  stateil 
that  all  was  distinctly  undei'sfood  and  translated, 
and  that  he  Would  place  his  statement  in  the 
hands  of  Don  Guadalupe  Vallejo  at  tiie  earliest 

"  I  hereby  certifythat  the  ])receding  statement 
is  a  fair  translation  (^i'  the  message  and  rej)ly 
read  to  Captain  Montgomery  and  Senor  de  la 

"  (Signed)  W.  A.  Ii.vkti.ktt, 

"  l>ieutenant  United  States  Navy, 

"  United  States  ship  I'ni'txiiioiitlt,  Saucelito, 
June  15,  18-1(;." 


nrsTonr  of  soNo^fA  rorxrr 

[copy  of    OKDEK  to  r.IKlTENANT  MISSl{(iOX.] 

"  T^NiTKD  States  Sill  I'   Poktsnioitii, 

"San   Francisco,  June  15,  1S4G. 

"  Stir. —  IJy  an  especial  messenger  sent  to  me 
by  Don  (4nailalnpe  Yallejo.  I  am  notified  of  the 
forcible  occupation  of  tlie  town  of  Sonoma  by 
a  party  of  insurgents  (foreign  residents)  of  the 
country,  among  wliom  are  said  to  be  some  per- 
sons from  tlie  United  States,  and  that  General 
Don  Guadalupe  Yallejo,  with  several  other 
Mexican  officers,  have  been  sent  prisoners  to  the 
Sacramento  and  threatened  to  be  detained  as 
hostages  for  the  quiet  submission  of  the  sur- 
rounding country,  leaving  their  families  and 
other  inoft'ensive  persons  in  and  about  Sonoma 
in  a  painful  state  of  agitation  through  apjire- 
hcnsions  of  violence  and  cruel  treatment  from 
the  insurgent  party  in  charge  of  the  town.  In 
consequence  of  this  state  of  things.  General 
Yallejo  has  appealed  to  me,  requesting  the  in- 
terposition of  any  authority  or  influence  I  may 
possess  over  the  insurgents  to  prevent  the  perpe- 
tration of  acts  of  violence  on  their  part  upon 
the  defenseless  people. 

"1  have,  in  ray  reply  to  (General  Yallejo  (by  the 
messenger),  stated  my  previous  ignorance  of 
the  popular  movement  in  question;  distinctly 
and  emphatically  disavowed  all  agency  of  the 
United  States  Government  or  myself  as  her 
representative  in  producing  it,  and  disclaimed 
all  right  or  authority  to  interfere  between  the 
opposing  parties  or  in  any  M'ay  to  identify  my 
movements  with  theirs.  But,  in  compliance 
with  the  urgent  calls  of  humanity,  I  deem  it 
m}-  duty  to  use  my  friendl}'  endeavors  with  the 
dominant  party  to  secure  (by  the  power  of  God) 
for  the  defenseless  people  of  Sonoma  that 
security  of  life,  jiroperty  and  privilege  to  which 
all  are  entitled. 

"  In  pursuance  of  these  views,  sir,  you  are  di- 
rected to  ])roceed  in  one  of  the  sliip's  boats  to 
Sonoma,  and,  on  your  arrival  there,  you  will 
wait  on  the  officer  or  person  commanding  the 
party  having  possession  of  the  town;  and  as  it 
is  possible  he  is  not  fully  aware  of  the  extent 

and  nature  of  the  feelings  produced  in  the 
iTiinds  of  the  population  by  this  recent  move- 
ment you  will  inform  him  of  the  state  of  appre- 
hension and  terror  into  which  it  seems  to  have 
thrown  them,  and  disclaiming  all  right  or  pur- 
pose on  my  part  of  interference  between  them 
and  their  actual  opposers;  and  without  touching 
upon  the  merits  of  their  cause  further  than  may 
not  be  avoided  in  course  of  conversation,  be 
pleased  (in  such  terms  as  your  own  sense,  of 
propriety  will  dictate)  respectfully  to  request 
from  me,  that  he  will  extend  his  protecting  care 
over  the  defenseless  families  of  their  prisoners 
and  other  inoffensive  persons  of  Sonoma,  and 
exert  his  infiuence  with  others  in  order  to  secure 
to  them  the  uninterrupted  enjoyment  of  their 
domestic  and  social  privileges. 

"You  will  afterward  wait  on  the  Alcalde,  or 
presiding  civil  officer  of  Sonoma,  and  inform 
him  of  what  has  been  done  (at  the  instance  of 
Don  Guadalupe  Yallejo),  communicating  any 
satisfactory  assurances  which  you  may  have  re- 
ceived from  the  insurgent  chief  calculated  to 
allay  the  general  apprehension;  after  wliicli, 
when  sufficiently  I'ecruited,  you  will  return  to 
this  ship  and  render  to  me  a  written  report. 
"Respectfully,  I  am, sir,  yourobedient  servant 
"  (Signed),  John  B.  "Monti jomkkv, 

"  Commander. 

"  To  Lieutenant  John  S.  Missroon,  Executive 
Officer  United  States  ship  Portsiaouthy 

Al'l'ENDAGE    To    MR.    MISSROOn's    OlIDKK. 

"  Dear  Sir: — As  an  appendage  to  the  orders 
handed  you  last  evening,  I  wish  you  to  endeavor 
in  as  forcible  a  manner  as  possible,  to  represent 
to  the  person  or  persons  of  the  insurgent  jiarty 
with  whom  you  may  confer  at  Sonoma  and  to 
impress  their  minds  with  a  sense  of  the  advan- 
tages wliich  will  accrue  to  their  cause  (whatever 
its  intrinsic  merits  may  be)  from  pursuing  a 
course  of  kind  and  benevolent  treatment  of 
prisoners,  as  well  as  toward  the  defenseless  in- 
habitants of  the  country  generally,  with  whom 
they  may  have  to  do,  and  endeavor,  as  far  as 
propriety  will  permit,  to  obtain  a  promise  of 


kind   and    luiiiiane    treatment    toward    General 

Vallejo  and  his  conipaniuns  in  their  possession 

as  prisoners. 

"  I  am,  sir,  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant 
"  (Signed)  John  B.  Mo.ntgomerv, 

>'  Commander. 
"  To  Lieutenant  John   S.   Missroon,    United 

States  ship  Portsnujath. "' 

Report  of  Lieutewnit  JIi>i»rooii  on  /lia  return 
from  Sonoiio',  ir/t/i  accoiiijiaui/hnj  docu- 
ment "  B." 

'•  Unitkd  Statks  Snii'  PuKTsMnrrn, 
"  Sa.n  Francisi(j,  June  17,  1846. 

Sir: — In  pursuance  of  your  order  of  the  16th 
instant,  to  proceed  to  Sonoma  and  endeavor  by 
all  proper  means  in  my  power  to  secure  to  the 
females  and  unoffending  portion  of  tiie  popula- 
tion of  that  district  some  degree  of  security  for 
their  persons  and  property  during  the  occupancy 
of  the  place  by  certain  insurgents,  chiefly 
foreigners,  I  have  the  honor  to  report,  in  ol)edi- 
ence  to  that  order,  that  I  left  the  ship  on  the 
day  of  receiving  your  instructions,  and  reached 
the  town  about  sunset,  where  I  found  about 
twenty-iive  men  under  arms,  and  having  six  or 
seven  pieces  of  artillery  with  several  hundred 
stand  of  arms.  The  whole  party  is  only  thirty- 

"I  waited  upon  the  commanding  officer,  Wm. 
I>.  Ide,  and  received  from  him  both  verbal  and 
written  assurances  of  his  intention  to  maintain 
order  and  to  respect  both  the  jiei'soiis  and  prop- 
erty of  all  persorrs  residing  within  the  limits  of 
his  command.  He  also  handed  nie  a  copy  of  a 
proclamation  which  he  had  issued  on  the  day 
after  his  occupation  of  the  town,  and  which  I 
herewith  present  to  you,  marked  "  A,"  in  which 
you  will  observe  that  these  promises  of  pi'otec- 
tion  are  set  forth  in  explicit  terms,  and  which  1 
would  remark  to  you,  seemed  to  me  to  have  fully 
assured  the  inhabitants  of  their  safety,  although 
Sonoma  is  evidently  under  martial  law. 

"  By  tiiis  proclamation  you  will  also  observe 
that  California  is  declared  to  be  an  independent 
republic.     The   insurgent   party  has  hoisted  a 

ffuff  with  a  white  field,  with  a  liorder  or  stripe 
of  red  on  its  lower  ])art,  and  having  a  star  and 
bear  upon  it. 

"  I  informed  the  commanding  otticer  of  the 
state  of  terror  into  which  his  movement  uiicm 
Sonoma  had  thrown  the  inhabitants  in  and 
about  the  Verba  IJuena,  as  directed  by  my 

"  I  then  waited  upon  the  Alcalde  of  the  place, 
informed  him  throiigh  my  interpreter  that  my 
visit  was  entirely  of  a  peaceful  character,  and 
that  it  had  been  induced  liy  the  message  which 
my  commander  had  received  from  the  late 
Mexican  commander.  General  Vallejo,  now  a 
prisoner  in  the  hands  of  the  insurgents,  asking 
his  (my  commander's)  interference  for  the  pro- 
tection of  females  and  unoffending  inhabitants; 
that  assurances  of  respect  and  protection  were 
freely  given  me  by  the  commanding  officer  of 
the  party  under  arms,  and  that  I  explicity  made 
it  known  to  him,  for  the  information  of  the  sur- 
rounding country,  that  my  commander  dis- 
claimed any  and  all  interference  in  the  matter 
other  than  what  was  dictated  by  motives  of 

"  After  these  interviews  I  then  called  upon  the 
family  of  General  Vallejo  and  moderated  their 
distress,  by  the  assurance  of  safety  for  the  Gen- 
eral, whicli  I  had  received,  and  informing  tlain 
that  the  prisoners  were  held  as  hostages. 

"  Having  completed  the  object  for  which  I 
went  to  Sonoma,  I  left  the  place  yesterday  with 
the  thanks  of  both  parties,  about  meridian,  and 
reached  the  ship  about  sunset.  Before  taking 
my  departure  I  deemed  it  best  to  reassure  the 
Alcalde,  in  order  to  prevent  any  necessity  for 
future  explanation,  which  is  so  apt  to  grow  out 
of  a  business  transacted  with  Mexicans,  especi- 
ally through  an  interpreter.  I  therefore  ad- 
dressed the  letter  marked  "  B,''  appending  to  it 
the  written  pledge,  or  a  copy  of  the  pledge, 
which  I  had  obtained  from  the  commander  of 
tiie  foreigners  in  possession  of  the  place,  and 
whicii  I  herewith  hand  you  a  co]>y  of 

"It  only  remains,  sir,  for  me  to  add  that,  so 
far  as    I  could  judge  and  observe,   the   utmost 


hrti-inoiiy  and  guud  order  prevail  in  tlie  camp, 
and  tliat  1  liavo  every  reason  to  believe  that  the 
pledges  of  kind  treatment  toward  all  wlio  may 
fall  into  their  hands  will  be  faithfully  obseri-ed. 

>'  Respectfully,  sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

"(Signed).  d.  S.  Misskoon, 

'>  First  Lieutenant  United  States  ship  Portn- 

"To  Conmiander  J  no.  J!,  ^iontgoniery.  com- 
manding United  States  ship  7'"/'i.s//<'>Mi'/',  JSayof 
San   Francisco."' 

Document  "  ij,"  arcumpiunjinij  the    fdrcijiiiinj 

"  SiiN<iMA,  June  17, 1846. 

"Sik: — As  you  were  informed  yesterday, 
through  my  interpreter,  my  visit  to  this  place 
is  of  a  strictly  inediatorial  character,  and  was 
induced  by  the  application  of  General  Vallejo 
through  his  messenger,  Senor  Kosa,  to  Captain 
Montgomery,  requesting  of  him  to  '  adopt 
measures  for  tlie  protection  of  the  females  and 
peaceable  inhabitants  of  Sonoma. 

"  I  have  the  pleasure  to  assure  you  of  the 
intention  of  the  foreigners  now  in  arms  and 
occupying  Sonoma,  to  respect  the  persons  of  all 
individuals  and  their  property,  who  do  not  talve 
up  arms  against  them,  and  I  leave  with  you  a 
copy  of  the  pledge  which  the  commander  of  the 
])arty  has  voluntarily  given  to  me,  with  a  view 
to  the  pacification  of  all  alarm. 

>■  KespectfuUy,  your  obedient  servant. 

"(Signed).  J.  S.  Misskoon, 

"  Jjieutenant  United  States  Navy." 

"to  the  alcalde  of  so.nhma. 

"  I  pledge  myself  that  I  will  use  my  utmost 
exertion  to  restrain  and  prevent  the  men  in 
arms  under  my  command,  all  iif  whom  present 
acknowledge  my  authority  and  approve  the 
measure  of  forbearance  and  humanity,  from  jier- 
petrating  any  violence,  or  in  any  manner  molest- 
ing the  peaceable  inhalntants,  in  pei-son  or  prop- 
erty, of  California,  while  we  continue  in  arms 
for  the  liberty  of  California. 

"  (Signed),  Wm.  B.  Iue, 

"  Commander. 

"  AVitness  to  the  above  signature, 

"(Signed),  J.  S.  Misskoon, 

"  Lieuteiumt  United  States  Navy,  and  Execu- 
tive Otiicer  of  the  United  States  ship  l'ortt<- 

"So.NOMA,  June  17,  184G." 

The  revolutionists  were  now  master  id'  the 
situation,  having  control  of  nine  cannons  anil 
about  two  hundred  muskets.  "While  AVMIliam 
B.  Ide,  then  the  leader  of  the  ISear  Flag  party, 
may  have  been  a  man  of  some  eccentricity  of 
character,  he  seems  to  have  been  a  man  of  con- 
siderable culture,  and  there  is  little  room  for 
doubt  that  he  shaped  and  controlled,  to  a  large 
degree,  the  conduct  of  those  under  him.  It  was 
no  sinecure  position,  this  of  Commander  Ide. 
It  is  true,  the  prisoners  sent  to  Sacramento  were 
taken  charge  of  by  General  Fremont,  under  the 
saving  clause  that  he  had  nothing  to  do  with 
their  arrest — and  it  is  also  true  that  Commander 
Montgomery  of  the  Purtsinoiith  in  an  unofficial 
way,  and  in  obedience  to  the  dictates  of  human- 
ity, sent  Lieutenant  Missroon  to  SononiH.  to 
counsel  moderation  and  kindness  on  the  part  of 
the  revolutionists  toward  the  vanquished;  but 
in  neither  case  was  there  ought  said  or  done 
that  could  be  construed  into  leaving  the  door 
ajar  for  a  safe  retreat  of  the  Bear  Flag  pai  ty 
out  of  their  difficulty  should  their  i-ebellion 
prove  abortive.  To  stand  their  ground  and 
successfully  maintain  their  position  under  such 
adverse  circumstances  re(juired  not  only  nerve 
but  real  heroism. 

That  they  knew  that  they  were  acting  outside 
of  the  pale  of  any  responsible  authority  is  ap- 
parent from  the  fact  that  one  of  the  very  first 
matters  to  claim  their  consideration  was  the 
adoption  of  a  flag.  There  is  little  question  tJiat 
the  bear  flag  was  made  on  the  day  of  the  taking 
of  Sonoma,  although  it  is  quite  possible  it  was 
not  completed  so  as  to  be  hoisted  until  the 
morning  of  the  15tli  of  June.  As  there  has 
been  much  controversy  as  to  how  and  by  whom 
that  flag  was  made,  we  give  place  to  the  follow- 
ing which  we  believe  to  be  authentic: 

AVm.  L.  Todd  in  a  letter  to  the  editor  of  the 


Los  Angeles  E,vprci<s,  under  date  of  January 
11,  1878,  gives  the  following  version  of  the 
construction  of  the  bear  Hag: 

"Your  letter  of  the  'Jtii  inst.  came  duly  to 
hand,  and  in  answer  I  have  to  say  in  regard  to 
the  nialcing  of  the  original  hear  flag  of  Califor- 
nia at  Sonoma,  in  184B,  that  when  the  Ameri- 
cans, who  had  taken  up  arms  against  the  Span- 
ish regime,  had  determined  what  kind  of  a  flag' 
should  be  adopted,  the  following  persons  per- 
formed the  work:  Granville  P.  Swift,  Peter 
Storm,  Henry  L.  Ford  and  myself;  we  procured 
in  the  house  where  we  made  our  headquarters,  a 
piece  of  new  unbleached  cotton  domestic,  not 
quite  ayard  wide,  with  stripesof  red  flannel  about 
four  inches  wide,  furnished  by  Mrs.  John  Sears, 
on  the  lower  side  of  the  canvas.  On  the  xipper  left 
hand  corner  was  a  star,  and  in  the  center  was  the 
image  made  to  represent  a  grizzly  he&r passant,  so 
common  inthiscountryatthe  time.  The  bear  and 
star  "were  painted  with  paint  made  of  linseed  oil 
and  Venetian  red  or  Spanish  brown.  Underneath 
the  bear  were  the  words  'California  Kepublic' 
The  other  person  engaged  with  me  got  the  ma- 
terials together,  while  I  acted  as  artist.  The  forms 
the  bear  and  star  and  the  letters  were  flrst  lined  of 
out  with  pen  and  ink  by  myself,  and  the  two 
forms  were  filled  in  with  the  red  paint,  but  the 
letters  with  ink.  The  flag  mentioned  by  Mr. 
Hittell  with  the  bear  rampant,  was  made,  as  I 
always  understood,  at  Santa  Barbara,  and  was 
painted  black.  Allow  me  to  say,  that  at  that 
time  there  was  not  a  wheelwright  shop  in  Cali- 
fornia. The  flag  I  painted  I  saw  in  the  rooms 
of  the  California  Pioneers  in  San  Francisco,  in 
1870,  and  the  secretary  will  show  it  to  any  per- 
son who  will  call  on  him  at  any  time.  If  it  is  the 
one  that  I  painted,  it  will  be  known  by  a  mistake 
in  tinting  out  the  words  'California  Republic' 
The  letters  were  flrst  lined  out  with  a  pen,  and 
I  left  out  the  letter  '  1,'  and  lined  out  the  letter 
'C'  in  its  place.  lint  afterward  I  lined  out 
the  letter  '  I  "  over  the  '  (^ '  so  that  the  last  syl- 
lable of  '  Republic "  looks  as  if  the  tw-o  last  let- 
ters were  blemled.  Yours  Respectfully, 

"  AVji.  L.  Todd.  "■ 

On  the  occasion  of  the  Centennial  e.vercises, 
held  at  Santa  llosa  on  the  4th  of  July,  187(5, 
General  M.  G.  Vallejo  made  the  following 
statement  in  reference  to  the  capture  of  Sono- 
ma in  1846  by  tlie  Americans  : 

"  I  have  now  to  say  something  of  the  epoch 
which  inaugurated  a  new  era  for  this  county. 
A  little  before  dawn  on  June  14,  1846,  a  party 
of  hunters  and  trappers,  with  some  foreign  set- 
tlers, under  command  of  C-aptain  Merritt, 
Doctor  Semple  and  AVilliam  B.  Ide,  surrounded 
my  residence  at  Sonoma,  and  without  flring  a 
shot,  made  a  prisoner  of  myself,  then  com- 
mander of  the  northern  frontier;  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Victor  Prudon,  Captain  Salvador  A^al- 
lejo,  and  Jacob  P.  Leese.  I  should  here  state 
that  down  to  October,  1845,  I  had  maintained 
at  my  own  expense  a  respectable  garrison  at 
Sonoma,  which  often,  in  union  with  the  settlers, 
did  good  service  in  campaign  against  the  In- 
dians; but  at  last,  tired  of  spending  money 
which  the  Mexican  Government  never  refunded, 
I  disbanded  the  force,  and  most  ot  the  soldiers 
who  had  constituted  it  left  Sonoma.  Thus  in 
June,  1846,  the  Plaza  was  entirely  unprotected, 
although  there  were  ten  war  pieces  of  artillery, 
with  other  arms  and  munitions  of  war.  The 
parties  wdio  unfurled  the  bear  flag  were  well 
aware  that  Sonoma  was  without  defense,  and 
lost  no  time  in  taking  ad  vantage  of  this  fact,  and 
carrying  out  their  plans.  Years  before  I  had 
urgently  represented  to  the  government  of 
Mexico  the  necessity  of  stationing  a  sufiicient 
force  on  the  frontier,  else  Sonoma  would  be 
lost,  which  would  be  equivalent  to  leaving  the 
rest  ot  the  country  an  easy  prey  to  the  invader. 
AVhat  think  you,  my  friends,  were  the  instruc- 
tions sent  me  in  reply  to  my  repeated  demands 
for  means  to  fortify  the  country  ?  These  in- 
structions were  that  I  should  at  once  force  the 
immigrants  to  recross  the  Sierra  Nevada,  and 
depart  from  the  territory  of  the  Ilepublic. 
To  say  nothing  of  the  inhumanity  of  these 
orders,  their  execution  was  physically  iujpossi- 
ble — first,  because  the  iirimigrants  came  in 
autumn  wheu  snow  covered  the  Sierra  so  quickly 


as  tu  make  a  ntm-ii  iiiijiractieable.  Under  the 
circiiiiiotitnces,  nut  only  1,  but  Cominandaiite 
General  Castro,  resolved  to  provide  tlie  iinnii- 
grauts  with  letters  of  security,  that  they  might 
remain  temporarily  in  the  country.  We 
always  made  a  show  of  authority,  i)ut  well 
convinced  all  the  time  that  we  had  had  no 
power  to  resist  the  invasion,  which  was  coming 
upon  lis.  "With  the  frankness  of  a  soldier  I  can 
assure  you  that  the  American  immigrants  never 
had  cause  to  complain  of  the  treatment  they 
received  at  the  hands  of  either  authorities  or 
citizens.  They  carried  us  as  prisoners  to  Sacra- 
mento, and  kept  us  in  a  calaboose  for  sixty 
days  <  r  more,  until  the  United  States  made 
itself  respected,  and  the  honorable  and  hu- 
mane Commudore  Stockton  returned  us  to  our 

•'  On  the  seizure  of  their  prisoners  the  revo- 
lutionists at  once  took  steps  to  appoint  a  captain 
who  was  found  in  the  person  of  John  Grigsby, 
for  Ezef<iel  ilerritt  wished  not  to  retain  the 
permanent  command;  a  meeting  was  then  called 
at  the  l)arracks,  situated  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  the  Plaza,  nnder  the  presidency  of  William 
15.  Ide,  Dr.  Robert  Semple  being  secretary.  At 
this  conference  Semple  urged  tlie  independence 
of  the  country,  stating  that  having  once  com- 
menced they  must  i)roceed,  for  to  turn  back  was 
certain  death.  Before  the  dissolution  of  the 
convention,  however,  rumors  were  rife  that 
secret  emissaries  were  being  dispatched  to  the 
Mexican  rancheros,  to  inform  them  of  the 
recent  occurrences,  therefore  to  prevent  any 
attempt  at  a  rescue  it  was  deemed  best  to  trans- 
fer their  prisoners  to  Sutter's.  Fort,  where  the 
danger  of  such   would  be  less.'' 

In  order  that  the  conijuest  of  California 
should  be  accomplished  in  a  decent  and  orderly 
way  and  the  record  thereof  be  properly  handed 
down  to  future  generations,  Captain  William  B. 
kle  formulated  the  following  declaration  of 
purposes  which  was  duly  published  to  the  world 
on  the  18th  of  June: 

''  A  proclamation  to  all  persons  and  citizens 
of  the  district  of  Sonoma  rec^uestiug  them  to 

remain     at    peace    and     follow     their     rightful 
occupations  without  fear  of  molestation. 

"The  commander-in-chief  of  the  troops  as- 
sembled at  the  fortress  of  Sonoma  gives  his 
inviolable  pledge  to  all  persons  in  California, 
not  found  under  arms,  that  they  shall  not  be 
disturbed  in  their  persons,  their  ]iroperty,  or 
social  relation,  one  with  another,  liy  men  under 
his  co7ninand. 

"He  also  solemnly  declares  his  object  to  be: 
First,  to  defend  himself  and  conipanionsin  arms, 
who  were  invited  to  this  country  by  a  promise 
of  lands  on  which  to  settle  themselves  and 
families;  who  were  also  promised  a  Republican 
Government;  when,  having  arrived  in  Califor- 
nia, they  were  denied  the  privilege  of  buying  or 
renting  lands  of  their  friends,  who  instead  of 
being  allowed  to  participate  in  or  being  pro- 
tected by  a  Republican  government,  were  op- 
pressed by  a  military  despotism;  who  were  even 
threatened  by  proclamation  by  the  chief  officers 
of  the  aforesaid  despotism  with  extermination  if 
they  should  not  depart  t)Ut  of  the  country,  leav- 
ing all  their  |)roperty,arms  and  beasts  of  burden; 
and  thus  de])rived  of  their  means  of  flight  or 
defense,  were  to  be  driven  through  deserts 
inhabited  by  hostile  Indians,  to  certain  destruc- 

"To  overthrow  a  government  which  has 
seized  upon  the  pros[)erity  of  the  mission  for  its 
individual  aggrandizement;  which  has  ruined 
and  shamefully  oppressed  the  laboring  people 
of  California  by  enormous  exactions  on  goods 
imported  into  the  country,  is  the  determined 
purpose  of  the  brave  men  who  are  associated 
under  my  command. 

••  I  also  solemnly  declare  my  object,  in  the 
second  place,  to  be  to  invite  all  peaceable  and 
good  citizens  of  California  who  are  friendly  to 
the  maintenance  of  good  order  and  equal  rights, 
and  I  do  hereby  invite  them  to  repair  to  my  camp 
at  Sonoma  without  delay  to  assist  us  in  estab- 
lishing and  perpetuating  a  Republican  govern- 
ment, which  shall  secure  to  all  civil  and  religious 
liberty;  which  shall  encourage  virtue  and 
literature;    which    shall    leave    unshackled    by 


fetters    agi-icii!tiire,    coiuinerce    ami    mainifact- 

"  1  t'urtlier  declare  that  I  rely  upon  the  recti- 
tude of  our  iiitentious,  the  favur  of  heaven  and 
the  bravery  of  those  who  are  bound  and  asso- 
ciated with  me  by  principles  of- self-preservation, 
by  the  love  of  the  truth  and  the  hatred  of 
tyranny,   for  my  hopes  of  success. 

••  I  furthermore  declare  thai  I  believe  that  a 
government  to  be  prosperous  and  happy  must 
originate  with  the  people  who  are  friendly  to  its 
existence,  that  the  citizens  are  its  guardians,  the 
otfieers  its  servants,  its  glory  its  reward. 

•'  William  B.  Iue."' 

Thus  far  the  revolution  had  been  a  bloodless 
one,' but  it  was  not  destined  to  continue  so  to 
the  end.  There  were  two  occurrences  of  thrill- 
ing character  that  came  in  (piick  succession — 
the  killing  of  Cowie  and  Fowler  and  the  battle  of 
Olompali.  As  Ilobert  A.  Thompson,  who  has 
gathered  much  of  the  early  history  of  Sonoma 
Count}',  got  his  information  about  the  battle 
referred  to  from  one  of  the  participants  therein 
we  here  incorporate  his  graphic  account  of  those 
two  events. 

About  this  time  one  of  the  most  distressing 
events  of  the  revolution  occurred.  It  was  dis- 
covered that  the  garrison  had  an  insufficient  sup- 
ply of  powder.  It  was  known  that  Moses 
Carson,  at  the  Fitch  ranch,  on  Russian  River, 
had  some  on  hand.  Two  men  named  T.  Cowie 
and  —  Fowler,  who  had  joined  the  party  in 
Napa,  volunteered  to  go  and  get  the  powder. 
They  imprudently  took  the  main  traveled  road, 
or  returned  to  it  near  Santa  Rosa,  and  were 
capture  1  by  a  scouting  party,  or,  rather,  a  rov- 
ing band  of  cut-throats  and  thieves  under  the 
lead  of  Juan  Padillo.  The  two  men  were 
kept  in  the  Carillio  house  all  night.  The  next 
morning  they  were  taken  up  the  little  valley, 
near  the  present  county  farm,  were  first  inliu- 
nianly  treated,  and  then  shot.  Not  satisfied 
with  this,  their  bodies  were  mutilated  in  a  lior- 
rid  manner  and  were  then  thrown  into  a  ditch. 
An  Indian  named  Chanatc,  who  knew  the  men, 
told  Mose  Carson  of  their  fate  and  condition, 

and  he  came  and  buried  them  under  a  pine 
tree,  piling  up  a  few  rocks  to  mark  the  spot. 

Finding  that  Cowie  and  Fowler  did  not  re- 
turn, there  was  much  uneasiness  in  Sonoma. 
A  party  was  sent  up  the  valley  to  make  inquiry, 
who  learned  the  circumstances  of  their  cruel 
muider  and  mutilation.  Two  others  of  the 
party  who  were  out  in  search  of  horses,  had 
been  taken,  and  it  was  feared  that  thej',  too, 
would  be  killed. 

The  Bear  Flag  men  were  not  of  the  class  to 
suffer  any  indignity,  much  less  a  horrid  outrage 
like  this.  It  demanded  instant  and  exemplary 
punishment.  Volunteers  were  called  for  to  go 
in  search  of  the  murderers.  The  whole  garri- 
son volunteered.  All  could  not  go.  Twenty- 
three  were  selected  and  put  under  command  of 
Lieutenant  W.  L.  Ford.  Among  the  number  was 
Frank  Bidwell,  to  whom  the  writer  is  indebted 
for  this  account  of  the  pursuit.  Captain  Ford 
and  his  command  came  first  to  Santa  Rosa.  Pa- 
dillo had  fled.  From  Santa  Rosa  he  went  to  the 
Roblar  de  la  Miseria,  Fadillo's  ranch.  He  was 
there  told  by  some  Indians  that  the  marauding 
band  had  gone,  some  three  hours  before,  to  the 
Laguna  de  San  Antonio.  Captain  Ford  pushed  on 
to  that  point  and  bivouacked  half  a  mile  from  the 
supposed  headquarters.  He  charged  upon  the 
house  next  morning  and  found  only  four  men 
there,  whom  he  took  prisoners.  He  left  some 
of  his  men  to  guard  the  prisoners  and  horses 
which  he  had  captured. 

With  fourteen  men  he  continued  the  pursuit. 
After  a  brief  ride  of  a  few  miles  he  came  to 
the  Olompali  ranch,  now  Dr.  Burdell's  place,  in 
Marin  County.  He  saw  a  number  of  horses  in 
a  corral  near  the  house  apparently  in  charge  of  a 
vaquero.  He  dashed  up  rapidly  to  prevent  the 
man  in  charge  from  turning  them  loose,  as  he 
proposed  to  confiscate  them.  Getting  nearer  he 
was  astonished  to  see  the  Californians  pouring 
out  of  the  house  and  hastily  mounting  their 
already  saddled  horses.  He  had  run  upon  the 
combined  forces  of  Captain  Joaquin  de  la  Torre 
and  the  Santa  Rosa  murderers,  numbering  all 
told  eighty-three  men.      Both  parties  had  been 

lllSToUY    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

surprised.  Fortunately  there  was  a  willow  thick- 
et about  sixty  yards  from  the  house.  Wiiile 
the  enemy  were  getting  in  motion  Captain 
Ford  ordered  his  men  to  fall  back  to  the  brush 
and  to  dismount,  tie  their  horses,  take  position 
in  the  brush,  and  by  no  means  to  fire  until 
"  sure  of  a  man."  There  was  a  mountaineer  in 
the  party  who  went  by  tlie  name  of  "Old  Red." 
lie  was  a  dead  shot,  and  was  stationed  in  the 
upper  end  of  the  wood.  Frank  Bid  well  was 
some  distance  below  him.  The  Californians, 
made  bold  by  the  supposed  retreat,  formed 
their  lines  and  came  up  handsomely.  Their  ad- 
vance was  led  by  a  gallant  young  Sergeant. 
All  was  still  in  the  willows.  The  sharp  crack 
uf  a  rifle  broke  the  silence,  followed  l)y  a  puff 
of  smoke,  which  burst  through  the  brush.  It 
was  "Old  Red,"  who  could  not  hold  his  tire. 
This  brought  on  the  tight.  Other  shots  came  in 
quick  succession.  In  a  very  few  moments  eight 
of  the  assaulting  party  lay  dead  upon  the  plain, 
two  were  wounded,  and  a  horse  with  an  ugly 
bullet-hole  in  his  neck  was  struggling  in  the 
tield.  The  young  Sergeant  was  the  last  to  fall, 
whereupon  the  whole  band  broke  for  the  cover 
of  the  hills,  receiving  as  they  left  a  volley  at 
long  range  as  a  parting  salute.  Twenty-three 
shots  had  been  fired ;  eleven  took  effect.  '•  Old 
Red's"  excuse  for  tiring  so  soon  was,  that  he  was 
"sure  of  a  man"  anywhere  in  range. 

As  soon  as  the  tight  began  a  woman  in  the 
house  cut  Todd's  bonds,  and  he  joined  his  com- 
rades before  it  was  over.  Captain  Ford  rested  on 
his  arms  for  some  time  thinking  that  the  enemy 
would  rally  and  renew  the  tight,  but  they  made 
no  sign.  It  was  enough.  He  thereupon  set 
out  on  his  return  to  Sonoma  with  his  rescued 
prisoners  and  his  caj)tives.  The  captured  horses 
he  drove  before  him  as  the  spoil  of  war.  Tlie 
murder  of  Gowie  and  Fowler  was  avenged  on 
the  tield  of  Olompali. 

On  the  20th  of  June,  Castro  made  his  tirst 
move  in  the  direction  of  trying  t(j  recover  lost 
ground  north  of  the  bay.  On  tiiat  date  Cap- 
tain Joaquin  de  la  Torre  crossed  tlie  bay  with 
about  seventy  Californians  and  being  joined  by 

Padea  and  Correo,  took  a  position  near  San 
Rafael.  Of  these  movements  F^remont  was 
speedily  apprised,  and  now  for  the  tirst  time 
gave  o])en  recognition  of  the  claims  of  the  rev- 
olutionists upon  him  for  active  aid.  On  the 
2.3d  of  June,  Harrison  Pierce,  a  pioneer  settler 
of  Najja  Valley  made  a  forced  ride  of  eighty 
miles  to  Fremont's  camp  announcing  the  pres- 
ence of  Castro's  troops  on  the  north  side  of  the 
bayand  the  consequent  peril  of  those  who  had  cap- 
tured Sonoma.  He  received  a  promise  from  Fre- 
mont to  come  to  their  aid  just  as  soon  as  he  could 
put  ninety  men  into  saddle.  Pierce,  with  this 
cheering  news  retraced  the  eighty  miles  fortnerly 
passed  over,  with  but  one  change  of  horse,  and 
soon  carried  the  news  to  the  little  garrison  at 
Sonoma,  that  I^remont  was  coming.  On  the 
evening  of  the  A&y  he  had  received  the  tidings 
Fremont  and  his  men  were  on  their  way  toward 
Sonoma.  Of  the  make-up  of  F^-emont's  force, 
one  of  the  party  wrote  as  follows: 

"There  were  Americans,  French,  English, 
Swiss,  Poles,  Russians,  Prussians,  Chileans, 
Germans;  Greeks,  Austrians,  Pawnees,  native 
Indians,  etc.,  all  riding  side  by  side  and  talking 
a  polyglot  lingual  hash  never  exceeded  in  di- 
versibility  since  the  confusion  of  tongues  at  the 
tower  of  Babel.  Some  wore  the  relics  of  their 
home-spun  garments,  some  relied  upon  the  an- 
telope and  the  bear  for  their  wardrobe,  some 
lightly  habited  in  buckskin  leggings  and  a  coat 
of  war-paint,  and  their  weapons  were  ecjualiy 
various.  There  was  the  grim  old  hunter  with 
his  long  heavy  ritie,  the  farmer  with  his  double- 
barreled  shot-gun,  the  Indian  with  his  bow  and 
arrows;  and  otiiers  with  horse-pistols,  revolvers, 
sabres,  ships'  cutlasses,  bowie-knives,  and  pep- 
per-boxes (Allen's  revolvers)."  Fremont,  with 
this  incongruous  l)and,  made  forced  marches 
and  reached  Sonoma  on  the  morning  of  June 
25th.  After  a  rest  F'remont  started  for  San 
Rafael  in  quest  of  Castro  and  Torre's  forces. 
Castro  had  not  crossed  over  as  supposed  and 
Torre  was  invisible.  A  decoy  letter  of  Torre 
fell  into  Fremont's  hands  the  purport  of  which 
was  that  Torre's  force  with  some  other  imaginary 



ally  \va>  tu  prucecd  against  Sonoma.  Fremont  at 
unce  called  tu  saddle  and  his  command  went 
toward  Sonoma  as  fast  as  muscle  and  tendon  of 
mustang  liorses  would  carry  tliem.  Arrived 
there,  Fremont  became  satisfied  tliat  lie  had 
been  deceived,  and  ma<le  swift  haste  l)ack 
toward  San  Rafael;  but  it  was  of  no  avail  — 
the  wiley  Torre  had  succeeded  in  getting  his 
troops  across  the  bay  and  was  out  of  reach  ut' 
the  clutches  of  the  "Path  Finder.'" 

It  was  on  this  occasion  of  the  return  of 
Fremont  to  San  Rafael  that  occurred  what  has 
the  resemblance  of  wanton  sacrifice  of  human 
life.  We  allude  to  the  shooting  of  Ramon  and 
Fi'ancisco  de  Haro.  They  were  of  a  i-espectable 
family  living  at  YerbaBuena.  They  reacheti  the 
San  Rafael  Embarcaduro  in  a  boat  managed  by 
Jose  R.  Berryessa.  The  llaro's  are  said  to  ha\  e 
been  (|uite  young — only  si.xteen  or  eighteen 
years  of  age.  One  version  is  that  they  were 
taken  prisoners,  as  spies,  and  were  regularly 
sentenced  and  shot.  But  the  statement  that 
Bancroft  seems  to  give  credence  to  is,  that  when 
they  were  seen  to  land.  Kit  Carson  asked  Fre- 
niiint,  on  starting  witli  a  sijuad  of  men  to  meet 
them,  whether  he  should  take  them  prisoners, 
and  that  Fremont's  reply  was,  "we  have  no  use 
for  prisoners.''  It  is  then  claimeil  that  Carson 
and  his  men  as  soon  as  in  shooting  distance 
opened  lire,  killing  them  on  the  spot.  The  late 
Jasper  O'Farrel  is  given  as  the  authority  for  this 
version,  and  claimed  to  have  witnessed  the  whole 
transaction.  Unless  there  is  more  light  cast  on 
this  transactit)!!  than  we  have  had  as  yet, 
the  killing  of  tiiosc  young  men  will  always  seem 
wantiin  and  ciiiel. 

Captain  \Villiam  I).  l*lielj)s  of  Le.\ington, 
Massachusetts,  who  was  lying  at  Saucelito  with 
his  bark,  the  '•"i\"  remarks,  says  Mr. 
Lancey:   - 

''  When  Fremont  passed  San  Rafael  in  pursuit 
of  Captain  de  la  Toi're's  party,  1  had  just  left 
them,  and  he  sent  me  wonl  that  he  would  drive 
them  to  Saucelito  that  night,  when  they  could 
not  escape  unless  they  got  my  boats.  I  hastened 
back  to  the  ship  and  made  all  safe.     There  was 

a  large  launch  lying  near  the  lieach;  this  was 
anchored  further  otl',  and  I  put  provisions  on 
board  to  be  ready  for  Fi-emont  should  he  need 
her.  ^Vt  night  there  was  not  a  boat  on  shore. 
Tone's  |»iirty  must  shortly  arrive  and  show  tight 
or  snri-ender.  Toward  morning  we  heard  them 
arrive,  and  to  our  surprise  they  were  seen  pass- 
ing with  a  snniU  boat  from  the  shore  to  the 
launch  (a  small  boat  had  arrived  from  Yerba 
Buena  during  the  night  which  had  proved  their 
salvation).  I  dispatclied  a  note  to  the  com- 
mander of  the  '  Portsuwitth,^  sloop-of-war,  then 
lying  at  Yerba  Buena,  a  cove  (tiow  San  Fran- 
cisco) informing  him  of  their  movements,  and 
intimating  that  a  couple  of  his  boats  could 
easily  intercept  and  cajiture  them.  Captain 
Montgomery  replied  that  not  having  received 
any  official  notice  of  war  existing  he  could  not 
act  in  the  matter. 

"It  was  thus  the  poor  scamps  escaped.  Tliey 
pulled  clear  of  the  ship  and  thus  escaped  sup- 
ping on  grape  and  canister  which  we  had 
prepared  for  them. 

"  Fremont  arrived  and  camped  ojijiosite  my 
vessel,  the  bark  '  JLiscoir^'  the  following  nig-lit. 
They  were  early  astir  the  next  morning  when  I 
landed  to  visit  Captain  Fremont,  and  were  all 
variously  employed  in  taking  care  of  their 
horses,  mending  saddles,  cleaning  their  arms, 
etc.  I  had  not  up  to  this  time  seen  Fremont, 
but  from  reports  of  his  character  and  exploits 
my  imagination  hail  painted  him  as  a  large- 
sized,  martial-looking  man  or  persoinige,  tower- 
ing above  his  companions,  whiskered  and 
ferocious  looking. 

"  I  took  a  survey  of  the  party,  l)ut  eouM  imt 
discover  anyone  who  looked,  as  I  thought,  the 
cajjtain  to  look.  Seeing  a  tall,  lank,  Kentucky- 
looking  chap  (Dr.  R.  Semplc),  dressed  in  a 
greasy  deer-skin  hunting  shirt,  with  trousers  to 
match,  and  which  terminated  just  below  the 
knees,  his  head  surmounted  by  a  coon-skin  cap, 
tail  in  front,  who,  I  supposed,  was  an  officer  as 
he  was  giving  orders  to  the  men,  I  approached 
and  asked  if  the  captain  was  in  camp.  He  looked 
and   pointed   out  a  slender-made,   well-jiropor- 



tioneil  man  sitting  in  front  of  a  tent,  llis  dress 
a  blue  woolen  shirt  of  somewhat  novel  style, 
open  at  the  neck,  trimmed  with  white,  and  with 
a  star  on  each  point  of  the  collar  (a  man-of- 
war's  shirt),  over  this  a  deer  skin  hnnting  shirt, 
trimmed  and  fringed,  which  had  evidently  seen 
hard  times  or  service,  his  head  unincumljered 
l>y  hat  or  cap,  but  had  a  light  cotton  handker- 
chief bound  around  it,  and  deer  skin  moccasins 
completed  the  suit,  which,  if  not  fashionable  for 
I'roadway,  or  for  a  presentation  dress  at  court, 
struck  nie  as  being  an  excellent  rig  to  scud 
under  or  tiglit  in.  A  few  minutes'  conversation 
convinceil  me  that  I  stood  in  the  presence  of 
the  King  of  the  Kocky  Mountains." 

Fremont  remained  in  the  neighborhood  of 
San  Rafael  until  July  ind,  when  he  returned  to 

On  the  4th  of  July,  our  national  holiday  was 
celebrated  with  due  pomp  and  ceremony,  and 
on  the  5th,  the  California  Battalion  of  mounted 
riflemen,  two  hundred  and  tifty  strong,  was 
ori>-anized.  Brevet  Captain  John  C.  Fremont, 
Second  Lieutenant  of  Topographical  Engineers, 
was  chosen^commandante;  First  Lieutenant  of 
Marines,  Archibald  H.  Gillespie,  Adjutant  and 
Inspector,  with  the  rank  of  captain.  Both  of 
the  gentlemen  named  were  otlicers  of  the  United 
States  Government,  yet  this  organization  was 
consummated  under  the  fold  of  the  Bear  flag  that 
yet  kissed  the  breezes  of  the  "  Valley  of  the 
Moon."  The  next  day,  the  Gth  of  July,  Fre- 
mont at  the  head  of  his  mounted  riflemen, 
started  to  make  the  circuit  of  the  head  of  the 
bay,  to  go  south  in  pursuit  of  Castro.  As 
there  were  now  no  California  soldiers  north  of 
the  bay  it  did  not  require  a  large  garrison  of 
the  bear  party  to  hold  Sonoma. 

l)ut  the  end  was  hastening.  On  the  7th  of 
July  Commodore  John  Drake  Sloat  having 
received  tidings  that  war  existed  between  the 
United  States  and  Mexico,  demanded  and 
received  the  surrender  of  Monterey.  The  news 
was  immediately  sent  to  San  Francisco,  where 
was  anchored  the  American  war  vessel,  PoHs- 
)iiouth.     At  two  o'clock  on  the  moniing  of  July 

9th,  Lieutenant  Warren  lievere,  left  that  vessel 
in  one  of  lier  boats,  and  reaching  the  Sonoma 
garrison,  at  noon  of  that  day,  lowered  the  l>ear 
flag  and  hoisted  in  its  place  the  stars  and  stripts. 
And  thus  ended  the  bear  flag  revolution  at 
Sonoma.  Lieutenant  Keverc  also  sent  Amer- 
ican flags  to  be  hoisted  at  Sutter's  Fort  and  at 
the  establishment  of  Captain  Stephen  Smith  at 

Lieutenant  lievere  was  sent  to  Sonoma  by 
Montgomery  of  the  I'ortsmouth,  to  command 
the  garrison,  consisting  of  Company  B  of  the 
battalion,  under  Captain  Grigsby.  Lieutenant 
Grigsby  tells  us  that  "a  few  disartected  Califor- 
nians  were  still  prowling  about  the  district,  in 
pursuit  of  whom  on  one  occasion  he  made  an 
expedition  with  sixteen  men  to  the  region  of 
Point  Reyes.  He  did  not  And  the  party  sought, 
but  he  was  able  to  join  in  a  very  enjoyable  elk- 
hunt."  In  August  the  Vallejos,  Prudon, 
Leese  and  Carrillo  were  released  trom  durance 
vile,  and  restored  to  their  families  and  friends. 
That  very  amiable  relations  existed  between 
the  victors  and  vanquished  is  evidenced  by  the 
fact  that  in  September,  while  Lieutenant  Re- 
vere was  absent  on  an  expedition,  the  Vallejos 
were  commissioned  to  protect  the  Sonoma 
frontier  with  a  force  of  Christian  Indians.  Some 
date  previous  to  Septemlier  lltli.  Lieutenant 
John  S.  Mi.ssroon,  of  the  Portsnidxitli,  assumed 
command  of  the  Sonoma  garrison. 

On  the  25th  of  September,  a  meeting  of  the 
"Old  Bears  "  was  held  at  Sonoma,  at  which  J. 
B.  Chiles  presided  and  Jolin  H.  Nash  acted  as 
secretary,  and  a  committee  of  three  was  ap- 
pointed to  investigate  and  gather  all  the  infor- 
mation possible  in  relation  to  the  action  of  the 
bear  flag  party,  and  report  at  a  subsequent 
meeting.  Semple,  (Grigsby  and  Nash  were 
appointed  the  committee.  Manuel  E.  Mcintosh 
was  now  alcalde  of  Sonoma.  From  the  bear 
flag  conquest  of  Sonoma,  down  to  the  discovery 
of  gold  in  California  in  1S4S  there  is  little  to 
note  in  connection  with  Sonoma.  Grigsby, 
Revere,  Missroon  and  Bruckett  were  the  succes- 
sive   military   commaiidauts,     and    the    Indians 

in  STORY    op    SONOMA    dOUNTY.  Cfl 

were  easily   lield    in    suhjection    by  Vallejo   as       was  then  an  inten-egnuni  of  military  rule,  after 
snh-agent  of  Indian  atl'airs.      In   1848  Sonoma       wiiicli    John    II.     Nasii    liecame    alcalde,     and 

had    a    total    population    of   about    260    souls.  |    was  superseded  in   18+7  by    Lilburn  W.  Boggs, 

-losr  de  los  Santos  Berryessa  under  Me.xican  rule  ■    who,  aided  by  a  council  of  six,  administered  tiie 

had  been  at  the  head  of  municipal  affairs.   There  '    municipal  government  of  Sonoma  until  1848. 



TiiK  Beai;  Fr.AO.  now  made  —  xames  of  the  revolutionists— State  seal— General  Mariano 
(iiAHAMi-K  \'Ar.i.i:,in — Gexerai.  Johx  A.  Sctter— S"xoma  District  pioxeeus— Native  Son^ 
(IF  the  (4()i.1)i:n-   West. 

fN  the  "Admission  Day"  edition  of  tlie 
Sonoma  Coiniti/  Demoprat  of  Septeinlier  9, 
i>-  1885,  jippuars  tlie  following.  The  writer,  R. 
A.  Thompson,  with  whom  we  are  well  ac- 
quainted, is  painstaking  and  conscientious  in 
collating  facts,  and  as  he  states  that  mnch  of 
his  information  is  derived  from  actual  partici- 
pants, it  is  entitled  to  confident  credence: 

"The  Independents  were  very  proud  of  their 
flag.  The  bear  made  an  apt  illustration  of  their 
situation.  The  grizzly  attended  strictly  to  his 
own  business,  and  would  go  on  munching  his 
berries  and  acorns  if  you  let  liim  and  his  cubs 
alone.  If  you  undertook  to  crowd  him  out,  or 
to  make  him  go  any  other  way  or  any  faster 
than  lie  wanted  to  go  he  would  show  fight,  and 
when  once  in  a  tight  he  fought  his  way  out  or 
died  in  his  tracks. 

The  Independents  were  here,  had  cmne  in 
good  faith,  and  come  to  stay;  were  quiet  and 
peaceable  if  let  alone.  General  Castro  under- 
took to  crowd  them.  His  grandiloquent  proc- 
lamations were  harmless,  but  vexatious.  At 
last  the  crisis  came.  The  Inde])endents,  weary 
of  threats  and  rumors  of  war,  were  forced,  for 
the  sake  of  peace,  to  fight,  and  having  "gone 

in,"  to  use  the  identical  words  of  one  of  them, 
they  did  not  intend  to  "  back  out."  The  bear 
was  typical  of  that  idea. 

The  difl'erence  of  opinion  about  the  make-up 
of  the  bear  flag  arises  from  the  fact  that  there 
was  more  than  one  made.  The  first  was  a  very 
iMulc  affair.  It  is  described  in  Lieutenant  Miss- 
roon"s  rcjiort  to  Captain  ^lontgomery.  Lieu- 
tenant Missroon  arrived  in  Sonoma  Tuesday,  the 
Ifith  of  June,  about  forty-eight  hours  after  the 
caj)ture.  He  i-ejiorts  to  Captain  ^rontgomery 
on  the  ITtli  that  "tlie  insurgent  party  had 
hoisted  a  jlaij  with  a  white  field,  with  a  border 
or  stripe  of  red  on  the  lower  part,  and  having  a 
bear  and  star  upon  it."  The  words  "  California 
Hepuldic "  were  not  on  it  at  this  time,  or  of 
course  so  important  a  feature  would  have  been 
noted  by  Lientenant  Missroon,  who  was  on  a 
sjjecial  and  e.xceedingly  important  mission  from 
his  commander.  That  these  words  were  after- 
wards added  is  doubtless  true.  It  is  a  matter 
of  ver}'  little  importance,  luit  if  any  one  wishes 
an  exact  description  of  the  fiagas  first  raised,  he 
can  satisfy  himself  by  an  examination  of  the 
above-mentioned  report.  The  flag  with  the  bear 
standing  is  an  after  production,  as  is  also  the 

ttlSTORY    Of    80NOMA    COUNTY. 

silk  guerdon  wliich  Lieutenant  Revere  presentefl 
to  the  pioneers.  The  description  of  the  flag 
given  by  Lieutenant  Missroon  accords  witli  tlie 
account  of  several  of  the  }>arty  whom  the  writer 
has  personally  interviewed.  Of  course,  as  tliere 
were,  several  flags  made;  each  dift'ered  from  the 
other,  in  the  material,  I'rom  whom  the  material 
was  obtained,  by  whom  the  flag  was  made,  and 
just  how  the  flgures  were  placed  upon  it.  Hence 
the  confused  and  many  diverse  acconrits  of  it. 
All  are  right  as  to  what  they  describe;  but 
what  they  descril)e  is  not  the  flag  flrst  raised  by 
the  Independents.  That  was  rather  a  rude 
aflair.  In  fact,  the  representation  of  the  bear 
upon  it  resembled  the  species  j^orcxis  as  much 
as  it  did  tlie  urxux  fero.r  or  horrihlUs. 

There  were  tiiirty-three  men  in  the  Hear  l^'iag 
party,  more  than  lialf  of  whom  came  from  the 
Sacramento  Valley.  Among  the  latter  was  the 
brave  and  gallant  blacksmith,  Saraiiel  Neal,  and 
Ezekiel  Merritt,  the  captain  of  the  company. 

Following  is  the  first  list  ever  published  of 
the  names  of  all  the  party.  A  number  came 
into  Sonoma  tlie  day  after  the  capture,  and  they 
continued  to  come  in  for  some  time.  It  is  very 
ditticnlt  to  separate  these  from  the  actual  mem- 
l)crs  lit  tlie  party  who  rode  into  Sonoma  on  the 
morning  of  June  14th.  The  accompanying  list 
has  been  a  number  of  years  making,  and  has 
been  revised  many  times  and  corrected  from 
written  records  and  by  personal  interviews. 
There  are,  doubtless,  still  some  errors,  which 
may  be  corrected  upon  a  satisfactory  showing: 

Sa('ka:mknto  ^'at.lky. — Ezekiel  Merritt,  R. 
Semple,  William  Fallon,  W.  B.  Ide,  ILL.  Ford, 
(I.  P.  Swift,  Samuel  Neal,  William  Potter, 
Sergeant  Gibson,  W.  M.  Scott,  James  (iibbs,  II. 
Sanders,  P.  Storm. 

N.\i'A.  Sainnci  Kelsey,  Penjamin  Kelsey, 
John  Grigsby,  David  Hudson,  Will  Hargrave, 
Harrison  Peirce,  William  Porterfield,  Patrick 
McChristian,  Elias  I'.arrett.  ('.  Grittith,  AVilliam 
].,.  Todd,  Nathan  Coombs,  Lucien  Ma.xwell. 

Sonoma. —  Franklin  Pidwell,  Thomas  Cowie, 
—  Fowler,  W.  B.  Elliott,  licnjamin  Dcwcll, 
John  Sears,  'Old  lied.'"' 

SEAT,    o|.-    I  AI.IFOKNIA. 

The  convention  which  framed  the  Constitu- 
tion of  the  State  of  California  (1849),  passed  a 
resolution  appropriating  $1,000  for  a  design  for 
the  Official  Great  Seal.  One  was  presented  by 
Mr.  Lyons,  of  which  he  professed  to  be  the 
author;  it  represented  the  Pay  of  San  Francisco, 
as  emblematic  of  the  commercial  importance  ot 
the  city  and  State,  with  the  goddess  Minerva  in 
the  foreground,  illuslrating  its  sudden  spring- 
ing into  maturity;  and  the  Sierra  Nevada  in 
the  distance  indicative  of  the  mineral  wealth  of 
the  country.  The  motto  was  the  Greek  word 
"  Eureka  "  (I  have  found  it).  This  was  pre- 
sented to  the  committee,  which  consisted  virtu- 
ally of  Hon.  John  McDougal,  his  associate, 
Hon.  Rodman  M.  Price,  being  absent.  General 
McUongal  was  ]Jeased  with  the  design,  and 
wished  it  adopted  with  little- or  no  alteration; 
but  finding  that  impossible,  he  consented  to 
several  minor  additions.  Thus  the  figure  of  the 
grizzly  bear  was  added,  as  appropriate  to  the 
only  section  of  the  country  producing  that 
animal.  This  was  especially  insisted  upon  by 
some  members,  conspicuous  among  whom  was 
the  late  Hon.  -Jacob  R.  Snyder,  then  represent- 
ing Sacramento  County.  The  native  Califor- 
nians,  on  the  other  hand,  opposed  it,  wrongly 
supposing  that  its  introduction  was  intended  to 
inimoi'talizc  that  event.  The  sheaf  of  wheat 
and  bunch  of  grapes  was  also  adopted,  as  em- 
blems of  agricultural  and  horticultural  interests 
of  the  southern  sections  of  the  State,  ]iarticn- 
larly.  With  these  exceptions  the  seal,  as  (1(>- 
signed  by  Mr.  Lyons,  was  that  selected.  After 
it  was  accepted,  some  of  the  members  claimed 
the  original  design  of  it  ft)r  Major  (iariiett, 
who,  however,  had   expresseil  to   Mr.    Lymis,  df 


Lyonsdale  (as  with  harmless  affectation  the 
eccentric  First  Assistant  Secretary  loved  to  des- 
ignate himself),  a  desire  that  he  alone  should 
he  known  as  its  author.  Dr.  Wozencraft  tried 
to  have  the  gold-digger  and  the  hear  struck 
out,  and  General  Yallejo  wanted  the  hear  re- 
moved, or  else  fastened  hy  a  lassoo  in  the  hands 
of  a  vaquero;  hut  the  original  suited  the  ma- 
jority, and  it  was  not  altered. 

September  29,  1849,  Mr.  Norton  uttered  the 
following,  which  was  adopted: 

Fesoh-ed,  That  Mv.  Caleb  Ly..n  i)e  and  he  is 
hereby  autiiorized,  to  superintend  the  engraving 
of  the  seal  for  the  State,  to  furnish  the  same  in 
the  shortest  possible  time  to  the  Secretary  of 
the  Convention,  with  the  press  and  all  necessary 
appendages  to  be  My  him  delivered  to  the  Sec- 
retary of  State  appointed  under  this  Constitu- 
tion, ami  that  the  sum  of  .si, 000  be  paid  to 
ilr.  Lyon  in  full  compensation  and  payment 
fur  the  design,  seal,  ])ress,  and  all  append- 

Ji.'soh-td,  That  "the  (Ireat  Seal  of  the  State 
(if  Califurnia  "  be  added  tu  the  design. 

The  seal  is  thus  explained  by  its  designer: 

•'Around  the  bend  of  the  ring  are  i-epresented 
thirty-one  stars,  being  the  number  of  States  of 
whicii  the  Union  will  consist  upon  the  admis- 
sion of  California.  The  foreground  figure  rep- 
resents the  goddess  ifinerva  liaving  sprung 
full-grown  from  tiie  brain  of  ,hi]»iter.  She  is 
introduced  as  a  type  of  political  birth  of  the 
State  of  California,  without  having  gone  through 
the  probation  of  a  Territory.  At  her  feet 
crouches  a  grizzly  bear,  feeding  upon  the  clus- 
ters from  a  grape-vine,  emblematic  of  the 
peculiar  characteristics  of  the  country. 

"A  miner  is  engaged  with  his  rocker  and 
bowl  at  his  side,  illustrating  the  golden  wealth 
of  the  Sacramento,  upon  whose  waters  are  seen 
shipping,  typical  of  commercial  greatness;  and 
the  snow-clad  peaks  of  tlie  Sierra  Nevada  make 
up  the  background,  while  above  is  the  Greek 
motto,  'Eureka'  (I  have  found),  applying  either 
to    the   princijjle   involved   in   the  admission   of 

the   State,    or    tlie    success    of    the    minei-   at 
work.  Caleb  Lv<>x, 

"  Of  Lyonsdale,  New  York. 
"  AloxTE hi: V,  Cai..,  Sept.'  20,  1849." 


The  above  gives  the  history  of  the  adoption 
of  the  great  seal  of  the  State,  as  shown  b}'  the 
i-ecord.  Following  is  another  version  of  its 
origin : 

Major  K.  S.  Garnett  of  the  United  States 
army  actuallj-  made  the  design  of  the  seal 
whicli  was  adopted.  He  declined  to  claim  it, 
on  the  ground  that  the  knowledge  of  the  source 
from  which  it  came  would  prevent  the  adoption 
of  the  design,  owing  to  the  hostility  growing 
up  between  the  existing  military  authorities  and 
the  nascent  civil  powers  of  California.  Caleb 
Lyon  humbly  asked  leave  of  Major  (xarnett  to 
appropriate  and  present  it  as  his  own.  Major 
Garnett  replied  that  lie  had  no  idea  of  reaping 
either  honor  or  reward  from  the  design,  and  if 
Mr.  Lyon  could  reconcile  it  to  his  conscience  to 
represent  himself  as  the  author  of  another's 
work,  he  was  lieartily  welcome  to  what  he  could 
make  of  it. 

The  last  account  has  about  it  the  earmark  of 
truth,  but  as  to  which  is  the  more  reliable 
account  we  leave  to  tlie  decision  of  the  reader. 

GeNEUAI.  ^[aRIANo    GArDAI.t'PE 

A  history  of  Sonoma  County  with  General 
M.  G.  Yallejo  ignored  would  be  like  tlie  play  of 
Hamlet  with  Hamlet  left  out.  We  visited  him 
in  1888,  and  were  saddened  by  the  evidences 
apparent  on  every  hand  of  decayed  gentility. 
That  he  was  the  friend  of  the  Americans  is  not 
a  question  of  doubt — that  the  Americans  prof- 
ited by  his  prodigality  and  are  now  indifferent 
to  his  needs  are  lamentably  true.  But  his 
name  will  reach  farther  down  the  annals  of 
history  than  it  is  in  the  power  of  gold  to 
purchase  name  and  fame. 

Mariano  G.  Yallejo  was  born  in  Alonterey, 
July  7,  1808.  His  father,  Ignacio  Yincente 
Ferrer  Yallejo  was  a  native  of  Spain,  who  came 


in  his  youth  to  the  State  of  Guadalajara,  Mex- 
ico. In  1774,  wlien  a  young  man,  being  of  an 
adventurous  nature,  he  secretly  joined  an  ex- 
pedition under  Captain  Rivera  for  the  explora 
tion  of  Upper  California.  He  was  probably 
with  Captain  Rivera's  party  on  the  4th  of 
December,  when  the  large  wooden  cross  was 
erected  on  the  peninsula  of  San  Francisco, 
which  his  son,  General  Vallejo,  says  he  saw 
standing  in  1829.  At  all  events,  he  was  an 
eye-witness  of  the  founding  of  the  mission  of 
San  Francisco,  which  event  occurred  October  4, 

On  his  arrival  in  Monterey,  Senor  Ignacio 
Vallejo  saw  for  the  iirst  time  his  future  wife. 
It  was  the  day  of  her  birth.  He  then  asked 
permission  of  the  parents  of  the  infant  to  wed 
their  daughter  when  she  should  become  of  age. 
Suhsequently,  this  proposition,  made  half  in 
jest,  was  renewed,  the  sefiorita  then  heing  a 
blooming  young  girl,  and  Seilor  Vallejo  a 
bachelor  of  forty.  The  marriage  proved  a  happy 
one,  and  Mariano  G.  Vallejo  was  the  eighth  of 
thirteen  children,  the  fruit  of  the  union. 

Young  Vallejo  availed  himself  of  every  op- 
portunity to  improve  his  mind  by  reading  and 
study  during  his  minority.  He  got  possession 
of  a  library  when  quite  young,  which  was  of 
great  service.  From  this  source  he  probably 
acquired  a  fund  of  information,  which  made 
him  the  peer  of  the  learned  and  distinguished 
persons  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  with  whom 
he  was  destined  in  after  life  to  be  ass(jciated. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen  years  he  was  a  cadet  in 
the  army,  and  private  secretary  of  Governor 

In  l.S2y  he  was  jiIucimI  in  chargf  of  the  I're- 
sidio  of  San  Francisco,  which  ])ositi(in  he  held 
until  1834,  organizing  in  the  interval  the  first 
city  or  town  government  of  San  Francisco. 

(Tovernor  Figneroa,  the  most  ])opular  of  all 
the  Mexican  Governors,  had  control  of  affairs 
in  1834.  Having  learned  that  a  large  number 
of  colonists,  some  four  hundred  odd,  were  on 
their  way  to  (ialifornia  from  Mexico,  lie  deter- 
■  mined  to  locate    them    in    Sduoma,  partly  with 

the  view  of  shutting  out  the  Ttussians.  and 
partly  because  it  was  one  of  the  most  inviting 
spots  to  colonize  over  which  he  had  ever  cast  his 
experienced  eyes.  He  selected  Lieutenant  A"al- 
lejo  as  the  most  suitable  of  his  officers  to  com- 
mand the  frontier  and  execute  his  plans. 
Together  they  visited  the  country,  taking  in 
their  tour  of  observation  the  stronghold  of  the 
Russian  squatters  at  Ross.  Returning  to  the 
Santa  Rosa  Valley  the  Governor  selected  a 
site  on  Mark  West  Creek  for  the  future  colon}', 
giving  it  the  name  of  "  Santa  Anna  y  Ferias," 
uniting  these  names  prol)ably  because  he  could 
not  tell  which  of  the  rival  political  chiefs  would 
be  on  top  when  he  next  heard  from  Mexico.  He 
left  a  camp  of  soldiers  there  who  were  under  the 
command  of  (4eneral  Vallejo.  The  colonists 
were  under  the  direction  of  Senor  Hihas,  who 
was  a  quarrelsome,  ambitions  and  avaricious 
man.  (Tovernor  Figueroa  had  received  orders 
to  turn  over  the  control  of  affairs  to  Hihas.  On 
his  return  from  Sonoma  he  met  a  courier  with 
orders,  countermanding  the  former  instruction, 
and  continuing  the  direction  of  affairs  solely  in 
his  own  hands. 

The  colonists  arrived  in  March,  1835,  and 
were  temporarily  quartered  in  Sonoma.  Hihas 
and  his  coadjutors  among  the  colonists  wei-e 
mnch  disaffected,  and  threatened  rebellion. 
Figueroa  ordered  their  arrest.  This  order  was 
executed  by  General  Vallejo  with  much  skill 
and  judgment,  without  bloodshed  or  any  per- 
sonal collision.  Hihas  and  his  cosmopolitan 
company  were  taken  to  San  Francisco,  and  were 
soon  after  sent  Jiack  to  Mexico. 

(ieneral  Vallejo  remained  Iti  charge  of  the 
fi'ontiei'.  He  removed  his  headquurtei's  from 
Santa  Anna  y  Ferias,  on  Mark  West,  to  Sonoma, 
when,  liy  order  of  Figueroa,  he,  in  the  month 
of  June,  1835,  established  the  town  of  Sonoma. 

(ieneral  Figueroa  died  soon  after  these  events. 
His  successor,  (iovernor  Carrillo,  was  deposed 
by  Alvarado.  The  new  governor  appointed 
(Toneral  Vallejo  to  the  position  of  Command- 
ante  (Tfueral  of  the  frontier. 

In  this  position  (xeueral  Vallrjn  did  all  in  his 



powei'  to  promote  tlie  settlement  of  the  frontier. 
Expeditions  were  sent  ont  against  the  Indians, 
agricnltnral  industries  were  extendeti,  and  the 
raising  of  cattle,  sheep  and  horses  was  in  (>verv 
wa}'  en  con  raged. 

Between  1840  and  1845  a  large  numljiT  of 
immigrants  came  to  northern  California.  Tliey 
were  well  received  by  the  General,  though  the 
home  government  was  continually  "  nagging" 
him  because  he  did  not  send  tlie  foreigners  ont 
of  the  country,  at  the  same  time  giving  him 
neither  men  nor  means  to  carry  ont  their  order. 

Jn  the  early  part  of  the  vear  1840,  affairs  in 
California  were  rapidly  approaching  a  crisis. 
In  April,  a  junta  was  called  to  meet  at  Monterey 
to  consider  the  condition  of  affairs.  Revere  gives 
a  summary  of  some  of  the  speeches  made. 
That  of  General  A'^allejo  was  as  follows: 

"I  cannot,  gentlemen,  coincide  with  the  mili- 
tary and  civil  functionaries  who  have  advocated 
the  cession  of  our  country  to  France  or  Eng- 
land. It  is  most  true  that  to  rely  any  longeron 
Mexico  to  govern  and  defend  ns  would  be  idle 
and  absunl.  To  this  extent  1  fully  agree  with 
my  colleagues.  It  is  also  true  that  we  possess 
a  noble  country,  every  way  calculated,  from  posi- 
tion and  resources,  to  become  great  and  power- 
ful. For  that  very  reason  I  would  not  have  her 
a  mere  dependency  upon  a  foreign  monarchy, 
naturally  alien,  or  at  least  indifl'erent  to  our  in- 
terests and  our  welfare.  It  is  not  to  be  denied 
that  feeble  natinns  have  in  former  times  thrown 
themselves  upon  the  protection  of  their  power- 
ful neighbors.  The  I>ritons  invoked  the  aid  of 
the  warlike  Saxons,  and  fell  an  easy  prey  to 
tiieir  protectors,  who  seized  their  lands  and. 
treated  them  like  slaves.  Long  before  that 
time,  feeble  and  distracted  provinces  had 
ajjpealed  for  aid  to  the  all-conquering  arms  of 
imperial  Rome,  and  they  were  at  the  same  time 
protected  and  subjugated  by  their  grasping 
ally.  Even  could  we  tolerate  the  idea  of  depend- 
ence, ought  we  to  go  to  distant  Europe  for  a 
master?  What  possible  sj'mpathy  could  exist 
between  us  and  a  nation  separated  from  us  by 
two  vast  oceans;!     Bnt  wniving  this  insu]ierable 

objection,  how  could  we  eiulure  to  cdmo  under 
the  dominion  of  a  monarchy?  For,  althdugh 
others  speak  lightly  of  a  form  of  goverment,  as 
a  freeman,  I  cannot  do  so.  We  are  republicans 
— badly  governed  and  badly  situated  as  we  are — 
still  we  are  all,  in  sentiment,  republicans.  So 
far  as  we  are  governed  at  all,  we  at  least  profess 
to  be  self-governed.  Who,  then,  that  possesses 
true  patriotism  will  consent  to  subject  himself 
and  his  cliildrfu  U\  the  capi-ices  of  a  foreign 
king  and  his  official  minions?  lint  it  is  asked, 
if  we  do  not  throw  ourselves  upon  the  ])rotec- 
tion  of  France  and  England,  what  shall  we  do? 
I  do  not  come  here  to  support  the  existing  order 
of  things,  but  I  come  prepared  to  propose  in- 
stant and  ett'ective  action  to  extricate  our  country 
from  her  ])resent  forlorn  condition.  My  opin- 
ion is  made  up  tliat  we  must  persevere  in 
throwing  oil  the  galling  yoke  of  Mexico,  and 
proclaim  our  independence  of  her  forever.  V\e 
have  endnreil  her  official  cormorants  and  her 
villainous  soldiery  until  we  can  endui-e  no 
longer.  All  will  probably  agree  ^\itll  nic  that 
we  ought  at  once  to  rid  ourselves  of  what  may 
remain  of  Mexican  domination.  But  some 
profess  to  doubt  our  ability  to  maintain  our 
position.  To  my  niind  there  comes  no  doubt. 
Look  at  Texas,  and  see  how  long  she  withstood 
the  power  of  uTiited  Mexico.  The  resources  of 
Texas  were  not  to  be  compared  with  ours,  and 
she  was  niucli  nearer  to  her  enemy  than  we  are. 
Our  position  is  so  remote,  either  by  land  oi' 
sea,  that  we  are  in  no  danger  from  Mexican 
invasion.  Why,  then,  should  we  hesitate  still 
to  assert  our  independence?  We  have  indeed 
taken  the  first  step  by  electing  our  own  (gover- 
nor, but  another  remains  to  be  taken.  I  will 
mention  it  plainly  and  distinctly — it  is  annex- 
ation to  the  United  States.  In  contemplating 
this  consummation  of  our  destiny,  I  feel  noth- 
ing but  pleasure,  and  1  ask  you  to  share  it. 
Discard  old  prejudices,  disregard  old  customs,  and 
prepare  for  the  glorious  change  which  a^-aits 
our  country.  Why  should  we  shrink  from  in- 
corpoi-ating  ourselves  with  the  happiest  and 
freest  nation  in  the  world,  destined    soon    to   lie- 


tlie  most  wealtliy  and  powerful^  ^^'^I'y  should 
we  go  abroad  for  protection  when  this  gi-eat 
nation  is  onr  adjoining  neiglilior?  When  we 
join  our  fortunes  to  liers,  we  shall  not  become 
subjects,  but  fellow-citizens,  possessing  all  the 
rights  of  tlie  people  of  tlie  United  States,  and 
choosing  our  own  federal  and  local  rulers.  We 
siiall  have  a  stable  government  and  just  laws. 
California  will  grow  strong  and  flourish,  and  her 
people  will  be  prosperous,  happy  and  free.  Look 
not,  therefore,  with  jealousy  upon  tlie  hardy 
pioneers  who  scale  onr  mountains  and  cultivate 
onr  unoccupied  plains;  l)ut  rather  welcome  them 
as  brothers,  who  come  to  share  with  us  a  com- 
7non  destiny.'' 

Lieutenant  Revere  was  in  Monterey  when  the 
junta  met;  its  prx^ceodings  were  secret,  but  he 
says  it  was  notorious  that  two  parties  existed  in 
the  country,  and  that  General  Vallejo  was  the 
leader  of  the  American  party,  while  Castro  was 
at  the  head  of  the  European  party.  lie  says  he 
had  his  report  of  the  meeting  from  documentary 
evidence,  as  well  as  sketches  of  the  principal 
speeches.  He  also  says  that  so  soon  as  General 
Yallejo  retired  from  the  junta  he  addressed  a 
letter  to  Governor  Pio  Pico  embodying  the  views 
he  had  expressed  in  his  speech  and  refusing  ever 
again  to  assist  in  any  project  having  for  its  end 
the  establishment  of  a  protectorate  over  Califor- 
nia by  any  other  power  than  the  United  States. 

At  last  the  long  threatened  storm  broke  upon 
the  town  of  Sonoma,  and  its  commandante  and 
little  garrison  were  captured  by  the  Americans, 
(leneral  Vallejo  was  kept  as  a  prisoner  for  about 
a  month,  and  released  i)y  order  of  Commodore 

General  Vallejo,  speaking  of  the  condition  of 
affairs  in  Northern  California  previous  to  the 
taking  of  Sonoma,  said: 

"  Years  before  I  had  urgently  represented  to 
the  Government  of  Mexico  the  necessity  of 
stationing  a  sufficient  force  on  the  frontier,  else 
Sonoma  would  be  lost;  which  would  be  equiva- 
lent to  leaving  the  rest  of  the  country  an  easy 
prey  to  the  invader.  AVhat  think  yon,  my 
irieiids,  were  the  instructions  sent   me   in  reply 

to  my  repeated  demands  for  means  to  fortify  the 
country?  These  instructions  were  that  1  slumld 
at  once  force  the  immigi-ants  to  recross  the 
Sierra  Nevada  and  depart  from  the  territory  of 
the  Republic.  To  say  nothing  of  the  in- 
humanity of  these  orders,  their  execution  was 
ph^'sically  impossible;  first,  because  I  had  no 
military  force;  and  second,  because  the  immi- 
grants came  in  the  autumn,  when  snow  covered 
the  Sierra  so  quickly  as  to  render  return  im- 
practicable. Under  tiie  circumstances  not  only 
L  but  Commandante-General  Castro,  resolved  to 
provide  tlie  immigrants  with  letters  of  security, 
that  they  might  remain  temporarily  in  the 
country.  We  always  made  a  show  of  authority, 
but  were  well  convinced  all  the  time  that  we  had 
no  power  to  resist  the  invasion  which  was  coin- 
ing in  upon  us.  With  the  frankness  of  a  sol- 
dier I  can  assure  j'ou  that  the  American  immi- 
grants never  had  cause  to  complain  of  the 
treatment  they  received  at  the  hands  of  either 
authorities  or  citizens." 

General  Vallejo  on  his  release  at  once  made 
his  great  influence  as  a  friend  of  the  United 
States  felt  throughout  the  country.  He  took 
active  interest  in  public  affairs  always  on  the 
side  of  order  and  good  government.  lie  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Conven- 
tion which  met  in  Monterey,  and  was  a  Senator 
from  the  Sonoma  District  in  the  first  Legislature 
of  California.  And  from  that  period  down  to 
the  present  he  has  been  an  enterprising,  useful, 
and  honored  citizen  of  Sonoma.  In  priority  of 
settlement,  he  is  the  first  of  the  35,0(10  inlialii- 
tants  now  living  in  this  county. 

On  the  6th  of  March,  1832,  he  married 
Senorita  Benicia  Francesca  Carillo,  who  still 
survives  with  her  distinguished  husband. 

In  person  General  Vallejo,  even  at  his  ad- 
vanced age,  is  a  strikingly  handsome  man.  lie 
is  tall  and  erect  in  carriage,  with  the  military 
air  of  one  disciplined  to  arms  in  his  early  youth. 
He  is  a  brilliant  conversationalist,  an  eloquent 
s]i(>aker,  even  in  English,  which  he  acquired  late 
in  lilc.  To  these  accomplishments  may  be  addi^d 
the  liT.icc  of  gesture  and    manner  wliicii   he   in 


lierits  with  his  hinoc 

from  an  ancestry  of  Spanish 

A.   SiTTKi;. 

(Ji:nekai,  . 

As  tlie  name  of  Captain  Jolin  A.  Sutter  is  so 
intimately  woven  with  the  iiistory  of  tiie  State 
as  to  be  a  part  of  the  same,  and  as  his  purchase 
of  the  Ross  property  identified  him  directly 
with  the  early  history  of  Sonoma  County,  \vc 
give  place  to  the  following  letter  written  by 
him  in  1845.  It  is  interesting  as  showing  the 
real  conditions  in  California  at  the  time  it  was 
written : 

Nkw  Helvetia,  1st  Jan.,  1845. 

Sir  and  Dear  Friend: — My  reasons  for  not 
writing  sooner  is  that  I  lacked  an  opportunity, 
since  j-our  young  man  was  afraid  of  bad 

I  was  in  hopes  all  the  time  that  perhaps  I 
might  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  yon  at  Verba 

I  spoke  to  Mr.  Snyder  and  Alemans,  M'ho 
lioth  ])romised  to  go  to  Sonoma  and  pay  yon  a 
visit.  The  representation,  etc.,  for  Mr.  ( 'astill- 
ero,  I  have  left  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Forbes,  and 
hope  that  the  former  will  have  received  them 
before  his  departure  fromCalifornia  to  Mexico. 

I  was  astonished  to  hear  over  there  the  news 
that  I  had  sold  mj'  establishment  to  the  Govern- 
ment, and  in  fact  Mr.  Estudillo  told  me  that 
yon  had  gone  to  see  those  gentlemen  at  the 
Moquelumne  River,  so  that  it  seems  that  they 
have  not  kept  the  matter  secret.  What  is  your 
opinion  about  it,  sir^  Do  you  think  that  the 
Government  \vill  buy  it?  I  wish  I  was  certain 
of  that,  so  that  I  might  take  the  necessary 
measures.  In  case  the  Government  decided 
about  this  purchase,  do  yon  think  it  would  be 
possible  to  obtain  a  part  of  the  sum  on  account. 
enough  to  pay  a  part  of  my  debts? 

1  could  put  them  in  possession  of  the  estab- 
lishment at  the  end  of  the  harvest.  It  seems 
to  me  that  the  Government  ought  not  to  neglect 
that  affair;  for  next  autumn  many  emigrants 
are  bound  here  from  the  United  States,  and  one 
thing   comforts    me,  that    there    will  be  many 

Germans,  French  ami  Swiss  amongst  them.  I 
have  received  letters  to  that  etfect  from  a  few 
friends,  through  the  last  little  party  of  ten  men. 

At  all  events,  nothing  conUI  be  more  neces- 
sary for  the  (Government  than  a  respectable  posi- 
tion here,  in  this  place. 

Among  the  emigrants  who  intend  coming, 
are  gentlemen  of  great  means,  capitalists,  etc. 

liy  some  letters  that  I  have  received  from 
New  ^  ork,  I  see  that  one  will  bring  over  all 
the  machinery  tit  for  two  steamers;  one  is 
destined  to  be  a  coaster,  while  the  other  will  sail 
the  l)ay  to  Sacramento.  The  Russians  (or 
Russe)  will  also  bring  a  little  one  for  the  Cap- 
tain Leidesdorff,  and  the  Russian  Captain  (or 
the  Captain  Russe)  Leinderherg,  my  friend,  has 
made  me  a  present  of  a  little  machine  large 
enough  for  a  sloop,  which  he  had  made  for  his 
pleasure;  tliat  will  i)e  very  nice  for  the  river. 
The  Dr.  McLonghlin,  at  Vancouver  (Columbia), 
has  retired  from  the  Hudson  Bay  Co.,  and  in- 
tends to  come  and  live  here.  He  will  give  a 
new  impnlse  to  business;  he  is  the  great  protec- 
tor of  agriculture.  A  ship  is  going  to  bring  us 
printing  material,  and  I  intend  to  have  a  news- 
paper published,  half  Spanish,  half  English. 
Such  progress  are  made  throughout  civilization, 
and  here  we  are  so  much  behind.  E]ven  in 
Tahiti,  there  is  a  lithography,  and  a  newspaper 
is  published:   FS Oceanic  Francaisr. 

We  expect  a  ship  from  New  Vork  in  the 
course  of  about  a  month;  it  will  bring  us  all  the 
necessary  implements  of  agricidture  selected  on 
purpose  for  our  valley,  comprising  many  plows, 
with  farmers'  garments,  etc.,  etc.  This  shij) 
would  enter  without  paying  the  Custom  House 
duties,  if  the  thing  was  possible,  or,  at  least,  pay 
them  at  a  moderate  rate;  or  do  you    think  that 

arrangements  could   be  made  with  Wv. 

by  paying  him  four  or  six  thousand  dollars, 
that  he  might  let  the  ship  enter  for  the  benefit 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Sacramento.  This  would 
render  him  quite  popular  among  us;  the  advan- 
tage derived  for  the  country  would  be  great;  the 
inhabitants  of would  have  the  same  ad- 
vantage as  we.      In   April   will    arrive  another 


sliip,  witli  iiMotlier  cargo  well  suited  for  our 
valley.  The  proprietor  of  these  two  ships  are 
very  rich,  and  t'onn  one  of  the  wealthiest  firms 
in  New  York  and  I^ondoii.  They  contemplate 
l)uving  a  lot  near  the  I'ay  or  Sacramento  River, 
to  open  warehouses,  and  keep  a  stock  (.>f  articles 
we  may  need.  They  would  sell  on  credit  to  all 
tliL'  larmers  who  would  desire  their  trust,  and 
take  in  [i;iyineut  wheat  or  any  other  of  the  pro- 
ducts of  the  country,  as  well  as  a  great  quantity 
of  salted  salmon.  The  other  merchants  wJio 
transact  husiness  in  this  unfortunate  country, 
rcl'use  to  receive  anything  hut  leather  and  tallow. 
This  is  the  ruin  of  the  country.  If  there  was 
sucli  a  market  and  such  a  competition  open,  you 
would  soon  &ee  a  great  difference. 

I  liope  that  you  will  find  some  means  of  hav- 
ing that    ship  enter;   pei'haps    Mr. 

can   assist   you    in    the   matter;  (indeed  I 

have  heard  that  he  was  on  very  good  terms 
with  the  jovial  cajjtain),  and  that  affair  ought  to 
have  (juite  as  much   interest  for  him   as  for  us. 

1  regret  very  much  heing  so  far  from  you, 
and  not  having  more  opportunities  of  corre- 
sponding, which  is  e8]jeciaily  the  case  in  winter. 

I  wish  you  could  write  to  me  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible, for  I  feel  convinced  that  you  would  easily 
settle  these  affairs,  since  your  position  as  secre- 
tary  to ,  and  your  friendly   terms   with 

Capt.  ■  are  advantages    which    would   soon 

lead  us  to  enrich  ourselves,  with  good  manage- 

The  Capt.  Fremont  of  the  United  States 
Army  has  gone  to  meet  his  other  company, 
commanded  by  the  Capt.  Walker  (under  his 
orders),  who  had  been  sent  after  the  discovery 
of  another  passage  through  the  mountains, 
more  to  the  south;  I  expect  them  daily;  they 
will  spend  the  winter  here,  and  depart  again 
in  spring  for  Columbia. 

Another  small  party  of  ten  men  has  arrived 
since  from  the  United  States;  this  will  be  the 
last;  they  were  fortunate  in  escaping  the  snow 
which  fell  in  great  abundance  in  the  mountains 
at  their  arrival. 

Samuel  Smith   has    been   here  during  my  ab- 

sence to  Yerba  Huena,  and  unfortunately  I  for- 
got to  leave  orders  for  his  arrest.  They  told 
him  that  1  had  orders  to  detain  him  a  prisoner, 
and  he  answered  that  he  would  conje  another 
time  when  I  should  be  present,  but  that  he  did 
not  care  to  be  a  prisoner;  since  then  he  has  imt 

I  believe  that  he  is  still  somewhere  on  the 
other  side,  and  that  he  is  likely  to  join,  by  and 
by,  the  company  now  preparing  to  go  to 
Columbia.  Anuuig  the  people  in  the  upper 
valley  are  a  few  bad  characters  who  stole  some 
of  my  horses,  and  some  mares  and  cows  of  Mr. 
Corelua's.  They  are  disposed  to  steal  a  great 
deal  more,  and  intend  coming  near  Sonoma  l)e- 
fore  their  departure,  to  steal  as  many  cattle  as 
possible.  We  must  try  to  imprison  some  of 
the  principal  ones,  and  I  hope  I  can  depend  on 
Capt.  Fremont  and  his  men.  He  will  doubtless 
enable  me  to  make  his  countrymen  prisoners, 
for,  to  look  over  such  acts,  would  be  the  worst 
influence  for  the  future.  However,  in  case  Air. 
Fremont  refuses  to  assist  in  the  capture  of  the 
worst  of  his  countrymen,  I  shall  try  to  do  it 
alone;  and  if  1  have  not  sutticient  power  to  suc- 
ceed, 1  shall  write  to  Mr.  Vallejo  for  an  auxil- 
iary, etc.,  etc. 

It  was  with  the  greatest  displeasure  that  I 
heard  from  Mr.  Wolfsquiell,  who  came  here 
from  Los  Angeles,  of  that  bad  rascal  Fluggo  not 
being  dead,  but  hope  that  you  will  do  your  best 
to  secure  that  lot  of  ground  which  will  )irove, 
no  further  than  next  year,  a  fortune  for  you 

I  hope  that  Mr.  Covarubias  will  assist  you. 

In  a  few  weeks  the  lauiiche  will  come  to 
Sonoma  with  some  of  Heaulieu's  garments,  and 
will  bi'ing  at  the  same  time  some  tanned  leather 
for  Mr.  Vallejo.  I  therefore  beg  that  you  would 
deliver  the  ten  fanegas  of  wheat  to  JMaintop, 
(captain  of  the  launche).  If  you  have  any 
corn,  1  shall  buy  some.  As  lor  the  deer  skins 
which  you  ha\f,  1  shall  write  by  the  same 
means  ami  tell  you  whether  I  shall  take  them 
or  not. 

How  inconvenient  it  is  for  us  in  the  north, 
that  the  capitol   should    be  so  far  distant.     It 


takes  at  least  four  or  iive  mouths  before  receiv- 
iug  au  answer;  it  would  be  almost  as  well  uot 
to  write  at  all,  for  it  tires  one  so  inucli. 

I  make  uo  more  reports  to  the  Governuient, 
e.\ce[)t  to  Mr.  Castro,  as  he  is  the  nearest,  and 
he  can  make  his  statement  to  the  i;overnmeut  if 
he  judges  it  necessary. 

1  have  not  as  yet  received  an  answer  from 
the  I'adre  Real  about  the  letter  that  you  were 
kind  enoiiuli  to  write  for  me  abotit  fruit  trees 
and  vines. 

Vuu  know  that  Mr.  Castro  has  given  me  the 
permission  of  receiving  as  much  as  I  needed. 
Advise  me,  if  you  please,  un  what  1  can  do. 
Will  it  be  possibe  to  receive  "some  vine  trees" 
in  Sonoma?  If  you  could  have  them  ready  in 
about  three  weeks,  something  like  2,000  of 
them,  1  would  pay  you  as  much  as  they  cost. 

If  I  have  vines  here,  you  can  have  them 
(|uite  near  your  farm.     {^'.'iV) 

Leidesdortf  is  appointed  agent  of  the  Co. 
Amer.  Ilusse,  to  receive  the  products  from  me, 
and  iiuy  from  them.  I  had  the  pleasure  to  see 
the  Captain  de  Lion,  Mr.  I5onnet,  who  told  me 
the  troop  alone  in  Marquesas  and  Tahiti,  leav- 
ing out  the  inhabitants,  consume  (550  arobas  of 
tlour  a  day,  and  that  the  Govei'iiment  would  pre- 
fer to  send  here  for  the  provisions,  if  we  can 
sell  them  at  the  same  price  as  in  Chili,  i?;!  the* 
quintal;  we  could  very  well  compete  at  that 
price  if  that  cursed  Custom  House  ceased  to 

If  this  country  dei'ived  any  utility  from  the 
Custom  House  one  would  not  complain  so 
much,  but  it  is  only  good  to  provide  for  a  lot  of 
useless  officers  who  devour  the  very  marrow  of 
the  country.  If  at  last  a  pajier  could  be  pub- 
lished that  would  unseal  the  blind  men's  eyes, 
1  trust  that  you  may  take  a  ])art  and  interest  in 
that  affair  of  printing. 

I  am  now  constructing  ii  mill  with  two  pairs 
of  mill-stones,  for  a  great  (juantity  of  flour  will 
be  needed  next  autumn  when  the  enugrants 

A  much  better  road,  some  -iOO  miles  shorter, 
has  been  discovered,  and  the  Captain  Fremont 

I  has  also  found  in  the  last  chain  of  mountains  a 
much  easier  passage  than  the  otie  known  so  far; 
every  trip  they  make  some  new  discovery.  I 
can  assure  you  that  in  five  years  more  there  will 

[   be  a  railroad    from    the   United    States  here.      1 

I  can  see  that.  Already  the  llocky  Mountains 
commence  to  be  peopled,  where  eight  years  ago 

'  I  could  see  nothing  bnt  deserts  with  Indians, 
and  where  now  stand  quite  consideraljle  cities. 
The  crowd  of  emigrants  arriving  in  the  United 
States  increase  the  population  to  such  an  extent 
that  it  will  tind  its  way  even  to  the  Pacific 
shores.  A  year  and  two  more  and  no  power 
will  be  able  to  stop  that  emigration. 

Next  week  you  shall  have  more  news  from 
your  devoted  friend, 

J.  A.  Sl'ttek. 
While  the  above  letter  shows  that  Captain 
Sutter  had  an  eye  strictly  to  business,  it  also 
shows  that  he  took  in  the  real  situation  and 
knew  that  American  rule  was  the  ultimate  des- 
tiny of  California. 

We  cannot  better  close  this  ciiajtter  than  by 
appending  the  following  names  of  those  who 
helped  to  establish  permanent  settlements  on 
the  north  side  of  San  h'rancisco  Hay: 


The  "Society  of  California  pioneers,  compris- 
ing the  counties  of  Sonoma,  Napa,  Lake,  Men- 
docino and  Marin,"  was  organized  December 
25,  1867. 

Those  who  arrived  in  California  jirior  to  the 
9th  day  of  September,  1850,  and  their  male  de- 
scendants, are  eligible  to  membership.  The 
past  presidents  have  been:  Uriah  Edwards, 
1867- 68;  Nicholas Carriger,  lS68-'72;  William 
M.  Boggs,  1872-'74;  William  McPherson  Hill, 
1874-"76;  John  Cavanaugh,  1876-"78;  Julius 
A.  I'oppe,  1878-"79;  Thomas  EaH,  1879-81; 
Daniel  H.  Davisson,  1881-'8L 

The  members  are:  William  C.  Adams,  Louis 
Adler,  Hierre  Augards,  Stephen  Akers,  John 
Abbott,  S.  J.  Agnew,  (J.  S.  Allen,  J.  M.  Arm- 
strong, Joseph  Albertson,  AV.  G.  Alban,  Thomas 
Allen,  E.  G.  Alban,  Horatio  Appleton,  N.  H. 


Aiiiesbiiry,  D.  li.  Alderson,  John  Hall  Allison, 
Charles  H.  Allen,  W.  F.  Allen,  Charles  Alex- 
ander, Charles  G.  Ames,  William  M.  Boggs,  J. 
15.  Beam,  William  II.  Brady,  Herman  Barnh. 
A.  A.  Basignano,  E.  Biggs,  Louis  Bruck.  Edward 
F.  Bale,  John  Brown,  Samuel  Brown,  William 
Board,  John  F.  lioyce,  J.  8.  Brackett,  David 
Burris,  I.  S.  Bradford,  R.  Bunnell,  R.  T.  Barker, 
.W  V.  Barker,  John  N.  Bailache,  E.  N.  Boyntoii, 
Ar.  Barney,  J.  I).  Beam,  H.  H.  Brower,  Will 
mm  V.  Boyce,  M.  C.  Briggs,  H.  AV.  Baker,  J. 
W.  Boggs,  Erwin  Barry,  Sim  H.  But'ord,  San- 
ford  Bennett,  H.  E.  Boggs,  Elias  Barnett, 
AVilliam  Baldbridge,  A.  C.  Boggs,  John  M 
Boggs,  George  W.  Boggs,  Joseph  O.  Boggs, 
Theodors  W.  Boggs,  L.  W.  Boggs,  Jr.,  J.  N. 
Bennett,  P.  G.  Baxter,  Jesse  Jieasley,  Z.  Briggs, 
Robert  Brownlie,  Jonathan  E.  Bond,  Peter  D 
Bailey,  John  Bright,  T.  C.  Brown,  A.  B.  Bor- 
rell,  John  Bailiff,  William  Bradford,  11.  C. 
Boggs,  Nicholas  (!arriger,  Julio  Carrillo,  Will- 
iam Corj',  Columbus  Carlton,  John  Cavanagh, 
Howard  Clark,  G.  W.  Clark,  Solomon  H.  Car- 
riger,  W.  W.  Carpenter,  C.  C.  Carriger,  A.  E. 
Carriger,  B.  L.  Cook,  T.  S.  Coo|)er,  J.  R.  Cooper, 
W.  L.  Copeland.  R.  Crane,  J.  Clark,  O.  W. 
Craig,  (i.  AV.  Cornwall,  W.  M.  Coleman,  E. 
Coleman,  H.  K.  Clark,  S.  1!.  Carpenter,  Y .  1'. 
Cook,  D.  Chamberlin,  J.  Cairn,  O.  Clark,  W. 
R.  Coburn,  1).  W.  Carriger,  J.  L.  Cook,  J.  J. 
Cugill,  Sr.,  L.  Carson,  J.  C  Crigler,  J.  Ciay- 
niiui,  J.  Chiles,  J.  Custer,  B.  Capell,  J.  Cyrus, 
A.  J.  Cox,  S.  Clark,  L.  Clia[)nian,  JS'.  Coombs, 
\).  C.  Crockett,  Dr.  C.  Crouch,  AV.  R.  Cook,  J. 
Chauvet,  H.  Decker,  JVl.  Donohne,  H.  W.  Dick- 
inson, D.  D.  Davidson,  W.  Dorman,  B.  W,,. 
Diffendurffei-,  E.  L.  Davis,  N.  Dunljar,  J.  Dick- 
enson, A.  J.  Dullarhide,  J.  W.  Easter,  T.  Earl, 
E.  Emerson,  J>.  E.  Edsall,  L.  F.  Eaton,  AV. 
Edgington,  A.  Y.  Easterby,  W.  Ellis,  J.  Fer- 
nald,  J.  F.  Fowler,  J.  M.  Freeman,  A.  J.  AV. 
Faure,  J.  T.  Fortson,  J.  Fulton,  J.  AV'.  I'lavell, 
H.  Fowler,  AV^  Fowler,  W.  A.  Fisher,  A.  Far- 
ley, S.  AV.  Faudre,  F.  Fisher,  J.  M.  Gregson,  T. 
C.  Grey,  F.  P.  Green,  ().  Greig,  J.  Gibson,  W. 
Green,  J.  F.  (ireen,  J.Gallagher,  W.  W.  (ireen- 

ing,  A.  J.  Gordon,  J.  Griffin,  J.  J.  Goodin,  Dr. 
J.  B.  Gordon,  G.  G.  (lardner,  AV'.  Gordon,  C. 
Griffith,  J.  Grigsby,  R.  A.  Gill,  G.  Grigsby,  P. 
D.  Grigsby,  A.  J.  Galbiaith,  J.  T.  Grigsby,  E. 
Gilleii,  P.  Gessford,  J.  Henly,  AV.  Hood,  T. 
Hopper,  H.  Hall,  L.  AI.  Harmon,  C.  Humph- 
ries, H.  Hill,  W.  M.  Hill,  1).  Hudson,  J.  Henry, 
T.  B.  Hopper,  C.  Hopper,  B.  Hoen,  H.  H.  Hall, 
S.  H.  Flyman,  A.  Hixson,  A.  Harasthy,  L.  C. 
Hubbard,  H.  P.  Holmes,  J.  AV.  Harlan.  T.  F. 
Hudson,  AV.  B.  Hagans,  C.  Hazelrigg,  J.  1). 
Hollaway,  AV.  H.  Holleday,  J.  B.  Horrel,  J. 
Henry,  AV.  Hargrave,  M.  Hudson,  J.  Hudson, 
J.  Harbin,  M.  Harbin,  (4.  Hallet,  AV.  A.  Has- 
kins,  J.  Haskius,  AV.  A.  Haskins,  Jr.,  L.  Hig- 
gins,  F.  M.  Hackett,  J.  H.  Howlaud,  I.  Howell, 
J.  Howell,  D.  Howell,  P.  Howell,  M.  R.  Hardin, 
R.  S.  Hardin,  C.  Hartson,  II.  D.  Hopkins,  W. 
Houx,  A.  Henry,  L.  Jlaskell,  K.  A.  Harvey,  M. 
Ingler,  R.  Jones,  B.  Joy,  E.  Justi,  E.  K.  Jen- 
ner,  D.  Jones,  C.  Juarez,  J.  A.  Jamieson,  G.  E. 
Jewett,  A.  Krippenstapul,  F.  Keller,  H.  Kreuse, 
A.  Kohle,  J.  Knight,  R.  Kennedy,  R.  L.  Kil- 
burn,  T.  Knight,  AV.  Kilburn,  I.  Kellogg,  AV. 
W.  Kennedy,  A.  W.  King,  1.  Kilburn,  C.  AV. 
Lubeck,  N.  Long,  R.  Lennox,  G.  AV.  I.,ewis,  J. 
H.  Lane,  C.  H.  Lamkin,  J.  A.  Losse,  J.  Lut- 
gens,  H.  H.  Lewis,  II.  I).  Lay,  A.  J.  Lafevie. 
15.  Little,  J.  F.  Lainden.  J.  1>.  Lamar,  <i.  Linn, 
J)r.  T.  AL  Leavenworth,  H.  Ludolph,  J.  E.  Ale 
Litos'',  N.  E.  Manning,  R.  McGee,  W.  E. 
McConnell,  J.  McLaughlin,  AV.  Mock,  S.  AIc- 
Donough,  AV.  Montgomery,  J.  H.  McCord,  J. 
M.  Mansfield,  R.  G.  Merritt,  D.  ]>.  Alorgan,  P. 
McChristian,  (4.  W.  McCain.  A.  J.  Willis.  J. 
Munday,  M.  T.  McClellan,  J.  IMcCormick,  L. 
AV.  Mayer,  J.  AV.  Morris,  J.  R.  .Moore,  Jr.,  A. 
C.  McDonald,  AV.  J.  .March,  AV.  II.  Alanlove.  J. 
LL  Moore,  J.  .Martin,  C.  Alusgrove,  AV.  .Mc- 
Donald, J.  Aloran,  11.  Mygatt,  A.  Monmert,  G. 
McMahon,  R.  McGarvey,  \\ .  Mclieynolds,  AV. 
H.  Morri.s,  J.  Neil,  P.  G.  Norburn.  S.  S.  Noble, 
AV.  Neil,  L.  A.  Norton,  E.  Neblett,  AV.  H.  Nash, 
J.  M.  Nichols,  G.  W.  Gman,  A.  A.  Olmstead, 
A.  P.  Overton,  11.  Ousley,  S.  Orr,  J.  H.  Orr, 
W.  Ousley,  J.  N.  I'almer,  G.  I'earce,  AV.  Potter, 

ninrOKT    OF    SONOMA    COUNT r. 

J.  C.  Peavy,  11.  J.  Preston,  J.  Powell,  M. 
Powell,  A.  P.  Petit,  0.  Peterson,  G.  AV.  Peter- 
son, 1'.  II.  Plnirris,  11.  L.  Pierce,  1).  Powell,  T. 
J.  Poulterer,  E.  D.  Phillips,  S.  Porter,  J.  I). 
Patton,  J.  A.  Pngli,  T.  Partiii,  11.  Portertield, 

E.  11.  Pierce,  P.  Polsten,  J.  Y.  Porter,  D.  Pat- 
ton,  J.  Powell,  R.  Poppe,  J.  Poppe,  C.  Poppe, 
1).  Qiiinliven,  J.  Robeson,  T.  Rocliford,  V. 
Robin,  C.  Rogers,  W.  P.  Reed,  11.  Robinson,  J. 
M.  Robers,  J.  L.  Ronner,  D.  Ripley,  T.  W. 
Richards,  S.  U.  Rupe,  J.Reynolds,  A.  F.  Rede- 
nieyer,  J.  Regan,  G.  Reeve,  B.  Robinson,  J. 
Robinson,  B.  L.  Robinson,  Col.  Ritchie,  A.  J. 
Raney,  8.  F.  Raney,  W.  li.  Russell,  J.  Selling, 
R.  Spence,  J.  Smith,  F.  Starke,  D.  W.  Sroufe, 
N.  O.  Stafford,  E.  W.  Sax,  P.  Sneed,  P.  Shar- 
vein,  J.  W.  Siiarp,  D.  Spencer,  J.  K.  Smith,  S. 
M.  Shinn,  J.  Sedgley,  J.  H.  Seipp,  J.  Singley, 

F.  Sears,  J.  Stewart,  A.  Salaman.  J.  11.  Sturte- 
vant,  ('.  J.  Son,  J.  F.  Shinn,  C  Stewart,  T. 
Smith,  J.Stiltz,  W.  C.  Smith,  .1.  .1.  Swift,  J. 
Somers,  A.  Stines,  Dr.  B.  Shurtleff,  J.  Short,  S. 
D.  Towne,  G.  Tomking,  E.  Towne,  W.  S. 
Thomas,  C.  C.  Toler.  C.  Talbott,  R.  Tucker,  J. 
Tucker,  G.  Tucker,  William  Truebody,  J.  True- 
body,  John  Truebody,  W.  Truebody,  S.  Tucker, 
T.  H.  Thompson,  AVilliani  Topping,  G.  W. 
Thompson,  J.  Udall,  F.  Ulilhorn,  F.  Vanllallen, 
P.  J.  Vasquez,  A.  Von  Quitzow,  P.  Van  Berver, 
A.  J.  Van  Winkle,  M.  G.  Vallejo,  S.  Vallejo, 
D.  Wharff,  F.  Wilsey,  C.  Weise,  J.  J.  Weenis, 
L.  C.  Woodworth,  W.  Webb,  W.  S.  M.  Wright, 
Joseph  Wright,  H.  L.  AVeston,  11.  M.  Wilson,  J. 

A.  Williams,  J.  Walton,  A.  A.  White,  D.  AY. 
AValker,  J.  Wooden,  W.  H.  Winters,  J.  AYilson, 
J.  AVestfall,  R.  B.  Woodward,  C.  B.  AVines,  J. 

B.  AValdan,  J.  M.  AYhite,  P.  AVard,  1).  Yurk, 
11.  York,  J.  York,  L.  W.  Znager. 


The  tirst  Parlor  of  the  Native  Sons  of  the 
Golden  AVest,  instituted  in  Sonoma  County,  was 
in  the  city  of  Petaluina.  It  took  the  appropriate 
name  of  Bear  Flag  Parlor.  It  was  organized 
on  the  1st  of  March,  1884,  by  District  Deputy 
Grand   President  Charles   W.    Decker,  of  San 

Francisco,  assisted  by  I'ast  Grand  President 
Grady,  Past  Grand  Secretary  Lunstedt  and 
others.  It  is  No.  27  in  the  order  of  its  institu- 
tion. The  following  persons  were  elected  and 
installed  as  its  iirst  othcers  :  J.  B.  Schlosser, 
P.  P.;M.  E.  C.  Monday,  P.;  John  F.  Naugh- 
ton,  1st  A^  P.;  C.  R.  Peters,  2d  V.  P.;  AV.  King, 
3rd  V.  P.;  Frank  P.  Doyle,  Treas.;  L.  F. 
Ellsworth,  Roc.  Sec;  F.  C.  AVest,  P^in.  Sec; 
Fred  Chamberlain,  Marshal;  J.  Fenger,  1.  S. ; 
James  Wright,  O.  S.;  A.  Newburgh,  C.  AY. 
Brascombe  and  F.  Green,  Trustees.  Alter  the 
ceremonies  were  over,  there  v.-as  an  agreeable 
entertainment,  and  Bear  Flag  Parlor  was  fairly 
launched  on  its  career  of  usefulness.  The 
following  11th  of  May,  the  Bear  Flag  boys 
gave  a  picnic  at  Laurel  Grove,  San  Rafael.  All 
into.xicants  were  ruled  out  of  order,  and  a  most 
agreeable  day  was  spent  beneath  the  shade  of  a 
grove  of  native  laurels.  Following  is  a  complete 
list  of  the  present  officers  and  members  of  the 
Bear  Flag  Parlor,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to 
the  courtesy  of  Recording  Secretary,  1).  11. 
White  : 

Officers— Sr.  P.  P.,  AY.  E.  King;  P.  P.,  11. 
Mc  C.  Weston;  Pres.,  C.  E.  Dillon;  1st  V.  P., 
Dan  Brown,  Jr;  2d  V.  P.,  AV.  11.  Robinson;  3d 
V.  P.,  J.  1.  Jewell;  Rec  Sec,  D.  \l.  AVhite; 
Fin.  Sec,  F.  C.  AVest;  Treas.,  N.  G.  Crowley; 
Mar.,  J.  A.  Fenger;  O.  S.,  F.  E.  Dowd;  1.  S.,  R. 
J.  Facey ;  Trustees,  G.  L.  Young,  J.  F.  Dolan  and 
H.  C.  Thompson;  Surgeon,  J.  H.  Crane,  M.  D. 

JVIembers — M.  Y.  llolton,  AV.  A.  Chapman, 
W.  F.  Chamberlain,  Chas.  Towne,  M.  E.  C. 
Munday,  C.  H.  Myers,  J.  R.  Denman,  J.  T. 
Studdert,  L.  B.  Towne,  J.  ¥.  Naughton,  J.  AV. 
Cowles,  J.  Tighe,  E.  O.  Lefebre,  T.  F.  Purring- 
ton,  F.  J.  Bryan;  S.  (4.  Stockdale,  11.  J.  East- 
man, B.  E.  O'llara,  J.  E.  Mallen,  F.  A. 
Wickersham,  J.  Adler,  C.  E.  Morris. 


AVestern  Star  Parlor,  No.  28,  Santa  Rosa, 
was  instituted  March  the  13tli,  188-4,  by  Dis- 
trict Deputy  C.  H.  Decker,  assisted  by  Grand 
Vice-President    John     fV.     Steinback,    Grand 



Lecturer,  M.  A.  Doni,  Past  President,  Frank 
•J.  Iligj^ins,  uikI  actinii;  (irand  Secretary,  li. 
Luiistetlt.  I'acilic,  Callt'ornia  and  15ear  Flag 
Parlurs  were  represented.  President  Harmon, 
of  tlie  Historic  Parlor,  California  No.  1,  occupied 
the  chair  during  the  initiatory  ceremonies,  siip- 
})orted  by  CTrand  Lecturer  Dorn  and  Messrs. 
Yale  and  Shannahan,  of  San  Francisco,  and 
other  Grand  and  Acting  Grand  otHcers.  At 
the  close  of  the  initiatory  ceremonies  the  follow- 
ing officers  were  installed:  Past  President,  H. 
L.  Hranthaver;  President,  Geo.  Honior  Meyer; 
First  Vice  President,  W.  F.  Russell;  Second 
Vice  President,  L.  W.  Juilliard;  Third  Vice 
President,  R.  A.  Harris;  Recording  Secretary, 
Emmet  Seawell;  Financial  Secretary,  George  P. 
Duncan;  Ti'easurer,  George  Hood,  Jr;  Marshal, 
Aubrey  iiarham;  Inside  Sentinel,  Alpheus  Reed; 
Outside  Sentinel,  E.  B,  Rohrer;  Executive 
Committee,  Chas.  M.  Gstrum,  J.  McReynolds 
and  John  W.  Lambert.  After  the  installation 
there  was  an  entertainment  which  passed  most 
pleasantly.  Messrs.  Steinback,  Higgins,  Deck- 
er, Dorn  and  Lnnstedt,  Hartuian,  Meyer  and 
Jefferies,  making  timely  and  eloquent  ad- 

P'ollowing  is  a  complete  list  of  the  present 
otHcers  and  members  of  Western  Star  Parlor 
No.  28,  in  the  order  of  their  admission  into  the 
parlor : 

Ufticers — Geo.  I).  Duncan,  P.  P.;  W.  F.  iius- 
sell.  P.;  Don  Mills,  1st  V.  P.;  T.  J.  Hutchinson, 
2d  V.  P.;  John  McMinn,  Jr.,  3d  V.  P.;  J.  H. 
Adams,  R.  S.;  L.  W.  Juilliard,  F.  S.;  Geo. 
Hood,  Jr.,  Treasurer;  F.  (4.  Gerichten,  Marshal; 
J.  W.  Irwin,  I.  S.:  Chas.  Underhill,  O.  S. ; 
John  Hood,  W.  1!.  Atterbury,  H.  L.  Hranthaver, 

Members — (ieo.  H.  Meyer,  R.  A.  Harris,  R. 
A.  Radger,  J.  A.  Harham,  J.  M.  McReynolds, 
J.  W.  Lambert,  II.  Pariiey,  W.  M.  Duncan, 
John  Creagh,  W.  H.  ilanion,  W.  M.  Irwin;  G. 
J.  Rarnett,  Emmet  Seawell,  J.  W.Adams,  J.  F. 
R.  Cook,  Douglas  I>adger,  W.  A.  Ford,  C.  H. 
Holmes,  Jr.,  J.  S.  Childers,  F.  R.  McCutchin, 
R.  L.  Adams,  F.  (i.  (Jerichten,  J.  N.  Norris,  W. 

S.  I'.  Coulter,  C.  V.  Tupper,  Dan  P.  Carter,  H. 
(t.  IJahman,  E.  P.  Colgan,  M.  F.  Ilauck;  J.  S. 
Ross,  Julian  Ilolman,  R.  D.  Cannon,  W.  E. 
Ilealey,  L.  W.  Jiurris,  W.  R.  Carithers,  W.  T. 
Spridgeon;  J.  P.  Overton,  R.  A.  Long,  Wm. 
Wilkins,  J.  S.  Titus,  Jr.,  M.  II.  Durbin,  F.  S. 

On  Admission  Day,  September  1),  1885,  the 
National  Sons  of  the  Golden  West  had  a  grand 
celebration  at  Santa  Rosa.  Every  Parlor  in  the 
State  was  represented.  There  were  about  1,000 
Native  Sons  in  the  procession,  mariiiig  time  to 
the  inspiring  music  of  nine  brass  bands.  It  was 
a  gala  day  long  to  be  remembered.  The  liter- 
ary e.\ercises  were  held  at  the  Santa  Rosa  Athe- 
naMim.  J.  II.  McGee  delivered  the  address  of 
welcome,  and  Governor  Stonenian  spoke  of 
pioneer  times.  The  annual  address  was  delivered 
by  Charles  T.  Weller.     It  was  as  follows: 

His  Excellency  the  Gocernor — Ladies  and 
(Jentlemen — Natice  Sons  of  the  Golden  West: 
Fifty  years  ago  a  lonely  herdsman  looking  over 
the  (piet  harbor  of  Yerba  J>uena,  watching  the 
waves  as  they  lazily  drifted  up  to  the  shore, 
kissed  the  sand  and  then  receded  to  the  boson) 
of  their  mother,  Ocean,  watching  the  priests  as 
they  went  about  their  ditferent  tasks  in  the  little 
mission,  whilst  over  all  shone  the  rays  of  an 
almost  tropical  sun,  bathing  the  sand  plains 
with  its  radiant  splendor  and  glorifying  the 
good  fathers  as  they  taught  their  little  wards  of 
the  life  which  was  beyond. 

To  this  watcher,  statiding  carelessly  there  in 
the  sunshine,  no  dream  of  the  future  sjilcudur 
of  that  scene  could  come.  Had  you  tolil  him 
of  a  time  but  a  few  years  distant,  when  thou- 
sands of  men  from  all  the  nations  of  the  earth 
would  crowd  u)mn  that  sand,  he  would  have 
thought  you  mad,  for  what  was  there  to  cause 
this  human  floods  .  Nothing  but  vast  sandy 
plains  and  the  everlasting  hills — mute  monu- 
ments of  the  Creator's  power — presented  them- 
selves to  the  eye.  Surely  this  was  not  a  land 
that  would  tempt  a  man  to  leave  the  fertile  hills 
and  valleys  of  the  East  and  l)rave  all  dangers  to 
reach  its  barren  shores. 

lIlsTonV    (IF    SdNOMA     LUIUNTY. 

Trnly,  tlie  priests  had  come.  For  a  hundred 
years  their  missions  liad  been  planted  on  the 
coast  and  they  had  endured  privation,  suffering, 
yea,  even  deatli  itself  for  the  cause  they  held  so 
dear;  but  the  world  was  used  to  this  sight. 
Where  in  ail  the  earth  had  the  zeal  oi"  the  holy 
fathers  not  carried  them?  No  journey  was  too 
hard  for  them  to  attempt — ready  at  the  word  to 
<ro  unto  the  ends  of  the  world.  The  pages  of 
h'story  have  rarely  shown  such  perfect  organiza- 
tion. Never  such  implicit  obedience  as  they 
exhibited.  «.\nd  so  the  quiet  life  of  the  old 
missions  ran  on  one  day  so  like  another  that  the 
riight  of  time  was  scarcely  marked,  save  when 
some  old  father,  weary  with  the  burden  of  his 
years  and  the  labor  performed  for  the  good  of 
his  fellow-men,  failed  to  appear  at  morning 
prayers,  and  his  brothers  going  to  his  cell  would 
find  that  he  had  been  called  to  his  reward. 

I  love  to  dwell  on  this  phase  of  the  old  life 
of  our  native  State.  It  presents  a  picture  so 
quiet  and  restful  that  one  living  in  the  wild 
rush  of  the  present  can  hardly  realize  that  it 
is  not  all  a  dream.  Amid  the  universal  strife 
for  personal  advancement  so  prevalent  in  our 
day,  we  have  but  a  dim  light  with  which  to  dis- 
cern the  nobler  humanity  that  led  the  fathers 
of  old  to  sacrifice  their  all  for  the  good  of  their 
fellows.  "What  though  the  recipient  of  their 
life  work  was  but  an  ignorant  savage — lowest, 
we  are  told,  of  the  entire  human  race?  Enough 
for  them  to  know  that  he  had  a  soul  to  save. 
The  world's  truest  heroes  are  not  always  those 
whose  names  are  on  every  tongue,  and  to  whom 
monuments  of  marble  pierce  the  sky.  In  many 
a  lowly  grave  in  the  old  mission  churchyard, 
with  naught  save  a  simple  cross  to  mark  the 
spot,  lies,  perhaps,  a  brave,  true  heart,  who, 
having  sacrificed  liimself  without  a  murmur  for 
the  welfare  of  his  brethren,  is  more  worthy  of 
praise  than  a  Napoleon. 

But  we  must  away  from  the  pleasant  picture 
of  California  life  under  the  Padres.  Suflice  that 
now  it  is  forever  dead,  and  whilst  with  reverent 
hands  we  draw  the  curtain  over  that  calm  past, 
we    cannot  fail  to  acknowledge  what    a    noble 

lesson  to  poor  weak  humanity  the  life  and  works 
of  the  holy  fathers  have  been. 

The  history  of  California  before  the  discovery 
of  gold  and  settlement  by  Americans,  resembles 
that  of  the  South  American  liepublics  of  to-day. 
Ruled  first  by  Spain  and  then  b}'  Ale.xico, 
California  in  turn  revolted  from  each  three 
times.  The  Mexican  power  was  broken.  In- 
deed, in  1836,  the  successful  Governor,  Alvarado, 
was  aided  by  a  Tennesseeaii  named  (xraham, 
who  evinced,  at  an  early  day  in  the  history  of 
our  State,  the  fondness  Americans  are  said  to 
have  for  politics.  Alvarado  re|.iaid  his  debt  of 
gratitude  to  his  friend  by  soon  sending  him, 
with  others,  in  chains  to  San  Bias,  only  to  see 
them  return  in  a  few  months  much  the  better 
for  their  exile. 

California  at  this,  as  in  former  times,  was 
ever  ready  for  a  revolution.  As  a  rule  no  one 
w'as  hurt,  and  it  generally  required  only  one 
shot,  as  at  the  capture  of  Monterey  by  Alva- 
rado, to  establish  the  downfall  of  one  governor 
and  the  succession  of  another.  And  so  the  life 
of  the  Californians  went  on,  the  population  at 
this  time  being  less  than  15,000,  mostly  engaged 
in  stock-raisincp.  For  the  herds  of  cattle  intro- 
duced by  Governor  Portal  and  Father  Junipero 
Serra  had  increased  to  vast  numbers  and  the 
trade  in  hides  had  become  quite  extensive,  the 
Boston  traders  keeping  two  ships  on  the  coast, 
thus  enabling  the  native  Californians  to  indulge 
their  love  of  finery,  which  had  hitherto  been 

But  a  different  race  was  now  to  appear  upon 
the  scene,  and  henceforth  revolutions  were  to  be 
something  more  than  a  name.  Early  in  18-16 
Fremont  arrived  upon  the  frontiers  of  Califor- 
nia, and,  with  his  company  of  some  sixty  odd 
men,  halted  about  100  miles  from  Monterey. 
He  then  proceeded  alone  to  that  place  to  inter- 
view the  Mexican  General  Castro,  asking  of 
him  permission  to  proceed  to  the  San  Joaquin 
Valley,  that  he  might  there  rest  and  recuperate 
his  party,  who  were  on  their  way  to  Oregon. 
The  request  was  freely  granted,  but  no  sooner 
had  Fremont  departed  than  Castro  began  to  stir 


ii[>  tlie  Calit'urnians.  Tlie  c.\[)lorcrs  were  be- 
bicjjed  for  some  four  days  near  Monterey,  but  tlie 
Californians  did  not  care  to  jiusli  the  iigliting, 
!-o  at  the  end  of  tliis  time  Fi'einont  and  liis  men 
took  up  tlieir  route  for  Oregon.  They  were 
soon  recalled,  however,  for  the  time  liad  at  last 
arrived,  vvlien  California  should  come  under  the 
protection  of  the  stars  and  sti'ipes. 

The  (Tovernment  at  Washington  had  long 
cast  eager  glances  westward,  and  on  the  2d  day 
of  July,  ISit),  Commodore  Sloat,  on  board  tlie 
frigate  Savannah,  entered  the  harbor  of  Monte- 
rey. His  position  was  a  trying  one,  for  if  lie 
did  not  take  possession  of  the  country  in  the 
name  of  tlie  United  States,  other  powers  might 
interfere.  At  the  time  the  Sarannah  left  Ma- 
zatlan  for  Monterey,  the  English  man-of-war 
C'lilliiKjiriioi/ t-Ailtid  from  San  Bias  for  the  same 

It  was  indeed  a  race  between  the  Uiiitetl 
States  and  England  on  which  perhaps  depended 
the  future  of  California. 

At  this  time  Sloat  did  iKitknuw  that  war  had 
lieen  declared  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico,  lie  therefore  hesitated  to  take  a  step 
which  must  provoke  hostilities. 

Before  this,  indeed,  the  shock  of  war  had 
been  felt  here  on  your  own  soil,  and  the  bear 
flag  had  fluttered  in  the  soft  breezes  of  the 
Sonoma  hills. 

This  occasion,  howexer,  was  ditl'erent;  the 
power  of  the  United  States  was  about  to  Ije 
invoked  and  woe  to  those  who  dared  its 

At  last,  on  the  7th  day  of  July,  181-f5,  Com- 
modore Sloat  raised  the  American  Hag  and  de- 
clared California  henceforth  a  part  of  the  United 
States,  and  on  the  lOtli  of  the  same  month  the 
stars  and  stripes  reached  Sonoma  and  were  sub- 
stituted for  the  l)ear  tiag,  under  which  our 
fathers  won  their  tirst  victory.  Much  was  still 
to  be  done  ere  the  (juestiou  was  entirely  settUnl, 
for  Flores  issued  a  prdclamation  to  the  Califor- 
nians and  gathered  together  some  three  hundred 
of  them  and  made  a  last  stand  for  independence. 
This  emeute  was  soon  tpielled,  however,  and  the 

United  States  were  in  undisturbed  possession  of 
Uj)per  California. 

In  the  spring  ot  18-18  the  treaty  of  peace.was 
ratified  between  our  country  and  Mexico,  and 
early  in  the  following  year  came  a  great  change 
to  California. 

On  the  19th  day  of  January,  184:'J,  James  AV. 
Marshall,  standing  by  a  stream  among  the 
mountains  of  the  present  county  of  El  Dorado, 
saw  something  glittering  before  him  in  the 
water.  He  gazes  for  a  moment,  then  knows  that 
it  is  gold,  sought  after  through  all  ages.  The 
secret  is  kept  for  a  little  time  but  soon  gets 
abroad,  and  flies  on  the  wings  of  the  wind  to  the 
uttermost  ends  of  the  earth.  Then  commences 
to  break  upon  our  coast  that  great  tide  of  hu- 
manity which  flowing  from  all  (piarters  of  the 
globe  passed  through  the  golden  gate  on  to  the 
golden  shore. 

Never  in  the  world's  history  has  such  a  sight 
been  presented  as  that  which  now  broke  upon 
the  vision  of  the  ipiiet  inhabitants  of  California. 
The  best  and  worst  elements  of  the  older  civi- 
lization were  set  down  on  the  sandy  shore  of 
the  old  mission  Dolores,  there  to  work  out  the 
eternal  law  of  the  survival  of  the  fittest. 

The  times  were  most  auspicious  for  the 
bringing  together  of  the  bravest  inanhood  in 
this  western  world.  The  war  with  Mexico  had 
closed  and  thousands  of  young  men  with  the 
laurels  of  victory  upon  their  brows  and  used  to 
a  life  of  adventure,  were  more  than  willing  to 
risk  their  all  in  search  of  the  hidden  treasure 
concealed  in  the  mountain  fastnesses  of  the  New 
El  Dorado. 

There  never  was,  there  never  can  be  a  i)raver, 
truer  race  of  men  than  those  Argonauts,  the 
pioneers  of  California,  bound  together  as  they 
were  by  no  ordinary  ties,  far  from  home  and 
kindred,  with  no  family  fireside  around  which 
to  gather,  with  nothing  to  call  forth  the  better 
side  of  man's  nature,  engaged  as  each  man  was 
in  the  wild  search  for  gold,  still  their  friendship 
was  heroic  in  its  trust  and  faithful  unto  death. 
And  was  it  nut  natural  that  it  should  be  sn'. 
These  men  lunl  encountered   peril    and  danger 

ursroBY  OF  sonoma  county. 

side  l)y  side,  liad  kept  guard  at  midnight  on  the 
liarren  phiins  of  Mexico  and  stood  shoulder  to 
slioulder  at  the  attack  on  Monterey.  A  thou- 
sand times  had  they  stood  face  to  face  with  death 
and  never  quailed.  Cemented  by  such  ties, 
what  wonder  that  there  existed  between  these  men 
a  trust  we  can  only  imagine.  The  name  of  the 
pioneeis  of  California  has  ever  been  a  synonym 
for  all  that  was  l)ravest  and  truest  in   manhood. 

At  this  time  through  all  the  broad  land,  from 
the  Atlantic  to  the  Mississippi,  and  from  the 
Great  Lakes  to  the  Gulf,  the  cry  was  "  West- 
ward-hol"  Old  and  young  alike  spurred  on  by 
the  hope  of  bettering  their  condition,  left  the 
(piiet  steady  life  they  had  known  so  long  and  set 
forth  with  brave  hearts  for  the  new  El  Dorado. 
The  sturdy  jS'^ew  England  lad  leaving  his  old 
home  among  the  hills  where  he  and  his  fathers 
before  him  had  scarcely  been  alile  to  make  both 
ends  meet,  went  side  by  side  with  the  college 
graduate  fresh  from  the  hills  of  Harvard. 
Whilst  from  the  plantations  of  the  South  and 
from  the  farms  of  the  then  West  came  a  human 
tide  slowly  forcing  its  way  across  the  broad 
plains  and  over  the  ocean  with  bnt  one  thought, 
one  dream,  one  aspiration — that  of  reaching 
California.  How  sad  it  is  to  realize  that  so  few 
of  all  these  countless  thousands  found  the  suc- 
cess they  hoped  for  on  these  shores. 

I  never  cross  the  beautiful  Bay  of  San  Fran- 
cisco with  its  bright  waters  reflecting  the  rosy 
tints  of  the  setting  sun  that  my  thoughts  do  not 
turn  to  the  olden  days,  and  looking  out  through 
the  Golden  Gate  I  can  picture  a  gallant  ship, 
with  all  sails  set,  slowly  coming  into  port.  Her 
sides  are  weather-stained  with  the  hard  usage 
she  has  encountered  in  beating  around  the  Horn, 
and  her  passengers  are  more  than  weary  with 
their  months'  of  continement.  Yet  the  smile 
of  hope  is  on  every  face,  for  at  last  they  are  in 
sight  of  the  long  sought  land.  Then  the  eager 
wish  to  get  ashore  and  into  the  mountains  to 
search  for  gold.  After  that  I  ah!  who  can  tell 
their  fate!  A  few  successful  in  their  search, 
but  the  great  majority  going  on  fi-oni  one  place 
to  another  until  at  last  they  sink  exhausted   by 

the  wayside,  and  the  wife  and  children  afar  off 
in  the  little  home  on  the  rough  New  England 
hillside  wait  in  vain  for  a  step  which  never 
comes;  for  a  voice  that  is  silent  forever;  wait 
until  even  hope  dies  away  and  they  know  that 
their  loved  one  is  lost  to  them. 

And  this  was  the  sad  fate  of  very  many  who, 
setting  forth  with  the  hope  of  procuring  that 
which  would  gladden  the  hearts  of  the  loved 
ones  at  home,  found  only  a  rough  grave  upon 
the  mountain  side,  and  the  sleep  which  knows 
no  waking. 

With  the  vast  influx  to  this  coast  of  Ameri- 
cans from  all  parts  of  the  United  States  came  a 
desire  to  secure  the  admission  of  California  iuto 
the  Union,  but  this  was  a  favor  more  easily 
asked  for  than  obtained.  At  the  very  threshold 
of  Congress  this  ambition  was  met  with  that 
old  question  which  had  caused  so  much  bitter- 
ness in  the  past  and  which  was  soon  to  bathe 
all  the  land  in  blood.  Slavery  stood  in  the  way. 
It  had  long  been  the  custom  in  order  to  main- 
tain a  political  balance  of  power  for  Congress  to 
admit  two  States  at  the  same  time — one  beluga 
slave  State,  the  other  free;  but  this  was  impos- 
sible at  this  time.  No  other  State  stood  knock- 
ing at  the  doors  of  the  National  Capitol,  and  the 
question  had  to  be  squarely  met. 

Attempts  to  give  a  territorial  form  of  govern- 
ment to  the  new  country  acquired  from  Mexico 
had  failed,  three  bills  having  such  an  object  had 
been  defeated  in  a  previous  session  of  Congress. 
And  in  1848,  Senator  Douglas,  of  Illinois,  in- 
troduced a  bill  admitting  California  into  the 
Union.  The  battle  waged  long  and  violent,  all 
the  old  passions  were  revived  and  sectional 
spirit  ran  as  high  as  during  the  time  of  the 
Missouri  Compromise  or  the  Wilmot  Proviso. 
Mr.  Douglas  did  all  that  man  could  do,  but  the 
opposition  was  too  strong,  and  after  an  all  night 
session,  on  Sunday  morning,  March  4,  184rU,  at 
7  o'clock,  the  Senate  adjourned  and  California 
was  still  left  without  a  State  government. 

In  the  meantime  the  people  of  California  had 
not  been  idle.  When  it  became  known  that 
Congress  had  failed  to  grant  any  relief, General 

History  op   coi/Nry 


Riley  called  upon  the  people  to  elect  delegates 
to  form  a  Constitution  for  the  State.  A  conven- 
tion met  for  this  purpose  on  the  third  day  of 
Septeinhei-,  1849,  at  Montert'v,  and  was  in  ses- 
sion some  six  weeks  evolving  the  first  Constitu- 
tion of  California.  This  was  soon  after  ratified 
by  the  people,  and  in  December,  1849,  the  first 
session  of  the  Legislature  met  at  San  Jose. 

The  question  of  the  admission  of  California 
came  before  Congress  again  at  its  ne.\t  session, 
and  the  fight  was  renewed  with  the  same  bitter- 
ness. Early  in  March  her  Senators  and  Repre- 
sentatives were  in  Washington,  asking  for 
admission  to  the  councils  of  the  nation. 

All  summer  the  question  engaged  the  giant 
minds  in  the  Senate,  and  at  times  the  issue 
seemed  most  doubtfhl,  but  at  last  the  friends  of 
the  new  State  conquered,  and  on  the  9th  day  of 
Septemlier,  1850,  President  Fillmore  signed  the 
bill  admitting  California  into  the  Union. 

To-day  we  are  gathered  together  to  celebrate 
the  thirty-fifth  anniversary  of  our  admission  in- 
to the  sisterhood  of  States.  Standing  in  this 
presence,  viewing  all  the  grand  accomplishments 
of  these  few  j'ears,  it  is  almost  impossible  for 
us  to  realize  that  it  is  jiot  all  a  dream;  for  thirty- 
five  years  is  as  nothing  in  the  life  of  a  country, 
and  what  wonders  has  our  fair  State  not  seen? 
Fiom  a  few  missions  scattered  along  the  coast 
have  sprung  a  dozen  cities,  and  the  old  Mission 
Dolores  has  grown  to  lie  the  empire  city  of  the 
AVest,  sitting  secure  upon  her  hills  by  the  Gold- 
en Gate,  proud  mistress  of  the  Pacific.  To  her 
has  come  trilmto  fi'mn  the  Orient  and  through 
her  gateway  gn  Inrth  ships  whose  sails  whiten 
every  sea.  ('(nild  but  the  sjiirit  of  some  old 
father  revisit  the  scenes  where  he  had  worked  in 
his  little  garden  among  the  siind  hills  he  would 
indeed  thiid<  that  tiie  age  of  miracles  had  come 
onee  more. 

Where  thirty-five  years  ago  were  a  few  scattei-ed 
ranches  with  herds  of  wild  cattle  running  over 
the  vast  plains  are  now  thriving  towns  and 
beautiful  farms.  In  no  other  land  has  nature 
been  so  lavish  in  her  gifts  to  the  children  of 
men.     With   us  all   climes  seem  to  meet  and 

blend,  and  the  hardy  pine  of  the  northern 
woods  whispers  iieside  the  orange  blossom  of 
the  south. 

We  have  often  been  ridiculed  for  boasting  so 
much  of  our  climate.  Vet  1  am  sure  we  are  fully 
justified  in  the  facts.  Stretching  as  our  State 
does  for  hundreds  of  miles  along  the  coast,  with 
its  fine  harl)ors,  that  of  San  Francisco  one  of 
the  best  in  the  world,  and  with  a  land  capable 
of  growing  almost  every  product  of  the  tem- 
perate and  torrid  zones — the  past  is  but  an 
earnest  of  what  the  future  has  in  store  for  us. 
Great  as  has  been  our  progress  during  the  past 
thirty-five  years,  I  look  forward  with  a  confi- 
dent hope  of  yet  grander  achievements. 

With  all  our  vast  resources  scarcely  un- 
touched, with  great  mines  of  wealth  yet  un- 
worked,  thousands  of  acres  of  fertile  soil 
uncultivated,  needing  only  the  hand  of  man  to 
cause  it  to  spring  forth  and  to  blossom  like  the 
rose,  we  as  a  people  are  not  faithful  to  the  great 
charge  entrusted  to  us,  if  we  are  satisfied  with 
the  glory  of  the  past  and  content  with  the  work 
done  by  our  fathers.  It  is  our  saci'ed  duty  to 
go  forward  in  the  the  patli  laid  out  for  iis  by 
the  pioneers,  building  up  the  prosperity  an<l 
greatness  of  the  grand  heritage  they  have  left 
us.  Our  task  is  much  easier  than  was  theirs; 
our  lives  have  fallen  in  pleasant  places;  for 
them  the  weary  months  of  toil  over  barren 
wastes  and  burning  sands,  the  battle  and  the 
siege;  for  us  the  pleasant  groves  and  vineyards, 
the  arts  and  civilizatitni,  and  the  security  of  the 

Shall  we  be  less  faithful,  enjoying  as  we  do 
the  fruits  of  their  labor,  than  were  they  with 
war  and  death  on  every  sid(>;  I  am  sure  I  can 
answer  for  y<in,  my  brothers,  when  I  say  that  you 
will  use  every  possilile  means  which  you  jiossess 
to  establish  stronger  the  bulwarks  of  our  beloved 
State;  that  you  will  see  to  it  that  no  act  of 
yours  will  ever  stain  the  fair  shield  of  ('alifor- 
nia;  that  accepting  from  your  fathers  as  a  sacred 
trust  the  honor  of  your  State,  yon  will  ever 
strive  to  jierpetiiate  its  glory  through  ail  the 


The  years  that  are  crowding  fast  upon  us  are 
full  of  responsiihilities.  Whether  we  wish  to 
or  not  there  are  grave  ijuestiuns  which  must  be 
met.  Every  day  sees  some  old  pioneer  gathered 
to  his  reward,  and  the  vast  majority  of  them 
have  already  passed  over  the  divide  and  rest  on 
the  other  sliore.  Tlie  future  of  our  State  for 
weal  or  woe  is  in  our  hands,  and  there  are  prob- 
lems to  be  solved  wliicli  will  require  all  our 
knowledge  and  courage. 

Though  we  are  proud,  as  onh'  those  can  be 
who  live  ujion  their  native  soil,  still  there  are 
elements  within  our  State  which  must  be 
checked  if  we  desire  to  preserve  untainted  the 
liberty  and  equality   which   we  have   inherited. 

One  of  the  great  evils  that  lias  grown  up 
within  our  State  is  the  vast  power  exercised  by 
wealth.  We  are  too  prone  in  these  latter  days 
to  worship  the  possessor  of  monej',  caring  little 
by  what  means  it  has  been  obtained.  Let  us 
rather  return  to  the  piineiples  nf  unr  fathers, 
believing  with  tiiein  that  "an  honest  man  is 
the  noblest  work  of  God;"  for  I  fear  they  had 
a  higlier  standard  by  which  to  judge  these 
things,  and  I  believe  old  ways  are  best. 

With  all  our  improvements  in  the  past,  with 
school-houses  and  churches  on  every  hand,  1  do 
not  know  that  we  can  boast  of  a  higher  tone  of 
personal  honor  than  that  which  existed  among 
the  rough  and  hardy  pioneers  who  tirst  landed 
on  these  shores.  Then  every  .man's  word  was  his 
bond,  and  to  impugn  a  man'o  truthfulness  was 
cause  enough  for  war.  Now,  1  fear,  we  mistrust 
most  men,  and  prone  as  the  people  are  to  be- 
lieve the  worst,  they  iind  themselves  too  often 
gratified.  It  is  our  duty  to  try  and  change 
these  things.  Let  us  prove  that  the  high  traits 
for  which  our  fathers  were  justly  praised,  yet 
live  in  us,  that  honesty,  integrity  and  manliness 
are  not  things  of  the  past  age,  but  exist  now, 
and  by  our  liel|)  will  continue  through  all  the 

On  an  occasion  of  this  kind,  wlien  our 
hearts  are  full  of  tender  memories  of  the  past, 
and  our  minds  turn  again  to  the  golden  days  of 
boyhood,  when  life  seemed  all  sunshine,  and  our 

highest  dreams  and  aspirations  were  so  quickly 
gratifie<l,  ere  we  had  learned  the  bitterness  of 
defeat  or  the  hollowness  of  victory — before  we 
had  drank  of  the  cuj)  of  knowledge  which 
brings  sorrow,  who  of  us,  turning  again  to  the 
sweet  past,  has  failed  to  look  for  one  form  dearer 
than  all  others,  the  pioneer  mothers  of  our  State. 
Would  that  I  had  the  eloquence  with  which  to 
pay  a  fitting  tribute  to  their  memory — coming 
as  they  did  across  the  desert  plains  and  over 
thousands  of  miles  of  ocean,  leaving  behind 
them  without  a  murmur  all  the  comfort  and  re- 
finements of  civilization,  content  to  take  their 
place  beside  the  one  tliey  loved,  and  sufl'er  all 
for  his  sake.  Tiieir  life  work  lies  before  us  in 
the  homes  that  are  within  our  borders. 

Oh,  firesides,  dotting  mountain,  valley  and 
plain,  ye  by  your  thousand  voices  bear  testi- 
mony of  the  noble  work  and  worth  of  the  truest 
mothers  of  our  State.  A[ay  God  bless  them  to 
their  latest  day. 

Standing  here  to-day  among  the  vine-clad 
hills  of  Sonoma,  on  ground  rendered  historic 
as  being  the  place  wliere  the  first  blow  was 
struck  by  Americans  having  for  its  object  the 
Conquest  of  this  fair  land,  almost  in  sight  of 
the  spot  where  the  famous  bear  fiag  fiuttered  in 
the  breezes  of  that  summer  day  thirty-nine  years 
ago,  we  are  more  than  impressed  with  the  vast 
evidences  of  jn'ogress  tluit  meet  our  view  on 
every  hand.  Where  once  the  mountain  and 
hillside  were  covered  by  mighty  forests  inhab- 
ited by  savage  beasts  or  still  more  savage  men, 
now  we  have  the  vine  and  the  fruit  tree,  under 
the  siiadow  of  which  dwell  the  happy  and  con- 
tented liusbandman. 

The  old  pioneer,  his  life  work  almost  finished, 
here  rests  and  dreams  of  the  stirring  days  of 
yore,  happy  in  the  knowledge  that  through  his 
exertions  this  goodly  heritage  was  secured  and 
that  his  children's  children  will  rise  up  and  call 
him  blessed. 

To  the  noble  pioneers,  California  owes  a  debt 
of  gratitude  which  can  never  be  repaid.  l'>y 
their  efforts  has  she  been  placed  within  a  few 
short  years  in  a  jiosition  second  to  none  in  the 


sister-liood  of  States.  Situated  as  we  are,  upon 
the  utmost  western  border  of  the  Republic,  far 
from  the  center  of  Federal  authority,  we  have 
not  received  the  same  amount  of  comfort  and 
assistance  from  the  general  government  that  our 
sister  States  have  enjoyed. 

Yet  our  loyalt}'  and  love  for  our  common 
country  has  never  wavered  in  the  past  nor  will 
it  ever  falter  in  the  future.  Each  star  in  tlie 
flag  is  dear  to  our  hearts  and  we  are  content  to 
bide  the  time  when  we  shall  be  better  under- 
stood. Standing  at  the  gateway  of  the  East, 
with  the  manners,  customs  and  civilization  of  an 
alien  race,  old  when  our  world  was  born,  menac- 
ing our  homes  and  institutions,  we  have  been 
forced  to  bar  the  way  to  this  servile  flood,  tiiat 
we  might  protect  our  own  flresides.  To  the 
rest  of  the  world  California  bids  a  most  liearty 
welcome.  On  our  great  fertile  plains  is  room 
for  all,  with  enough  of  food  to  All  the  hungry  of 
other  lands. 

To  those  sitting  in  the  darkness  of  a  despot- 
ism kejit  alive  by  force  in  the  old  world,  we 
oft'er  all  the  blessings  which  liberty  ever  brings 
to  its  happy  possessor. 

Founded,  as  this  State  was  by  men  of  every 
clime  under  heaven,  we  have  absolutely  no  prej- 
udices, judging  all  by  their  works  and  making 
none  responsible  for  the  errors  of  his  ancestors. 

With  these  blessings  on  every  hand  and  with 
the  vast  resources  of  our  soil,  there  is  practically 
no  limit  to  our  possibilities  as  a  people.  A 
grand  destiny  awaits  our  State.  May  each  of  us 
be  prepared  to  act  well  his  part  with  lionor  to 
himself  and  his  fatherland. 

To  you,  ]iioneer  fathers,  we  turn  this  day 
with  hearts  full  of  gratitude  for  the  l)lessings 
you  by  ydur  valor  have  conferred  upon  us.  To 
those  who  having  passed  over  the  divide,  look 
down  upon  us  from  the  heiglits  of  eternal  bliss, 
guide,  we  pray  you,  the  destinj-  of  the  State  you 
loved  so  well. 

To  others  who  are  still  with  us,  we  wish  all 
of  hapi)iness  and  peace.  May  their  last  days  be 
indeed  tlieir  best  ones,  and  when  the  sun,  for 
them,  shall   for  the  last  time  shed  liis  brilliant 

rays  upon  the  land  they  lield  so  dear,  may  its 
declining  light  guide  them  safely  into  the  eter- 
nal rest. 

And  now  to  thee.  Oh,  California,  l)rightest 
and  purest  star  in  all  the  galaxy  to  us,  we,  thy 
children, do  on  this  day  renew  our  fealty  to  thee. 
Loving  thee  as  no  other  people  can  love  thee, 
springing  from  thy  bosom  and  nurtured  on  thy 
breast,  we  pledge  our  lives,  our  honors  to  the 
pi'eservation  of  thy  liberty  in  all  its  pristine 
strength  ! 

May  he  be  greatest  among  us  wlio  does  the 
most  for  thee. 

And  through  all  the  cycles  of  the  ages,  God 
grant  that  thy  fair  shield  shall  shine  far  out 
over  the  western  waters  in  all  its  radiant  splen- 

At  the  close  of  this  eloquent  address,  (ieorge 
Homer  Meyer,  the  gifted  Sonoma  County  Jioet, 
recited  the  following  poem: 

THE    KAISIXO    OF     THE     FT.AOS. 

With  the  flag  of  all  others  we  love  and  reveie. 

And  whose  stars  float  above  us  to-day, 
Let  us  blend  the  worn  folds  of  the  brave  pioneer, 

While  we  wreathe  it  with  laurel  and  bay. 
With  the  names  of  our  father.s  its  colors  entwine, 

And  no  shadow  its  history  mars, 
And  to-day  do  we  hold  it  as  fitting  to  shine, 

By  the  side  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 

Tho'  all  rugged  and  rude  on  that  far-a-way  morn 

Was  the  banner  they  lifted  in  air, 
Yet  the  deed  marked  the  day  when   an  Empire  was 

For  the  voice  of  God's  Freedom  was  there. 
And  the  hands  that  decreed  that  that  Freedont  should 

Were  as  rude  witli  their  labor-worn  scars 
As  the  ensign  they  raised — yet  it  flo.ated  .la  free, 

As  the  flag  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 

And  then  far  to  the  south  where  the  swift  breezes  jilay 

O'er  the  wave-broken  face  of  the  tide. 
O'er  the  crests  of  the  seas  with   their  wild  locks  ol 

Lo  !  two  stately  sea-warriors  ride. 
And  a  banner  blood-red  from  one  lofty  mast  flows. 

With  St.  George's  crossed,  crimson-hued  bars. 
While  aflame  in  the  .sunlight  another  tliere  glows— 

The  bright  flag  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 

But  sweet  tidings  have  come  to  the  chiefs  o'er  the  sens, 
A  dark  glow  as  of  joy  lights  theii  eyes; 


Now  like  light  is  the  canvas  flung  wide  In  the  breeze, 

For  a  race,  with  an  Empire  the  prize. 
And  now  strain  every  hallianl  and  bend  every  sail. 

And  this  day  prove  the  strength  of  your  spars — 
Sliall  (he  Cross  and  the  Crown  of  proud  England  pre- 

Or  the  flag  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars? 

Bnt  one  springs  to  the  front — like  a  shaft  from  the  bow 

Does  she  cleave  thro'  the  billow3'  spray, 
And  the  foam   in   her  track,  like  the  pathway  of  snow. 

O'er  the  wind  driven  sea  marks  her  waj-. 
The  wild  waves  lash    her  siiles  till  her  masts  liend  and 

And  her  mighty  frame  trembles  and  jars. 
Hut  she  rises  erect  on  her  iron  shod  keel. 

And  above  Hoats  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 

And  on,  on  !  ever  on  !  the  wild  sea  rushes  by, 

While  the  Briton  comes  following  fast — 
And  there,  gleaming  before  them,  the  green  valleys  lie. 

For  the  wild  race  is  ending  at  last. 
And  now  pause,  ship  of  Britain,  the  contest  is  o'er, 

Lower  down  your  vain  canvas  and  spars, 
For  there,  rising  in  triumph  above  the  green  shore. 

Floats  the  flag  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 

And  now  speed  the  glad  ti<lings  away  to  the  north. 

Let  it  fly  on  the  winds  of  the  air; 
To  that  camp  in  the  hills  let  the  knowledge  go  forth. 

To  the  true  hearts  awaiting  it  there. 
Let  them  lay  their  brave  flag  on  the  Altars  of  Fame, 

No  dishonor  its  radiance  mars. 
For  unconqiiered  it  yields  without  shadow  of  shame, 

To  the  flag  of  the  Stripes  and  the  Stars. 






Military  and  Political  History. 


Sonoma  under  mit.itarv  rule — General    Hiley  aitoints   civil  officers — a  si-EfiMEN  of   how 



chixerv  (if  civil  (idvkknment  set  in  motion elections  am)  nl'mher  of  votes  i'ollkd    ix 

Sonoma  district — ueoin    to  agitate    countv    seat  kejioval — a   vote  taken   on  the  <jdes. 
TioN  IN  1854 — Santa    Eosa    declared   the  county  seat — earlv  court  accommodations  at 

the    new     county     seat AN     ATTEMPT     TO    REMOVE    THE     COUNTY    SEAT    FROM    SaNIA     KosA     A 


^S|S  yet,  Califoriiia  was  under  military  rule 
.toI  ^"'^  «iuite  a  garrison  was  maintained  at 
'■^^(^  Sonoma.  It  was  tiie  head  center  of  the 
northern  frontier,  and  when  the  gold  fields  of 
California  began  to  attract  immigration  it  be- 
came a  place  of  much  business  importance.  As 
a  military  post  it  was  honored  with  the  presence 
of  several  otticers,  who  afterward  achieved 
national  renown,  notable  among  whom  were 
Joe  Hooker,  Phil  Ivearney,  afterward  killed  at 
Antietam;  Ceneral  Stone,  (Tcncral  Stoneman, 
afterward  Governor  of  California;  an<l  J.ienten- 
ant  Derby,  author  of  the  Squibob  Papers. 

In  1849  (reneral  Itiley  was  commandant  on 
the  Pacific  coast,  and  appears  to  have  had  the 
power  to  appoint  civil  otticers;  for  in  August  of 
that  year  he  issued  a  commission  to  Stephen 
Cooper  as  judge  of  the  first  district,  and 
appointed  C.  J*.  Wilkins  prefect  of  the  district 
of  Sonoma.  That  the  justice  administered  by 
the    officers    so    appointed   was  both  grim  and 

swift  is  evidenced  by  tiie  first  record  in  Stephen 
Cooper's  court,  which  is  as  follows: 

"The  people  of  California  Territory  vs. 
George  Palmer — And  now  comes  the  said  people 
by  right  of  their  attorney,  and  the  said  defend- 
ant by  Seinple  and  O'AIelveny,  and  the  prisoner 
having  been  arraigned  on  the  indictment 
in  this  cause  plead  not  guilty.  Therefore  a 
jury  was  chosen,  selected  and  sworn,  when,  after 
hearing  the  evidence  and  arguments  of  couhspI, 
returned  into  court  the  tbllowiiig  verdict,  to 

"The  jurymen  in  the  case  of  Palmer,  defend- 
ant, and  the  State  of  California,  plaintiff,  have 
found  a  verdict  of  guilty  on  both  counts  of  the 
indictment,  and  sentence  him  to  receive  the 
following  ])unishment,  to  wit: 

"On  Saturday,  the  24th  day  of  November,  to 
be  conducted  by  the  sheriff  to  some  public 
])lace,  ;uid  there  receive  on  his  bare  back  seven- 
ty-live lashes,  with  such  a  weapon  as'the  sheriff 


HISTORY    (iF    SnmiMA    COUNT F. 

may  deem  fit,  on  each  count  respectively,  and 
to  be  banished  from  tlie  district  of  Sonoma 
within  twelve  lionrs  after  whipping,  under  the 
])enalty  of  receiving  the  same  number  of  laslies 
for  each  and  every  day  he  remains  in  the  dis- 
trict after  the  first   whipping. 

"(Signed)  Ai.exaniikk   Riddlk, 

•'  Foreman. 

'•It  is  therefore  ordered  l>y  the  court,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  above  verdict  that  tlie  forego- 
ing sentence  be  carried  into  etfect." 

It  may  seem  strange  to  the  reader  tiiat  the 
jury  ]ia8sed  sentence,  hut  they  could,  and  in 
case  of  grand  larceny,  a  jury  could  pass  sentence 
of  death;  as  they  did,  vide  Tanner  vs.  the 
people  of  the  State  of  California,  2nd  Col.  Re- 

As  yet  everything  was  in  a  chaotic  fornuitive 
state.  The  civil  authority  related  back  to  mili- 
tary authority.  And  yet  the  government  seems 
to  have  been  efficient  and  conducive  to  good 
order  and  justice.  Tlie  penalties  imposed  may 
n(j\v  seem  severe  and  even  cruel,  but  we  must 
remember  that  in  taking  up  civilization  where 
Mexican  occupancy  ended  and  American  occu- 
pancy began  perfection  in  either  civil  or  crimi- 
nal practice  would  not  be  expected.  There  had 
to  be  a  gradual  shading  up  to  a  more  advanced 
stage  of  civilization.  In  due  time  this  came 
under  the  benign  influence  of  American  rule 
and  the  administration  of  American  law.  The 
whipping  post  as  a  punishment  for  petty  crimes 
and  the  gallows. as  the  punishment  for  grand 
larceny  marks  the  dividing  line  between  Cali- 
fornia as  a  conquered  province  of  Mexico,  and  a 
star  in  the  galaxy  of  the  States  of  the  Union 
of  the  United  States  of  America.  If  at  first  her 
justice  was  administered  with  a  seemingly 
vigorous  hand,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the 
civil  and  criminal  authority  related  back  to  the 
military  that  ruled  with  the  sword,  the  keen 
edge  of  which  did  not  allow  the  gordian  knots 
of  law  to  impede  the  ends  of  swift  and  summary 
punishment  for  infractions  of  law.  As  seem- 
ingly severe  as  this  administration  of  justice 
may    seem    to   those   of  later  days,   it    must  liP 

borne  in  mind  that  the  influx  to  California  of  a 
vast  horde  of  gold-seekers,  had  precipitated  upon 
this  coast  a  people  cosmopolitan  in  a  degree 
never  l)efore  concentrated  upon  God's  footstool; 
and  nothing  short  of  the  most  Vigorous  methods 
of  jurisprudence  would  meet  the  exigencies  of 
the  times.  The  interregnum  between  military 
and  civil  rule  in  California  was  a  period  fraught 
with  many  dangers  to  the  weal  of  California, 
and  it  is  a  subject  of  congratulation  that  it  was 
tided  over  with  so  few  mistakes  and  errors.  I'ut 
the  military  rule  liad  tilled  its  appointed  office 
and  the  people  came  under  the  dominion  of 
civil  rule. 

California  was  now  under  the  peaceful  folds 
of  the  stars  and  stripes.  On  February  2,  184-8. 
a  treaty  of  peace  and  friendship  was  formulated 
attTuadalupe  Hidalgo;  ratified  by  the  President 
of  the  United  States  on  March  IG,  18-48;  ex- 
changed at  Queretaro,  May  30,  and  was  finally 
promulgated  on  the  4th  of  July  ot  the  same 
year,  by  President  Polk,  and  attested  by  Secre- 
tary of  State,  James  lUielianan.  In  June,  1849, 
a  proclamation  was  published  calling  an  election 
to  be  held  on  the  1st  of  August,  to  elect  dele- 
gates to  a  general  convention  to  formulate  a 
State  constitution,  and  for  filling  the  offices  of 
judge  of  tlie  superior  court,  prefects,  sul)- 
prefects,  and  first  alcalda  as  judge  of  the  first 
instance,  such  appointments  to  be  made  by 
General  Riley  after  being  voted  for.  The 
Sonoma  district  elected  as  delegates  to  that  con- 
vention General  Yallejo,  Joel  Walker,  R. 
Seniple  and  L.  W.  Boggs.  The  number  of  del- 
egates was  fixed  at  thirty-seven,  and  they  were 
to  meet  in  convention  at  Monterey  on  the  1st 
of  September,  184!l. 

The  constitutional  convention  assembled  at 
Monterey  at  the  appointed  time  and  R.  Semjde, 
delegate  from  the  Sonoma  district,  was  chosen 
chairman.  The  session  lasted  six  weeks.  It 
seems  to  have  been  conducted  with  ability  and 
decorum.  A  seal  of  the  State  was  adopted  with 
the  motto  "  Eureka;''  a  provision  for  the  morals 
and  education  of  the  people  of  the  State  was 
made:  the  boundary  (piestion  between   Califor- 


nia  and  Mexico  deteniiined,  and  last,  but  not 
least,  slavery  was  forever  proiiibited  within  the 
boundary  of  the  State. 

The  constitution  so  framed,  was  submitted  to 
the  people  for  ratitication  at  an  election  held  on 
the  13th  of  November.  At  the  same  election 
State  officers  were  to  lie  elected.  Tlie  vote  for 
the  constitution  was  12,064  for,  and  eleven 
against  its  adoption.  For  State  officers  there 
were  two  tickets  in  the  field,  both  called  the 
peoples'  ticket.  The  first  was:  for  Governor, 
John  A.  Sutter;  for  Lieutenant-Governor,  John 
McDougall  ;  for  Representatives  in  Congi'ess, 
William  E.  Shannon,  Peter  Ilalsted.  The 
second  was:  Peter  H.  Burnett,  for  Governor; 
for  Lieutenant-Governer,  John  McDougall;  for 
Representatives  in  Congress,  Edward  Gilbert  and 
George  W.  Wright.  The  result  of  this  election 
was:  Peter  Burnett,  (Governor;  John  McDougall, 
Lieutenant-Governor;  and  Edward  Gilbert  and 
George  W.  Wright  sent  to  Congress.  The  total 
vote  polled  by  Sonoma  district  in  this  election 
was  552  votes,  of  which  424  were  for  Jiurnett. 
For  the  State  Senate  the  contest  was  between 
General  M.  G.  Yallejo  and  Jonas  Spect,  a  Meth- 
odist clergyman,  afterward  a  resident  of  Two 
Rock  Valley  foi'  many  years.  At  first  Jonas 
Spect  was  given  his  seat  on  the  claim  that  he 
had  received  a  majority  of  the  votes  cast  at  a 
precinct  somewhere  in  the  district  called  "  Lar- 
kin's  Rancho."  But  it  seems  that  Spect  had 
reckoned  without  his  host,  for  when  authentic 
returns  came  in  from  Larkin's  Ranch  it  proved 
that  Yallejo  had  lieen  elected  by  eighteen  ma- 
jority, and  Spect  had  to  vacate  his  seat  in  favor 
of  Vallejo.  The  duly  elected  Representatives  to 
the  Assembly  from  the  district  of  Sonoma  was 
J.  E.  Brackett  and  J.  S.  Bradford.  On  the  15th 
of  December,  1849,  this,  the  first  legislative 
body  convened  un<ler  American  rule,  assembled 
at  the  Pueblo  de  San  Jose,  and  the  senate  organ- 
ized with  Mr.  Cambcrlin  as  president  pro  tern., 
and  John  Bidwell  as  temporary  secretary.  The 
assembly  organized  with  Mr.  Walthall  as  chair- 
man/*/v)  fern.,  and  Mr.  Moorchead  as  clerk  pro 
tiHi.      riio  first  session  of  the  Legislature  \ipon 

which  was  devolved  the  task  of  setting  in 
motioTi  the  wheels  of  civil  government  had  a 
difficult  and  intricate  task  to  perform.  It  dis- 
charged its  duties  as  well  as  could  lie  expected 
considering  the  multiform  and  intricate  ques- 
tions pressed  upon  its  considei'ation.  At  this 
session  Robert  Hopkins  was  appointed  district 
judge  of  the  district  of  which  Sonoma  County 
was  a  part,  and  J.  E.  Brackett  Major-General  of 
the  second  division  of  militia.  Petaluma  and 
Scmoma  Creeks  were  also  declared  navigalde 
streams.  Throughout  the  proceedings  of  this 
first  legislative  body  of  California  seems  to 
have  been  harmonious,  except  that  there  was 
apparent  some  friction  over  the  charactei-  of 
memorial  to  be  sent  to  Congress  asking  for  ad- 
mission into  the  sisterhood  of  States.  The  bone 
of  contention  was  that  clause  of  the  constitution 
prohibiting  slavery.  This  led  to  much  acri- 
monious discussion  and  resulted  in  the  rejection 
of  all  the  florid  addresses  intended  as  accom- 
paniments to  the  constitution,  to  be  submitted 
to  Congress  for  ratification. 

The  Legislature  proceeded  to  divide  the  Ter- 
ritory into  counties.  The  act  sub-dividing  into 
counties  and  establishing, seats  of  justice  therein 
was  finally  passed  and  confirmed  on  the  25th  of 
April,  1851,  fixing  the  boundaries  of  Sonoma 
County  as  follows: 

"  Beginning  on  the  sea-coast,  at  the  mouth 
of  Russian  River,  and  following  up  the  middle 
of  said  river  to  its  source  in  the  range  of  moun- 
tains called  Moyaemas;  thence  in  a  direct  line 
to  the  northwestern  corner  of  Napa  County  to 
its  termination  in  ('amero  Mountains;  thence 
in  a  direct  line  to  the  nearest  point  of  Camero 
Creek;  thence  down  said  creek  to  its  entrance 
into  Napa  River;  thence  down  the  middle  of 
Napa  River  to  its  mouth,  excluding  the  island 
called  Signor, or  Mare  Island;  thence  due  south 
to  the  north  line  of  Contra  Costa  County;  thence 
down  the  middle  of  said  bay  to  the  corner  of 
Marin  County;  thence  following  the  boundary 
of  IVIarin  County  to  Petaluma  Creek;  thence  up 
said  ciTfk,  following  the  boundary  of  Afarin 
Connt\   to  the  ocean,  and    thi'ee   miles  Therein; 

insTiiRY    oF    soNoMA    diVNTY. 

thence  in  a  northerly  direction  parallel  with  the 
coast  to  a  point  opposite  the  mouth  of  Russian 
River,  and  thence  to  said  river,  wliich  was  the 
place  of  heginning."  If  we  take  a  map  and 
follow  the  meanderings  df  this  boundary  we 
will  find  it  very  dissimihir  to  the  present  boun- 
daries of  Sonoma  Oounty.  Sonoma  was  desig- 
nare<l  as  the  seat  uf  county  government.  Pro- 
vision was  made  for  a  court  consisting  of  a 
county  judge,  to  be  assisted  in  his  deliberations 
by  two  justices  of  the  peace,  they  to  be  cliosen 
by  their  brother  justices  from  out  of  the  whole 
number  elected  for  the  county.  This  court  had 
great  latitude  of  jurisdiction,  for,  aside  from 
passing  upon  matters  civil  and  criminal,  it  also 
discharged,  substantially,  all  the  functions  now 
belonging  to  a  county  lioard  of  supervisors. 
The  regular  terms  of  this  court  were  to  com- 
mence on  the  second  Monday  of  February, 
April,  June,  August,  October  and  December, 
with  quarterly  sessions  on  the  third  Monday  of 
February,  May,  August  and  November  of  each 

On  the  lull  of  September,  1850,  California 
was  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a  State.  The 
first  regular  State  Legislature  assembled  at  San 
Jose  on  January  6,  1851.  The  Eleventh  Sena- 
torial District  then  embraced  the  counties  of 
Sonoma,  S(dano,  Napa,  Marin,  Colusa,  Yolo, 
and  Trinity,  and  was  represented  in  the  Senate 
by  Martin  E.  Cook;  while  Sonoma,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  Marin,  Napa  and  Solano  counties  was 
represented  in  the  Assembly  by  A.  Stearns  and 
John  A.  Bradford. 

There  had  l)een  established  a  court  of  sessions 
at  Sonoma  with  A.  A.  Oreen  as  County  Judge 
and  Charles  Hudspeth  and  Refer  Campbell  as 
Associates.  Judge  Green  died  in  1851,  and  W- 
O.  King  was  chosen  to  till  his  place.  In  Novem- 
l)er  of  that  year  C.  R.  Wilkins  was  elected 
County  Judge,  Israel  I'rockman  was  sheriff 
and  Dr.  John  llendley  was  county  clerk  and 

In  July  of  1852  Refer  Campbell  and  J.  M. 
Miller  were  associate  justices  on  the  bench 
with  Judyc  Wilkins:   ami  on  the  3il  of  October 

they  were  superseded  by  A.  C  (iodwin  and 
Phil.  R.  Thompson.  The  first  Board  of  Super- 
visors for  the  county  convened  on  July  5,  1852, 
at  Sonoma,  and  took  charge  of  county  affairs 
not  coming  within  tlie  jurisdiction  of  the  court 
of  sessions.  The  members  were  D.  O.  Shat- 
tuck;  William  A.  Hereford,  of  Santa  Rosa  Dis- 
trict, and  Leonard  I'.  Hansen  and  James  Sing- 
ley  of  Retalunm  District.  I).  ( ).  Shattuck  was 
made  Chairman  of  the  Board. 

A*  the  Rresidential  election,  the  fall  of  1852, 
E.  W.  McKinstry  was  elected  District  Judge  of 
this  district,  and  J.  M.  Hudspeth,  Senator,  and 
H.  S.  Ewingand  James  McKamy,  assemblymen. 
As  an  inspiration  to  the  young  men  of  Sonoma 
County  of  the  future,  not  to  despise  the  humlde 
vocations  of  life,  we  here  mention  that  Joe 
Hooker,  the  afterward  celebrated  "Fighting  Joe 
Hooker"  of  the  civil  war,  was  elected  to  and 
filled  the  position  of  road-master  in  Sonoma 
road  district,  in  the  year  of  grace,  185H. 

In  1852  Sonoma  County  played  so  little  of  a 
conspicuous  figure  in  politics  that  we  find  no 
record  of  its  attitude  on  the  great  national  ques- 
tions of  the  day.  It  was  then  Whig  and  Dem- 
ocrat, but  we  find  notlnng  to  show  iiow  the  vote 
stood  between  Rierce  and  tiie  hero  of  "  Lundy's 
Lane,"  but  judging  from  tiie  complexion  of  the 
then  population  of  Sonoma  County,  the  vote 
was  in  favor  of  Rierce. 

In  1853  the  Democratic  convention  which 
met  at  Santa  Rosa  nominated  Joe  Hooker  an<l 
Lindsay  Carson  for  the  assembly,  and  a  fuU 
county  ticket.  The  Settlers'  convention  met  on 
Aueust  fith  and  nominated  a  full  ticket,  headed 
by  James  N.  Bennett  and  Judge  Robert  Hop- 
kins for  the  assembly.  It  was  a  tie  vote  be- 
tween Bennett  and  Hooker.  On  the  second 
election  to  decide  this  tie  vote  the  removal  of  the 
county  seat  from  Sonoma  to  Santa  Rosa  became 
a  direct  issue.  Tiie  election  came  off  on  Octo- 
ber 9,  and  Bennett,  who  lived  and  was  sponsor 
for  P.ennett  Yalley,  beat  Hooker,  a  resident  of 
Sonoma,  l)y  thirteen  majority.  Lindsay  Carson 
having  declined  the  election  to  tlie  assembly  a 
new  election  was  called   to   fill   the  vacancy  on 



the  23(1  uf  December.  Tlic  candidates  were  W. 
J],  llagiuit;,  James  Siiii;;lcy  and  Joseph  W.  Bel- 
den,  and  resulted  in  the  election  of  AV.  H. 

Ilitlierto  we  have  had  to  grupe  amid  the  im- 
pertect  and  defaced  written  records  of  Sonoma 
to  rind  the  political  history  of  the  county.  In 
September,  1855,  there  was  a  State  and  county 
election  held.  The  AVhio-  jiarty  had  subsitled 
and  the  contest  was  a  straight  one  on  the  State 
ticket  between  the  Democratic  and  Ameuican 
parties.  The  candidates  for  Governor  were 
Rigler,  Democratic,  and  Johnson,  American. 
In  Sonoma  County  Rigler  received  988  votes 
and  Johnson  892.  In  the  county  contest  tlie 
tickets  were  Democratic  and  Settler.  The  Set- 
tler's ticket  was  elected  from  top  to  l^ottom.  At 
this  election  was  submitted  the  proposition 
"Prohibitory  Liquor  Law  yes,  and  Prohibitory 
Liquor  Law  no,''  and  the  vote  stood,  yes,  591; 
and  no,  676.  The  total  vote  polled  in  Sonoma 
and  Mendocino  counties  at  this  election  was 

As  stated  aliuve,  the  contest  in  1853,  between 
Joe  Hooker  and  Bennett  hinged  upon  the  pro- 
posed removal  of  the  county  seat  from  Sonoma 
to  Santa  Rosa.  This  became  a  leading  question 
in  the  political  issues  of  the  county.  To  give 
the  reader  a  correct  idea  of  the  whole  subject 
we  cannot  better  do  so  than  by  incorporating 
here  the  whole  history  in  connection  with  the 
county  seat  removal  as  lelated  by  R.  A.  Thomp- 
son in  his  excellent  history  of  Santa  Rosa  Town- 
ship.    It  is  as  follows: 

"  In  the  year  of  1850,  in  the  town  of  Sonoma, 
the  county  occupied  a  building  owned  by  II.  A. 
(Trreen,  County  Judge.  The  Court  of  Sessions 
then  transacted  the  i)usini;ss  of  the  county,  now 
entrusted  to  the  iJoard  of  Supervisors.  The 
(Jourt  consisted  of  the  County  Judge  and  a 
n\iinbcr  of  Associate  Justices.  At  the  time  of 
which  I  write  the  meinbers^of  the  court  were 
II.  A.  (4reen,  County  Judge,  J*.  Campbell  and 
Charles  Hudspeth,  associates.  On  the  I8th  of 
March,  1850,  H.  A.  Green  presents  iiis  bill  to 
his  own  court   for  rent  of  building   for  court- 

house, from  the  20th  of  May  to  the  20th  of 
Septenil)er,  1850 — four  months,  at  .S125  jicr 
month — S500.  The  bill  was  allowed,  and  wa.s 
the  lirst  transaction  of  any  kind  regai'ding  a 
court  house. 

"On  the  iS'h  of  February,  1850,  the  Court 
made  the  rollowing  oixlei',  in  the  matter  of  pur- 
chasing a  court-house:  'The  (-ourt  having  con- 
sidered the  expense  accruing  to  the  county 
annually,  foi'  rent  of  a  court-house  and  offices, 
are  of  the  opinion  that  it  would  be  a  saving  to 
the  county  to  ])urchase  a  house  already  built, 
and  recommend  the  same  to  be  taken  into  con- 
sideration as  soon  as  possible. 

"  At  the  next  meeting,  in  March,  Peter  Camp- 
bell and  Charles  Hudspeth  were  appointed  by  the 
court  to  buy  or  erect  a  suitable  building  for  a  court- 
house, jail,  otKces,  etc.  At  tlio  following  meet- 
ing this  order  was  rescinded,  and  John  Cameron 
and  A.  C.  McDonald  were  appointed  in  their 
stead.  They  reported  at  once,  and  recommended, 
quite  innocently,  the  purchase  of  Judge  Green's 
house,  as,  of  course,  was  anticipated,  for  $5,500, 
to  be  paid  for  in  seven  warrants,  three  for  iJioOO 
and  four  for  $1,000  each,  to  bear  3  per  cent, 
interest  per  month  until  paid.  The  court  ac- 
cepted the  report — generously,  liowever,  reduc- 
ing the  interest  to  2^  per  cent,  per  month. 
Judge  Green  made  a  deed,  and  the  county  took 
possession  of  the  old  '  casa.  dc  tidohe^  (juurters. 
The  interest  ran  up  more  than  the  rent,  and  was 
never  paid;  nor  was  the  principal  until  long 
after  the  death  of  Mr.  Green.  The  board  of 
supervisors  succeeded  the  court  of  sessions,  and 
they  considered  it  very  (piestioiiable  whether 
there  was  any  law  whatever  for  the  purchase, 
and  payment  hung  lire  for  a  long  time,  but  it 
was  eventually  paid,  as  will  be  seen.  The  county 
occupied  this  l)uilding  until  it  left  Sonoma. 

"  In  March,  1854,  the  bill  authorizing  a  vote 
upon  the  question  of  removal  of  county  seat 
passed  the  Legislature.  It  was  introduced  on 
the  18th  of  April,  was  approved  on  the  19th 
and  became  a  law.  It  was  entitled  •  An  act  to 
locate  the  county  seat  of  Soimma."  It  jirovided 
for  three  commissioners,  who  were  luimed  in  the 



liill:  Charles  Loper  and  Gilbert  R.  Brusli,  of 
Maiiii  Cuiiiity,  and  James  McNear,  of  Napa,  to 
locate  anew  the  county  seat  of  yonoma.  Section 
second  provided  that  the  commissioners  should 
locate  the  county  seat  '  a?;  near  the  geograpiiical 
center  of  tiie  valley  portion,  or  agricultural  por- 
tion of  said  county,  as  practicable,  having  due 
regard  to  ail  local  advantages  in  the  selection  of 
the  site." 

"  The  commissioners  wer€  to  notify  the  su- 
pervisors of  their  selection,  and  the  supervisors 
were  to  certify  the  same  to  tlie  county  judge, 
and  the  judge  was  directed  to  give  notice  to  the 
(qualified  electors  of  the  county  to  vote  foi-  or 
against  the  new  county  seat  at  the  following 
general  election,  li'  a  majority  voted  for  tiie 
new  county  seat,  the  board  were  directed  to  re- 
move the  archives  to  Santa  Rosa  and  provide 
the  requisite  county  buildings;  if  against  the 
new  county  seat,  then  it  should  remain  in 

"The  contest  for  removal  actually  Ijcgan  a 
year  ijeforc  in  the  race  between  Joe  Hooker  and 
J.  AV.  Bennett  for  the  Legislature.  In  Santa 
Rosa  Bennett  received  eighty-four  votes  to 
Hooker's  two.  Tlu;  (piestion  of  removal  gave 
him  almost  a  solid  vote,  though-  it  was  not 
publicly  mentioned,  lie  carrieil  the  county  by 
a  majority  of  twenty-two  votes. 

••  The  Sonoma  Bulletin,,  then  edited  by  that 
pioneer  journalist,  A.  J.  Cox,  very  warndy  ad- 
vocated Mr.  Hooker's  election,  and  up  to  this 
date,  in  his  admirably  edited  paper,  had  no 
reference  to  the  removal  of  the  county  seat, 
though  he  must  have   thought  about  it. 

'•The  grand  jury,  on  the  7th  of  February, 
1854,  condemned  the  old  court-house — which 
they  called  '  an  old  dilapidated  adobe  of  small 
dimensions,  in  part  rootless  and  unlit  for  a  cattle 
shed.'  They  say  it  had  cost  !«9,0U(),  of  which 
§3,000  had  been  paid  and  ^HOOO  was  still 

"Next  week  the  Bulletin  said,  editorially: 
•  The  old  court-house  is  about  being  deserted, 
and  high  time  it  should  be,  unless  our  worthy 
officers  of  the  law  would  run  the  risk  of  being 

crushed  beneath  a  mass  of  mud  and  shingles, 
for  we  really  believe  it  will  cave  in  the  next 
heavy  rain.' 

"AVhen  it  was  known  in  Sonoma  that  Mr. 
Bei.nett's  bill  had  been  introduced,  the  Bulletin 
of  Api-il  8,  1854,  under  head  of  '  Removal  of 
County  Seat,' said:  'Our  representatives  at  Sac- 
ramento, hitherto  inert  and  dumb,  have  at 
length  bestirred  themselves  to  action — some- 
thing to  save  appearances  at  the  close  of  the 
session.  This  effort  to  do  something,  however, 
reminds  our  citizens  that  they  are  represented 
at  the  capital  -a  circumstance  they  had  long 
since  forgotten.  The  first  intimation  we  had  of 
the  peoj)le' ft  desire  to  remove  the  county  seat 
from  Sononui  to  Santa  Rosa  was  through  the 
legislative  proceedings  of  March  28th,  which 
inform  us  that  the  bill  ha<l  been  introduced  and 
passed  for  that  purpose.  From  what  source  did 
our  representatives  derive  the  information  that 
a  change  was  demanded  by  our  people?  In  the 
name  of  a  large  body  of  their  constituents  we 
protest  against  the  measure  as  premature,  un- 
authorized and  impolitic.  The  county  cannot 
even  repair  the  miserable  building,  and  theoidy 
one  it  possesses;  how  then  can  it  bear  the  ex- 
pense of  erecting  new  ones?  Perhaps  the 
Sonoma  delegation  can  perform  a  financial 

"The  session  of  the  Legislature  was  drawing 
to  a  close,  and  there  was  no  time  to  compass  the 
defeat  of  the  bill,  hence  the  rather  bitter  tone 
of  the  above  editorial. 

"  In  its  issue  of  August  19th  the  Bulletin 
said:  'The  removal  of  the  county  seat  claims  a 
large  share  of  public  interest.  Will  it  be  trans- 
ferred from  Sonoma  to  Santa  Rosa?  Of  course 
that  can  only  be  positively  known  when  the 
ballots  for  and  against  the  new  county  seat  arc 
counted.  J  udging  from  what  we  call  popular 
opinion  of  the  matter,  Santa  Rosa  has  but  a 
slim  chance  of  success,  although  every  one  con- 
siders it  a  pretty  little  town,  and  located  in  a 
pretty  spot.'  Oue  of  the  editor's  arguments 
against  removal  was  that  if  the  county  should 
be  divided,  Santa  Rosa  would  l)e  as  extreme  as 


Sonoma  now  is,  and,  like  our  famous  State  capi- 
tal, the  county  seat  would  have  to  '  roll  its  bones 

"  The  election  took  place  on  the  tith  of  Sep- 
tember, as  advertised,  and  the  vote  stood  as 
t'oliows:  for  Santa  Rosa,  716;   for  Sonoma,  ot)8. 

"  On  tiie  14th  day  of  the  same  month  the 
editor  of  the  BuUi'tin  announces  the  vote  as 
follows:  'The  county  seat — that's  a  gone  or 
going  case  from  Sonoma.  The  uji-country  peo- 
ple battled  furiously  against  us,  and  have  come 
out  victorious.  B3'  the  way,  the  people  of  Santa 
Rosa,  after  being  satisfied  of  their  success,  tired 
one  hundred  guns  in  honor  of  the  event;  that 
is  an  anvil  supplied  the  place  of  a  cannon, 
which  was  let  oft"  100  times.  A  great  country 
this,  whether  fenced  in  or  not.' 

"The  board  of  supervisors  met  in  Sonoma  on 
the  18th  day  of  September  as  a  board  of  can- 
vassers, and  declared  the  above  result.  \i  the 
same  meeting  they  agreed  to  convene  in  Santa 
Rosa  September  20th,  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
viding the  necessary  buildings  for  the  different 
county  officers,  and  for  transacting  any  otlie 
business  pertaining  to  tlie  new  county  seat. 

"The  district  attorney  was  requested  to  ac- 
company the  boa  d  on  September  20th.  A. 
Copeland,lI.  G.  Heald,  R.  E.  Smith  and  Stephen 
L.  Fowder,  constituting  a  majority  of  the  board 
of  supervisors,  met  for  the  first  time  in  Santa 
Rosa.  Supervisor  R.  E.  Smith  was  chairman  of 
the  Itoai'd. 

"Julio  Carrillo,  V.  G.  llahman,  Herthold 
Iloen  and  W.  P.  Hartinaii  appeared  before  the 
board,  they  being  proprietors  of  the  town  of 
Santa  Rosa,  and  agreed  to  furnish  free  of  rent 
three  rooms  in  the  house  owned  and  occupied  by 
Julio  Carrillo  (now  ex-Mayor  James  P.  Clark's 
residence),  to  be  used  by  the  sheriff',  clerk  and 
treasurer  until  other  buildings  were  provided. 
They  also  agreed  that  by  the  3d  day  of  Novem-. 
ber,  1854,  they  would  have  a  court-house  and 
suitable  rooms  for  county  officers,  said  building 
to  be  the  property  of  the  County  of  Sonoma  for 
one  year  gratis.  A  bond  to  carry  out  this 
agreement  was  given. 

"The  board  then  clinched  tlie  removal,  and 
fixed  the  county  seat  in  its  new  location  by  the 
following  order,  which  was  placed  upon  the 

" '  It  is  hereby  certified  that  at  an  election 
held  in  the  County  of  Sonoma  on  the  fith  day 
of  September,  1854,  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of 
the  Legislature  entitled  'An  act  to  locate  the 
county  seat  of  Sonoma  County  anew,'  the  new 
county  seat  received  716  votes,  having  a  major- 
ity of  the  votes  cast  at  said  election.  Now, 
therefore,  know  that  the  town  of  Santa  Rosa  is 
hereby  declared  to  be  the  county  seat  of  Sonoma 

"  Supervisor  Stephen  E.  Fowler  offered  the 

'•^  Ii'esidra/,  l!y  order  of  the  lioaril  of  super- 
visors of  Sonoma  County,  that  the  archives  v\' 
said  county  be  moved  from  the  city  of  Sonoma 
to  the  town  of  Santa  Rosa,  by  order  of  the 
board  declared  to  be  the  county  seat  of  Sonoma 
County  on  September  22,  1854.' 

"When  the  archives  were  finally  taken  the 
irrepressibly  witty  Sonoma  editor  gets  off  the 
following:  Departed. — Last  Friday  the  county 
officei's  with  the  archives  left  town  for  tiie  new 
capitol  amidst  the  exulting  grin  of  some,  and 
silent  disapproval  (frowning  visages)  of  others. 
We  are  only  sorry  they  did  not  take  the  court- 
house along — not  because  it  would  be  an  orna- 
ment to  Santa  Rosa,  but  because  its  removal 
would  have  embellished  our  plaza.  Alasl  old 
^  caiid  de  ddohc.'  No  more  do  we  see  county 
lawyers  and  loafers  in  general,  lazily  engaged  in 
the  laudable  effort  of  whittling  asunder  the 
veranda-posts — which,  by  the  way,  recpiired  but 
little  more  to  bring  the  whole  fabric  to  the 
ground.  Xo  more  shall  we  hear  within  and 
around  it  lengthy,  logical  political  discussions, 
upon  which  were  supposed  to  hang  the  fate  of 
the  world.  The  court-house  is  deserteil,  like 
some  old  feudal  castle,  only  tenanted,  perhaps, 
by  bats,  rats  and  Heas.  Li  the  classic  language 
of  no  one  in  particular,  '  Let  'er  rip.' 

"At  the  first  meeting  of  the  lioard  District 
Attorney   McNair  put    in    a   l>ill  for  $250,  for 


iielt)ing  the  siijiervisors  tu  get  legally  out  of 
80110111a;  he  was  allowed  slUO.  Tlie  hoard 
thought  they  did  must  of  the  work — at  least 
two-thirds  of  it.  Jiin  Williamson  modestly  put 
in  a  hill  of  $10,  for  getting  away  with  the 
records,  which  was  allowed,  without  a  groan,  as 
it  ought  to  have  heen. 

"The  first  said  about  a  jail  was  December 
13,  1855,  when  Supervisor  Harrison,  of  Geyser- 
ville,  proposed  to  cast  about  for  plans;  the 
matter  was  laid  over. 

•'  The  editor  of  the  Bullitin.  visited  Santa 
Rosa  in  October,  a  month  after  the  removal, 
and  it  is  pleasant  to  know  how  it  a])pears 
to  one  so  capable  of  estimating  it.  Mr.  Cox 
says:  '  Our  friends  at  Santa  Rosa  are  displaying 
considerable  energy  in  building  np  the  town. 
We  notice,  among  other  evidences  of  enterprise, 
the  partial  erection  of  a  court-house.  It  is  a 
pretty  building,  and.  though  seemingly  small  to 
those  accustomed  to  the  palatial  four-story  edi- 
fices of  Sonoma,  is  suthcieutly  large  for  the  pur- 
pose. The  citizens  of  the  town  certainly  possess, 
in  an  eminent  degree,  the  great  ingredients  of 
success,  industry  and  enterprise.'  This  is  a 
handsome  tribute  to  the  early  Santa  Rosans. 

"  The  next  reference  to  the  subject  appears 
November  30th,  in  which  it  is  stated  that 
>  .ludge  McKinstry  has  decided  the  mandamus 
to  remove  the  county  seat  in  favor  of  Santa 
Rosa.     Citizens,  let  the  question  repose." 

"On  Tuesday,  October  2d,  1854,  the  Court 
of  Sessions,  Judge  Frank  W.  Shattuck  presid- 
ing, met  for  the  first  time,  in  the  old  Masonic 
Hall,  opposite  the  Santa  Rosa  House.  Judge 
I*.  R.  Thompson  and  James  Prewett  were 
elected  Associate  Justices.  If  his  Honor,  the 
presiding  Judge,  did  not  make  a  joke  on  the 
novelty  of  the  situation,  then  he  was  less  witty 
as  a  '  wise  young  Judge  '  than  he  now^  is  as  the 
editor  of  the  Petaluma  Courier. 

"  Iloen,  Ilahinan  and  Carrillo,  it  will  be  re- 
membered, had  given  bonds  to  the  Board,  that 
they  would  have  a  building  suitable  for  the  pur- 
poses of  the  county  ready  by  the  3d  day  of 
J^ovember.     This  building,  which  stood  on  the 

ground  now  occupied  by  C.  D.  Frazee's  drug 
store,  on  Fourth  street,  near  the  corner  of  Meii- 
\  docino,  was  rapidly  pushed,  and  was  finished  in 
December.  The  IJoard  had  to  furnish  it,  and 
the  following  funny  order  aj)pears  upon  the 
minutes  on  the  12tli  day  of  December,  1854: 

•• '  It  is  ordered  that  the  clerk  be  authorized  to 
receive  sealed  proposals  for  the  construction  of 
twelve  benches  for  the  court-room,  seven  and 
one-half  feet  long,  and  to  be  made  of  two-inch 
stuff,  and  fourteen  inches  wide,  with  strong 
backs  to  them,  and  the  clerk  be  authorized  to 
I  set  up  for  sealed  proposals,  to  be  delivered  on 
the  26th  inst.' 

"  Whether  the  clerk  '  set  up '  all  night  to 
receive  these  proposals  is  not  anywhere  stated. 

"This  temporary  court-house  moved  down 
Fourth  street  in  1875,  to  make  room  for  im- 
provements. It  was  mounted  on  two  trucks, 
drawn  by  a  big,  six  mule  team.  The  mules 
stuck  with  it,  just  oj^posite  the  recorder's  ofKce, 
on  Fourth  street,  and  it  was  pulled  out  by  four 
little,  half-breed  mustangs,  belonging  to  James 
Shaw\  of  the  Guilicos  Valley,  all  of  which  is 
facetiously  related  by  the  chroniclers  of  that 

"The  clerk  was,  at  this  December  meeting  of 
the  Roard  of  Supervisors,  authorized  to  receive 
deeds  from  Julio  Carrillo  for  lots  406  and  407, 
upon  which  the  court-house  now  stands.  The 
lots  donated  by  Ilahman  and  Iloen  were  sold  at 
auction,  and  were  purchased  by  Mr.  Iloen,  the 
original  owMier. 

"On  the  27th  of  Deceinljer  II.  V.  MuUison 
was  ordered  to  make  a  plan  of  the  jail  by  June 
8th,  1855.  The  Board  took  no  further  steps  in 
the  matter  until  that  time,  when  they  deter- 
mined to  build  both  court-house  and  jail.  The 
plan  of  D.  II.  Huston  was  adopted,  for  which  he 
was  paid  $150,  and  the  lower  story  of  the  pres- 
ent court-house,  not  including  sheriff's  office, 
jail  or  Judge's  chambers,  was  contracted  for 
with  James  M.  Philips;  the  building  was  to  be 
set  on  the  lots  406  and  407,  deeded  to  the  county 
by  Julio  Carrillo. 

"In    iS'ovember,   1855.  H.  A.  Green's  execii- 



tors  presented  a  bill  for  the  old  Sonuma  two- 
iind-a-l)alf-per-ceiit-a-inouth-adol)e,  aiiiouiitiiig 
to  .<^10,843.  The  Board  did  not  see  it  as  the 
executor  did — they  finally  offered  !t^3,250  to 
settle  the  claim;  it  was  accepted.  The  Hoard 
offered  the  old  seat  of  justice,  '  Casa  de  Adobe," 
for  sale,  and  it  was  purchased  by  the  Sonoma 
Lodge,  I.  C).  U.  F.,  No.  27,  for  their  hall.  The 
erection  of  a  one-story  court-house  and  jail 
was  going  on  during  the  summer  and  tall  of 
1S55.  A  >pecial  meeting  of  tlie  l>oard  was 
calKil  to  receive  it  December  28,  1855.  They 
met,  but  would  not  receive  the  building,  on  the 
ground  that  it  was  not  built  in  accordance  with 
])lans  and  specilications.  Uoth  sides  got  mad. 
The  IJoard  offered  $7,000  to  settle,  which  was 
promptly  refused.  On  the  8th  of  February, 
1855,  the  F)oard  went  up  to  !B10,400,  which  was 
accej)ted  by  the  contractor,  and  the  county  took 
possession  of  tlie  premises.  On  the  Gtli  of 
March  Judge  W.  Clmrchman,  J.  A.  lieynolds, 
A.  C.  niedsoe  and  D.  McDonald  were  appointed 
a  cumniittcc  to  furnish  the  building  at  an  ex- 
pense of  .i;l,OOU.  A.  further  appropriation  of 
!r^500,  for  tlie  same  purpose,  was  made.  Total 
cost  of  building,  ^14,400;  and  furnishing, 

'•  After  this  there  was  no  more  court-house 
trouble  for  four  years,  when  it  broke  out  again, 
the  same  old  cry — more  room;  same  trouble  in 
getting  plans,  and  same  coniplications  in  settling 
with  contractors  was  to  follow,  but  all  this  was 
in  the,  then,  future.  The  proposition  this  time 
was,  as  the  saihjrs  would  say,  to  put  an  '  upper 
deck"  on  the  one-story  court-house  of  1855,  and 
attacli  a  jail  and  hospital  as  tender.  It  was 
ordered  to  be  done  on  the  12th  of  May,  1851*. 
Uids  were  received  on  the  14th  day  of  June, 
185U.  Tiie  contract  was  let  to  Mr.  i'hilips  and 
Joseph  Nouges;  Samuel  West  was  ajjpointcd 
sujicrintcndent;  tiie  contract  price  was  .^^15,000. 
The  building  was  to  be  completed  by  Christmas; 
that  ))ortion  over  the  jail  was  originally  in- 
tended for  a  iiospital.  The  work  pi-ogresseil 
iluring  the  summer  of  1859.  On  the  19th  of 
November  the  Board  made  an  order  that,  after- 

ward put  tliLMH  to  much  trouble;  it  was  as  fol- 

"  'That  the  superintendent  of  construction  of 
public  buildings,  Samuel  AVest,  be  empowered 
to  make  such  changes  in  j)lan  of  jail  and  court- 
house as  in  his  judgment  is  necessary,  having 
in  view  the  best  interests  of  the  county." 
Under  this  order  radical   changes  were  made. 

'•The  Work  was  finished  in  January,  1800,  and 
a  special  meeting  of  the  Hoard  was  calleil  to  re- 
ceive the  building  and   settle   with    contractors. 

'•The  contractors  furnished  the  following  bill : 

Original  lontiatt $1.5,000  00 

Charges  extra 25,891  3:J 

By  county  lu-ilers  received iJllT.OOO 

Work  not  done I,8l:j- 

.f40,S!ll  -l-.i 
18,813  00 

liahince  due  uontrai-tors $22,078  33 

"  The  Ijoard  could  not  settle,  and  John  I). 
Grant,  II.  R.  Leonard  and  Volney  E.  Howard 
were  selected  to  arbitrate.  A  large  number  of 
witnesses  were  called,  and  finally  the  sum  of 
!r;6,000  was  awarded  to  the  contractors — making 
$26,500  paid  contractors  in  all.  Cost  of  arbi- 
tration, paid  by  county,  $1,(501;  salary  of  Super- 
intendent West,  $1,200.  Total  cost  of  building, 

"  The  building  was  occupied  in  ISliO,  and  all 
seemed  well.  lUit  the  Santa  Kosans  had  hardly 
got  througli  admiring  the  blindfolded  statue  of 
Justice  with  equal  scales,  which  surmounted  the 
new  court-house,  when  they  found  they  had 
something  to  occupy  them  much  nearer  •  terra 

'•  The  question  of  removing  the  county  seat 
always  breaks  out  when  there  is  any  change 
made  in  the  court-house.  The  trouble  with  the 
contractors  and  the  expense  of  the  improve- 
ments brought  on  a  violent  attack  of  this  sym- 
pathetic disease.  Hefore  the  Santa  IJosans 
knew  it  they  were  face  to  face  with  the  same 
issue  they  had  formerly  made  witli  the  good 
j)eople  of  the  town  of  Sonoma. 

"Hon.  Henry  Edgerton  introtlucedabill  in  the 
Legislature  of  1861,  in  A])ril,  providing  that 
tlie  question  of  removing  the   county    seat   of 

HISTUltY    OF    av^OMA    U0U2iTY 

Sonoma  should  be  voted  on  at  the  next  general 
election.  He  put  it  through  under  whip  and 
spur,  and  the  Santa  Ilosans  were  put  upon  the 
defense  for  their  right  to  the  new  c-ourt-house, 
after  all  their  trouble  in  building  it.  They  met 
the  issue  fairly  and  squarely,  and  on  the  Ith 
day  of  Septeniljer  their  title  to  the  county  seat 
was  again  clinelied  by  a  direct  and  decisive  vote 
of  the  people.  If  the  Santa  Kosans  had  been  at 
all  alarmed,  the  .-e(|\iel  to  this  agitation  proved 
that  they  had  no  occasion  to  be  so,  as  the  tabu- 
lated vote  upon  the  question  will  show:  for  re- 
moval, 814;  against  removal,  1,632. 

"  For  twenty  years  after  this  verdict  there  was 
no  further  county  seat  agitation. 

"  In  1866  a  new  roof  was  put  un  the  court- 
house, and  it  was  plastered  on  the  outside,  at  a 
total  cost  of  $2,600.  In  1867  the  jail  was  re- 
built and  improvements  were  made  at  a  cost  of 
.f8,'J99.  Total  cost  of  building,  with  furniture, 
about  $60,000.  Tiie  old  structure  was  recently 
sold  for  $26,000,  which  leaves  the  net  cost  of 
the  court-house  to  the  t-ounty  $34,000. 

"  The  first  district  judge  of  Sonoma  County 
Avas  Jiobert  Hopkins.  He  was  practicing  law 
in  Sonoma  in  184n.  when  the  Legislature  met 
in  San  Jose.  There  was  a  movement  on  foot  to 
attach  the  Valley  of  Sonoma  to  Napa  County. 
The  citizens  of  Sonoma  sent  the  Hon.  George 
Pearce  and  Mi-.  Hopkins  as  a  committee  to 
countci-act  this  scheme.  AVhen  they  got  to  San 
Jose  they  found  that  the  Legislature  was  about 
to  appoint  a  district  judge  for  the  district  who 
was  a  non-resident.  Mr.  I^earce  proposed  his 
colleague  Mr.  Hopkins  on  the  committee, 
and  had  him  appointed  ti)  the  ottice.  They 
returned  home,  having  accomplished  their  object 
and  also  securing  the  appointment   of  district 

"The  Hon.  E.  W.  McKinstry  succeeded  Mr. 
Hopkins.  He  served  a  number  of  years,  and  is 
now  a  distinguished  member  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  the  State  of  California. 

"Judge  J.  B.  Southard  succeeded  Judge  Mc- 
Kinstry, and  he  was  followed  by  Judge  \V.  C. 
Wallace    and    Jackson  Temple.     The    superior 

judges  succeeded  under  the  new  constitution 
to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  district  judges." 

Under  the  new  organization  of  the  court 
Jackson  Temple  and  John  (r.  Pj-essley  occupied 
the  bench.  Judge  Temple  having  been  elected 
one  of  the  Supreme  Judges  of  the  State,  Thomas 
Rutledge  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy.  At 
the  election  of  1888  S.  K.  Donglierty  was 
elected  to  that  position  and  now,  with  J.  C 
Pressley,  discharges  the  duties  of  that  court. 

Lender  the  old  county  judge  system  we  tind 
that  the  following  named  gentlemen  served  in 
that  position  in  the  order  in  which  they  are 
named:  II.  A.  Green,  Charles  P.  AVilkins,  J.  E. 
McNair,  Frank  Shattuck,  P.  R.  Thompson, 
"William  Churman,  C.  AV.  Langdon,  A.  P. 
Overton  and  John  G.  Pressley. 

Sonoma  County  had  so  increased  in  popula- 
tion and  wealth  that  all  saw  and  admitted  that 
her  county  buildings  were  inadequate  to  the 
county's  need.  .Vfter  the  usual  amount  of  fric- 
tion and  sparring  about  location  and  cost  of 
court-house,  the  plaza  of  Santa  Ilosa  was  selected 
as  the  site  and  the  cost  of  building  was  fixed 
not  to  exceed  $80,000.  This  was  in  1883.  Bids 
for  constructing  the  building  were  advertised 
for,  and  the  contract  finally  awarded  to  ]\[essrs. 
Carle  ct  Croly,  at  $80,000,  with  the  condition 
that  the  building  was  to  be  cDinpleted  by  the 
1st  of  Januar}',  1885.  ( >n  the  7th  of  May,  1884, 
the  corner-stone  of  this  edifice  was  laid,  with  im^ 
posing  ceremonies,  and  in  due  time  reached  com- 
pletion. It  is  ornate  in  appearance,  and  a  credit 
to  the  people  of  Sonoma  County.  The  building  is 
classic  in  design  and  built  jarincipally  of  stone, 
brick  and  iron.  Its  form  approximates  the 
(xreek  cross  with  projecting  center  (^and  flanks), 
having  a  dome.  The  building  has  four  peudi- 
ments,  each  surmounted  by  a  figure  of  the  God- 
dess of  Justice.  The  dome  is  topped  with  a 
figure  of  Minerva.  It  will  measure  107  by 
115  feet,  exclusive  of  porticoes,  stairs  and  all 
other  projections;  besides  the  basement  and 
dome,  it  is  two  full  stories  in  height.  Base- 
ment 12  feet,  first  story  15  feet,  court-rooms 
in  second  story  22  feet,  all  other  rooms  in  upper 


lor\orr\a  ^our\ty  (^oupt  J1o\j§q 



story  lU  feet,  and  comprises  business  and  ju- 
dicial apartments  for  the  entire  county  govern- 
ment. The  approaches  to  the  first  story  of  the 
building  are  granite  staircases  and  !~teps  2i  feet 
in  width;  these  land  in  porticoes  laid  in  Mosaic. 
Tiien  cume  the  grand  entrances  into  the  corri- 
.iurs  li  by  112  feet. 

On  the  left  are  the  clerk's  otiices,  one  21 
feet  3  inches  by  53  feet  8  inches;  the  other  20 
I'cct  7  inches  by  '2U  feet  8  inches,  connected 
t(.)getht'r  by  an  archway;  ne.\t  the  supervisors, 
room  21  feet  3  inches  by  38  feet,  also  connected 
with  clerk's  room;  on  the  right  the  recorder's 
offices,  21  feet  3  inches  by  73  feet  9  inches,  and 

20  feet  7  inches  by  29  feet  3  inches;  the  Super- 
intendent of  public  instruction's  room,  18  feet 
(i  inches  by  21  feet  3  inciies;  the  grand  jury 
room,  21  feet  0  inciies  by  21  feet  3  inches;  stair- 
case leading  to  court-rooms  and  offices  above,  and 
also  to  the  basement.  In  the  upper  story  are  two 
Superior  Court  rooms,  one  38  feet  4  inches  by 
59  feet  4  inches,  and  one  36  feet  8  inches  by  54 
feet,  two  judges'  chambers  14  feet  10  inciies 
by  20  feet  11  inches,  two  jury  rooms   14  feet 

10  inches  by  20  feet  11  inches,  each  connected 
with  the  court-rooms;  district   attorney's  rooms 

21  feet  7  inches  by  27  feet  2  inches,  and  15  feet 

11  inches  by  19  feet  (>  inches;  hall  and  stairways 
19  by  43  feet;  janitor's  rooms  and  stairway 
leading  to  dome  15  feet  9  inches  by  19  feet; 
this  staircase  leads  to  attic,  thence  a  spiral  stair- 
case to  upper  section  of  dome;  the  dome  is  127 
I'ect  hitih  from  the  grade  line  of  Fourth  street; 
in  the  basement  is  the  sheriff's  rooms  21  feet  3 
inches  by  35  feet  5  inches,  one  14  feet  6  inches 
by  27  feet,  and  store  room  19  by  21  feet  3 
inches;  treasurer's  office  23  feet  0  inches  by  21 
feet  3  inches,  containing  a  fire  and  burglar  proof 
vault,  7  by  8  feet;  surveyor's  rooms  17  feet  2 
inches  by  21  feet  3  inciies,  and  13  feet  6  inches 
Uy  21   I'cct  3  inches;  W.  C.  21    hy  20  feet  7 

inches;  boiler  room  below,  same  size;  the  jail 
38  by  58  feet  8  inches,  with  12  iron  cells  7  by 
7  feet,  and  three  5  by  7  feet;  said  jail  is  lined 
with  plate  iron.  In  the  construction  of  this 
[  edifice,  it  required  eight  hundred  thousand 
(800,000)  brick,  two  hundred  and  forty  (240) 
tons  of  dressed  granite;  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  (137)  tons  of  wrought  iron,  thirty  (30) 
tons  of  cast  iron,  three  thousand  nine  hundred 
and  twenty-two  (3.922)  feet  of  corrugated  iron — 
besides  lumber  and  other  materials.  The  founda- 
tions alone  rei^uired  eight  huiidrcd  and  fifty  (850) 
.  perch  of  basalt  rock. 

The  county  is  subdivided  into  fourteen  town- 
ships as  follows:  .Vnaly,  Bodega,  Cloverdalc, 
Knight's  Valley,  Mendocino,  Ocean,  I'etaluma, 
Redwood,  liussian  lliver,  Washington,  Salt 
Point,  Santa  Itosa,  Sonoma  and  Vallejo.  The 
county  government  is  managed  by  a  Board  of 
Supervisors  comprised  of  five  members,  each 
representing  a  supervisorial  district. 

The  county  is  at  ])resent  represented  in  the 
Senate  by  E.  C.  Hinshaw;  and  in  the  Assembly 
by  J.  AV.  Ragsdale,  Robert  Howe,  and  Plielix 

The  following  are  the  present  county  officers: 
J.  (t.  Pressley  and  S.  K.  Dougherty,  Judges 
Superior  Court;  George  Hall,  Court  Reporter; 
John  Goss,  Court  Commissioner;  Albert  G. 
Burnett,  District  Attorney;  L.  W.  Juilliard, 
County  Clerk;  W.  F.  Wines,  Deputy  Clerk; 
W.  S.  Coulter,  Deputy;  E.  P.  Colgan,  Sherifi'; 
J.  D.  Earnett,  LTnder-Sheriff;  M.  V.  Vaiidcr- 
hoof  and  11.  Groshong,  Deputies;  P.  N.  Stofen, 
Treasurer;  A.  P.  Moore,  Auditor  and  Recorder; 
A.  P.  Mulligan,  Deputy- Auditor  and  Recorder; 
Mrs.  F.  McG.  Martin,  Sup't.  Public  Schools;  W. 
Longmore,  Assessor;  P.  R.  Davis,  Surveyor; 
J.  Tivnen,  Coronor  and  Public  Administrator; 
Benj.  (ilark,  (4.  F.  .Mien,  M.  K.  Cady,  G.  V. 
Davis,  F.  A.  Smith,  Board  of  Supervisors. 

nusroJiV    OF    fONOMA    VOVNTY. 


I'xHNDAKIKS    <l|-    S.iXdMA     CoUXTV IIEK    MolnIAIN     |;AX(.I> — KnKE^TS     AM)     \  AI.I.HVf 

fEOGIJAPHICALLY  coiisidertMl,  Snnoiua  1 
County  occupies  onu  uf  tliu  most  favored 
positions  of  any  county  in  the  State.  Her 
southern  limb  rests  upon  San  Pabhj  P)ay.  tlie 
connecting  link  between  tlie  Straits  of  ('ai-(|uine/. 
and  the  ]>ay  of  San  Francisco,  lieaching  in- 
land there  are  two  tidal  streams,  the  Petal unia 
Creek  and  Sonoma  Creek,  tlie  former  being  nav- 
igable to  steam  and  sailing  crafts  a  distance  U|» 
from  the  bay  of  twelve  miles,  and  the  latter  a 
distance  of  about  seven  miles.  These  arteries 
of  water  transportation  are  of  incalculal)le  value 
to  the  agriculturists  and  ihiii-vineu  of  the  sur- 
rounding country,  insuring  to  them  for  all  time 
to  Come  cheap  transportation  of  their  |ii-oducts 
to  San  Francisco,  the  great  metropolis  of  the 
Pacific  coast,  that  is  only  distant  from  the  south- 
ern limits  of  the  county  about  twenty  miles. 
Along  these  tidal  streams  are  vast  areas  of 
marsh  land,  much  of  which  has  already,  and  all 
of  which  in  time,  will  be  reclaimed  and  brought 
in  subjection  to  profitable  cultivation.  The 
meanderings  of  Petaluiua  Creek  northward  from 
San  Pablo  Hay  to  within  four  miles  of  Petaluma 
is  the  boundary  between  Sonoma  and  Marin 
counties,  where  the  boundary  line  leaves  tidal 
salt  water  and  follows  the  serpentine  course  of 
the  San  Antonio  Creek  northward  about  nine 

miles,  to  the  Lagoona  San  Antonio  (once  a  tule 
marsh  l>ut  now  drained  and  under  cultivation), 
anil  thence  in  a  direct  line  to  the  head  of  the 
Kstero  Americano,  near  Valley  Ford,  a  tidal 
stream,  that  tending  westerly,  debouches  in  the 
Pacific  Ocean  aljout  six  miles  ilistant  from  the 
latter  place.  From  this  jwint  to  the  mouth  of 
the  (lualala  River,  a  distance  of  about  thirty 
miles,  Sonoma  County  has  for  her  boundary  the 
broad  Piicitic.  The  boundary  between  Sonoma 
andMendocino  counties  commences  at  the  month 
of  the  (iualala  River  and  following  its  meander- 
ings about  two  miles  to  a  point  just  above  the 
confluence  of  South  Gualala,  takes  a  straight 
line  easterly  over  the  mountains,  about  twenty- 
four  miles  to  the  summit  of  Redwood  Mountain, 
where,  with  a  sliglit  angle,  but  with  a  still 
easterly  deflection,  the  line  continues  on  and 
across  the  Russian  River  canon  at  a  point  four 
miles  northward  from  Cloverdale,  and  in  a 
straight  line  about  twelve  miles  to  the  Lake 
("ountv  line  on  the  summit  of  tiie  Macuway 
Mountains.  From  this  point,  and  at  almost 
ricrht  angles,  the  line  of  boundary  between 
Sonoma  County  and  Lake  and  Napa  counties  it 
rnus  south  in  a  straight  line  about  forty-eight 
miles  to  the  intersection  of  the  boundary  line 
between  Napa  and  Solano  counties;  and  from 



thence  the  boundiuy  between  Sonoma  and 
Solano  counties  runs  westerly,  about  six  miles, 
to  San  F'ablo  Bay,  the  place  of  beginning. 

It  will  tiius  be  seen  that  IVFarin  County,  with 
a  l)road  l)ase  resting  on  tlie  bays  of  San  b'ran- 
ciscoand  San  Pablo,  lays  wedge-shaped  l)etween 
Sonoma  C'ounty  and  the  Pacific  Ocean,  its  north- 
ern and  narrow  end  terminating  at  the  Kstero 
Americano,  very  near  the  middle  of  tiie  western 
boundary  of  Sonoma.  According  to  Bower's 
map  of  Sonoma  County,  which  we  believe  to  be 
substantially  correct,  i*'  is  seventy  miles  in  a 
straight  line  from  the  extreme  southerly  point 
of  Sonoma  County,  on  San  Pablo  Pa}-,  to  the 
Mendocino  County  line  at  the  mouth  of  the 
(Inalala  Piver,  and  its  breadth  gradually  in- 
creases from  about  twenty  miles  at  Petaluma,  to 
about  thirty-five  miles,  taking  Cloverdale  as 
the  base  of  a  straight  line  across.  The  fore- 
going is  a  correct  statement  of  the  present  legal 
geograjihical  boundaries  of  Sonoma  County. 
Of  course,  like  most  newly  organized  communi- 
ties, she  had  contests  over  (lis])uted  territorial 
jurisdiction,  mention  of  which  jiroperly  belongs 
to  the  general  history,  in  the  chronological 
order  in  which  they  occurred. 

Sonoma  County  has  an  area  of  1,550  S([nare 
miles,  or  about  992,000  acres,  and  ranks  among 
counties  in  tiie  State  in  point  of  territorial  scope 
as  seventh  in  magnitude.  Within  her  borders 
could  be  placed  some  of  the  principalities  of 
Europe,  and  even,  at  least,  one  of  the  older 
States  of  the  Union,  would  find  her  l)oundaries 
a  loose-fitting  garment.  A  bird's-eye  view  of 
her  topograph}'  will  reveal  the  secret  of  that 
wonderful  progress  and  prosperity  which  has 
placed  her  in  the  front  raidv  among  the  counties 
of  the  State;  for  wliere  in  the  wide  worhl  is 
presented  in  the  same  scope  of  teri'itory  so 
varied  and  diversified  a  medley  of  soil,  climate, 
scenery,  and  exhibitions  of  handiwork  from 
Nature's  laboratory  as  is  to  be  found  here? 

As  stated  at  the  outset,  the  southern  ex- 
tremity of  Sonoma  County  rests  upon  the 
northern  t^hore  of  San  Pablo  Pay.  At  this  ex- 
treme point  a  line  drawn  straight  across  from 

the  ]\[arin  County  to  the  Napa  County  line 
would  be  about  twelve  miles  in  length,  and 
incist  of  the  distan<'e  would  be  across  marsh 
land,  subject  to  overflow  by  spring  tides.  Radi- 
ating from  this  focal  point  are  two  chains  of 
mountains'and  one  chain  of  hills.  The  Macuway 
Mountains,  that  extending  northward  form  the 
boundary  iietween  Napa  and  Sonoma  valleys, 
inland  about  thirty  miles  reach  their  crowning 
glory  in  Mt.  St.  Helena,  in  Napa  County,  with 
aTi  altitude  of  4,343  feet  above  sea  level,  and 
thence  onward,  forming  the  eastern  background 
to  Santa  Rosa  and  Russian  Itiver  valleys,  hold- 
ing in  its  embi-ace  the  far-famed  Geyser  Springs 
of  Sonoma  County,  where  its  greatest  elevation 
is  Sulphur  Peak,  with  an  altitude  of  3,470  feet. 

The  Sonoma  Mountains  take  their  rise  near 
San  Pablo  in  the  shape  of  smooth,  grassy  hills, 
but  with  increasing  ruggedness  to  the  north- 
ward, until  at  a  point  nearly  east  of,  a!id  about 
seven  miles  distant  from  Petaluma,  they  reach 
a  height  of  2,30(i  feet.  From  that  point  they 
gradually  shade  off  to  the  lower  levels  and  break 
into  a  jumble  of  hills  on  the  edge  of  the  Santa 
Rosa  plains  just  south  of  Santa  Rosa. 

The  range  of  hills  referred  to  have  no  specific 
geographical  name.  They  commence  near  the 
confluence  of  the  San  Anton  and  Petaluma 
creeks  and  running  northward  form  the  divide 
between  the  two  valleys  of  like  names.  They 
do  not  rise  to  the  diginity  of  mountains,  and  to 
the  northward  of  Petaluma  branching  off  in 
different  directions  form  tlie  southern  curb  of 
Two  Rock  Valley  -the  right  wing  ending  in 
the  undulating  hills  that  mark  the  boundary 
between  Petaluma  and  Santa  Rosa  ^' alleys  and 
the  left  skirting  Tomales  Valley,  ^larin  County, 
until  lost  in  the  sand  dunes  around  Tomales 

We  have  thus  far  bounded  tiie  valleys  of  the 
lower  section  of  the  county,  and  limned  the 
rugged  eastern  back-ground  to  the  Santa  Posa 
and  Russian  River  valleys  and  now  we  ap- 
l)roach  the  topography  of  a  section  of  the 
county  most  difficult  to  describe,  and  yet  it  is  a 
territory  every  part  of  wliich  passed   luuler  our 

tilBfORY    OF    SONoMa    C'OUNTY. 

vision  more  tiiaii  thirty  years  ago.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Santa  Rosa  Valley, 
on  tlie  north  by  Russian  River,  on  the  west  by 
the  ocean  and  on  the  soutli  by  tlie  Marin 
County  line,  and  the  hills  between  Petaluma 
and  Two  Rock  Valley.  Compassed  in  tliis  dis- 
trict are  IJlucher  Valley,  Green  Valley,  Two 
Rock  Valley,  Big  Valley,  and  Bodega  Valley, 
and  the  following  towns:  Forestville,  Sebasto- 
pol,  Stony  Point,  Bloomfield,  Valley  Ford, 
Bodega,  Freestone,  and  Occidental.  Of  these 
valleys  and  towns  more  particular  mention  will 
be  made  hereafter — it  is  the  configuration  of 
the  territory  they  occupy  that  is  now  lieing  con- 
sidered. That  portion  of  this  counti-y  laying 
north  of  a  line  drawn  with  Forestville  as  its 
initial  point,  and  taking  in  Sebastopol  and  Free- 
stone on  its  course  to  i^odega.  and  from  thence 
in  a  direct  line  to  the  mouth  of  Russian  River, 
can  properly  be  designated  Redwood  Mountains 
— Russian  River  seeming  to  have  carved  them 
out  of  the  more  rugged  mountain  forests  be- 
yond. "While  these  mountains  do  not  tower 
very  high  yet  the  Blumeand  O'Ferrel  redwoods 
surmounting  some  of  them,  although  about 
twenty  miles  distant,  with  a  hilly  country  be- 
tween, can  be  ])lainly  seen  from  Petnluma. 
South  of  this  line,  commencing  with  the  low 
hills  forming  the  Mcstern  border  of  the  Santa 
Rosa  A^alley,  then  swelling  into  hills  of  consid- 
erable height,  and  again  subsiding  into  more 
gentle  undulations,  with  an  occasional  subsid- 
ence into  an  approach  to  valley  level,  they  reach 
away  to  the  west,  until  in  the  narrow  confines 
between  Bodega  Jiay  and  the  Estero  Americano 
they  are  met  by  the  waves  of  the  Pacific  ocean. 
With  a  length  of  over  fifteen  miles  and  an 
average  breadth  of  about  six  miles,  this  jumble 
of  hills  and  vales  presents  a  newness  of  appear- 
ance very  suggestive  of  tender  age,  geologically 
considered.  Except  that  the  northern  end  of 
this  territory  had  a  fail-  showing  of  oak  timber, 
the  most  of  it  was  smooth  hills,  covered  with 
indigenous  grasses,  until  the  plow  claimed  them 
i'ov  the  raising  of  cereals  and  potatoes. 

The  remaining  topograiihy  of  the  county,  so 

far  as  relates  to  hill  and  mountain  profile,  pre- 
sents only  two  subdivisions.  The  first  is  that 
chain,  almost  too  rugged  to  be  called  bills,  and 
yet  hardly  of  sufficiently  pretentious  altitude  to 
be  designated  mountains  (although  on  Bower's 
map  two  peaks  are  named),  forming  the  divide 
between  Russian  River  and  Dry  (.'reek  valleys. 
Commencing  in  gradually  increasing  nndnhi- 
tions  at  the  confiuenee  of  Russian  River  and 
Dry  Creek,  they  extend  back  tt)  a  point  just 
north  of  the  line  between  Sonoma  and  ilenilo- 
cino  counties,  where  they  are  chopped  oft'  by 
Dry  Creek  plunging  down  through  a  gorge  in 
the  hills.  These  hills  jiresent  a  mixture  of  oak 
timber,  chaparral,  and  grazing  land,  with  a 
small  showing  of  redwood  timber  along  two  or 
three  of  the  side  streams  just  bMow  Dry  ("reek 

There  is  now  left  the  northwest  corner  of  the 
county,  bounded  on  the  east  by  Dry  Creek  Val- 
ley, on  the  south  by  Russian  River,  on  the  west 
by  the  ocean,  and  on  the  north  by  ^Mendocino 
County.  The  territory  embraced  in  this  section 
of  the  county  lias  a  length,  coastwise,  of  about 
thirty  miles,  with  an  average  breadth  of  about 
sixteen  miles.  AVith  the  exception  of  a  sea-side 
mesa  of  breadth  varying  from  one  to  two  miles 
and  extending  from  Fort  Ross  up  to  the  mouth 
of  theGualala  River,  this  whole  area  is  mountain 
and  forest,  interspersed  with  occasional  glades 
that  invite  occupancy  of  such  as  prefer  the  soli- 
tude of  rugged  wilds  fur  themselves  and  fiocks. 
Here  is  an  unliounded  wealth  of  redwood  foi-ests 
and  tanbark  oak,  with  a  possilile  treasure  of 
hidden  mineral  wealth  to  be  revealed  in  the 
future;  for  already  at  Mount  Jackson  there  is  a 
quicksilver  mine  being  successfully  antl  profit- 
ably worked.  The  grandeur  of  the  scenery  of 
this  vast  stretch  of  country  must  be  seen  to  be 
appreciated;  but,  even  to  the  great  mass  of 
Sonoma  County's  own  citizens  it  is  a  term  incfx/- 
ni.ta.  We  do  not  speak  at  random  about  the  wild 
grandeur  of  nature  as  exhibited  in  this  field,  for 
nearly  three  decades  ago  we  spent  days  and 
weeks  amid  these  scenes.  Our  impressions  and 
experiences  were  then  given  to  the  public  in  a 



coininunication  under  caption  of,  "The  Petalunia 
Hunters,"  and  will  lie  reproduced  in  another 
cliapter  of  this  work. 

Having  given  the  skeleton  (intlines  of  the 
iiills  and  mountains  of  Sonoma  County,  we  now 
turn  to  the  valley's.  Fetainma  Valley  com- 
mences at  San  Pablo  Bay  and  extends  north- 
ward fifteen  miles  and  ends  where  low  rolling 
hills  form  the  dividing  line  between  it  and 
Santa  Rosa  \'alley.  it  lias  an  average  breadth 
of  from  three  to  five  miles  and  is  of  inexhausti- 
ble fertility.  The  mountains  to  the  east  and 
the  hills  to  the  west  are  susceptible  of  cultiva- 
tion high  up  on  their  sides,  and  their  summits 
are  productive  of  indigenous  gi-asses  which  fur- 
nish a  never  failing  supply  of  a  range  to  those 
engaged  in  dairying  and  stock-raising.  The 
valley  land  is  productive  of  wheat,  barley  and 
Iniy.  The  land  immediately  along  the  foot- 
hills is  of  the  very  best  ([uality  for  orchards  and 

Sonoma  Valley  has  been  so  fully  described  in 
connection  with  the  early  establishment  there  of 
the  mission  "San  l'"rancisco  Solano,"  tliat  it 
requires  little  further  description.  It  is  a  per- 
fect gem  of  a  valley,  its  foot  resting  upon  tide- 
water and  extending  inland  ten  or  twelve  miles. 
It  is  the  natural  home  of  the  \ine,  the  fig  and 
tlie  orange.  Xow  that  it  is  penetrated  by  two 
railroads,  its  real  worth  and  advantages  will  win 
for  it  that  consideration  that  its  refd  worth  and 
importance  entitles  it  to. 

Passing  north  the  wide  sweeji  of  Santa  liosa 
A'alley  comes  to  view.  This  valley  is  a  verit- 
able paradise.  Undeniably  this  is  one  of 
the  most  lovely  valleys  in  the  State.  Its 
fertility  and  geographical  position  which  secures 
it  against  the  harsh  coast  winds,  and  its  j)erfect 
adaptability  for  the  ])roductiou  of  all  kinds  of 
fruits  marks  it  for  a  bright  future  of  prosperity. 
With  an  average  breadth  of  six  miles  and  a 
length  of  eighteen  miles  it  presents  a  wealth  of 
valley  and  scenic  grandeur  worth  the  crossing 
of  a  continent  to  behoM. 

I'assing beyond  the  Santa  Rosa  Valley  north- 
ward   we  come   to   the    liussian     Uiver    Xalley. 

This  valley  is  considerable  narrower  than  the 
Santa  Rosa  Valley,  but  in  richness  of  soil  and 
variableness  of  scenery,  it  is  not  surpassed  by 
any  other  valley  in  the  State.  From  Ilealds- 
burg  to  Cloverdale  this  valley  is  becoming  one 
continuous  chain  of  vineyards  and  orchards. 
Here  it  is  that  corn  grows  with  a  luxuriance 
equal  to  that  witnessed  in  the  great  IVfississijipi 

The  Dry  ('reek  \'alley  that  unites  with  that 
of  the  Russian  River  near  Healdsburg,  is  of 
equal  fertility  and  has  long  been  famous  for  its 
products  of  small  grain,  corn,  fruit  and  ho^js. 
It  reaches  far  nyi  into  the  coast  mountains,  and 
is  a  favorite  place  of  resort  for  campers  and 

Cloverdale  is  at  the  head  of  Russian  River 
Valley,  but  lieyond  it  in  a  pocket  of  the  moun- 
tains is  Oat  Valley,  not  large,  but  a  gem  both 
in  point  of  scenic  surroundings  and  fertility  of 

I-Casterly  frdui  Healdsburg  is  Alexander  \'al- 
ley,  a  side  cove  to  Russian  River  Valley.  It  is 
a  valley  of  considerable  extend  and  great  fertil- 
ity. Mr.  Alexander,  after  whom  the  valley  was 
named,  was  a  pioneer  settler,  and  in  the  early 
fifties  had  a  bearing  orchard  and  other  evideiu'es 
of  thrift  and  enterprise  around  him. 

To  the  north  and  east  of  the  Santa  Rosa  Val- 
ley is  a  perfect  nest  of  mountain  valleys  of 
great  productiveness.  The  (iuilicos  Valley  lays 
serenely  at  the  foot  of  Hood  IVIountain,  and 
now  that  its  solitude  is  broken  by  the  whistle 
of  the  Santa  Rosa  and  Carquine/.  trains  pass- 
ing through  it,  will  soon  become  a  famous  sub- 
urban resort.  Rincon  N^alley  is  a  little  nest  in 
the  mountains  three  or  four  miles  long  by  two 
wide.  Shut  in  as  it  is  l)y  surrounding  moun- 
tains it  has  a  climate  of  unusual  mildness  and 
is  famous  for  the  good  (juality  of  grapes  and 
what  that  fruit  produces.  Dennett  Valley  is  one 
of  the  largest  of  the  group  of  valleys,  lying 
easterly  from  Santa  Rosa,  its  length  being  about 
seven  miles  with  aii  average  breadth  of  over  two 
miles.  This  valley  is  almost  one  continuous 
viiK^yard.      High    ui)   in    the    mountains    is    the 



littlt'  Alpine  \'alley,  mostly  devoted  to  stock, 
liiit  with  a  few  vineyards.  Elliot  Valley,  so 
named  after  the  discoverer  of  the  Geyser 
Springs,  on  Porter  Creek,  a  tributary  of  Mark 
West  Creek,  is  a  small  valley  in  which  l>uth 
farming  and  fruit  raising  is  carried  on. 

Turning  now  to  the  west  side  of  the  county 
there,  are  the  following  designated  valleys: 
(xreen  Valley  is  an  extremely  rich  and  produc- 
tive belt  of  country  of  about  six  miles  in  length 
and  two  miles  in  breadth,  lying  in  the  red- 
woods north  of  Sebastopol.  _  This  valley,  on 
account  of  its  sheltered  position,  has  always 
been  productive  of  tine  fruit  and  berries.  For 
the  growing  of  peaches  and  kindred  fruit  it  is 
unrivalled.  This  was  one  among  the  earliest 
settled  valleys  in  the  county,  and  has  always  had 
a  thrifty  and  enterprising  population. 

Blucher  Valley  is  located  in  the  rolling  iiills 
between  the  Santa  Eosa  and  Two  Kock  valleys. 
It  is  a  valley  more  in  name  than  seeming  for  it 
is  difficult  to  say  where  the  valley  ends  and  the 
undulations  begin.  It  is  land  of  great  richness, 
and  for  all  standard  varieties  of  fruit  it  can 
hardly  be  excelled. 

Next  comes  Two  Eock  A'" alley,  so  named  on 
acconnt  of  twin  rocks  at  the  northwest  corner 
of  the  ranch  now  owned  by  Mr.  Kzekiel  Den- 
man.  The  Spaniards  called  it  "Dos  I'idros," 
and  so  the  name  continued  down  to  1854:-'5, 
when  it  gradually  took  on  the  American  name. 
Two  Rock.    This  valley  is  about  three  miles  long 

and  two  miles  wide.  The  soil  is  rich  alluvial- 
and  the  valley  has  always  lieen  very  productive 
of  potatoes  and  grain. 

Big  Valley  occupies  the  basin  forming  tlie 
head  waters  of  the  Estero  Americano.  The 
valley  and  surrounding  hills  for  miles  around, 
in  the  years  gone  by  have  produced  untold 
quantities  of  farm  products.  Being  ccmtiguous 
to  Bodega  where  farming  was  first  inaugurated. 
Big  Valley  naturally  invited  early  occupancy 
and  soon  took  front  rank  among  farming  dis- 
tricts,'and  has  maintained  it  to  the  end. 

The  next,  and  last  valley  to  be  noted  is  that 
of  the  San  Antonio.  This  is  a  narrow  valley 
at  best,  and  that  portion  of  it  on  the  Sonoma 
County  side  of  the  creek  is  extremely  narrow. 
But  the  head  of  the  San  Antonio  widens  out 
and  embraces  several  thousand  acres  of  com- 
paratively level  land.  Here  used  to  be  two 
chain  of  lagoons;  one  at  the  head  of  the  San 
Antonio  Creek  and  the  other  at  the  head  of  Sal- 
mon Creek.  But  these  lagoons  have  been 
drained  and  now  are  used  for  cultivatinn. 

We  have  thus  given  a  birds-eye  view  of  the 
general  topography  of  Sonoma  County.  We 
tirst  gave  a  skeleton  of  the  mountain  and  hill 
ranges  and  have  designated  and  locateil  the  val- 
leys. But  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  thiit  innch 
of  what  lias  been  designated  hills,  and  eviMi 
portions  classed  as  mountains,  is  susceptible  of 
cultivation,  and  the  remainder  is  excellent  stock 

ffTSTOnr    OF    SONOUfA    COUNTY. 




M^riAPTErv  XI. 

Sonoma  a  central  point  avter  the  Bear  Flag  kevoli'tion — effect  of  disoovekv  of  the  mixes 
— WHO  WERE  settlers  i.\  Sonoma  County  at  the  time — F.  (t.  Bli'meV  statemicnt-  how  wild 

AND    UNIXHABITEI)    TlIK    I'Ol  NTRY    WAS Mr.    LeIGh's    lirXTINO    EXPERIENCE    NEAR    riCrAHMA 




UIOSCRII'TIVIC  OF  THIS  CorNl'i'    AS  IT  WAS  IN   1854 VsSESSOr's    RFl'ORT   I'OR    1855 THF   I'lRST    FAIR 

ol'    SciNoMA    Corxiv. 

|i,aK|;|ITII    tlie    lioistiiu 
K  Sonoma  virtually 

of   the  bear  flag    at 
came  Xo  an  end  Span- 

ish rule  here.  Althoiiu-h  it  was  two  years 
later  before  California  literally  passed  nnder 
American  rnle  by  tlie  treaty  of  Guadalupe  Hi- 
dalgo, yet  so  far  as  the  territory  was  concerned 
Anierioan  rule  was  comjilete  ami  irrevocable. 
During  the  short  interre_i,''iium  that  intervened 
between  the  capture  of  Sonoma  and  the  discov- 
ery of  the  gold  mines  of  California,  the  very 
fact  that  Sonoma  was  the  center  f)f  the  revcilu- 
tionary  movement  made  it  the  head  center  of 
American  immigrants  and  adventurers.  During 
these  adventurous  and  troublous  times  many 
families  from  the  outlying  country  naturally 
sought  Sonoma  as  a  haven  of  security.  This 
inflation  of  its  jwpulatioii  gave  to  it,  for  the 
time  being,  a  marked  prominence  on  tin- 
northern  tVontier.  But  the  discovery  of  the 
gold  mines  in  1848  turned  tlie  attention  of 
everybody  mouiitainward.  F(H'  a  lime  Sonoma 
was  a  sort  of  distributi\e  ])oint  from  whence 
snp])lies  were  drawn  for  gold-seekers,  but  soon 
places  more  accessible  to  the   mines  sprung  up. 

and  Sonoma  relapsed  into  a  quiet  hamlet,  yet 
the  county  seat  ot  Sonoma  ('onnty,  but  her 
most  enduring  glory  being  that  around  her 
clustered  the  memories  of  the  flrst  successful 
revolt  against  l\[exican   rnle. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  how  manv  and  who 
were  the  settlers  in  Sonoma  County  at  the  time 
when  it  came  under  American  jurisdiction. 
General  Vallejo  as  commandante  of  the  north- 
ern frontier  had  power  to  confer  grants  of  land, 
subject  to  conflrmation  by  the  Governor  of  Cal- 
ifornia. General  Vallejo  received  this  author- 
ization in  1885.  The  first  exercise  of  this 
power  seems  to  have  been  in  the  granting  of 
lands  to  Messrs.  Mcintosh,  Black  and  Dawson 
in  what  is  now  r>odega  Township.  James 
Black  afterward  disposed  of  his  interest  to  his 
partners  and  secured  a  grant  in  what  is  now 
Marin  County.  Mcrntosh  and  Dawson  became 
naturalized  citizens  of  Mexico,  as  they  had  to 
do,  ill  order  to  get  thcii-  grant  approved.  To 
Mcintosh  was  left  the  Inisiness  of  attending  to 
getting  the  proper  papers'  for  the  grant,  and  he 
omitted   to  have    his    partner   Dawson,  maile  a 



party  tu  tlie  transaction.  Tlii>  led  to  tronble 
and  a  dissolution  of  the  tirin.  Dawson  set  up 
on  his  own  account  and  received  a  grant  for 
what  is  now  the  Poglolome  Grant.  Dawson,  on 
tliis  grant  doubtless  was  the  first,  aside  from 
tlie  Russians,  to  saw  lumber  in  Sonoma  County. 
Ho  established  a  saw-pit  and  with  a  whip-saw 
sawed  lumber  enough  to  build  a  house. 

In  184-0  Cyrus  Alexander  undertook  the 
management  of  the  Sotoyome,  or  Fitch  grant, 
on  Russian  River.  He  agreed  to  manage  the 
ranch  and  cattle  tliereon  for  a  period  of  four 
years  at  tlie  end  of  wliich  he  was  to  receive 
two  leagues  of  land  for  liis  services.  He  fulfilled 
his  contract  and  the  two  leagues  of  land  placed 
him  in  the  front  rank  among  Sonoma  County's 
substantial  mrn. 

( 'aptain  Stepiien  Smith  visited  this  coast  in 
1839  or  1840.  He  seems  to  have  been  im- 
pressed with  tlie  opportunities  here  for  a  grand 
future  for  lie  disposed  of  his  cargo  of  liorns, 
hides  and  tallow.  Wiule  on  tliis  coast  he  had 
anclinrt'il  in  jiodega  Uay  and  (loulitless  fixed,  at 
tiiat  time  upon  that  locality  for  a  future  home. 
Returning  in  ISlShe  brought  with  him  a  boiler, 
engine,  and  complete  outfit  for  a  steam  saw  and 
grist  mill,  lie  brought  with  him  an  assorted 
cargo  of  merchandise.  With  him  came  Henry 
Hegeler,  a  ship's  carpenter,  William  A.  Streeter, 
an  engineer,  and  David  D.  Dutton,  a  mill- 
wright. Arrivinj;  at  San  Francisco  some  time 
in  184:3,  he  secured  the  additional  services  of 
James  Hudspeth,  Alexander  Copeland,  Xathan- 
iel  Cooml.)s  and  .Fohn  Daubinbiss  (the  three 
former  of  wlKim  reached  prominence  in  subse- 
quent California  historyV  Anchorage  was 
reached  in  iiodega  i!ay  sometime  in  September. 
1843.  Captain  Smith  encountered  some  ditb- 
culty  on  his  first  arrival,  as  John  tJidweli,  then 
Sutter's  agent,  claimed  that  the  land  around 
Bodega  belonged  to  Ca]>tain  Sutter  1)y  virtue  of 
purchase  from  the  Hussiaiis. 

In  spite  of  these  ju-otests,  however.  Captain 
Smith  stood  his  ground  and  maintained  his 
position.  He  immediately  set  about  the  con- 
htrnctioii   of  his    mill,  destined  to  be   the  first 

steain-niill  of  California.  He  selected  as  the 
site  a  point  at  the  very  edge  of  the  redwood 
belt,  about  one  mile  easterly  from  the  present 
location  of  Bodega  ('orners.  There  were  three 
boilers,  each  thirty-si.\  feet  in  length  and  two 
and  one-half  feet  in  diameter.  Tliese  boilers 
were  set  in  masoni-y  so  that  the  fire  passed 
around  them,  instead  of  througli  them,  as  boilers 
are  now  constructed.  The  engine  was  of  equally 
primitive  construction.  The  grinding  burrs 
were  about  fonr  feet  in  diameter  and  eighteen 
inches  in  thickness,  and  encircled  with  heavy 
iron  bands.  The  saw  for  cutting  lumber  was 
what  is  known  as  a  sash  or  molding  saw,  being 
of  up  and  down  perpendicular  motion.  When 
everything  was  in  readiness  to  start  up  this 
mill,  a  grand  barliecne  was  prepared  and  peojile 
near  and  far  came  to  behold  the  wonder.  That 
it  was  accounted  a  momentous  event  is  evi- 
denced by  the  fact  that  Ceneral  Vallejo  rode  all 
the  way  from  Sonoma  to  be  present  and  partici- 
pate in  the  inauguration  of  this  new  California 
enterprise.  Up  to  1850  this  mill  did  good  ser- 
vice, and  eventually  a  circular  saw  took  the 
place  of  the  muley.  In  1855  the  old  mill 
building  was  burned  and  all  that  now  marks  its 
former  site  is  the  excavation  in  the  bank  where 
it  stood,  and  the  well  from  wliich  was  pumjied 
the  water  to  feed  its  boilers.  Captain  Stephen 
Smith  seems  to  have  been  a  man  of  sagacity 
and  great  energy  of  character.  Aside  from  his 
mill,  he  established  a  tannery  in  after  years, 
which  was  in  successful  operation  down  to  tiie 
time  of  tlie  captain's  death.  His  grant,  the 
Bodega,  contained  35,487  acres,  and  so  long  as 
the  captain  lived  he  managed  it  with  care  and 
intelligence,  but  after  his  death,  which  occurred 
in  November,  1855.  the  vast  estate  was  soon 
dissipated  and  wasted  through  the  reckless 
management  of  Tyler  Curtis,  who  married  the 
widow,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  any  of  Captain 
."Smith's  children  have  much  now  to  show  of  the 
great  wealth  of  their  father.  Here  it  is  in  place 
to  give  the  reminiscences  of  a  gentleman  who 
settled  at  Freestone  in  the  very  earl }•  days.  His 
statement  covers  much  historic  ground; 

rtrfiTonr  oP  sonoma  county. 

'■K.  G.  JJluini'  of  I'"iveritone,  oiiu  of  the  early 
pioneers  of  tliis  State  and  county,  i^  a  (Tcrnian 
by  birth,  ami  was  edneateil  a;;  a  piiysieian.  In 
1S37  he  accepted  the  jiosition  of  snri^eon  on  the 
whale  ship  Alexander  Itarclay,  of  Bremen, 
whence  he  sailed  for  the  whaling  urotindsof  the 
North  Pacific.  After  a  successful  cruise,  his 
ship  dropped  anchor  in  Saueelito  harbor  the  23d 
of  December,  1843,  wdiere  she  remained  some 
time.  l'"rom  here  Dr.  ISlume  went  to  the  Sand- 
wich Islands,  and  in  1847  returned  to  Califor- 
nia, taking  up  his  residence  at  Sonoma,  where 
for  a  time  he  practiced  his  profession.  He 
arrived  soon  after  the  hoisting  of  the  bear  flag, 
.and  some  months  before  the  discovery  of  gold. 
He  has  a  clear  recollection  of  many  of  the  his- 
toric events  of  that  early  period,  and  being  an 
educated  man  and  a  close  observer,  a  conversa- 
tion with  him  upon  matters  relating  to  the  early 
history  of  this  coast  is  highly  interesting 
While  engaged  in  whalingabont  Sitka, previous  to 
hisarrival  in  California,  he  and  his  shipmates  had 
frequentdealingsand  interviews  with  the  Russian 
settlers  of  that  region,  whom  he  describes  as  the 
most  generous,  kind-hearted  and  hospitable  peo- 
]ile  he  had  ever  met.  Tiiere  was  a  never-ending 
rivalry  among  them  as  to  who  should  treat  the 
stranger  with  the  greatest  kindness  and  hospi- 
tality. A  ball  given  by  the  linssian  oflicials  at 
Sitka  was  a  really  grand  affair.  Then,  as  now, 
the  principal  employments  of  the  itdiabitants 
was  the  producing  of  furs.  He  states  that 
Alaska  contains  immense  bodies  of  timber  land 
which  at  a  future  time  will  become  of  great 
value  for  ship-lmilding  and  other  ]iurposes. 

•'When  the  first  gold  dust  was  brought  to  So- 
noma there  was  much  doubt  as  to  its  genuineness. 
Governor  Hoggs  and  the  military  officers  ])ro- 
nounced  it  gold,  and  their  opinion  was  acceiitcd 
as  connect.  In  a  short  time  miners  began  to 
arrive  with  large  (juantities  of  dust,  and  it  be- 
came almost  a  drug  in  the  market,  'i'hcre  was 
but  little  coin  in  the  country,  and  Coopei'  iV 
lieasley,  hotel  keepers,  bought  large  quantities 
of  dust  at  from  four  tn  five  dollars  jier  ounce. 
Change  smaller  than  one  dollar  especiallv 

scarce,  and  a  blacksmith  named  Fling  was  often 
employed  for  hours  in  cutting  JNIe.xican  dollars 
into  halves  and  (piarters.  (Gambling  was  carried 
on  on  a  large  scale  by  a  considerable  portion  of 
the  inhabitants  and  visitors.  Company  D, 
United  States  Volunteers,  Captain  Brackett,  was 
stationed  at  Sonoma,  and  Lieutenant,  now  (Jen- 
eral  George  Stoneman,  was  there. 

"  Deer,  bear,  antelope,  elk,  and  smaller  game 
were  abundant  hereabouts  and  very  tame.  On 
more  than  one  occasion  Dr.  Illume  has  driven 
cattle  and  elk  into  a  corral  together  on  the 
Tetalnma  Ranch.  In  1847  ammunition  was 
'contraband,'  and  it  was  with  much  difficulty 
that  it  could  be  procured.  Twenty-five  cents 
was  paid  for  gun  caps,  and  but  few  would  be 
obtained  at  that  or  any  other  price.  In  the  sum- 
mer and  fall  the  valleys  and  hillsides  were 
covered  with  wild  oats  from  four  to  eight  feet 
in  height,  and  ownership  of  lands  which  are 
now  among  the  most  valuable  in  the  State  could 
be  secured  for  a  mere  trifle.  There  was  not  a 
house  in  Petaluma  Townshij),  and  the  only 
building  between  Sonoma  and  Freestone  was 
the  old  adobe,  near  this  city. 

"We  have  given  l)ut  an  outline  of  a  few  of 
the  many  interesting  events  relating  to  the 
early  history  of  the  coast  that  came  within  the 
personal  knowledge  and  exi)erience  of  this  old 

"In  1848  Dr.  Illume  removed  from  Sonoma 
to  Freestone,  where  he  has  since  resided.  He 
has  been  several  times  elected  justice  of  the 
peace  'of  llodega  Township  and  is  now  servino- 
as  postmaster  of  Freestone." 

Joseph  O'Farrel  having  e.xchanged  a  ranch  in 
iEarin  County  for  the  Canada  de  Joniva  in 
.\naly  'i'ownshi]i,  and  accpiired  by  purchase 
from  Melntosh  the  grant,  in  IJodega  Township 
known  as  the  Estero  Americano,  he  established 
liis  residence  in  a  beautiful  valley  in  the  red- 
woods, wliere  he  was  living  in  good  style  with 
all  the  comforts  and  conveniences  of  modern 
life  around  him,  when  American  population  be- 
gan to  come  in.  The  Corrillio  families,  both  at 
Santa  Rosa  and  Sebastopol,  had  erected  adobe 

inSTORT    OF    SONOMA    COUNT i'. 

liouses  and  were  surrouiidecl  with  other  evidences 
of  permanent  residences.  Mark  West,  occnpy- 
ing  a  grant  on  the  creek  that  still  bears  his 
name,  had  erected  a  large  adobe  dwelling — so 
likewise  had  Henry  F).  Fitch  on  his  Sotoyome 
grant  on  IJnssian  River.  Excepting  the  large 
adolje  establishment  of  General  ^'allejo,  in 
\'allejo  Township,  near  Petalnnia,  the  places 
above  enumerated  were  about  the  only  ones  that 
could  be  called  permanently  established  for  any 
period  ante-dating  1850.  At  all  these  ranches 
there  was  quite  a  showing  of  cattle  and  horses. 
Ihit  taken  as  a  whole,  tiie  present  County  of 
Sonoma  was  an  uninhabited  wild  in  1850,  save 
and  except  the  small  valley  of  Sonoma.  N.  X. 
Hedges,  yet  a  resident  of  Petaluma,  and  who, 
in  company  with  Stephen  Fowler  (long  de- 
ceased), liuilt  a  house  for  Captain  Sniith  at 
liodega.  says  that  at  that  time  there  was  not  a 
panel  of  fence  on  tlie  trail  between  Petaluma 
and  liodega  except  a  corral  in  l>ig  \' alley.  As 
cioseas  was  Petaluma  t<i  San  Francisco  its  neigh- 
boriiood   did  not  lioast  a  resident  until  in  1850. 

'Die  tirst  to  come  was  Dr.  August  Heyer- 
manu,  in  the  early  part  of  that  year,  lie  reared 
a  log  cabin  on  the  old  A.  ^\ .  Rogers  place,  just 
south  of  Petaluma.  Late  that  fall  Tom  Lock- 
wood,  accompanied  by  a  party  of  hunting  com- 
panions, came  up  Petaluma  Creek  in  a  whale 
lioat  and  spent  two  months  in  camp  near  the 
head  of  Petaluma  Creek.  They  were  joined 
earlv  in  January  of  1851  by  Lemarcns  Wiatt 
and  John  JJns.  The  company  now  consisted 
of  Tom  Lockwood,  Lemarcns  Wiatt,  John  Lins, 
Levi  Pybui-n  and  a  man  named  Pendleton. 
Their  numl)er  was  afterward  increased  by  the 
arrival  of  Tiiomas  liayliss  and  David  Flogdell, 
and  all  for  a  time  continued  to  hunt  game  for 
the  San  Francisco  market. 

Knowing  that  J.  AV.  Leigh,  long  the  editor 
of  the  Monterey  Deiiiorraf  and  now  receiver  of 
public  moneys  in  the  San  Fi-ancisco  land  office, 
had  spent  several  months  of  1850  in  company 
with  other  hunters,  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  Petaluma.  at  cair  I'eqnest  he  reduced  his  re- 
miniscences of  the  same  to  writini;-.      Mi-.  Leiii'h 

and  his  companions  camped  near  the  head  of 
Petaluma  Creek,  probably  somewhere  between 
the  present  residence  of  Joseph  Gossage  and  the 
Haines  chicken  ranch.  It  will  be  interesting  to 
future  generations  to  know  the  exact  conditions 
around  where  a  populous  city  now  stands  in  the 
middle  of  the  nineteenth  century: 

"  Referring  to  your  request  as  to  my  reminis- 
cences of  your  county,  I  hardly  know  how  to 
shape  them  in  such  position  as  to  be  interesting 
to  the  ordinary  reader.  Really,  there  is  little  to 
say  except  the  mention  of  the  extraordinary 
wealth  of  game  that  then  existed  in  the  country 
— elk  b}'  the  hundred,  antelopes  on  the  plains 
like  Hocks  of  sheep,  deer  ill  the  woodlands  so 
numerous  that  at  every  clump  of  bushes  a  buck 
seemed  hidden,  jumping  out  as  we  passed  like 
jack  rabbits  in  the  Fresno  country  now.  My 
I'ecollections  of  the  face  of  the  country  is  that 
it  wore  a  smiling  and  peaceful  aspect,  suggest- 
ing nothing  of  a  wilderness,  but  looking  rather 
like  an  Fhiglish  park  or  the  prairies  of  Iowa. 
Coyotes  and  wildcats  abounded,  and  the  wood- 
lands concealed  lions  and  grizzlies  as  numerous, 
relatively,  as  the  ipnidruDeds  they  preyed  upon. 
So,  too,  there  was  no  end  of  carrion  crows, 
ravens,  turkey-buzzards  and  vultures,  the  last 
named  of  huge  size,  rivaled  only  by  the  condors 
of  South  America,  all  of  which  seemed  to  re- 
gard ns  as  cateiers  to  their  voracity,  for  they 
came  to  know  the  significance  of  the  ritle,  and 
flocked  constantly  after  its  report  to  eat  what 
we  threw  away  of  the  cjame  killed  by  us,  hardly 
waiting  until  we  had  taken  our  share,  which 
was  the  haunches  only.  It  was  strange,  while 
we  were  doing  the  murderous  work  alluded  to, 
how  calm  and  peaceful  the  landscape  looked, 
with  its  copses  of  woodland,  grassy  open- 
ings and  wide  plain,  on  which  herds  of  elk 
and  bands  of  antelope  fed  apparently  ignorant 
of  the  death-dealing  quality  of  man — a  new 
species  of  the  carnivora  who  had  come  into  their 
haunts.  My  observation  was  that  their  eyes  in- 
formed them  nothing  of  men.  When  to  lee- 
ward of  them  they  manifested  curiosity,  and 
mano'vering  to  approach    ns,  trusted    to    their 



organs  of  smell  to  make  lis  out.  They  would 
come  ()uite  close,  or  let  us  get  near,  but  showed 
littlf  of  distrust  until  thoy  got  scent  of  us, 
when  they  would  be  off  like  a  Hash,  panie- 
stricken.  From  this  performance  1  made  out 
that  man  is  like  the  lion,  tiger  and  similar 
beasts  of  pi'ey.  anil  that  liis  body  gives  out  an 
odor  which  offends  the  senses  of  his  foui'-footed 
victims  as  would  the  scent  of  blood.  We  did 
not  kill  'for  the  lust  of  killing;"  profit  was 
the  object  of  the  hunters  witli  whom  I  was,  and 
they  killed  only  the  '  bucks,'  carefully  select- 
ing such  as  were  in  their  prime.  This  was  in 
September,  ISot).  In  all  the  country  through 
which  we  ranged  -from  the  site  of  the  present 
Petaluina  to  what  is  now  the  town  of  Santa 
Rosa,  there  was  sign  of  but  a  single  '  settle- 
ment," of  some  S(iHatter,  mIio  had  fenced  a  few 
acres,  plowed  and  sowed  them  to  corn,  potatoes 
and  melons,  and  had  gone  off  to  the  mines  and 
left  crows  and  raccoons  to  reap  the  product  of 
his  labors.  My  companions  were  but  two,  men 
who  liad  been  trappers  in  the  '  Rockies,'  one 
from  the  shores  of  Chesapeake  originally,  and 
the  other  having  been  burn  on  the  banks  of  the 
Cumberland  River,  in  Tennessee.  They  had 
the  skill  of  Cooper's  '  Leather  Stockim/,"  were 
tiioroughly  versed  in  wood  lore  and  knew  the 
habits  of  their  game  as  if  'to  the  manner  born," 
but  were  rough  and  uncouth  in  speech  and 
morals  to  a  degree  that  amazed  me.  I  had  a 
tierce  quarrel  with  one  of  them,  I  rememljer,  to 
the  point  of  a  duel  a  Voutt'ciiyie,  but  patched  up 
a  truce  with  the  understanding  that  neither 
knew  what  kind  of  a  man  the  other  was  and  so 
might  give  offense  without  meaning  it." 

Such  being  the  conditions  around  the  head 
waters  of  I'etaUima  Creek,  at  that  time,  and  in 
fair  view  of  the  Vallejo  buildings  at  the  foot 
of  the  Sonoma  Mountains,  the  reader  can  well 
understand  how  game  must  have  abounded 
further  back,  where  seldom  disturbed  by  the 
presence  of  man. 

I5ut  this  was  to  be  changed  in  thi'  near 
future.  Those  who  came  to  hunt,  determined 
to  locate  here.    Wiatt  and  Linus  started  a  little 

trading  post  on  the  creek  near  the  present  "Wash- 
ington street;  I'ayliss  and  Flogdell  establislied 
a  boarding  house;  J.  M.  Hudspeth  erected  a 
warehouse  near  the  creek,  and  thus  was  started 
the  city  of  Retaluma.  There  had  been  quite  a 
number  of  new  arrivals,  and  one  among  the 
\ery  cai'liest  of  these  was  Major  James  Siiudey, 
who  is  yet  one  of  Petaluma"s  mi>st  respected 
citizens.  Among  those  of  that  eai-ly  period 
whose  names  are  at  our  command  are  (-ieorge  \\. 
Williams,  Robert  Douglas  and  family;  the 
Starkeys,  the  Tustins,  the  Lewises.  The  Mer- 
ritts  had  located  temjiorarily  in  (ireen  Valley, 
and  John  Merritt  informs  us  that  he  ])iit  ut) 
the  first  stack  of  hay  ever  seen  at  Retaluma 
the  site  now  occupied  by  the  ^[cCune  JJlock, 
corner  of  Washington  and  Main  streets.  It  is 
useless  to  attempt  to  particularize  on  individu- 
ality further.  People  were  coming  into  the 
county  in  constantly  increasing  volume,  and 
very  many  were  intent  upon  securing  liomes  in 
the  country.  Hut  where  to  find  unclaimed  lands 
was  the  rub.  Go  where  they  woidd  they  found 
the  land  i-esting  under  the  shadow  of  some 
Spanish  grant.  In  sheer  desperation  many  set- 
tled on  grants  and  ])re|)ared  to  build  their 
homes,  and  leave  the  consequences  to  the 
future.  The  settlements  thus  formed  were  dif- 
ferent in  character  from  those  ever  before  wit- 
nessed in  frontier  settlements.  It  was  largely 
made  up  of  those  who  had  tried  their  fortunes 
in  the  mines  and  becoming  discouraged  with 
the  vocation  of  gold-seekers,  determined  to  turn 
their  attention  either  to  farming;  or  the  raising 
of  stock.  As  a  rule  they  were  unmari-ied  men, 
although  among  them  were  a  few  men  wliu  had 
families  in  the  East.  Hence  it  was  that  up  to 
as  late  as  ISoo  a  large  proportion  of  the  habi- 
tations in  Sonoma  (.'ounty  were  designated  as 
"  I'achelor  ranchos.""  The  buildings,  con- 
structed in  many  instances,  as  already  stated,  on 
land  covered  by  some  Spanish  grant,  were  very 
rude  habitations.  The  most  common  structures 
were  built  by  setting  posts  in  the  ground.  The 
weatherboarding  was  of  boards  split  out  of  red- 
wood, usually  twelve  feet  long,  and  the  roof  of 

Hf^TdUT    f)F    soyo.WA    COUNT T. 

■  •lapboanls  (sliakt^i  tVnir  <ir  live  I't'ct  long.  Usu- 
ally the  grouiul  was  used  for  a  floor,  aitliotigli 
some  indulged  in  the  luxury  of  a  plank  floor, 
iiedsteads  and  bunks,  such  as  could  be  con- 
structed with  iiandsaw  and  hatciiet,  was  the 
furniture  of  the  sleeping  apartment,  while  a  few 
shelves  in  the  kitchen  made  of  split  boards  usu- 
ally 6ufficed  for  a  dish  cupboard.  AVitli  the 
addition  of  a  cook-stove  the  establishment  was 
complete.  Commencing  with  1S51,  these  rude 
tenements  sprung  uj)  like  mushrooms,  and 
inside  of  a  few  yeai's,  throughout  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  county,  were  scattered  these 
bachelor  domicils.  In  those  years  the  man 
who  did  not  do  his  own  cooking  and  washing 
was  an  exception  to  the  general  rule.  It  was 
not  a  (question  of  choice,  but  of  necessity. 
Neither  did  educatitin,  pride  or  previous  con- 
dition cut  any  figure  in  the  case.  Here  were 
to  be  found  men  of  every  walk  and  grade  of 
life  working  side  by  side,  whether  in  field  or 
kitchen.  Society  was  democratic,  simple  and 
pure,  in  a  degree  never  before  witnessed  in  any 
country,  and,  perhaps,  never  to  be  repeated 
again.  It  was  a  rough  and  rugged  experience, 
and  yet  it  was  just  under  such  conditions  that 
very  many  of  Sonoma  County's  preseiit  most 
substantial  and  respected  citizens  laid  the  founda- 
tion of  their  fortunes.  It  must  not  be  supposed 
that  even  in  those  early  years  women  and  families 
were  unknown  in  Sonoma  County;  but  they 
were  scj  few  in  comparison  to  those  who  had 
bachelor  ranches  that  they  were  the  exception 
and  not  the  rule.  In  the  slow  process  of  years, 
however,  those  cheerless  homes  of  lienedicts 
gave  ])lace  to  the  more  attractive  and  refining 
inllnence  of  the  mothers  of  the  native  sons  and 
daughters  in  Sonoma  County.  Many  of  these 
noble  women,  who  by  their  presence  and  toil 
hel])cd  to  guide  and  cheer  those  engaged  in 
pioneer  work,  have  ended  their  weary  life-mis- 
sion, but  they  richly  eai'ned  the  right  to  have 
monuments  of  enduring  marble  erected  to  their 

We  are  describing  conditions  as  they  existed 
between  1848  and  1855.     If  the  reader  knows 

the  meaning  of  the  stock  ])lirase  "breeding 
back,"  lie  will  rightly  appreciate  the  real  condi- 
tions of  Sonoma  County  at  that  time.  Most  of 
the  men  who  took  up  ranches  and  entered  upon 
agricultural  or  stock-raising  pursuits  were  be- 
low the  meridian  of  life,  and  easily  adapted 
t  htmselves  to  the  conditions  with  which  they 
found  themselves  environed.  There  was  a  cer- 
tain degree  of  dash  and  daring  among  the  native 
Californiaus  very  captivating  to  the  young 
Americans.  .\.s  expert  riders  and  manipulators 
of  the  reatta  the  natives  excelled.  In  almost 
every  valley  thei'e  was  ii  baud  (manada)  of 
Spanish  animals  and  from  these  sources  the  set- 
tlers di'ew  a  cheap  supply  of  riding  and  work 
animals,  although  ox-teams  were  then  largely 
used.  To  break  and  handle  these  California 
horses  led  to  the  adoption  of  California  hal)its 
and  methods.  Hence  the  "  bucharo  "'  saddle 
was  in  almost  universal  use,  and  Americans  be- 
came enamored  with  the  use  of  huge  Mexican 
spurs,  that,  in  the  language  of  Chaucer,  "sounded 
'een  as  loud  as  doth  the  chapel  bell."  In  those 
days  if  a  rider,  either  Califoruian  or  American, 
was  approaching  you,  his  coming  was  heralded 
by  the  ringing  of  his  spurs.  Everybody  rode 
as  if  they  were  going  for  a  doctor.  The  native 
horses  had  a  power  of  endurance  that  would  put 
to  shame  the  nerve  of  candled  and  groomed 
horses  of  a  later  period.  If  engaged  in  the 
stock  or  dairying  business,  every  man  became 
in  a  degree  a  "  bucharo" — that  is  he  was  in  the 
saddle  a  great  part  of  the  time,  and  if  he  wished 
to  catch  a  wild  horse  or  cow,  his  ever-ready 
"reatta"  was  brought  into  requisition.  The 
Americans  soon  acfjuired  a  wonderful  dexterity 
in  the  throwing  of  the  reatta.  If  a  new  saddle 
horse  was  needed  the  manada  was  driven  into  a 
corral  and  an  animal  selected,  "  lassed,"'  blind- 
folded, saddled  and  mounted,  and  then  fun 
began!  The  animal,  if  high  metaled,  of  course 
bucked,  and  the  rider  received  commendation 
from  the  spectators  just  in  degree  as  he  main- 
tained his  position  in  the  saddle.  In  those 
early  days  we  have  seen  men  I'ide  such  "  buck- 
ius: "  mustang's  for  the  mere  editication  of  the 



si>ectiitui-s.  AVlieii  we  see  young  men  of  this 
day  riding  on  the  little  American  saddle,  with 
their  tooth-pick  shoes  crowded  into  little  iron 
stirrups,  and  rising  in  tlieir  sitting  so  that  you 
could  sine  a  hat  between  thcni  and  their  saddle, 
we  just  smile  wiien  we  think  of  what  would  be 
their  fate  if  riding  a  bucking  horse  why,  there 
would  not  be  enough  of  them  left  to  make  shoe- 
strings. In  the  short  space  of  a  third  of  a 
century  the  art  of  horse-back  riding  has  virtu- 
ally become  a  lost  art  in  California. 

The  drift  of  early  settlement  in  Sonoma 
County  was  naturally  toward  Bodega  because, 
not  only  the  Russians  had  demonstrated  its  fit- 
ness for  agriculture,  but  Captain  Stephen  Smith 
had  established  himself  there  and  was  in  a  posi- 
tion to  assist  immigrants  in  their  venture  in 
agricultural  pursuits.  It  was  a  demonstrated 
fact  that  that  region  would  produce  in  great 
abundance  potatoes,  much  needed  in  the  mines 
of  California.  Seed  potatoes  were  very  high. 
Captain  Smith  was  in  a  position  to  furnish  this, 
and  found  many  ready  to  rent  land  and  embark 
in  the  business  of  potato  growing.  In  1851 
such  reaj)ed  a  rich  reward.  In  1852  seed  pota- 
toes were  available  for  others,  and  settlers  in 
Big  Valley  and  the  coast  hills  embarked  in  the 
business,  and  with  large  profits.  This  led  to 
the  planting  of  an  increased  acreage  of  potatoes 
in  1853,  and  the  result  was  an  over-production, 
and  conse(_[uent  disaster  to  those  engaged  in  the 
business.  In  185-1  the  potato  crop  was  again 
in  excess  of  the  demand,  and  those  who  had  en- 
gaged in  the  business  of  potato  raising  were 
virtually  bankrupted.  And,  as  if  in  veritication 
of  the  adage,  "  misfortunes  never  come  alone," 
the  wheat  crop  of  the  coast  valley's  for  1854:  -'55 
were  smitten  with  both  smut  and  rust.  ^Vlien 
we  hear  farmers  of  the  present  day  growling 
about  short  crops,  or  low  prices,  our  memory 
naturally  reverts  to  those  three  years  of  unre- 
(piiteil  toil  of  our  farmcns',  and  we  wonder  as  to 
what  would  be  about  the  lengtli  of  Sonoma 
County  farmers'  faces  now  if  they  had  to  pass 
through  similar  experiences.  early  farmers  of  Sonoma  County  had 

settled  upon  the  naked  land.  In  many  instances 
they  first  planted  their  crops,  then  turned  their 
attention  to  building  fences.  If  they  had  some 
means,  they  could  buy  slats  and  posts  in  the 
redwoods.  If  they  had  no  money,  as  many  of 
them  had  not,  it  involved  the  riving  of  slats  and 
the  splitting  of  posts  themselves,  and  then  the 
hauling  and  constructing  of  the  same  into  fences. 
The  toil  involved  was  immense,  and  none  but 
those  who  passed  through  those  experiences  will 
ever  know  wdiat  of  deprivation  and  physical 
eft'ort  it  cost  to  found  the  early  settlements  of 
Sonoma  County. 

As  this  chapter  is  mainly  intended  to  give 
the  reader  a  correct  conception  of  the  Ilcwne^s 
and  comparatively  uninhabited  condition  of 
Sonoma  County  in  the  early  fifties  we  give 
place  here  to  a  communication  written  by  us  in 
1877,  reminiscent  of  the  then  long  past: 

"Eds.  AK(iUs:  Noticing  that  you  are  about 
to  lay  upon  the  shelf  your  twenty-second  volume 
it  naturally  causes  my  mind  to  drift  back  to  that 
long-ago,  verging  close  upon  a  (piarter  of  a 
century,  the  occasion  of  my  advent  into  your 
county.  .Vs  these  memories  ante-date  the  birth 
of  your  journal,  they  may  not  be  devoid  of  in- 
terest to  some  of  your  readers.  In  brief,  the 
spring  of  1851  found  me  in  San  Francisco, 
waiting,  like  Micawber,  'for  something  to  turn 
up.'  That  something  did  turn  up  just  in  the 
nick  of  time,  and  was  nothing  more  or  less  than 
the  discoveiy  of  rich  gold  mines  on  Russian 

"  Over  three  years  experience  in  the  Sierras  hail 
failed  to  eliminate  from  my  nature  that  credu- 
lity which  kept  so  many  miners  following  every 
l(jii'iK  fatuun  bearing  the  title  of  '  new  gold 
mines.'  .\t  the  time  of  whieh  I  write  there 
were  three  steamboats  plying  between  San 
Francisco  and  Petalunni.  The  Scrrefar;/  and  a 
boat  the  name  of  which  has  passed  from  my 
mind,  were  running  a  spirited  oj>pobition.  'i'lu: 
Reindeer,  of  which  your  fellow-townsman,  E. 
Latapie,  was  captain,  was  running  free  and  easy, 
on  its  own  hook;  making  up  in  safety  what  it 
lacked  in  speed.     Un  the  latter  1  took  passage, 

lllslfiUT    OF    SONOMA     COUNTY. 

;uul  iVoiii  it*  ilcuk  liad  my  lir^t  view  of  the  ile- 
viuiis  iiieanderings  of  Ptjtaluina  Creuk.  In  less 
than  two  weeks  thereafter  tlie  Sc-n-f'tr;/  went 
up  in  a  cloud  of  steam,  aiul.  like  a  leaden  pluni- 
inct,  to  the  bottom  of  the  bay,  carrying  with  her 
a  score  or  more  of  passengers.  There  are  resi- 
dent in  your  county  yet  some  of  those  wlio  took 
a  salt-water  bath  on  that  occasion,  but  who  were 
fortunately  rescued  by  the  boat  with  which  the 
Scci-tfar;/  was  racing  at  the  time  of  the  disaster. 
.\  t'ellow-passenger  on  the  liLUuLer.  who  knew 
all  the  ins  and  outs  of  yo\ir  then  incipient  city, 
conducted  me  to  the  -Tom  and  Da\e"s  House,' 
where  I  found  food  and  lodging.  The  title  of 
this  house  was  derived  from  a  contraction  of  the 
given  names  of  Thomas  IJayliss  and  David 
Flogdell,  who  were  its  keepers.  Proprietors 
and  house,  alike,  liave  passed  away.  As  my 
destination  was  the  Eldorado  on  Russian  River, 
1  only  tarried  one  night  in  Petaluma,  and  with 
carpet-l)ag  on  back  hastened  onward. 

"  It  was  early  in  April,  and  as  there  had  been 
copious  rains  vegetation  was  luxuriant,  and  the 
valleys  and  mountain  sides  as  far  as  visi(jn  could 
reach  were  one  undulating  sea  of  wild  oats. 
The  whole  wide  sweep  of  country  beyond  Peta- 
luma was  very  sparsely  settled  at  that  tiuie. 
About  midway  between  Petaluma  and  Santa 
Rosa  the  Moffet  Jirothers  were  dairying  upon  a 
large  scale,  and  seemed  to  have  free  range  of 
Santa  Ro-a  Valley  for  their  stock.  My  recol- 
lection at  present  is  that  between  the  old  C).  E. 
Mathews  place,  adjacent  to  Petaluma,  and  Santa 
Rosa,  there  was  l)ut  one  house  immediately  at 
the  road-side,  and  in  it  I  took  refuge  from  an 
April  shower. 

••  I  reached  Santa  Rosa  in  time  t'or  a  late  din- 
ner. E.  P.  Colgan  had  just  moved  into  the 
rooms  under  the  old  Masonic  Hall.  Everything 
was  topsyturvy — tiic  cooking  stove  having 
barely  been  got  in  place.  Mrs.  C,  notwith- 
standing it  was  two  o'clock  r.  m.,  inijirovised  a 
dinner,  and  thus  I  claim  the  honor  of  being  the 
first  traveler  to  take  a  meal  at  a  regular  public 
hotel  in  Santa  Rosa. 

"Although  weary  and  foot-sore  1  determined 

to  go  as  far  as  the  old  Mark  West  Ranch  llou>e 
that  evening.  And  just  here  I  wish  to  record 
my  impression  at  tluit  time — and  I  have  no  de- 
sire to  modify  it  now—that  in  all  my  wander- 
ings upon  tliis  earth  I  had  never  before  traversed 
so  Eden-like  a  vale  as  that  between  Santa  Rosa 
and  Mark  West.  It  was  nature's  own  park. 
Wild  oats,  clover  and  other  indigenous  grasses, 
intermingled  with  a  profusion  of  wild  tlowers 
of  every  shade  and  hue  bedecked  the  broad  ex- 
pause  of  plains,  while  the  oak  timber,  just 
sparse  enough  {o  give  it  an  orchard-like  appear- 
ance, was  putting  on  its  new  foliage  amid  the 
drapery  of  pendent  moss,  that,  like  ten  tlmu- 
sand  banners,  courted  the  balmy  breeze.  It  was 
untarnished  nature,  neitiier  marred  nor  scarred 
by  the  plowshare  of  relentless  man. 

"At  Mark  West  I  found  accommodations  for 
the  night  with  a  couple  of  Frenchmen,  who  had 
a  trading-post  in  one  wing  of  the  old  Mark 
West  Ranch  House.  Morning  again  found  me 
a  pedestrian  on  the  Santa  Rosa  plains.  My 
course  lay  some  miles  westerly  from  the  present 
road  of  Healdsburg,  bringing  me  to  Russian 
River  about  five  miles  below  Fitch's.  I  then 
traveled  up  the  river,  passing  on  the  way  a 
clapboard  shanty,  in  which  Lindsey  Carson, 
brother  of  the  famous  Kit  Carson,  liad  a  little 
store.  Arriving  at  Fitch's  it  was  necessary  to 
cross  the  river.  There  was  a  canoe  moored  at 
the  opposite  shore  and  a  number  of  Indians 
lounging  on  the  bank,  but  they  were  deaf  to 
my  entreaties  to  l)e  ferried  across.  After  wait- 
ing an  hour  one  (.)f  the  Fitch's,  a  lad  then  of 
fourteen  or  fifteen,  came  to  my  relief  and  con- 
vinced the  dusky  savages  that  they  had  better 
cross  me  over.  My  objective  point  for  dinner 
was  Heald's,  who  occupied  the  present  site  of 
Healdsburg.  1  was,  however,  doomed  to  dis- 
appointment, as  there  was  no  one  at  home. 
P'rom  this  point  onward  I  was  like  a  sailor  at 
sea  without  chart  or  compass.  A  dim  road 
alone  attested  that  civilization  liad  preceded 
me.  Mile  after  mile  was  left  behind,  and  yet 
no  sign  of  human  habitation.  Night  cast  iier 
mantle  over  the  earth,  and  I  was  alone  in  that 


vast  solitiule.  Before  darkness  obscured  clear 
vision  I  noticed  that  the  road  was  trending; 
westward,  and  apparently  away  from  the  river 
valley.  At  eii;ht  o'clock  at  night,  by  the  star- 
light, I  could  see  that  around  me  was  an  aniplii 
theater  of  mountains,  rendered  more  somber  by 
a  forest  of  redwoods.  I  bad  about  concluded 
that  supperless  and  bedless  I  was  in  for  vigils 
during  the  silent  watches  of  the  nig;lit,  when  the 
barking  of  a  dog  further  up  the  canon  greeted 
my  eai'.  Never  until  tlieii  did  I  appreciate  the 
p  let's  rhapsody  over  '  tbedeep-iru)uthed  liaying 
of  the  watch-dog."  There  are  a  great  many 
worthless  curs  in  the  world  who  are  libels  on 
respectable  canines,  but  for  all  that  man  has  no 
truer,  more  steadfast  and  faithful  friend  than  in 
his  dog.  The  ringing  bark  of  the  dog  told  me 
as  plainly  as  though  in  articulated  words  that 
he  had  a  master,  and  acting  on  this  assurance  1 
was  soon  by  a  blazing  camp  tire,  and  the  reei|i- 
ient  of  genuine  backwoods  hospitality  from  a 
young  man  who  had  pitched  camp  there  to  get 
out  redwood  fencing  material  to  be  used  in  the 
valley.-^.  My  host  shared  with  me  his  bed,  and 
so  fatigued  was  1  that,  notwithstanding  the  in- 
formation that  the  Indians  had,  oidy  a  week 
previous,  killed  a  man  in  a  cafKin  nearby,  1  was 
soon  oblivious  to  all  worldly  care.  Tliis  young 
man  was  able-  to  give  me  positive  information 
concerning  the  reputed  gold  mines  uj)  the  river 
—  suHicient,  at  least,  to  convince  me  Ihat  on 
Russian  River  was  not  located  the  (>pliir  from 
which  Solomon  got  the  gold  for  his  temple,  and 
the  ne.\t  day  I  I'ctrcated  in  good  urdcr,  only 
varying  my  nuile  from  that  traveled  up  in  that 
I  crossed  over  from  Santa  Kosa  to  the  okl  Mil- 
ler &  Walker  store,  near  the  now  town  of  Sebas- 
topol.  and  tlicncctd  relMlnma  by  way  of  Stony 

"A  comparisdii  nf  the  present  with  the  past 
as  outlined  by  this  hasty  reminiscence  of  that 
long  ago,  will  give  mmi:  maiked  emphasis  to 
the  character  and  degree  of  progress  made  by 
Sonoma  County  in  the  space  of  twenty- three 

We  cannot  lietter  give  a  correcl  idea  of  the 

progress  made  in  the  settlement  and  development 
of  Sonoma  ('ounty  up  to  1855  than  by  append- 
ing the  following: 

Smith  1).  Towne,  the  then  assessor  of  So- 
noma County,  furnished  to  the  Sonoma  County 
■Jdiirnul  ill  AugUht  of  1855  the  following 
statistics  relating  to  Sonoma  and  Mendocino 

■'Tlie  ijuantity  of  the  land  enclosed  in  this 
and  Mendocino  counties,  amounts  to  ;JT.t)5:2 
acres;  about  22,400  acres  of  which  is  in  the 
cultixation  of  the  following  ])roduct8: 

"  \Vlic<t(.  -  The  number  of  acres  sown  is,  12,- 
2i33,  of  which  amount  3,500  acres  only  (mostly 
from  Chili  and  Oregon  seed)  is  good,  or  but 
very  slightly  affected  with  rust,  and  will  average 
28  bushels  to  the  acre;  making  a  total  of  98,- 
000  l)ushels.  The  remainder,  or  8,733  acres, 
was  entirely  destroyed,  or  nearly  so,  by  the 
'rust,' anil  but  a  small  portion  was  ever  har- 
\ested.  Last  year  tlie  wheat  from  Oregon  and 
Australia  seed,  was  so  badly  'smutted'  that  it 
lost  favor  with  our  farmers,  and  the  kind  coni- 
moidy  known  as  the  '  club-head,'  became  the 
favorite,  and  was  largely  sown,  but  most  unfor- 
tunately it  seems  to  have  been  the  oidy  kind 
ati'ected  this  year. 

''Oats. — The  nnmher  of  aci'cs  put  down  to 
oats  is,  3,268;  a  portion  of  which,  in  the  im^ 
mediate  vicinity  of  the  coast,  has  been  affected 
by  '  rust."  1  might  have  remarked  that  the 
scoui'ge  has  even  extended  its  ravages  to  the 
indigenous  plants  and  grasses  of  the  soil. 
From  the  many  incpiiries,  I  am  led  to  lielieve 
that  the  total  "lunnber  of  acres  will  make  an 
average  crop  of  35  bushels  to  the  acre,  which 
gives  a  total  of   104,380  bushels. 

"  liiii'leij. — This  grain  seems  to  lia\e  but  few 
friends,  and  conse<|uently  vei-y  little  was  sown 
in  comparison  with  last  year.  In  some  locali- 
ties, the  'cheat'  has  destroyed  some  kw  fields; 
with  this  exception  the  grain  is  good.  Numbei' 
of  acres  sown,  1,561;  average  yield,  32  bushels 
to  the  acre;  total,  49,952  bushels. 

'•  ('urn.  Of  this  product  thei'e  ai-e  714  acres 
jilantcil,  the  most  of   which    i.i    in    the    Kussiaii 

insninv  of  sonoma   county. 

]ii\'('r  and  l)ry  ('reuk  valleys,  where  it  seems  to 
llourish  more  luxuriantly  than  in  any  other  por- 
tion of  onr  coiintv.  From  present  indications 
there  will  undoubtedly  be  an  abundant  harvest; 
say  40  bushels  to  the  acre,  making  28,580 

^^  Rye. — Only  8  acres  sown,  merely  as  an  ex- 

"  Bucku-hcat. — Amount  phinted,  UU  acres; 
seems  well  adapted  to  our  soil  and  climate.  As 
yet  there  has  been  none  harvested;  I  cannot, 
therefore,  tell  how  it  will  yield. 

'■' I'ean. — Number  of  acres  loC);  average  yiekl, 
80  bushels  per  acre;   total,  ■i,ti80  luisliels. 

"  Beans. — 177  acres. 

*' Potatoes. —  The  quantity  planted  is,  l.ti'.tS 
acres,  against  2,H00  last  year,  and  will  not  prob- 
al)ly  yield  more  than  40  sacks  to  the  acre,  ow- 
ing, perhaps,  to  the  extreme  hot  dry  weather  in 
June,  which  gives  us  a  total  ot  07,720  sacks,  of 
120  pounds  each,  i  think  this  the  outside  tig- 
ure.  There  is,  however,  no  indication  of  worms 
or  insects  disturbing  them  an<l  what  are  raised 
will  most  likely  be  perfectly  sound  and  good. 

"  Pumpkins,  Txirnlps,  Beets,  Onions,  ete.,a.\\([ 
almost  every  kind  of  garden  vegetaltles  are 
raised  in  abundance  and  to  spare. 

"  Fruit  Trees. — There  are  6,730  set  out, 
mostly  young,  from  one  to  three  years  old,  com- 
prising many  varieties  of  apples,  pears,  peaches, 
plums,  cherry,  iigs,  apricots,  etc.  About  one- 
third  of  the  number  have  commenced  bearing 
and  in  another  year  we  may  anticipate  an 
abundanre  of  fruit;  and  the  present  year,  I 
thiidv  our  county  will  compare  as  favorably  both 
as  regartls  i|iuintity,  as  any  other  county  in  the 

"  Vliieijarils. —  In  addition  to  the  orchards, 
there  are  many  line  vineyards,  numbering  in 
the  aggregate  some  24,800  vines,  many  of  wdiich 
arc  loaded  with  grapes.  The  estimated  quan- 
tity gathered  last  year  was  80  tons;  the  present 
season  it  will  be  fully  doubled. 

'■^Atnerican  Cattle. — JS' umber  of  milch  cows, 
5,850;  dry  cows,  2,575;  calves,  5,750;  work 
open,  2,771;  beef  cattle,  1,922;  yearlings,  4,2'J4; 

total  number  of  .\merican  cattle,  22,622.  To 
this  must  be  added  the  California  cattle,  8,588; 
which  gives  a  total  number  of  cattle  (American 
and  California)  26,250. 

'■'■Horses. — Number  of  gentle  horses,  Ameri- 
can and  Spanish,  3,708;  wild  California  horses 
(manada)  1,250;  total  number  of  horses,  4,U58. 

"Of  Mules  there  are  328;  of  //r;y.s-,  l'J,45!t; 
of  Sheep,  7,0t;5." 

The  first  fair  of  Sonoma  County  was  held  on 
the  public  square  at  Santa  Ilosa  and  which  was 
thus  reported,  and  appeared  in  the  J'etaluma 
Journal  of  October  20,  1855: 

"Our  village  was  thronged  yesterday  with 
people  from  all  parts  of  the  county  to  attend  the 
first  fair  of  the  .\gricultural  Society.  The 
shaded  plaza  in  front  of  the  court  house, 
was  selected  for  the  place  of  exhibition,  and 
here  was  gathered  a  tine  collection  of  horses, 
mules,  and  horned  cattle. 

"The  large  Durham  bull  belonging  to  Lo\ell 
&  ISrothers,  of  Vallejo  Township,  attracted  uni- 
versal attention.  This  animal  is  four  years  old; 
and  received  a  premium  at  the  recent  exhibition 
at  Sacramento.  Several  fine  stallions  were  also 
much  admired;  particularly  Sir  CIiarles,-A  dark 
bay,  seven  years  old,  Ijclonging  to  Mr.  Seabringot 
l)odega;  and  a  light  bay,  belonging  to  Mr.  Tateot 
Santa  liosa;    latter  the  took  the   first  premium. 

"  After  the  crowd  had  gazed  their  full  at  the 
animals  in  a  state  of  repose,  they  were  en- 
livened by  a  display  of  the  locomotive  jiowers 
of  the  horses,  both  under  the  saddle  and  in 
harness.  A  large  gray  horse  lielonging  to  Mr. 
Robinson  of  Petaluma.  excited  much  remark; 
with  good  training,  he  will  no  doubt  become  a 
fine  trotter. 

"At  four  o'clock  the  comjiany  adjourned  to 
the  court  house,  and  listened  to  a  few  introduc- 
tory remarks  by  Dr.  Hill,  the  president  of  the 
society,  and  an  interested  address  from  C.  1*. 
Wilkins,  Esq.,  on  the  imjwrtance  of  the  applica- 
tion of  the  sciences  to  agricnlture. 

"  The  proceedings  of  the  day  were  brought 
to  a  brilliant  and  harmonious  close,  by  a  ball  at 
the  Masonic  Hall. 



"We  subjoin  a  list  of  the  premiums  awiudL'd, 
fur  which  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Powers, 
secretary  of  the  society.  Tlie  first  premiums 
were  money,  the  second  and  tliird  were  dijiio- 
mas  of  tlie  society. 

•'  Best  stallion,  >^1U,  to  Air.  Tate  of  Santa 
IJosa;  second  best,  to  Mr.  Seabring,  of  itodega  ; 
third  best,  to  Mr.  Manning  of  Green  Valley. 

"  I>est  stud  colt,  premium  to  Mr.  McMiuu; 
second  best,  to  Mr.  McDowell. 

''Best  brood  luare,  $8,  to.Iulio  Carrillo,  of 
Santa  Kosa  ;  second  best,  to  Mr.  Stanley,  of 
I'etalunui;  third,  to  Mr.  Watson. 

"Best  colt,  $5,  to  Mr.  Seabring,  of  Bodega; 
second  to  Mr.  Tate,  of  Santa  Rosa. 

"  Best  riding  horse,  !?5,  to  Mr.  Wright,  of 
Santa  Rosa. 

"Best  buggy  horse,  So,  to  Mr.  liobin^on,  of 

"  Hest  draft  horse,  !ti5,  to  Mr.  Stanley,  of 

"  !  Jest  mule,  premium  to  Mr.  Wright,  of  Santa 

"liest  bull.  !f;8,  to  Buvell  iV  i'.rothers,  of  Val- 
lejo  Township. 

"Bestcow,  !B8,  to  Mr.  Wrigiit,  of  Santa  Kosa. 

•>  Best  calf  !ji5,  to  Air.  AVright,  of  Santa  Rosa. 

"  Hest  beef  steer,  So,  to  Mr.  Clark,  of  Santa 

"  Best  specimen  of  cheese,  $)J,  to  Mr.  Till'e, 
of  I'etaluma. 

"  Best  specimen  of  wheat,  S5,  to  Air.  Neal, 
of  Santa  Rosa. 

"  Best  specimen  of  saddlery,  !f;2.50,  to  Air. 
Barnard,  of  Santa  Rosa." 

While  the  above  showing  of  the  assessor,  as 
well  as  the  rejiort  of  the  County  Fair,  will 
seem  small  and  inconsequential  when  con- 
trasted with  he  products  of  Sonoma  County 
now,  yet  it  shows  that  the  people  had  accom- 
plished very  much,  considering  the  newness  of 
the  country. 





EPITOME    OF    THE    FIKf-T    VEAk's    KEI  OKP    UE     THE     SuXOMA     CViT>-TY     JoUKNAI, ThX    GEYSER'^ 

1S56 — IHK    PeTALIMA    IIUNIKKs    IX    1860. 

fllE  first  newspaper  published  in  Petaiiiina 
:  appeared  on  the  18th  vi'  August.  1855, 
^'  and  was  entitled  T/ie  I'etalutna  Weekly 
Joui'iuil  and  Sonoma  County  Advertiser.  Hon. 
Thomas  L.  Thompson,  now  of  the  Santa  Rosa 
Democrat,  was  proprietor,  and  H.  L.  AVcston, 
long  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Anjus, 
and  3'et  a  citizen  of  Petaluma,  was  foreman  of 
the  otiicc,  which  was  in  a  one-story  wooden 
building  situated  on  the  present  site  of  Towne's 
drug  store.  The  only  other  paper  being  pulj- 
lislied  in  the  county  was  the  Sonoma  Bulletin, 
bv  A.  J.  Cox,  and  as  it  suspended  publication 
in  September  of  that  year,  the  Journal  became 
the  repository  of  all  matters  of  historic  concern, 
not  only  of  Sonoma,  but  of  some  of  the  adjacent 
counties  that  as  yet  had  no  public  journals  of 
their  own.  While  the  most  of  the  matter  con- 
tained in  the  tiles  of  this  ]'ournal  from  the  IStli 
of  August,  1855,  to  the  18th  of  August,  185B, 
is  local  to  Petaluma,  yet  there  is  so  much  of  it 
that  relates  to  the  whole  county  that  an  epitome 
III'  it  properly  falls  within  the  scope  of  the 
county's  general  history. 

Among  the  items  of  general  interest  in  the 
first  issue  we  find  the  annual  report  of  S.  D. 
Towne,  county  assessor,  from  which  it  is 
learned  that  within  the  territory  now  constitut- 

ing the  counties  of  Sonoma  and  Mendocino, 
there  were  87,052  acres  of  enclosed  land,  of 
W'liich  22,400  were  under  cultivation.  There 
were  12,233  acres  of  wheat,  of  which  it  was 
estimated  that  3,500  acres  would  yield  twenty - 
eight  bushels  per  acre,  the  remainder  being 
nearly  all  destroyed  by  rust.  Rust  also  ex- 
tended its  ravages  to  the  indigenous  plants  and 

Among  the  Petaluma  advertisers  in  this  lirst 
i'ew.issues  were:  attorneys-at-law.  AVni.  I).  Bliss, 
Wm.  A.  Cornwall,  J.  Chandlar,  and  I.  G. 
Wickershani ;  saddlery,  Samuels  &  Gedney  and 
W.  Van  Houghton;  dry  goods  and  groceries. 
Hill  ct  Lyon  and  Elder  vN:  Plinman;  painting, 
Geo.  W.  Andrews  and  J.  B.  Bailey;  lumber,  H. 
S.  Xewton  and  Geo.  R.  Perkins;  hardware, 
Derby  A:  Baldwin;  dealers  in  produce  and 
agents  for  Petaluma  line  of  packets,  Kittrell  it 
Co.;  drug  and  book  store,  S.  C.  Haydon;  Ameri- 
can Hotel,  Anthony  G.  Oakes;  general  mer- 
chandise, Calish  &  x^ewman;  steamer  Reindeer, 
Edward  Latapie,  master;  furniture,  L.  Chap- 
man; dentist,  W.  D.  Trinque;  Petaluma  House, 
Ramsey  it  Light;  stable  and  stock-yard,  C.  I. 
Robinson;  Pioneer  Hotel,  D.  "W.  Flogdell.  A. 
B.  Bowers  and  Miss  Morse  were  the  teachers  of 
the  Petaluma  public  scliool.     X,  McC.  Menefee 


was  county  clerk,  and  Tlioinas  IT.  Pyatt  and 
Joel  JNIiller,  deputies;  Israel  Brockiuaii  was 
slieriff  and  A.  C.  McKinnen,  deputy. 

Tiie  California  State  election  was  lield  on  the 
5th  of  Septeinher,  and  is  reported  as  follows: 
J.  Neely  Johnson,  Know  Nothing,  was  elected 
Governor  over  John  Bigler,  Democrat,  by 
a  majority  of  5,011  in  a  total  vote  of  96,885. 
In  Petaluma  the  vote  stood  Johnson  277,  Bigler 
204.  The  Settlers'  elected  their  entire  county 
ticket  by  a  large  majority.  The  following  were 
the  officers  chosen:  Assemblymen,  11.  (1.  lleald 
and  J.  S.  Rathbnrn;  County  Judge,  Wm. 
Churchman;  District  Attorney,  I.  G.  Wicker- 
sham;  County  Clerk,  N.  McC.  Menefee;  Sheriii', 
A.  C.  Bledso;  Treasurer,  W.  A.  Buster;  Super- 
intendent of  Schools,  B.  n.  Bonham;  Surveyor, 
Wm.  Mock;  Assessor,  W.G.Lee;  Coroner,  J. 
S.  Williams;  Public  Administrator,  "W.B.  Atter- 
berry.  The  total  vote  polled  in  Sonoma  and 
^[(Mulocino  was  1,890.  In  the  issne  of  the  8th 
(jf  September  the  following  mention  is  made: 
"The  county  seat  was  removed  last  fall  from 
Sonoma  to  Santa  Tiosa,  at  which  time  the  latter 
place  contained  not  more  than  one  or  two 
honses;  it  now  boasts  of  three  stores,  two  hotels, 
one  restaurant,  one  blacksmith  shop,  a  large 
livery  stable,  various  private  residences  and 
several  new  houses  in  course  of  constrnction. 
The  county  buildings  are  not  constructed  but 
lumber  is  on  the  ground  for  their  commence- 
ment." Tiie  Sonoma  BuUetin,  about  the  12tli 
of  September,  requested  the  Jcnnxil  to  an- 
nounce its  demise. 

In  Septeml)er  and  October  we  tind  the  follow- 
ing record:  The  Steamer  (rcorc/ind,  which  had 
been  running  on  the  Sonoma  and  San  Francisco 
line,  commenced  making  regular  trips  between 
Petaluma  and  San  Francisco  tlic  17th  of  Sep- 
tember. The  Kate  Na//t'.i,  under  tlie  command 
of  Captain  C.  M.  Baxter,  was  also  making  regu- 
lar trips.  Among  new  advertisers  who  put  in 
an  appearance  during  the  months  of  Septembei- 
and  October,  were  C.  P.  Wilkins,  attorney-at- 
law;  W.  L.  Anderson  and  John  S.  liobberson, 
M.  Weil  &  Co.,  U.  Samuels  and  M.  Amies,  and 

John  G.  Huff,  general  merchandise;  Thomas  L. 
Barnes,  S.  W.  Brown  and  T.  A.  Hylton,  physi- 
cians and  surgeons;  B.  Tannebaum,  dry  goods; 
A.  Skill  man  and  Wm.  Zartman,  and  Dean  & 
Bates,  wagon  and  carriage- makers.  The  co- 
partnership of  Wm.  Zartman,  John  Fritscli  and 
James  Reed,  who  were  engaged  in  lilacksmith- 
ing  and  wagon-making,  was  dissolved  the  23d 
of  October,  James  Reed  having  perished  on  the 
ill-fated  Central  Ami'rira  that  went  down  at  sea. 
The  Bodega  steam  saw-mill,  owned  by  B. 
Phelps,  of  San  Francisco,  was  destroyed  by 
tire  on  the  night  of  October  18,  the  loss  beinc 
between  $15,000  and  !!;18,000.  The  first  fair  of 
Sonoma  County  was  held  in  Santa  Rosa  on  the 
plaza,  in  front  of  the  court  house,  October  18. 
The  board  of  managers  of  the  society  consisted 
of  Dr.  J.  Hill,  President;  B.  B.  Munday, 
Vice-President;  Mr.  Jenkins,  Treasurer;  S.  T. 
Power,  Secretary;  Judge  Thompson,  Dr. 
Ornisby,  Major  Beck,  Major  Ewing,  .\.  Cope- 
land  and  J.  M.  Hudspeth,  Directors.  The 
State  fair  was  held  at  Sacramento  during  the 
last  week  of  Se|)tember.  Among  the  successful 
competitors  for  jireminms  were  the  following 
named  from  Sonoma  County:  II.  L.  Lovell  A: 
Brother,  of  Yallejo  Township,  for  the  best  bull, 
California  bred  Durham,  $50;  second  best 
cheese,  Samuel  Lewis,  $15;  best  five  acres  or 
liiore  of  corn,  H.  M.  Wilson,  Russian  River,  $50. 
Between  November  10  and  December  15, 
1855,  the  Jovrnal  contained  the  following  : 
Among  new  advertisers  were,  E.  B.  Cooper, 
groceries  ;  Rosanna  Loftus,  Farmer's  Hotel  ; 
Sam  Brown,  American  Hotel;  Harmon  Ramer 
and  J.  H.  Knowles,  Petaluma  and  IJodega  Stage 
Line;  J.  E.  Fowler,  bakery  and  restaurant; 
George  W.  Miller,  barber;  E.  \\.  Lockley,  attor- 
ney-at-la\v,  Santa  Rosa  ;  John  llandley,  dry 
goods,  groceries  and  hardware,  Santa  Rosa.  .\t 
ten  o'clock,  a.  m.,  on  the  morning  of  Friday, 
November  23d,  the  boiler  of  the  steamer  Geonj- 
iiKi  exploded  while  lying  at  her  wharf  in  the 
creek  at  the  foot  of  Fnglish  street  (now  West- 
ern avenuej,  taking  on  freight  and  passengers, 
killing  .loliii  Flood,  fireman,  and  George  Funk, 


and  wounding  G.  IJiisher  and  Valentine  Iken. 
Tiie  coroner's  jury  returned  a  verdict  to  the 
eftect  tliat  Flood  came  to  his  deatli  by  the  crim- 
inal conduct  and  inattention  of  the  cajitain  of 
the  steamer,  John  Tiionipson,  and  of  the  owners. 
The  Geortfina  was  owned  by  Wagner  &  I5ihler, 
of  Sonoma.  The  jury  consisted  of  J.  V>.  South- 
ard, E.  S.  McMurrj,  James  E.  Gedney,  S.  P. 
Derby,  Charles  R.  Arthur,  Jonathan  Adams,  J. 
H.  Sproule,  S.  J.  Smith,  Harrison  Stanley,  Wm. 
Shelton,  J.  D.  Bartlett,  George  Harris  and 
William  Van  Houten.  A  postoffice,  with  Seveir 
Lewis  as  postmaster,  was  estal)lished  at  Windsor 
about  the  10th  of  November.  Captain  Stephen 
Smith,  one  of  the  pioneer  American  settlers  in 
California,  an<l  owner  of  the  Smith  ranch  in 
Bodega,  died  at  San  Francisco,  on  the  Itith  of 
November.  He  was  a  native  of  Danforth, 
Massachusetts,  and  aged  sixty-nine  years.  But- 
ter from  the  Petaluma  dairies,  which  were 
already  famous  thi-oughout  the  State,  was  worth 
si. 25  per  jionnd  in  Sacramento. 

Between  the  dates  of  December  15,  1855,  and 
March  1,  185('),  appears  the  following:  On  Jan- 
nary  5th  the  following  were  installed  officers  of 
Betahima  Loili;e,  I.  ( ).  O.  F. :  1).  1).  Carder, 
N.  G.;  S.  Payran..V.  (i.;.I.  11.  Siddons,  Jl.  S.; 
J.  K.  Cramer,  P.  S.;  M.  II.  Jose,  T.;  J.  E.  (Jed- 
ney,  C;  R.  Phinney,  W. ;  Ge  irge  Harris,  li.  S. 
N.'g.;  Abraham  Ward,  L.  S.  N.  (i.:  \.  K. 
Vietz,  R.  S.  V.  G.;  John  Stiitman,  L.  .^.  \ .  (i.; 
Thomas  C.  Gray,  R.  S.  S.;  James  B.  Il.igle,  L. 
S.  S.  The  new  county  buildings  at  Santa  Rosa 
were  completed  about  the  25th  of  December. 
Among  the  new  Petaluma  advertisements  were 
E.  F.Martin,  groceries;  G.  P.  Kellogg,  dagner- 
rean  artist;  Robinson  it  Doyle,  stable  and  stock 
yard;  (tus  Harris,  groceries,  dry  goods,  hard- 
ware, crockery,  etc.  On  the  23d  of  January 
Mr.  Schwartz  exhibited  to  the  editor  of  the 
Joirrnal  half  an  ounce  of  gold  taken  from  the 
Bodega  Mines.  It  was  of  a  rough,  coarse  char- 
acter, and  of  a  rusty  color,  but  very  pure,  and 
worth  ^111  per  oimee.  On  the  31st  of  January, 
James  HoUonsby,  a  native  of  New  York,  and 
twentv  seven  vears  of  atfe  was  killed  near  Peta- 

luma by  the  accidental  discharge  of  his  gun. 
In  February,  a  military  conipanj'  was  organized, 
called  the  Petaluma  Guard,  with  the  following 
officers:  Captain  P.  B.  Hewlett;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, J.  II.  Siddons;  Second  Lieutenant, 
Frank  Bray;  Brevet  Lieutenant,  Thomas  F. 
Baylis;  First  Sergeant,  F.J.  Benjamin;  Second 
Sergeant,  M.  JI.  Jose;  Third  Sergeant,  G.  B. 
Mathews;  l'"onrth  Sergeant,  Warren  G.  Gibbs; 
First  Corporal,  O.  T.  Baldwin;  Second  Corporal, 
J.  K.  Cramer;  Third  Corporal,  B.  F.  Cooper; 
Fourth  Corporal,  Samuel  Brown.  The  company 
nninliered  forty  members,  and  offered  to  serve 
as  a  tire  company  if  furnished  with  apparatus. 
On  the  18th  of  February  tJie  Democracy  met  in 
mass  convention  at  Santa  Rosa,  and  elected  M. 
E.  Cook,  Jasper  O'Farrell,  R.  Harrison,  P.  R. 
Thompson,  Josiah  Moran,  C.  P.  Wilkins  and 
George  Pearce  as  delegates  to  a  State  Conven- 
tion, to  be  held  at  Sacramento  on  the  5th  of 

Between  March  1  and  June  7,  ISotl,  there 
was  recoriled  the  following:  At  a  meeting  in 
Petaluma  on  the  15th  of  March  it  was  decided, 
liy  a  majority  of  three,  to  incorporate.  Thei'e 
is  beginning  to  be  manifested  a  bitter  feeling 
between  sellers  and  grant  owners,  as  is  evi- 
denced by  several  communications  on  each  side 
of  the  question ;  and  on  the  29th  of  March  the 
Settler's  Bill  passed  the  California  Senate.  On 
the  5th  of  April  there  was  reported  trouble 
between  tlu'(ireeii  Valley  and  Tomales  Indians, 
growing  out  of  the  killing  of  one  of  the  former 
tribe,  by  one  of  the  latter.  The  surrender  of 
the  offending  Tomales  Indian  was  demanded — 
if  not  delivered  up  war  was  lial)le  to  ensue.  We 
find,  however,  no  record  of  the  war.  On  April 
19th  Colonel  A.  C.  Godwin,  Julio  Carrillo  and 
J.  Crane,  directors  of  the  Geyser  Road  Com- 
pany, made  a  report  in  which  they  mapped  out 
what  they  believe  to  be  a  feasible  route  for  a 
wagon  road  to  those  springs.  April  26tli 
announcement  is  made  that  Captain  Ray,  with 
a  large  force  of  Indians  is  making  rapid  prog- 
ress in  the  construction  of  a  road  os'er  Bald 
Mountains  to  the  Geysers.      In  the  Journal  ot 


tlie  3rd  of  IVIay  appears  tlie  valedictory  of 
Tliomas  L.  Thompson,  as  editor  and  proprietor 
— H.  L.  Weston  being  his  successor.  Judge  J. 
E.  McNear,  a  pioneer  of  California,  and  formerly 
county  judge  of  Sonoma,  died  in  San  Francisco 
on  the  Cth  of  May.  Tiie  following  new  adver- 
tisements had  a|ipeared  of  new  lieginners  in 
Petahima  :  A.  Meyer,  lessons  in  music  and 
singing;  A.  Ayres,  saddlery  and  harness;  .lames 
Daly,  groceries  and  provisions;  William  R. 
Wells,  physician  and  surgeon;  Israel  Cook, 
brick-laying  and  plastering;  (leorge  J.  J>aus- 
tetter.  Union  ISilliard  Saloon;  II.  P.  lleintzel- 
man,  agent  for  steamer  Genercd  /rtfar?i(?y,  plying 
between  Petaluma  and  San  Francisco;  Ceorge 
Ross,  dealer  in  paints,  oils,  varnish,  etc.  In 
the  issue  of  June  5th  mention  is  made  of  (lov- 
ernor  Johnson's  proclamation  on  account  of  the 
vigilance  committee,  declaring  San  Francisco 
in  a  state  of  insurrection,  and  ordering  all  per- 
sons liable  to  military  duty  to  report  to  Majoi' 
General  W.  T.  Sherman.  On  the  14th  of  June 
James  King,  of  William,  of  the  San  Francisco 
BnUetin  was  shot,  and  died  on  the  20th.  On 
the  22(1  Casey  and  Cora  were  hung  by  the  vigi- 
lance committee,  and  on  the  31st  Vankee  Sul- 
livan, the  noted  prize-fighter,  held  in  durance 
vile  by  the  vigilance  committee,  committed  sui- 
cide. The  nearness  of  Petaluma  to  San  Fran- 
cisco rendered  these  occurrences  of  thrilling 
interest  to  her  people. 

Petween  the  7tli  of  May  and  2d  of  August 
the  following  record  is  made:  The  value  of  the 
butter,  cheese,  and  eggs  produced  and  sold  in 
the  vicinity  of  Petaluma,  Santa  Rosa,  and  Rus- 
sian River,  during  the  month  of  May,  was  esti- 
mated at  $i)2,39!).  The  steamers  I\at,'  ILiiji:^ 
and  General  Kearnc;/  were  rimning  in  opposi- 
tion, to  San  Francisco,  at  twenty-five  cents  and 
one  dollai-,  respectively,  for  passengers.  The 
new  advertisers  for  Petaluma  were:  Mrs.  W. 
II.  Parker,  school  for  young  ladies;  Acton, 
Ste])hens  i^'  Parker,  produce  depot,  and  W.  P. 
Ewing,  Geyser  Hotel.  St.  John's  Fpiscimal 
Chnrcli,  Petaluma,  was  organized  July  31st,  by 
the  election  of  the  following  vestrymen:  John 

Keyes,  Tomales;  Dr.  T.  Ilendley,  San^a  Rosa; 
D.  D.  Carder,  V,o\.  J.  P.  Ilewie,  P.  R.  Thomp- 
son, and  J.  Thompson  Iliiie,  V'allejo  Township; 
I.  G.  Wickersham,  S.  C.  Ilaydon,  and  O.  T. 
Baldwin,  of  Petaluma. 

The  following  is  made  up  trom  the  last  two 
nnmbers  of  Volume  I  of  the  Journal — the  re- 
spective dates  being  August  9  and  10,  ISytJ: 
At  three  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  August  4th, 
a  two-story  fire-proof  building  on  Main  street, 
(occupying  ground  upon  which  now  stands  the 
northern  portion  of  PhfPnix  I 'lock)  fell  to  tiie 
ground  and  was  almost  a  complete  ruin.  The 
building  was  owned  by  Gowen  &  McKay,  and 
was  occupied  on  the  first  floor  by  L.  (Chapman 
as  a  furniture  store,  and  on  the  second  by  the 
Odd  Fellows  and  Masons.  The  front  of  the 
building  fell  into  the  street  and  the  north  side 
Tipon  the  adjoining  wooden  building,  owned 
and  occupied  by  S.  V.  Ilaydon  as  a  drug  store, 
completely  demolishing  the  bnilding  and  de- 
stroying the  goods.  The  south  wall  slid  down 
an  embankment  into  the  cellars  in  the  two  ad- 
joining lots,  the  e.\cavating  of  which  caused 
the  catastrophe.  Mr.  Ilaydon  narrowly  escaped 
being  killed.  The  following  names  were  ap- 
pended to  a  call  for  a  Republican  mass  conven- 
tion to  be  held  at  Petaluma,  on  August  20, 
1850,  the  first  convention  called  by  that  j^arty 
in  Sonoma  County:  J.  Chandler,  S.  W.  Brown, 
M.  Aines,  M.  I  Human,  J.  N.  Newton,  A.  C. 
Salter,  L.  Chapman,  J.  FL  Fowler,  J.  Palmer, 
O.  T.  Baldwin,  W.  D.  Bliss,  L.  M.  Judkins, 
George  Harris,  O.  Walker,  J.  F.  Reed,  John 
Fritsch,  J.  II.  Masten,  G.  Warnei-,  F.  J.  Penja- 
min,  Hiram  Luce,  N.  ( ).  Start'ord,  (t.  (".  Trues- 
dell,  Joel  Merchant,  O.  II.  Lovett,  Jacob  (iilbert, 
John  Wells,  C.  P.  Hatch,  J.  L.  Pickett,  W.  (;. 
Gibbs,  F.  C.  Davis,  R.  Douglass,  G.  AV.  Mowci-, 
W.  C.  Conley,  (i.  W.  Barnard,  William  Z;iit- 
man,  John  .1.  Bind,  G.  Barry,  E.  Linn,  Pliilc- 
mon  Hill,  Freeman  Parker,  J.  D.  Thompson. 

With  its  issue  of  the  16tli  of  August,  lSo(i, 
the  ./o?/;vi(7/ closed  the  first  year  of  its  existence. 
This  chapter  culled  from  its  columns,  as  con- 
fuse<l   and   broken-jointed   as  it  is,    will   not   be 

lllsroKY    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

devoid  of  interest  to  those  of  onr  pioneers  still 
left,  for  in  it  is  the  names  of  a  very  large  pro- 
pcrtidH  (if  those  who  helpeil  to  hiy  the  founda- 
tion of  Sonoma  County'sgreatnessand  prosperity 
— many  of  wiiom  have  already  passed  over  the 
summit,  to  the  lllimitaMe  vales  of  tlie  hitlilen 

rill     i.KVSKKS    IN    ISoti. 

As  an  ailendum  to  this  record  of  1855-'5t:i,  as 
collated  from  the  first  volume  of  the  Journal, 
we  can  fitly  append  the  following,  descriptive 
of  the  country  and  tiie  (ieyser  Springs  as  seen 
in  185fi.  Tlie  writer,  in  company  with  (t.  W. 
Heed,  afterward  a  rejiresentative  in  tlie  Califor 
nia  Legislature  from  Sonoma  County,  traveled 
from  Two  iiock  Valley  to  the  (leysers.  We 
rode  California  mustangs,  as  at  that  time  there 
was  only  a  hriille  trail  to  the  Geysers.  Then 
Major  Ewing  was  the  proprietor  of  those  springs 
and  the  buildings  were  all  of  canvas.  Mr. 
Reed  (long  >ince  deceased),  who  had  been  onr 
companion  in  the  mines,  wrote  for  the  Sonoma 
County  Jdiiniiil  the  following  sketch  of  our  trip: 

"  Ho,  for  the  (ieysersi"  shouted  my  friend. 
'•Aye,  for  the  (Jeysers,"  was  the  hearty  re 
spouse.  A  few  minutes  hasty  preparation  ami 
we  bade  adieu  to  our  friends,  sprang  into  oiii' 
saddles  and  soon  were  galloping  o\er  the  liills 
at  a  break-neck  speed.  The  morning  was  beau- 
tiful. A  cloudless  sky  and  a  refreshing  breeze 
lent  additional  splendor  to  the  scenery,  and 
imparted  buoyanry  and  elasticity  to  our  spirits. 
Onr  horses  caught  a  spark  of  the  enthusiasm 
that  liurned  in  the  heart,  and  beamed  from  the 
eyes  of  their  riders,  (living  them  the  rein  they 
bore  us  rapidly  over  the  undulating  hills  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Two  Uocks,  till,  descending  a 
narrow  detile,  we  entereil  the  beautiful  valley  of 
Santa  Rosa.  Here,  shaded  by  the  wide-spread- 
ing oaks,  planted  by  the  hand  of  nature  to 
adorn  this  lovely  valley,  and  refreshed  by  the 
breeze  that  played  among  their  branches,  onr 
horses  sprang  forward  with  redoubled  speed, 
and  as  we  glided  rapidly  along,  the  sturdy  old 
oaks  appeared  to  be  whirling  in  a  giddy  dance. 
Evervthino-  was  heautv  and  animation.     Numer 

ous  herds  of  horses  and  cattle  were  seen  on 
every  side;  some  luxuriating  on  the  rich  pastur- 
age, and  others  ruminating  in  the  cool  shade, 
with  an  air  of  calm  enjoyment.  Occasionally 
the  outlines  of  a  neat  white  cottage,  indistinctly 
seen  through  the  dark,  green  foliage  of  a  thick 
clump  of  oaks,  tlireiv  ijuiet  home-like  appear 
ances  over  the  whole  scene.  Delighted  with 
the  beauties  of  the  valley,  we  deviated  from  our 
direct  course,  and  arrived  at  the  village  of  Santa 
Rosa,  at  4  o'clock  v.  m.,  and  halted  for  the  night. 

"Santa  Rosa  has  a  pleasant  situation,  and  the 
buildings  look  neat  and  attractive,  in  the 
morning  we  started  early.  An  hour'rj  ride 
brought  us  to  a  low  range  of  hills,  passing 
tlirongh  which,  we  entered  the  valley  of  Rus- 
sian River,  wliich  in  appearance  is  not  less 
animated  and  l)eautiful  than  Santa  Rosa.  Tra- 
veling up  the  valley,  three  hours"  ride  brought 
us  to  the  Mountain  House,  here  we  halted  for 
i-efreshments.  At  tliis  point,  the  road  leading 
to  the  (leysers  turns  into  the  mountains.  After 
resting  an  hour,  we  commenced  the  ascent  of 
the  mount:nn.  The  road  is  good,  and  the  ascent 
was  easy.  We  soon  stood  upon  the  summit  of 
liald  Hill.  Certainly  not  a  very  poetical  name, 
yet  I  iloiiht  whether  many  of  the  mountains, 
famous  in  history  an<l  classic  literature,  can 
present  a  view  so  full  of  lieauty  and  sublimity. 
Arriving  at  the  summit  oi'  this  mountain,  the 
valleys  of  Santa  Rosa  and  Kussian  Rivei-  lay 
like  a  map  at  onr  feet.  The  country  which  we 
had  .~o  much  admired  iluring  onr  ride,  was  now 
all  presented  at  a  single  view,  and  we  stood  gaz- 
ing on  the  scene  spread  out  liefore  us,  in  mute 

"Reared  upon  the  Fertile  bosom  ot  the  -prai- 
rieil  west,"  from  our  earliest  childhood  we  have 
l)een  accustomed  to  contemplate  the  untarnished 
beauties  of  nature,  but  never  l)efore  did  onr  eyes 
rest  upon  a  landscape  that  excited  such  lively 
emotions,  as  the  one  now  at  our  feet.  The 
broad  expanse  of  the  fertile  valley,  covered  with 
rich  grass  of  a  golden  tint,  and  variegated  by 
groves  of  spreading  oaks,  apparently  artistically 
arrantfcd,  through    which    the   river   wound   its 



serpentine  conrse,  with  its  bright  erystal  waters 
sparivling  in  the  sunlight,  contrasted  finely  with 
the  dark  cloud  of  tog  that  obscured  the  more 
elevated  hills  in  the  background.  The  whole 
gorgeously  illuminated  by  the  rays  of  the 
declining  sun,  reminded  us  of  Addison's  descrip- 
tion of  the  '  Happy  Isles '  that  arc  to  be  the 
•  abode  of  good  men  after  death.' 

"This  delightful  valley,  destined  tu  be  the 
happy  home  of  thousands,  is  but  sparsely  popu- 
lated, and  its  resources  un<leveloped.  But  the 
tide  of  immigration  is  setting  thitherward. 
The  busy  hum  of  the  industrious  pioneers  will 
soon  be  heard  in  the  valley;  and  at  the  fii-st  wave 
of  the  potent  wand  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race,  the 
earth  will  yield  her  abundance;  fields  of  grain 
will  wave  gracefully  in  tlie  breeze,  and  cottages, 
school-houses  ami  clinrches,  will  spring  up  to 
adorn  onr  land;  the  merry  voice  of  happy  chil- 
dren will  echo  through  the  valley,  and  a  pros- 
perous community,  happy  in  the  enjoyment  of 
civil  and  religious  liberty,  will  thank  heaven 
that  they  have  found  a  home  in  this  fair  region. 

"  Prom  this  ])oint  the  road  is  rough  and  im- 
pa88il)le  f'oi'  carriages.  The  scenery  suddenly 
changes,  and  nature  puts  on  her  >  rudest  form.' 
The  mountains  rear  their  bold,  rugged  fronts 
athwart  the  traveler's  way,  like  colossal  embattle- 
inents,  looking  in  this  magnificent  display  of 
nature's  wontlers, to  impede  the  ativancing  steps 
of  the  adventurous  intruder.  .Not  aware  of  the 
difKculties  we  had  to  encounter,  we  lingered  too 
long  by  the  way,  and  night  spi-ead  her  dusky 
mantle  o'er  the  mountains,  while  the  most  ditti- 
cult  part  of  the  journey  was  yet  to  be  made. 
After  a  laborious  march,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  very  much  fatigued,  and  with  the  ardor 
of  our  enthusiasm  somewhat  abated,  we  arrived 
at  our  ilestination.  The  hearty  welcome  and 
generous  hospitality  of  the  [u-oprietors  soon 
rendered  ns  forgetful  «if  our  fatigues,  and  re- 
stored onr  usual  good  spirits.  Aftei'  a  hearty 
sujjper  and  a  pleasant  chat,  we  retired  to  our 
room,  and  forgetful  alike  of  pain  or  pleasure,  soon 
yielded  to  the  sweet  embrace  of  the  sleepy  god. 

"With  the  earliest  dawn,  we  sprang  from  our 

conch,  and  sallied  forth  with  eager  curiosity  to 
take  our  first  peep  at  the  Geysers.  We  found 
ourself  on  a  bench  or  flat  in  the  side  of  the 
mountain.  In  front,  and  two  hundred  feet 
below,  was  a  rocky  canon,  while  above  us.  on 
either  side,  the  mountains  rose  to  tlie  height  of 
a  thousand  feet,  with  their  tops  gilded  with  the 
first  rays  of  the  morning  sun,  while  twilight 
lingered  in  the  depths  below.  Dense  clouds  of 
steam,  impenetrable  to  the  eye,  obscured  the 
opposite  slo])e,  and  a  loud  stunning  noise  like 
steam  escaping  from  a  hundred  boilers,  echoed 
through  the  hills.  Descending  into  the  canon, 
we  climbed  up  through  a  narrow  chasm  in  the 
rock,  and  truly  stood  in  a  "  theatre  of  wonders." 
On  either  side,  the  rocks  rose  abruptly,  and 
steam  whistled  through  every  crevice,  while 
under  our  feet  we  could  hear  the  gurgling 
sound  of  the  boiling  fluid.  The  whole  moun- 
tain appeared  to  tremble  as  though  it  floated  on 
the  surface  of  a  boiling  lake.  Fi'oin  an  eleva- 
tion of  two  or  three  liundred  feet,  down  to  the 
bed  of  the  stream  that  flows  through  the  canon, 
boiling  water  and  jets  of  steam  are  issuing 
through  the  fissures  of  the  rock.  A  grander 
e.xliibition  of  the  wonderful  in  nature  is  seldom 
seen.  Its  contemplation  awes  the  heart  bv  a 
conscious  pi-esence  of  sn])erior  j)owers,  ami 
involuntarily  turns  the  mind  to  reflect  upon  the 
power  and  wisdom  of  the  (ireat  Author  of  the 
universe.  Innumerable  ages,  buried  in  the 
oblivion  of  the  past,  have  run  their  course  since 
these  boiling  fountains  first  burst  through  the 
rocky  liarriers  of  the  mountain.  Countless 
years  rolled  away,  while  their  sublime  thunder 
echot'il  through  the  dreary  solitude,  uidieai'd  bv 
the  ear,  or  uuaj)proacheil  by  the  footstep  ol 
civilized  man.  lint  henceforth  the  invalid,  the 
devotee  of  jileasnre,  and  the  idle  and  curious  of 
everj'  land,  will  flock  thither  ;  •  silks  rustle, 
jewels  shine,'  and  fashion's  g.ay,  heartless  throuif, 
will  move  to  and  fro,  as  though  their  ephemeral 
pleasure  were  as  eternal  as  the  hills."" 

Mr.  Ileed,  who  penned  the  above,  has  long 
since  crumbled  to  dust,  and  yet  how  prophetic 
his  words!     Of  those   who   have    visited  those 


same  geysers  and  marveled  at  the  wonders  of 
nature's  laboratory,  liovv  many,  after  fretting  np 
and  down  life's  stage  for  a  brief  period,  have 
passed  on,  and  that  they  ever  lixed  is  only 
evideneed  liy  a  slab  of  "dull  cold  inai'blcf 

TMI':     I'K.TAIJ'MA    illXTERS. 

In  tlic  fall  of  18H0,  the  writer  in  company 
with  six  boon  companions  spent  about  half  a 
month  hunting  on  the  boundarj'  line  between 
Sonoma  and  Mendocino  counties.  The  following 
is  his  description  of  the  country  and  the  adven- 
tures of  his  party  written  at  the  time  for  the 
Sonoma  County  Journal : 

"In  life  there  is  uo  enjoyment  liowe'erit  ni;iy  ;il)oun(l, 
Like  luinting  tlirontrli  llie  wckkIIiimiIs  witli  liHes  and  wilh 

'•  On  Monthly  morning,  the  24th  of  Septem- 
ber, 181)0,  there  might  have  been  seen,  not  'a 
solitary'  (a  In  eJames),  but  seven  horsemen  gal- 
loping across  the  low  hills  that  intervene  be- 
tween the  city  of  Petaluma  and  the  Santa  Itosa 
plains.  The  guns  that  hung  ]iendant  tVom  the 
saddle  bows,  and  the  sable  specimen  of  the 
canine  family  that  brought  up  the  I'car.  marked 
them  as  disciples  of  Nimrod  intent  on  pleasure 
and  adventure.  In  brief,  the  object  of  our  little 
party  was  to  leave  the  haunts  of  civilization,  and 
in  the  wild  freedom  of  the  forest  and  excite- 
ment of  the  chase,  seek  oblivion  from  the  every 
day  cares  of  life.  With  a  leader  whose  name 
is  a  terror  to  bruin,  and  a  guide  familiar 
with  the  intricate  paths  and  by-ways  that  thread 
tlie  almost  nninhabited  region  lying  between 
the  head  waters  of  Dry  Creek  and  the  C!oast 
Range,  we  naturally  anticipated  rare  sport. 
Elated  with  the  pros])ect  before  us,  we  gave 
loose  rein  to  our  horses,  and  they,  as  if  imbued 
witii  the  spirit  of  their  riders,  went  dashing  up 
the  Santa  liosa  Valley,  bearing  us  over  level 
plain  and  through  orchard-like  groves,  that  con- 
trasted strangely  with  the  Sonoma  Mountains 
to  our  right,  with  their  buckskin  scenery  varia- 
gated  by  an  occasional  clump  of  evergreen  oak, 
or  the  somber  appearance  of  the  red-woods  in 
perspective  to  our  left.  About  11  o'clock  we 
passed  the  village  of  Santa  ilosa,  county  seat  of 

Sonoma.  It  is  located  on  Santa  Rosa  Creek, 
and  presents  a  neat  and  tidy  appearance.  One 
peculiarity  that  strikes  the  traveler  approach- 
ing this  village,  is  the  uniformity  disjdayed  in 
the  architecture  of  its  buildings,  and  the  an- 
tique appearance  of  its  gable  chimneys  that 
stand  like  shot  towers  exposed  to  the  weather. 
A  ride  of  five  miles  brought  us  to  Mark  West 
Creek.  At  the  crossing  of  this  stream  the 
Campbellites  were  holding  their  annual  meet- 
ing. Hitching  our  horses  in  an  adjacent 
grove,  and  (li\'esting  ourselves  of  our  hunting 
accoutrements,  we  approached  the  camp.  It 
was  at  the  close  of  11  o'clock  service,  and  tiie  \ast 
concourse  of  people  were  singing,  perhaps  with 
the  spii-it,  !)ut  with  little  i-egard  to  melody.  .V 
minister  occupying  a  prominent  position  on  a 
bench,  was  exhoi'ting  the  impenitent  to  'l)e- 
lieve  and  be  ba])tised,'  and  some  ten  or  twelve 
responded  to  the  call.  As  impressive  as  was 
the  scene,  its  effect  upon  ns  was  connteraoti'd 
l)y  one  of  the  ministers  volunteering  the  admo- 
nition to  the  new  converts,  that  they  must  re- 
gard their  •  religious  neighbors  as  their  reli- 
gions enemies.'  Such  illiberality  might  justly 
be  regarded  as  a  relic  of  that  proscripti\e  age 
that  must  e\er  be  remembered  as  the  gloomy 
morn  that  heralded  the  dawn  of  a  brighter  day. 
The  attendance  at  this  meeting  was  greater  than 
perhaps  at  any  meeting  of  similar  charactei-  in 
this  region,  and  we  were  informed  that  between 
eighty  and  a  hundred  had  united  with  the  church. 
"As  we  wished  to  reach  Healdsburg  in  season 
to  perfect  our  arrangements  for  camp  life,  we 
remonnted  and  rode  toward  Russian  River.  The 
mountains  on  either  side  gradually  closed  in, 
narrowing  the  valley  down  until  lost  in  undu- 
lating hills,  which  indicated  our  approach  to 
the  river.  Russian  River  is  a  stream  of  con- 
siderable magnitude  when  swollen  by  the  winter 
rains,  but  at  present  is  almost  lost  by  filtering 
through  the  cobble-stone  and  sand  over  which  it 
flows.  The  bottom  land  along  this  river  is 
justly  celebrated  for  the  corn  it  produces.  We 
have  seen  tall  corn  on  tlie  western  prairies,  but 
none  that  would  bear  comparison  with  the  corn 



of  Russian  River.  At  five  in  tlie  evening  we 
lialted  before  tiie  Sotoyome,  tlie  only  lionse  of 
public  entertainment  in  Ileaklsbnrg.  This  vil- 
laj^e  might  with  propriety  be  dubbed  the  '  Vil- 
lage of  Woods,'  as  it  is  completely  embowered 
in  a  grove  of  oak  and  madrono,  giving  to  it  an 
air  of  quiet  and  seclusion  really  inviting  to 
those  used  to  the  bustle  and  confusion  of  more 
populous  places.  Occupying  a  position  just 
al)ovc  the  continence  of  Dry  Creek  and  Iiussian 
River,  it  is  the  natural  channel  through  which 
the  produce  of  both  valleys  must  pass,  thus 
giving  to  it  superior  advantages  as  an  inland 
town.  Here  it  was  necessary  to  lay  in  our  sup- 
ply of  provisions  and  ammuintion,  as  there  was 
no  trading  post  higher  up  on  the  route  we  de- 
signed taking.  A  couple  of  sacks  of  Hour,  tea, 
coffee,  and  necessary  condiments,  with  a  keg  of 
powder,  lead,  shot,  etc.,  completed  our  outtit; 
and  as  we  had  already  bargained  for  a  pack  ani- 
mal til  convey  it  to  its  destination  in  the  moun- 
tains, we  smoked  our  jdpes  and  retired  to  i-est, 
felicitating  ourselves  on  the  pi'ospect  of  an  early 
start  in  tlie  morning.  In  this,  however,  we 
were  disappointed,  for  when  ready  to  start,  the 
Hibernian  that  presided  over  i/iat  livery  stable 
informed  us  that  the  horse  he  designed  ns  to 
have  was  on  a  ranc/io  some  distance  from  town, 
that  he  had  sent  after  it,  and  was  confident  it 
would  be  brought  in  sometime  during  the  day. 
This  was  annoying — it  overcame  our  captain's 
usual  ecjuanimity,  causing  him,  we  are  sorry  to 
say,  to  use  language  7U)t  to  be  found  in  the 
Westminister  catechism.  We  remonstrated — 
we  threatened-  informed  him  that  one  of  our 
number  was  a  lawyer  by  profession,  and  heavy 
on  livery  stable  practice,  but  it  was  no  go,  and 
only  called  forth  a  proposition  that  he  would 
let  us  have  a  horse  if  we  would  pay  doul)le  the 
stipulated  price.  This  did  not  tend  to  molify 
us,  and  we  left  that  stable  vowing  that  we  would 
jiatronize  some  other  establishment  on  our  re- 
turn. After  a  delay  of  a  couple  of  hours,  we 
started  up  Dry  Creek  Valley  with  our  muni- 
tions packed  by  an  ill-visaged,  iiall-faced  animal 
tliat    wonlil  havi'    passed   as  a  duplicate  of  the 

famous  '  Rosinante.'  A  youthful  and  inconsid- 
erate member  of  our  company  was  in  the  hal)it 
of  urging  him  forward  by  exclaiming  'git  u]> 
and  git,  old  bally,'  but  our  captain  very  prop- 
erly checked  him,  by  reminding  him  of  the  fate 
of  forty  rude  boys  in  a  land  that  aliounded  in 

"  It  is  about  twelve  miles  from  Ilealdsbui-g  to 
the  canon  at  the  head  of  Dry  Creek  ^'alley. 
This  valley  consists  of  a  rich  loam  formed  by 
the  decayed  vegetation  that  is  annually  boi'ue 
down  and  deposited  by  the  mountain  streams. 
Its  luxuriant  fields  of  corn  indicated  its  capacity 
to  }noduce,  and  we  are  much  mistaken  if  the 
(lay  is  far  distant  when  hop  and  tobacco  culture 
will  claim  the  attention  and  jirove  remuner- 
ative to  those  disposed  to  engage  in  it.  At  the 
head  of  the  valley  we  bade  adieu  to  ci\ilization 
and  wagon  roads,  and  taking  the  pack  trail,  be- 
gan the  ascent  of  the  rugged  mountain.  Onward 
and  upward  we  toiled  our  way,  some  leading 
their  horses,  others  preferring  to  let  their's  go 
ahead,  therelty  giving  them  the  advantage  of 
'tail  holt'  to  assist  them  in  their  ascent. 
Before  we  reached  the  summit  bandanas  were 
ill  requisition,  and  standing  collars  were  meta- 
morphosed into  drooping  '  I'yrons.'  .\s  htbor- 
ions  as  was  the  ascent,  we  were  amply  i-opai<l 
by  the  extensive  prospect  that  was  opened  to 
us,  for  as  far  as  the  e^'c  could  scan  there  was 
one  confused  jumble  of  mountains,  clad  with 
forests  of  redwood  and  fir,  whose  spiral  to]  s 
seemed  to  pierce  the  clouds.  Ten  miles  ot 
rough  roads  lay  between  us  and  tlu'  springs 
whei-e  we  designed  ])itcliing  camji  that  night, 
and  urging  oui'  jaded  hoi'ses  forwartl  along  a 
tortuous  trail  that  was  liedg('(l  in  by  chaparral 
and  manzaneta  thickets,  we  lialtcil  at  fi\e  in  tiie 
evening,  weary  and  hungry.  To  picket  oni' 
horses  and  build  a  camjt  fire  claimed  our  first 
attention;  then  camt;  a  scene  worthy  the  jiencil 
of  an  artist.  Men  who  were  wont  to  turn  up  their 
noses  at  better  victuals  than  graced  the  table  ot 
'Dives,'  might  be  seen  devouring  with  avidity 
slices  of  bacon  they  had  liroiled  before  the  fire 
on  the  end  of  their  ramroils;   fratjrant  coti'ee  was 



sipped  from  tin  cups,  and  the  clatter  of  knives 
and  forks  upon  tin  plates,  gave  evidence  that 
ample  justice  was  done  to  the  repast,  notwith- 
standing tiie  absence  of  delf.  Spreading  oiii- 
•blankets  upon  the  earth,  and  witii  our  heads 
pillowed  upon  our  saddles  and  the  starry 
heavens  for  a  canopy,  we  consigned  ourselves 
to  the  embrace  of  '  tired  nature's  restorer.'  We 
were  up  by  early  dawn  and  ready  to  take  the 
trail  leading  to  Flat  Ridge,  ten  miles  distant. 
The  springs  at  which  we  camped,  our  guide  in- 
formed us  were  without  a  name,  and  we  chris- 
tened them  'Hunter's  Springs.' 

"  As  we  ascended  a  sharp  ridge  that  towered 
above  the  surrounding  mountains,  the  sun  rose 
bright  and  clear  above  the  mountains  to  the 
eastward,  and  its  retlection  upon  the  dense  sea- 
fog,  that  had  settled  in  the  canons  and  gorges  of 
the  mountains,  gave  iis  a  view  grand  and  sub- 
lime. Seas,  l)ays,  and  friths,  were  mixed  to- 
gether in  admirable  confusion.  Their  placid, 
mirror-like  surface  was  unrippled  by  a  breeze, 
and  Minfurrowed  by  a  keel.'  l''or  an  hour  we 
enjoyed  the  illusion,  when  the  rays  nf  •  Sol  ' 
began  to  troulde  the  waters;  at  first,  ripples 
appeared  on  the  surface,  then  billow  chased  bil- 
low, and  finally  rising  in  fleecy  folds,  it  floated 
heavenward  revealing  the  wilderness  of  forest 
that  had  apparently  iieen  submerged.  I'assing 
down  a  steep  declivity  toward  Flat  Ridge,  we 
met  with  a  mishap  that  might  have  materially 
atfected  the  sport  of  our  company.  Our  keg  of 
powder  broke  loose  from  its  lashings,  and  went 
rolling  down  the  mountains.  As  it  disap])eared 
from  view,  disappointment  and  chagrin  was 
visible  on  every  countenance.  The  course  it 
had  taken  was  marked  l)y  a  trail  through  the 
wild  oats,  with  which  the  side  of  the  mountain 
was  clad,  as  if  a  boa-constrictor  had  taken  its 
flight  down  the  mountain.  Taking  the  trail  of 
our  fugitive  casket,  we  found  it  on  a  bench  of 
the  mountain  five  hundred  yards  distant,  snugly 
ensconced  in  a  bunch  of.  fern.  We  halted  at 
Flat  Ridge,  and  cooked  dinner;  then  resumed 
our  march  for  the  Buckeye  Springs,  eight  miles 
distant,  where  we   designed  going  into  perma- 

nent (juarters.  Crossing  the  east  fork  of  the 
Gualala  and  bearing  toward  the  coast  in  the 
region  of  •  Point  Arenas,'  we  arrived  at  Buck- 
eye and  pitched  camp  at  four  in  the  evening. 
As  late  as  the  hour,  we  could  not  restrain  our 
impatience  for  the  chase,  and  hurriedly  unsad- 
dling our  horses,  and  turning  them  loose  to 
graze  upon  the  lu.xuriant  oats  and  clover  with 
which  our  camp  was  surrounded,  we  sallied 
forth,  some  with  rifles,  others  with  shot-guns, 
each  intent  mi  some  daring  e.xploit;  but  our 
zeal  resulted  in  nothing,  save  that  one  of  jiarty, 
armed  with  a  fowling-piece,  was  reconnoitering 
a  manzaneta  grove  for  quail,  when  he  suddeidy 
found  himself  face  to  face  with  a  hugh  bear, 
who  was  standing  upon  his  hind  legs  quietlv 
reconnoitering  him ;  but  as  his  piece  was  charged 
with  quail  shot,  he  did  not  deem  it  prudent  to 
get  into  an  affray  with  him,  and  acting  on  the 
principle  that  •' discretion  was  the  better  part 
of  valor,"  he  made  tracks  for  camp.  His  bear- 
ship,  notwithstanding  his  Heenan  attitude,  did 
not  appear  to  be  pluck,  for  u])(in  i-etu ruing  to 
the  spot  armed  with  rifles,  it  was  discovered  he 
had  ingloriously  forsaken  the  field.  (>urcam]) 
was  on  a  ridge  that  formed  the  divide  between 
tlie  east  and  west  Gualala,  and  had  been  occu- 
pied by  some  adventurous  stockjnan,  who  had 
erected  and  occupied  a  temporary  shanty,  but 
finding  it  an  unprofitable  speculation,  had 
moved  with  his  flocks  to  some  other  section  ot 
the  countiy,  leaving  the  '  liuekeye  House '  as 
a  standing  monument  to  his  folly.  We  took 
formal  possession  of  the  premises,  and  made  the 
house  answer  the  doul)le  purpose  of  dining 
room  and  sleeping  apartments,  whilst  a  hollow 
redvvood  tree  close  by  was  converted  into  a 
magazine.  After  the  usual  routine  of  camp 
duty  was  dispatched,  all  hands  were  busy  in 
running  balls,  cleaning  guns,  and  making  all 
needful  preparations  for  the  next  day's  sport. 
One  after  another,  after  having  put  their  rifles  in 
a  condition,  as  they  believed,  to  drive  the  center 
at  any  given  distance,  joined  the  circle  around 
the  camp  fire,  and  the  wreaths  of  smoke  tliat 
circling  aloft  from  half  a  dozen  pipes,  assuming 


all  kinds  of  fantastic  sliajjes,  appeared  to  be  the 
signal  for  stories  of  adventure  and  hairbreadth 
cscajjes.  Our  LTuide  took  the  lead  by  recounting 
iticideiits  that  had  occurred  in  that  region-  of 
two  brothers  out  luinting.  one  shooting  the 
other's  arm  ott",  mistaking  him  for  a  deer;  of  a 
man  hitciiing  his  mule  close  to  the  chaparal, 
to  hunt  down  a  cafion,  and  retnrning  was  de- 
ceived as  to  locality,  and  seeing  his  mule  in  tiie 
brush  shot  him  supposing  him  to  be  a  grizzly 
i>car:  and  several  other  incidents  of  like  nature. 
Another  member  of  the  company  related  an 
instance  of  a  hunter  shooting  a  cow  mistaking 
her  for  a  sijuinvl;  but  the  palm  was  awarded  to 
our  captain  who  relateil  a  circumstance  of  a 
jiarty  of  hunters  of  Santa  Clara,  going  to  the 
mountains  to  hunt  bear,  taking  with  them  a 
donkey  to  pack  bear;  but  who  returned  in  a 
ehort  time  bringing  with  them  the  pack-saddle, 
the  bears  having  unceremoniously  packed  off 
the  donkey.  The  next  day  we  scoured  the 
forests  and  delved  into  dark  canons  in  i^uest  of 
^auie.  AVe  did  not  find  deer  as  plenty  as  w'e 
had  anticipated,  l)ut  every  member  of  our  com- 
pany managed  to  get  a  shot  during  the  day,  and 
each  maintained  that  he  had  hit  his  deer,  but 
owing  to  causes  he  could  explain  satisfactorily 
to  themselves,  the  stricken  deer  eluded  their 
grasji.  Two  of  our  company,  however,  more  for- 
tunate than  the  rest,  brought  in  substantial 
tokens  of  tlieir  skill  with  the  ritle.  aixl  that 
night  there  was  atlded  to  the  liill  of  I'arc  of  the 
I  Buckeye  House'  roast  \enison.  venison  stew, 
venison  steak  and  broiled  venison.  The  reverber- 
ations of  our  rifles  through  the  mountains, 
awaked  the  solitudes  and  rendered  the  game 
weary.  Deer  had  to  be  hunted  from  their  lair 
in  the  underbrush,  and  the  bear  scented  danger 
when  afar  off,  and  when  seen  were  generally 
out  of  range  of  rifle  shot,  and  showing  a  dis- 
position to  avoid  close  ])ro.ximity  to  their  new 
neighbors.  Two  of  our  company,  hunting  to- 
gether one  day,  however,  were  fortunate  enough 
to  surprise  a  black  bear  when  up  a  tir  tree 
lopping  acorn's  from  an  oak.  whose  branches 
intei'locked  the  fir.     A  AmA  from   a    small    riHe 

that  carried  a  ball  but  a  size  larger  than  a  buck- 
shot, caused  him  to  let  all  holds  go  and  drop  to 
the  earth,  but  did  not  prevent  his  flight. 
Hunter  number  two,  to  use  his  own  language, 
'shot  at  the  dust  bruin  kicked  up,'  but  with 
no  other  effect  than  to  accelerate  his  speed 
down  the  mountain. 

"At  the  end  of  the  week  the  >  smoke  house' 
wc  had  extemporized  was  filled  to  overflowing 
with  snmked  venison,  and  we  decided  to  move 
camji  to  '  iiear  liidge,'  eight  miles  distant, 
hojiing  there  to  gratify  our  penchant  for  bear 
hunting,  as  we  had  already  began  to  regard  deer 
as  rather  small  game.  We  did  not  take  our 
departure  from  Buckeye  without  regret,  and  the 
week  we  spent  there  will  always  be  looked  back 
to  by  us  as  an  oasis  in  life's  desert.  There  is 
much  in  that  region  well  calculated  to  arouse 
the  enthusiasm  of  descriptive  writers,  but  as  we 
have  neitbei'  space  nor  talent  wc  consign  'llie 
task  to  some  more  facile  pen.  The  most  prom- 
inent land-mark  in  that  region  is  the  ■  Uock 
Pile,'  three  miles  west  of  Buckeye,  it  being  a 
conical  shaped  mountain  fornied  of  massi\e 
rocks,  and  entirely  destitute  of  vegetation.  It 
both  serves  as  a  guide  to  hunters,  and  stands 
sentinel  over  a  grave  at  its  base,  where  rests  an 
unfortunate  adventurer,  who  was  murdered  hy 
an  Indian  two  years  since. 

"On  our  arrival  at  Bear  Kidge,  wc  found,  a-  at 
Ibickeye,  an  untenanted  cabin,  of  which  we 
took  possession;  but  there  was  a  history  con 
nected  therewith  that  was  recorded  with  the 
crimson  current  of  life  upon  the  floor  and  rude 
bed  in  the  corner,  that  for  a  time  cast  a  shadow 
o\er  our  party.  Our  guide  informed  us  that 
al)out  si.x  months  pi-evious  two  men  not  resi- 
dents there,  were  luinting  on  the  ridge — that 
one  was  shot  by  the  accidental  xlischarge  of  his 
rifle,  the  ball  tearing  ott"  one  of  his  hands  and 
entering  his  side.  He  was  borne  to  the  caliin 
and  a  surireon  sent  for  from  Healdslmrg.  lie 
lingered  thirty  hours,  and  the  surgeon  arrived 
just  in  time  to  see  him  breath  his  last.  Beneath 
the  wide  spread  branches  of  a  chestnut-oak.  a 
short  distance  from  the  cabin,  he  sleeps  his  last 


long  sleep.  Kemoviiig,  as  far  as  possilile,  all 
traces  of  the  unfortunate  sufferer,  we  occupied 
tlie  cabin  four  days.  As  yet,  we  had  failed  to 
t-iglit  a  bear  on  i>ear  Ridge,  altliough  we  had 
added  the  carcasses  of  several  deer  to  our  larder. 
Our  ease  was  becoming  a  desperate  one,  for  we 
had  baked  the  last  of  our  flour,  and  worse  still. 
our  supply  of  tobacco  was  exhausted.  It  was 
Saturday  morning,  and  we  debated  tlie  pro- 
priety of  subsisting  upon  meat  alone  for  one  day, 
rather  than  enter  Healdslturg  on  Sabbath  even- 
ing; but  tobacco  turned  the  scale,  and  it  was 
voted  to  pack  up  and  start,  when  it  was  dis- 
covered that  one  of  our  horses  liad  decamped 
during  the  night.  By  means  of  a  trail  made  by 
a  picket  rope  attached  to  the  horse  it  was  dis- 
covered tiiat  it  had  taken  an  opposite  direction 
from  tiie  trail  by  which  we  had  entered,  and 
three  of  our  party  started  in  pursuit.  After  an 
absence  of  two  hours  they  returned,  not  only 
having  the  good  fortune  to  lind  the  horse,  but 
having  shot  a  deer  and  also  a  large  brown  bear. 
This  streak  of  good  luck  was  hailed  with  delight 
by  all,  for  it  had  not  only  enalded  our  company 
to  return  with  a  bear  skin  as  a  trophy  of  the 
chase,  but  quieted  the  nerves  of  individual 
members  who  disliked  to  return  to  their  '  lady- 
loves' without  the  promised  bottle  of  '  bar's 
ile,'  with  which  to  anoint  their  raven  or  golden 
locks,  as  the  case  might  be.  "We  had  achieved 
the  object  of  our  party, — our  success  was  equal 
to  our  anticipations,  and  loaded  down  with 
venison,  we  commenced  our  homeward  iiiiiieh. 
Before  bidding  a  tinal  adieu  to  I'ear  liidge, 
we  wish  to  note  the  existence  on  that  and 
surrounding  ridges  of  a  species  of  timber  we 
had  supposed  did  not  exist  in  California,  we 
refer  to  the  old-fashioned  chestnut.  The  fruit 
is  not  yet  ripe,  but  the  ground  under  some  of 
the  trees  is  covered  with  !)urs  that  have  been 
detached  by  the  wind  and  birds.  Some  of  the 
trees  are  two  feet  in  diamater  and  remarkably 
tall,  which  to  our  mind  precludes  the  idea,  as  sug- 
gested by  some,  of  their  being  •  chincapins.' 
"We  halted  at  Flat  Ridge,  and  were  laid  under 
lasting  obligations  to  a  resident  stockman,  who 

shared  with  us  his  tobacco  and  flour.  "We  will 
ever  hold  him  in  grateful  remembrance,  and 
may  his  shadow  never  grow  less.  As  we  had 
to  make  a  forced  march  in  order  to  reach 
Ilealdsburg  that  night,  we  were  in  the  saddle 
bi-ight  and  early,  and  had  soon  surmounted  a 
ridge  from  which  we  had  a  last  view  of  our 
hunting  grounds.  Here  our  attention  was 
called  to  a  large  madrone  tree,  close  to  the  trail, 
npon  which  were  carved  various  initials,  wliich 
were  almost  obliterated  by  the  growth  of  the 
tree;  but  high  up  and  in  legible  characters,  was 
inscribed  1841.  As  we  rode  onward,  we  could 
not  but  contrast  the  present  California  with  the 
California  of  1841,  and  wonder  if  they  who  left 
their  record  on  the  madrone  tree  have  been 
spared  to  witness  the  change.  As  we  drew 
near  to  Ilealdsburg  the  cravings  of  appetite 
increased  our  desire  to  patronize  '  mine  host ' 
of  the  Sotoyome;  but  again  we  were  doomed  to 
disappointment  in  Ilealdsburg;  for  the  Sotoy 
ome  and  many  other  buildings  had  crumbleil 
before  that  ruthless  element  that  has  prostrated 
so  many  of  California's  fair  villages;  and  so 
complete  had  been  our  isolation,  that  a  week 
had  elapsed  since  it  was  destroyed,  and  yet  we 
had  no  intimation  of  the  occurrence  until  we 
entei'ed  the  village.  In  the  absence  of  a  hotel, 
we  resorted  to  a  restaurant,  and  if  the  propri- 
etor made  a  profit  on  that  meal,  we  are  inclined 
to  believe  he  will  get  rich,  for  seven  hungrier 
men  never  entered  that  burg.  We  returned  to 
Petaluma  after  an  absence  of  sixteen  days,  feel- 
ing refreshed  and  rejuvenated  by  our  camp  life. 
In  conclusion  we  will  say  to  those  afllicted  with 
the  dyspepsia,  or  any  other  fashionable  disease, 
try  Buckeye  Camp  two  weeks,  and  if  it  does  not 
effect  a  cure,  why  then  prepare,  for  your  end 
draweth  nigh." 

Such  was  the  experiences  of  the  writer 
twenty-eight  years  ago  in  the  regions  described; 
and  yet,  long  after  he  has  passed  away  the  sharp 
report  of  the  sportsman's  rifle  will  ring  through 
those  same  forests,  for  those  dark  canons  and  chap- 
arral covered  mountanis  will  ever  aft'ord  a  safe 





iMMIi.KATiii.N     I'olKS    I.NTn    SiiNnMA     ColNTV KVKKV     \(H)I<     AM)    COKNKK    OK    TMK    COINTY  UCI  ITIED 

THK    (ML.Mln-     DKIWIIKN     I'ETAr.U>[A     AND    l>Ol)E(;A     KKl  IIKII.    ilK     I'dTATuKS,     liAKI.KV,     WHEAT    AM) 

DAIS     Santa   Rosa    and  Rissian  Rivkk  Valleys  i-uodijc  the  he  wheat  axd  ( ok.n — ihe  yeak 

1864  —  LAM)    TKOUIiLES — THE  Boi)E<;A    WAR       THE  II  KA  LI  )Sllli  IK,    W  Ali Th  E  MuLDUEW    SlIAUoW 

THE  Miranda  <;i;axt  -the  T'o-ioRtjuEs  (iHANT. 

rf>TP  to  1855  SoiioHiii  roiiiity  was  in  a  coiuli- 
:*l}'jl  tion  of  confused  transition  from  almost 
^5P^  iiiitivo  wilds  to  permanent  civilized  occn- 
]);unjy.  AVliili'  the  county  was  largely  covered 
hy  y|)aiiisli  yrants.  yet  the  holders  of  such,  as  a 
class,  had  not  yet  accjuired  flocks  and  herds  to 
occupv  their  broad  acres,  and  the  adventurous 
Americans  very  often  located  within  the  lines 
of  such  grants  with  as  little  reverence  as  though 
settling  upon  government  land.  The  grant 
holders,  as  a  class,  had  little  idea  of  land  value, 
and  many  of  them  were  willing  to  accept  from 
settlers  on  their  domain  very  moderate  prices 
for  the  laud.  Many,  if  not  most  of  the  settlers, 
got  their  land  at  prices  not  much  above  what 
they  Would  have  had  to  pay  had  it  been  go^ern- 
inent  land.  There  were  c.vccptions,  however,  to 
tills  rule,  and  in  a  few  instances  there  was  con- 
sideral)lc  friction  and  trouble  between  settlers 
and  grant  owners,  but  this  will  be  referred  to 
later  on. 

.Vbout  1855  a  tidal-wave  of  immigration  seemed 
to  sweep  over  yonoma  County,  and  it  was  really 
a  marvel  how  soon  every  nook  and  corner  of  the 
county  available  for  farming  or  grazino;  was 
ferretted  out  and  occupied.      It  was  now  families 

seeking  homes  who  came,  and  following  their 
coming  school-houses  and  churches  began  to 
multiply.  In  truth,  within  the  space  of  a  few 
years,  Sonoma  County  became  one  of  the  most 
I  prosperous  agricultural  counties  of  the  State. 
At  first,  famous  for  her  Bodega  potatoes,  she 
I  soon  took  first  rank  among  the  graiii-growini,'' 
and  dairying  counties  in  the  State. 

In  tlie  space  of  a  few  years  towns  and  villages 
came   foi-ward   with  marvelous  growth.      J'eta- 
luma  as    a  shipping   point  made  rapid  strides. 
Santa  Rosa  as  the  county  seat  was  making  siib- 
\  stantial  progress.     Ilealdsburg,  where  in   185-1 
!   had   been  but  a  residence  and  blacksmith  shop, 
I   became  a  thriving  village,  and  Cloverdale  began 
to  show  evidence  of  its  future  destiny.     Sonoma, 
;   ever  famous  as  a  center  around  wiiich  clustered 
historic    memories,  became   far-famed    for    her 
productive   veneyards.      l^odega,  old   in  her  de- 
velopment   there    in    connection    with    Russian 
occupation,  took  a  new  lease  of  life,  and  Hoilega 
Bay  was  whitened  by  a  fleet  of  sails  that  carried 
her    products    to    the    San    Francisco    market. 
lUoomtield  surrtuinded  by  as  fei'tile  a  country  as 
the  sun  ever  sone  upon  became  the  center  of  a 
populous  and  pros|)erous  farming  district. 


In  tlmse  days  the  fatness  was  exuding  from 
tlic  !-t-iil  of  Sunoina  County,  and  tlie  crops 
gathered  tlierefroin  were  abundant  to  the  full 
measure.  While  the  growing  of  potatoes  coast- 
wise, e(_immencing  with  Two  Rock  Valley  and 
extending  to  iJodega  was  yet  a  large  industry, 
the  irrowing  of  wheat,  barley  and  oats  soon 
took  precedence  and  became  a  source  of  great 
profit  to  farmers.  Farming  of  whatever  kind, 
whether  the  growing  of  potatoes  or  cereals  was 
usually  conducted  on  a  large  scale.  Fifty  or  a 
hundred  acres  of  jiotatoes  was  not  considered  a 
large  plant,  and  of  grain  it  was  no  uncommon 
thing  for  a  farmer  to  plant  any  where  from  one 
to  three  hundred  acres,  and  a  large  farmer  often 
went  far  beyond  this.  Our  favorable  sea- 
sons for  seeding  and  planting  of  such  vast 
crops  was  made  easy  by  the  improvements  in 
farming  imj)lemeuts,  but  the  gathering  of  such 
vast  crops  often  taxed  to  its  utmost  capacity  the 
labor  attainable.  For  potato  digging,  the  rem- 
nant of  the  almost  extinct  Intlian  tribes  of  this 
region  were  brought  into  re(juisitioti,  and  be- 
came quite  effective  aids  in  farming.  The 
writer  once  had  in  employ  twenty-two  Russian 
River  Indians,  and  found  them  excellent  potato 
diggers.  During  the  season  tif  gathering 
potatoes  these  dusky  childi-en  of  nature  used  to 
perform  a  large  portion  of  that  kind  of  labor. 
But  the  vices  of  civilization  was  fast  thinning 
their  ranks,  and  in  the  course  of  years  Chinese 
labor  stepped  in  and  did  the  main  portion  of  the 
drudgeries  ot  farm  work. 

The  main  valleys  through  the  center  of  the 
county,  Petaluma.  Santa  Rosa  and  Russian 
River  were  always  devoted  maiiily  to  the  grow- 
ing of  grain.  The  wealth-  of  grain  produced 
by  the  virgin  soil  of  these  rich  valleys  is  almost 
incalculable.  Russian  River  Valley  in  a  very 
early  day  jiroved  its  worth  as  a  corn  producing 
region,  and  in  later  years  became  famous  for 
the  ])roduction  of  hops.  A  writer  some  years 
ago  drew  the  following  pen  picture  of  the  Rus- 
sian River  Valley: 

"  For  more  than  sixty  miles  in  length  Russian 
River  before  taking  its  tinal  westerly  course  to- 

ward the  ocean,  perambulates  from  Mendocino 
County  southerly  through  one  of  the  widest 
and  truly  alluvial  valleys  in  the  State.  As  a 
corn  growing  country  it  is  probably  without  a 
rival  on  the  J'acitic  coast,  and  a  good  corn 
country  can  always  be  relied  upon  as  suitable 
for  a  large  share  of  the  staple  products  of  tem- 
perate climes. 

•'We  see,  therefore,  along  this  great  alhnial 
belt,  the  whole  family  of  cereals  cultivated  with 
singular  success,  and  in  the  main  cjuite  free 
from  smut,  or  injury  from  climatic  influence. 
As  far  as  any  attemj)ts  have  been  made  to  grow 
fruit,  it  succeeds  admirably.  Along  the  bor- 
ders of  the  \  alley,  at  the  foot  of  the  range  of  hills 
that  bound  it  on  either  side,  the  vine  flourishes 
luxuriantly,  i)roducing  grapes  of  fair  size  and  a 
flavor  of  peculiar  richness;  and  we  cannot  but 
believe  that  the  time  is  near  at  hand  when  the 
acres  of  vineyards  aloug  this  great  valley  may 
be  counted  by  hundreds,  if  not  thousands. 
What  the  effect  of  climate  may  be  upon  the 
health  of  vines  and  fruit  trees  along  the  more 
central  [iortions  of  the  valley,  remains  to  be 
seen.  Of  the  indigenous  forest  trees,  the  decid- 
uous oak  predominates  largely;  and  throughout 
nearly  the  entire  extent  of  the  valley  may  be 
seen  this  monarch  of  our  lowland  forests,  in  its 
wide-spreading,  but  varied  and  beautiful  forms, 
standing  apart  and  alone,  or  clustered  in  beauti- 
ful groups  of  a  score  or  more  upon  a  single 
•acre;  and  though  at  this  season  of  the  year 
without  a  single  leat,  all  are  draped  in  their 
beautiful  pale  green,  mossy  livery,  that,  pendu- 
lous from  every  twig  and  limli,  imparts  a  mel- 
lowed softness  to  the  breeze,  that  alike  in 
summer  and  winter  gently  sweeps  along  the 

Taking  the  decade-aiid-a-half  between  1855 
and  1870,  farming  in  Sonoma  County  achieved 
its  greatest  results.  Of  course,  there  were 
variableness  of  seasons  and  prices,  but  taken  as 
a  whole  the  results  were  more  tlian  highly  satis- 
factory. In  the  single  season  of  18B4  the 
farmers  literally  gathered  a  harvest  of  gold. 
That  yea)'  the  whole  southern  portion  of  Cali- 


tbrnia  was  made  barren  by  a  drought.  Here 
tlie  crops  were  good,  and  wheat  was  sold  at  all 
the  way  from  three  to  four  iiiul-a-half  cents  pur 
liouiid.  Even  renters,  who  had  [)ut  in  large 
crops  on  shares,  found  themselves  coniparatively 
rich  at  the  end  ot"  the  season. 

The  productiveness  of  our  farms  and  the  ac- 
cumulatinir  wealth  from  dairy  products  and 
Ntock-raising  were  promotive  of  other  industries 
and  created  in  the  people  a  desire  for  advance 
from  the  primitive  surroundings  that  had 
marked  their  early-life  struggles.  Ornate  coun- 
ti'y  homes  began  to  multiply,  and  the  county 
from  end  to  end  began  to  show  the  evidences  of 
])ermanency  and  solidity.  This  was  not  con- 
fined to  the  large  valleys  along  the  line  of  lead- 
ing tlioroughfares;  in  every  little  gem  of  a 
valley,  sandwiched  in  among  the  hills  and  moun- 
tains, there  was  manifested  a  growing  taste  in 
the  direction  of  more  comfort  and  convenience 
in  home  surroundings. 

This  advancement  was  made  in  the  lace  and 
teeth  of  ditticulties  and  discouragements  seldom 
encountered  by  the  pioneer  settlers  of  any  other 
country.  As  lias  already  been  stated,  many  of 
the  settlers  went  upon  lands  claimed  as  Spanish 
grants,  hut  of  which  the  titles  had  not  yet  been 
adjudicated  by  the  United  States  Government. 
In  the  early  fifties  a  commission,  consisting  of 
three  members,  had  been  appointed  to  investi- 
gate these  titles,  and  otdy  such  as  passed  mus- 
ter under  their  examination  got  standing  in 
court,  and  were  started  on  the  tortuous  way  to 
the  court  of  final  resort  at  Washington  City. 
The  ijcnnineness of  title  to  niany  of  these  yrants 
\\eri;  nf  very  fishy  odor.  Cnder  the  treaty  of 
(Tuadalupe  Hidalgo  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment had  plighted  its  faith  to  give  due  credence 
to  all  genuine  grants  made  by  duly  accredited 
authority  of  the  Mexican  go\ernment.  This 
the  government  certainly  did  to  the  full  measure. 
Elsewhere  is  published  a  list  of  the  Spanish 
grants  that  in  whole,  or  in  ]iar%  fell  within  the 
lines  of  Sonoma  County.  We  have  also  j)ointed 
out  the  evidences  of  pwmaneiit  habitation  witiiin 
the  boundai'ies(jf  the  county  at  the  time  Sonoma 

was  captui'etl.  It  was  for  the  courts,  and  nut 
the  histoi'ian,  to  j)ass  upon  the  validity  of  these 
giants.  Jf  there  was  wholesale  perjury  in- 
dulged in  to  secure  many  confirmations,  that  is 
now  a  matter  between  the  consciences  of  wit- 
nesses and  their  (4od.  It  is  now  all  happily 
passed,  and  all  land  titles  are  in  perfect  I'ejiose. 
All  now  buw  to  the  rule.  Stare  (lecisi-<. 

I!ut  it  is  the  province  of  history  to  recite 
events  the  outgrowth  of  these  confiicting  lanil 
titles.  There  were  numerous  "Settlers'  Leagues" 
organized  to  resist  the  confirmation  of  many  of 
these  grants.  Lawyers  were  always  to  be  found 
who  would,  for  a  liberal  fee,  give  "squatters" 
on  grants  positive  assurance  that  the  grant  was 
fraudulent  and  that  he  could  "  knock  the  bottom 
out  of  it."  These  leagues,  in  many  instances, 
became  secret  conclaves,  with  all  the  pass-words 
aifd  paraphenalia  of  secret  oi-ganizations.  That 
they  should  ultimate  in  resistance  to  legally 
constituted  authorities  was  but  natural.  And 
even  the  claimants  of  grants  sometimes  were 
guilty  of  the  assumption  that  they  were  higher 
than  the  law.  While  there  had  been  a  great 
deal  of  friction  between  settlers  and  grant  hohl- 
ers  the  first  serious  collision  occurred  at  Bodega. 
There  was  no  end  of  land  troubles  in  Sonoma 
County,  growing  out  of  occupation  by  settlers 
on  what  was  believed  to  be  fraudulent  Sj)anisli 
grants.  This  led  to  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and 
ultimately  to  resistance  to  the  mandates  of  law. 
To  give  the  reader  a  clear  conception  of  the  real 
temper  and  feeling  of  the  public  at  that  time  on 
this  momentous  (question  we  give  the  language 
of  an  editorial  which  appeared  in  the  I'etaliima 
Journal  of  ]''ebruary  18,  IHSH: 

"It  is  boldly  asserted  tliat  there  are  eighty 
land  grants  in  this  State,  which  can  be  proved 
to  have  been  forged  and  sworn  thus  far  through 
the  courts  by  perjury.  They  lie  it  is  stated,  in 
twenty-seven  counties,  and  cover  the  homes  of 
nearly  5,000  settlers.  AVhether  there  are  any 
located  in  this  county,  we  are  not  informed.  It 
would  be  a  strange  transaction  if  there  are  not. 
Our  location,  and  the  wull-known  i-ichno^s  of 
soil,  would  certainly  be  a   >trong   bait   t"   tempt 



the  palate  of  the  greedy  land  cormorants  wlio 
have  perpetrated  these  wholesale  frauds.  It 
therefore  becomes  all  well-ineaiiiiig  and  right- 
thinking  citizens  to  join  wit!)  their  brethren  of 
San  Francisco,  in  the  work  of  ferreting  ont  and 
exposing  these  fraudulent  grants.  To  this  end 
let  every  person  remonstrate  against  the  j)assage. 
by  the  Assembly,  of  tlie  iniquitous  and  unjust 
resolution  which  was  spawned  by  Senator  Will- 
iams, petitioning  Congress  for  the  passage  of  a 
law  to  prevent  reviews  in  cases  wliere  patents 
have  issued;  or  in  other  words  asking  of  Con- 
gress to  screen  the  actual  robber,  and  protect 
the  receiver  of  stolen  property  under  the  name 
of  '  bona  tide  purcliasers  and  encumbrancers.' 
Where,  we  ask,  can  a  parallel  be  found  to  this 
act?  Rob  and  defraud  Uncle  Sam  of  the  public 
domain  and  then  ask  him  to  desist  from  investi- 
gation, the  object  of  which  is  to  prove  the  theft; 
and  all  because  the  receiver  of  stolen  goods  may 
lie  a  sufferer  I  As  infamous  as  are  the  inten- 
tions of  Mr.  Williams'  move,  we  nevertheless 
see  the  Senate  passing  favorably  upon  it.  If  we 
mistake  not,  our  own  representative  in  that  body 
was  among  its  supporter.  A  knowledge  of  the 
unscrupulous  intentions  of  these  landgrabbers' 
has  clearly  disclosed  to  settlers  the  precipice 
over  which  they  are  being  rutldessly  hurried. 
A  just  and  proper  spirit  of  resistance  to  the 
attempt  is  beginning  to  manifest  itself  in  vari- 
ous sections.  Meetings  are  being  lield,  reso- 
lutions of  disproval  of  Mr.  Williams'  '  substi- 
tute '  passed,  and  Anti-Grant  Leagues  formed. 
If  moderation  and  temperance  of  action  pre- 
dominate, as  we  trust  will  be  the  case,  immense 
good  will  result  to  the  people  at  large.  The 
recent  developments  in  the  Santillan  claim,  is 
conclusive  evidence  of  this  fact.  Let  a  union  of 
action  be  made  and  time  and  investigation  will 
rend  the  screen  that  now  obscures  and  darkens 
the  homes  of  scores  of  the  people  of  California. 
We  shall  look  with  confidence  to  our  representa- 
ti\es  in  the  Assembl)',  to  aid  in  arresting  the 
passage  of  the  resolution  by  that  body." 

In  continuance  of  the  same  subject  the  -Jvur- 
«'^?  of  Februarv  25,  1859,  said: 

"Bv  reference  to  another  column,  it  will  be 
seen  that  the  people  in  this  locality  are  begin- 
ning to  move  in  the  work  of  exposing  the  alleged 
land  frauds,  and  of  heading  General  Williams 
and  Judge  lialdwin  in  their  infamous  attempt 
to  rob  and  despoil  the  people  of  California.  In 
the  eagerness  of  these  pliant  tools  of  Liinantour, 
I'reinont,  etc.,  to  do  the  bidding  of  their  heart- 
less and  unscrupulous  masters,  they  have  moved 
in  so  bold  and  hasty  a  manner  as  to  neglect  that 
precaution  so  necessary  to  successful  villainy — 
the  covering  up  and  secreting  of  all  evidence  of 
evil  intent.  The  object  sought  is  too  obvious 
to  pass  unnoticed  by  the  most  obtuse.  As  a 
natural  conse(|uence,  this  course  on  the  part  of 
the  land  claimants,  has  aroused  a  just  and  pro- 
per spirit  of  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  people. 
The  final  result  of  this  struggle,  will,  we  believe, 
be  the  securing  to  the  public  domain  of  leagues 
upon  leagues  of  land  now  claimed  by  land 
sharpers  under  forged  titles.  That  many  of 
these  fraudulent  claims  are  located  on  this  side 
of  the  bay,  we  are  told  there  no  longer  e.xists  a 
doubt.  Justice  then  demands  that  our  people 
move  with  a  united  effort  in  exposing  these 

"A  brief  reference  to  the  land-claim  history  of 
California,  presents  some  startling  facts.  In  the 
year  1849  William  Cary  Jones  was  sent  to  Cali- 
fornia by  the  authorities  at  Washington,  with 
instructions  to  ascertain  the  number  and  extent 
of  Spanish  land  grants.  In  his  report  he  states 
the  result  of  his  investigation  to  be  the  dis- 
covery of  five  hundred  and  seventy-six  grants, 
large  and  small,  several  of  which  was  unfinished. 
Of  this  number,  several  were  afterward  proved 
fraudulent  and  rejected.  Upon  the  establish- 
ment of  the  land  commission,  no  less  than  eight 
hundred  and  thirteen  claims  were  filed  in  before 
it  for  action  !  A  writer  in  the  Alta.,  asserts 
that  Mr.  Jones  informed  him  that  after  he  had 
returned  to  Washington,  he  was  offered  *20,000 
to  insert  in  his  rejiort  one  grant — fraudulent  of 
course,  and  for  which  they  wished  a  record  in 
order  to  give  it  some  show  of  validity  I  Com- 
ment is  unnecessary.     The  facts   alone  tell  the 



whole  story,  and  bid  our  (iitizens  to  be  up  and 

The  tii'st  of  these  coiitliets  over  land  titles 
tiiat  assuuietl  a  very  tlirealeiiiiig  aspect  was  in 
June  of  1859,  and  the  scene  of  the  disturl>ance 
was  Hodega  ranch.  The  foiiovving  in  a  state- 
ment of  the  case  and  what  occurred  as  touiid  in 
tiie  Sonoma  County  Jonriinl  of  June  3d,  185'J: 

IIIE     lioDKOA     WAl:. 

"The  original  grantee  of  tliis  ranch  was  Caj)- 
tain  Stephen  Smith,  who  claimed  by  grant 
eight  leagues  of  land,  which  amount  was  con- 
firmed to  him  In'  the  Hoard  of  Land  Commis- 
sioners. He  tlien  leased  to  Uethuel  Phelps  & 
Co.  the  right  to  cut  and  manufacture  into  lum- 
ber tlie  red-wood  belonging  to  the  said  eight 
leagues  of  land,  for  a  term  of  ninety-nine  years, 
for  the  sum  of  $65,000.  Phelps  &  Co.,  imme- 
diately took  possession  of  the  lands  so  leased, 
and  still  continue  in  possession  of  the  same. 
After  setting  apart  to  I'helps  &  Co.  their  leased 
portion  of  the  claim,  there  was  left  a  large  tract 
of  agricultural  lands  outside  of  said  eight 
leagues,  claimed  l)y  no  one.  which  was  then  set- 
tled upon  and  divided  up  into  (piarter  sections. 
Thus  matters  stood  at  the  death  of  Captain 
Smith.  We  would  here  state,  that  various  sur- 
veys have  lieen  made  from  time  to  time  by  dif- 
fererit  parties  and  among  them  one  by  Clement 
Co.\,  United  States  Deputy  Surveyor,  in  accord- 
ance with  which  the  grant  was  finally  patente<l. 
Some  time  after  the  death  of  Captain  Smith. 
Mr.  Curtis  married  the  widow  of  Captain  Smith, 
and  became  administrator  of  the  estate  and 
guardian  of  the  minor  heirs,  thus  becoming  a 
party  interested  in  the  dispute. 

'•  Some  three  months  since,  Mr.  Tyler  Curtis, 
on  beiialf  of  himself  and  the  heirs  of  Captain  S. 
Smith,  obtained  judgment  on  a  writ  of  eject- 
ment (by  default)  against  forty-eiglit  of  the 
settlers  on  the  Bodega  ranch.  Tlie  writ  of 
ejectment  and  restitution  recpiired  the  sheritt' to 
dispossess  the  settlers,  and  keep  possession  for 
ei.xty  days.  ( )n  Tuesday  evening  the  sheriff, 
nnaccomj)'inie<l     by  any  one,   went   to    Bodega 

intending  to  execute  the  writ  on  Wednesday 

"On  Tuesday  evening  Mr.  Curtis,  accom- 
panied by  Mr.  Nuttman,  of  San  Francisco,  and 
forty-eight  men,  arrived  here  and  immediately 
took  passage  in  coaches  ft)r  Bodega,  where  they 
arrived  at  live  o'clock  on  Wednesday  morning. 
The  citizens  of  Petaluma,  being  ignorant  of  all 
the  })roceedings  in  the  case  were  at  a  loss  to 
know  the  why  and  the  wherefore  of  this  great 
influx  of  armed  men;  and,  failing  to  get  satis- 
factory replies  to  their  interrogatories,  furtiier 
than  that  the  j)arty  were  bound  for  Jiodega, 
were  at  once  led  to  suppose  that  the  crowd  had 
been  brought  here  for  the  purpose  of  taking  for- 
cible possession  of  Bodega  ranch.  By  nine 
o'clock  in  the  evening  the  e.xcitement  ran  high, 
and  about  twenty  men,  armed  and  accoutred, 
started  for  the  scene  of  action,  arousing  all  the 
settlers  as  they  passed  along,  who  at  once  joined 
them,  to  render  aid  to  their  brethren,  if  found 
necessary.  A  messenger  had  been  promptly 
dispatched  to  Bodega  to  inform  the  settlers  on 
that  ranch  of  what  was  going  on.  lie  reached 
there  at  midnight,  and  found  them  entirely 
ignorant  of  the  movements  of  Mr.  Curtis  and 
his  satelites.  So  rapid  and  prompt  were  their 
movements  that  by  the  time  Curtis'  '  fighting 
men'  had  arrived  some  eighty  or  ninety  set- 
tlers had  collected,  which  number,  by  nine 
o'clock,  A.  M.,  was  augmented  to  250  or  300. 

"Early  in  the  morning,  it  being  ascertained 
that  the  sheriff  had  arrived  tlie  evening  pre- 
vious, a  conimittee  waited  upon  him  to  ascer- 
tain the  object  of  his  visit.  lie  stated  that  he 
came  there  to  discharge  his  duty  as  an  officer, 
which  was,  to  put  Mr.  Curtis  in  possession  of 
his  property;  lie  denied  having  anything  to  do 
with  the  forty-eight  men  brought  there  by 
Curtis,  or  even  having  any  knowledge  of  their 
coming;  and  promised  as  soon  as  l)reakfast  was 
over  to  go  where  the  settlers  were  assembled 
and  see  them.  This  he  did.  A  committee  of 
ten  was  appointed  ti)  confer  with  him.  which 
resulted  in  a  stay  of  all  proceedings  for  two 
hours,  giving  Sheriff  ( ireen  time  to  confer  with 

HrSTiiRr    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

Mr.  Curtis,  and  convey  to  liini  the  wishes  and 
will  of  the  assemblage.  Before  the  expiration 
of  the  two  hours  the  sheriti'  returned  without 
any  (Satisfactory  answer,  so  far  as  Mr.  Curtis 
was  concerned;  but  for  himself,  declining  to  do 
anything  in  the  matter,  believing  that  the  inju- 
dicious course  pursued  by  Mr.  Curtis,  absolved 
him  from  the  necessity  of  attempting  to  carry 
out  liis  instructions  at  that  time. 

"  ,\  committee  of  the  citizens  was  then  ap- 
pointed to  wait  on  Mr.  Curtis,  whose  instruc- 
tions were  to  inform  him  that  tiiey  considered 
he  had  committed  a  gross  outrage  upon  the  citi- 
zens of  this  county,  and  the  settlers  in  particu- 
lar, in  having  brought  there,  from  a  neighboring 
town,  an  armed  body  of  citizens,  in  violation  of 
law  and  good  order,  and  for  purposes  which 
could  not  be  recognized  or  tolerated;  and  to  de- 
mand their  immediate  return  to  the  place  from 
whence  they  came.  To  this  peremptory  demand 
Mr.  Curtis  demurred,  believii^g,  as  he  said,  that 
tlie  citizens  were  misinformed,  and  were  unnec- 
essarily excited,  and  acting  from  a  mistaken 
sense  of  duty;  and  that  if  they,  the  committee, 
would  guarantee  him  protection  from  insult,  he 
and  I\[r.  Nuttman  would  accompany  them  to 
the  place  of  meeting,  and  explain  the  cause  and 
motive  of  their  procedure.  Tiiey  accordingly 
accompanied  the  committee  and  made  an  ex- 
planation, Mr.  Curtis  alleging  that  in  employing 
these  men,  he  did  so  with  no  intention  of  otter- 
ing an  indignity  or  insult  to  the  citizens  of  this 
county,  but  merely  for  the  purpose  of  aiding 
himself  in  retaining  possession  of  property 
which  he  thought  to  be  justly  his  by  the  de- 
cisions of  the  legal  tribunals  of  his  country, 
when  Sheriff  Green,  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty, 
siiould  give  him  such  possession;  and  not  for 
the  purpose  of  taking  forcible  possession,  or 
doing  any  overt  act;  and  that  he  was  willing  to 
meet  the  settlers  at  any  time  and  compromise 
all  matters  at  variance,  and  lease  them  the  lands 
on  which  they  reside,  at  one-half  the  price  for 
which  lands  on  other  ranches  are  leased.  Mr. 
Muttinan  then  repudiated  all  connectiim  with 
the  'lighting-men,"  and  stated  tiiat   his  visit    to 

the    county  was    for  no    particular   or   special 


"The  demand  for  the  removal  of  the  armed 
forces  was  again  made  to  Mr.  Curtis,  with  a  re- 
fusal to  treat  on  any  subject,  until  after  their 
return.  xVfter  a  few  minutes  conference  with 
the  sheriff,  and  one  or  two  others,  Mr.  Curtis 
consented  to  their  return,  he  paying  the  ex- 
penses of  their  transjiortation  from  there  to  »San 
Francisco.  This  ended  the  matter,  so  far  as  he 
was  concerned.  Wagons  were  then  procured, 
and  the  'deceived  braves"  and  their  two  boxes 
of  i/ovemment  rifles  (previously  shipped  from 
San  Francisco,  and  directed  to  Tyler  Curtis, 
Bodega),  together  with  their  ammunition  and 
thirty  days'  outfit,  started  for  Petaluma,  accom- 
panied by  one  hundred  or  more  of  the  settlers, 
where  they  arrived  a  little  after  dark,  and  were 
received  by  the  firing  of  cannon  and  the  liveliest 
demonstrations  of  joy  at  the  happy  and  peaceful 
result  of  the  injudicious  and  uncalled  for  move- 
ment. On  Thursday  morning  they  took  their 
departure  from  this  city  for  San  Francisco, 
where  it  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  safely  arrive, 
wiser,  if  not  better  men.  In  justice  to  the 
party  we  would  state  that  those  of  them  with 
whom  we  conversed,  said  that  they  were  de- 
ceived in  regard  to  the  object  of  their  mission — 
they  believing  it  to  be  one  of  peace  not  war. 
During  their  sojourn  liere  their  deportment  was 
gentlemanly  throughout." 


In  1862  the  difficulties  growing  out  tif  sijuat- 
ter  settlement  on  the  Sotoyome  Rancho,  near 
Healdsburg,  culminated  in  a  resistance  of  the 
county  authorities  l)y  the  settlers.  J.  M.  Bowles, 
yet  a  respected  citizen  of  Petaluma,  was  their 
sheriff.  Resistance  was  made  to  writs  of  eject- 
ment placed  in  his  hands.  The  Petaluma  An/us 
of  July  19,  18(52,  said  editorially: 

'■Governor  Stanford  having  declined  tu  inter- 
pose the  gubernatorial  authority  until  it  had 
been  made  apparent  that  our  county  authorities 
are  uueipial  to  the  task  of  enforcing  the  laws, 
Slieritf  Uowles  has  summoned  fi  posse  eiDuitctux 

IITSTOnY    op    l<OKOMA    COVNTY 

of  about  300,  wlio  are  notified  to  report  tliem- 
selves,  'armed  and  equipped  as  the  law  directs,' 
at  Healdslmrcr  (yesterday I  Tuesday,  tlie  IJtli 
inst.  As  ominous  as  this  nntbrtnnate  dithcnlty 
may  seem  to  persons  abroad,  we  do  not  appre- 
liend  tliat  any  very  serious  consequences  will,  at 
present,  result  therefrom;  but  it  is  one  of  those 
peculiar  cases,  so  common  in  California,  which 
may,  unless  remedied  l)y  wholesome  and  just 
legislation,  eventuate  in  scenes  of  anarchy,  de- 
structive alike  to  the  moral  and  industrial  well- 
being  of  the  inhabitants  of  our  fair  State." 

The  result  of  this  actiou  of  Sherift'  Bowles  is 
thus  graphically  described  by  the  Healdsburg 
correspondent  of  the  Ari/i/s  under  date  of  July 

'•At  9  o'clock  this  morning.  Deputy  Sheriff 
Latapie  mounted  a  stump  in  front  of  the  Sotoy- 
ome  Hotel  and  called  the  names  of  several 
hundred  men;  when  about  two  hundred  and 
fifty  answered  to  their  names  -pei'haps  one-half 
of  the  whole  number  summoned.  Sheriff  Bowles 
then  explained  the  nature  of  liusiness,  inform- 
ing them  that  seven  writs  of  restitution  and 
ejectment  were  to  be  served  on  the  settlei's — 
Scaggs.  Rice,  Miller,  and  others.  The  jwsse 
was  notified  to  be  readj'  to  march  to  the  scene 
of  action  in  fifteen  minutes — and  much  to  the 
disgust  of  the  crowd,  they  were  ordered  to  pro- 
ceed on  foot;  which  was  not  very  agreeable  as 
the  sun  was  pouring  down  in  tropical  style — 
the  thermometer  standing  at  ninety-two  in  the 

"x\t  about  half-past  ten  o'clock  the  sheriff  took 
his  jiofixr  ti>  the  place  occupied  by  Mr.  Rice's 
family,  about  one  mile  northwest  of  Healdsburg. 
We  arrived  at  Rice's  at  11  o'clock,  where  we 
found  about  fifty  resolute  settlers  insi<le  of  tlie 
yard  fence,  well  armed  and  apparently  deter- 
mined not  to  allow  us  to  proceed  further  in  that 
direction.  We  advanced  holdly  up  to  said 
fence — it  being  understood  that  the  settlers 
were  not  to  shoot  until  we  crossed  the  line, 
which  no  one  seemed  inclined  to  do — when  Mr. 
L.  D.  Latimer  read  some  kind  of  a  document — 
probably  the  'riot   act' — we  were  not  able   to 

hear  a  word  from  our  position.  Sheriff  Bowles 
then  read  some  papers,  which  we  were  also  un- 
able to  hear — supposed  to  be  the  order  of  the 
court.  The  sheriff  then  commanded  \\\s  2)osse 
to  assist  him  in  the  execution  of  his  writs — 
2X)s-se  mum — backward  movement  perceptible 
— settlers  cocked  their  guns — leaders  addressed 
them — another  backward  movement  on  the  part 
of  posse,  explained  on  the  ground  that  the  atmos- 
phere was  purer  under  the  oak  trees.  Sheriff 
again  demanded  possession  of  the  premises — 
most  of  hisj^w*«6'  seated  themselves  on  logs  and 
the  grass  under  the  oaks.  Considerable  parley- 
ing between  sheriff  and  settlers — when  it  beinff 
apparent  to  everybody  that  nothing  could  be 
done  without  the  effusion  of  blood,  the  sheriff 
wisely  dismissed  his  posse.  Cheer  upon  cheer 
went  up  from  the  crowd — both  j[«>ss<?  and  settlers 
joining  in  it  heartily.  The  immense  crowd  then 
started  back  to  town,  ap]>arently  satisfied  with 
the  day's  woi'k. 

"It  was  generally  believed  that  from  two  to 
four  hundred  armed  settlers  were  in  the  imme- 
diate vicinity  of  the  house  during  the  time — 
though  not  more  than  fifty  were  to  be  seen.  A 
friend  informed  me  that  he  saw  a  large  number 
of  armed  men  in  a  ravine  back  of  the  house 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  off. 

"Not  one  of  the  men  composing  the  posse 
carried  a  gun,  and  but  few  of  them  had  small 

"The  greatest  order  prevailed — not  a  drunken 
or  disorderly  man  to  be  seen.  Mr.  (leo.  Hran- 
stradder  received  a  severe  cut  under  the  arm  by 
falling  from  a  stumj)  and  coming  in  contact 
with  a  jiicket  fence.  No  other  accident."!  hap- 

The  sheriff  with  his  ^w^wc  having  failed  to 
vindicate  the  law.  the  strong  arm  of  the  State 
was  invoked  as  a  denier  resort.  AVhat  steps 
were  taken  is  thus  stated  editorially  in  the 
Ar(/ns  of  the  24th  of  September: 

"The  public  mind  is  again  being  agitated  bv 
the  settlers'  ditficulties  in  the  nfigliburluio<i  of 
Healdsburg.  In  compliance  witii  the  re(iuisi- 
tion     of     Sheriff    Bowles,    (iovernor    Stanford 


ordered  out  the  two  military  eouipanies  of  this 
city,  the  Petahiina  Guards  and  JMninet  (iuards, 
to  enforce  the  writ  of  ejectment  against  IMilier, 
liice,  Scatfgs  and  others.  The  two  companies 
aliove  nameil.  under  tlie  respective  command  of 
Captain  1".  B.  Hewlett  and  Captain  T.  F.  Baylis, 
took  up  their  line  of  march  from  this  city  for 
the  scene  of  ditiiculty  on  Monday  last.  By  a 
gentleman  who  came  down  on  the  Ilealdsburg 
stage  yesterday,  we  learn  that  the  military  were 
at  A[ark  West  Creek.  The  same  gentleman 
also  informed  us  that  he  conversed,  just  hefore 
leavino-  Ilealdsburg,  with  several  of  the  settlers, 
and  they  avowed  their  determination  to  resist  the 
force  sent  against  them.  We  sincerely  trust 
they  will  think  better  of  it,  and  listen  to  the 
dictates  of  cool  judgment.  The  late  decision 
of  the  courts,  in  favor  of  Bailhache,  has  done 
away  with  the  pretext  on  which  they  predicted 
their  right  to  resist  the  sherif!"'s^w.w<^.  We  ask 
our  fellow  citizens  to  retiect  what  serious  conse- 
(piences  the  resisting  of  military  might  lead  to. 
If  in  this  instance  law  is  set  at  defiance,  there 
is  a  combustible  element  in  ('aliforiiia  which 
would  accept  it  as  a  license  for  guerrilla  warfare. 
We  cannot,  however,  believe  that  our  neighbors 
of  Ilealdsburg  will  be  guilty  of  lighting  the 
torch  of  civil  war  in  our  midst." 

The  Aiqux  oi  Ocioher  1st  gives  the  following 
account  of  tlie  termination  of  this  vexed  land 

"On  Monday  morning  last  the  military  com- 
panies which  were  ordered  by  the  Governor  to  as- 
sist Sheritf  Bowles  in  enforcing  writs  of  ejectment 
against  settlers  near  Healdsburg,  returned  to 
this  city  having  faithfully  discharged  the  duty 
for  which  they  were  ordered  out.  The  majesty 
of  the  law  has  been  asserted  and  maintained, 
and  the  serious  consequences  which  it  was 
feared  might  result  therefrom  have  been  averted. 
Our  citizen  soldiers,  with  their  etticient  otJicers, 
deserve  much  credit  for  the  decided  and  yet 
humane  manner  in  which  they  discharged  the 
unpleasant  task  assigned  them.  Those  families 
that  have  had  to  relinquish  homes  that  cost 
them    years   of  toil,   are   now    the    subject    of 

sympathy,  and  should  be  encouraged  and  assisted 
in  their  endeavors  to  find  new  and  more  ]>erma- 
nent  homes.  Let  the  difficulties  just  past  be 
remembered  only  to  guai'd  against  the  recur- 
rence of  like  scenes  in  the  future." 

SgUATTEKS    ON    TUK    (;EKM.\N    (iRANT. 

In  1801  there  were  about  eighteen  settlers 
who  located  on  the  (German  grant,  on  the  coast 
bordei-ing  on  the  (iualala  Kiver  and  extending 
southward  toward  Fort  Ross.  The  claimant  was 
William  Beihler,  and  being  a  foreigner,  he 
commenced  suit  of  ejectment  in  the  United 
States  District  Court.  The  writer,  then  a 
United  States  Deputy  Marshal,  had  occasion  to 
serve  papers  on  those  squatters  in  1861  and 
knows  how  "  sultry  "  they  threatened  to  make 
it  for  Beihler  if  he  over  dared  to  "  materialize 
in  that  neck  of  woods."  Beihler  got  his  ranch, 
notwithstanding,  but  he  has  seldom  visited  it. 
The  grant  has  now  largely  passed  into  other 

Tin:    Mrr.nuKW  shadow. 

By  reference  to  the  last  chapter  on  Russian 
occupation  at  Fort  Ross  it  will  be  seen  that 
reference  is  made  to  a  bill  of  sale  given  to  Cap- 
tain John  A.  Sutter,  ])urporting  to  convey  to 
him  Bussian  title  to  laud.  Tiiis  title  was 
a  source  of  considerable  trouble  to  Sonoma 
County  settlers  along  about  1S60-'1.  One  Col- 
onel Muldrew  turned  up  then  with  that  title 
and  created  quite  a  panic.  The  Joiirtnil  of  Alay 
11,  1860  said: 

"The  Sutter,  or  Aluldrew  claim,  lying  be- 
tween Cape  Mendocino  and  Cape  Drake,  or 
Punta  Reyes,  and  about  which  considerable  in- 
terest is  at  present  manifest  by  the  people  of 
this  section,  covers  about  two  hundred  and 
eighty  leagues  of  land,  and  embraces  within  its 
bounds,  in  addition  to  a  large  area  of  public 
domain,  several  confirmed  Spanish  grants.  As 
most  of  our  readers  are  aware,  this  is  tlie  so- 
called  Russian  American  Fur  Company's  claim; 
but  we  suggest  that  the  territory  should  here- 
after  be   known  as  the  "Muldrew  Principality. 


Onr  reason  for  this  is.  that  the  Colonel  claims 
that  the  Russian  Fur  Company  held  and  exer- 
cised exclusive  control  of  the  territory  during 
a  certain  number  of  years  (about  thirty-three, 
we  think),  and  then  transferred  their  rights, 
privileges  and  immunities  to  Captain  J.  A. 
Sutter,  who  in  turn  sold  to  the  present  claimant, 
he,  Muldrew,  should  of  right  now  be  entitled 
to  exercise  all  the  rights  and  privileges,  l)oth  civil 
and  political,  which  belonged  to  the  said  original 
claimants.  Let  the  claim  then  be  known  as  the 
'Muldrew  Principality,  and  let  its  rightful 
]triiice  assert  and  exercise  his  authority!  True, 
Uncle  Sam  may  not  relish  the  thing  much,  but 
how  is  he  to  help  himself?  It  was  Mexican 
territory  alone  that  he  conquered,  and  not  that 
of  the  Russian  Fur  Company !  What  right 
then  has  he  to  complain,  though  this  principal- 
ity does  lay  'adjacent  to,'  and  is  surrounded  by 
his  potato  patch?  '  Hy  the  law  of  nations"  [ior 
the  interpretation  of  which,  and  in  further 
proof  of  the  soundness  of  our  arguments,  we 
refer  the  reader  to  the  articles  in  the  Argus, 
over  the  signature  of'  Veritas,'  which  we  think 
cannot  fail  to  convince  all  as  their  author  is 
known  to  be  no  less  a  person  than  the  valiant 
Colonel  Zabriskie,  Colonel  Muldrew's  legal  ad- 
viser and  expounder),  the  Russians  acquired 
sovereignty  over  it,  and  by  the  right  of  pur- 
chase, Colonel  Muldrew  is  now  the  legitimate 
prince  and  ruler;  but,  like  the  '  Nephew  of  his 
Uncle,'  we  ojiine  he  will  tind  Jordan  a  hard 
road  to  travel,  ere  he  is  permitted  to  grasp  the 
golden  scepter  of  this 

'  Kiiiiiilom  liy  the  sea.'" 
Colonel  Muldrew  began  to  force  his  claim  to 
this  vast  estate  with  much  vigor.  He  had  as 
his  attorney  Colonel  .1.  C.  Zaliriskie,  who  as 
author  of  the  "  Laiul  Laws  of  California"  was 
recognized  as  a  lawyer  of  much  ability.  Several 
settlers'  meetings  were  held  in  Big  \'alley,  at 
which  Colonel  Zabriskie  was  present  and  ex- 
plained the  nature  of  the  title  upon  which  his 
client  set  up  a  claim  to  lands,  much  ot  which 
had  already  been  purchased  by  the  settlers  from 
grantees  holding  under  Mexican  title.     Most  of 

the  settlers  failed  to  see  the  potency  of  the  ar- 
guments used  and  Hatly  refused  to  give  any 
countenance  to  the  Muldrew  claims.  Some, 
however,  seem  to  have  been  fearful  that  his 
claim  was  something  more  than  a  mere  shadow, 
and  we  have  been  informed  that  Mr.  Rennitz  of 
the  Fort  Ross  grant  was  $6,000  poorer  on  ac- 
count of  his  credulity.  Be  this  as  it  may,  the 
Muldrew  title  reached  a  final  disposition  in  a 
decision  rendered  by  Judge  ISIcKiiistry  in  Octo- 
ber of  1860,  which  was  as  follows: 

•'Curtis  vs.  Svtfer,  et  al. — This  is  a  motion 
to  dismiss  the  bill  npon  the  pleadings.  I  grant 
the  motion,  assuming  that  all  the  facts  stated 
in  the  complaint  are  true.  The  complainant  does 
not  content  himself  with  stating  that  the  de- 
fendants set  up  some  claim  or  demands  to  his 
lands,  but  specitically  decribes  their  alleged 
title  from  the  Russian  Fur  Company  to  the  de- 
fendant, Sutter.  Admitting  that  the  averment 
that  the  other  defendants  'claim  under  Sntter,' 
as  sufficient  allegation  that  they  have  receiveil 
deeds  from  Sutter,  still  the  •  Russian  Fur  C'oin- 
pany '  is  not  a  legitimate  source  of  title.  If  an 
action  of  ejectment  were  Ijrought  by  defeiulants 
against  a  party  in  possession  upon  the  deeds 
named.,  as  referred  to  in  the  bill,  those  deeds 
could  not  constitute  a  color  of  title;  the  defend- 
ant in  possession  would  not  be  required  to  in- 
troduce any  testimony  to  impeach  or  rebut  the 
deeds.  Hence,  upon  the  authority  of  Ctiiiin  cs. 
Sntter,  et  al.,  and  Pi.vleij  rs.  irii(/f//ns,  1  am  of 
opinion  that  no  preliminary  injunction  should 
have  been  issued  in  the  present  case,  and  that 
the  injunction  already  issued  ought  not  now  to 
be  made  final  or  jierpetuaj.  And  since  the  only 
other  remedy  sought  by  the  bill  oi-  whicli  I'Luild 
be  obtained  after  a  feigned  issue,  had  been  de- 
cided in  favor  of  j)laintit}  is,  that  the  deeds  of 
defendants  be  canceled,  which  is  not  iMily  a 
more  effective  remedy  tlian  an  injunction,  it 
a])](ears  to  me  that  if  the  Supivme  Couit  lia\e 
decided  that  no  injunction  should  issue,  they 
have  also  decideil  that  no  decree  ol  cancelfitioii 
should  be  rendered. 

"  Atfaiii,  this  bill  does  not  show  bv  anv  definite 



description  of  what  portion  of  the  rancho  the 
plaintitf  is  in  the  actual  possession.  It  admits 
tliat  large  portions  of  it  are  held  adversely  by 
persons  not  yiarties  to  this  suit.  This  is  not  a 
case  wliere  any  <locti'ine  of  constructive  posses- 
sion can  apply,  nor  does  it  follow  that  because 
in  order  to  remove  a  cloud  from  a  portion  of 
which  the  plaintiff  is  in  possession,  it  is  neces- 
sary to  examine  the  validity  of  the  title  to  the 
whole  Bodega  Rancho — therefore,  the  court  will 
interfere  to  remove  a  cloud  from  that  of  which 
third  parties  are  in  possession.  Such  examina- 
tion into  the  validity  of  the  liodega  title  is  in 
no  degree  binding  upon  those  third  parties  hold- 
ing adversely.  l!eing  in  possession  they  must 
be  considered  (until  a  judgment  in  a  direct  pro- 
ceeding against  them)  as  tlie  actual  owners  of 
the  land  they  occupy.  The  pnr])ose  of  such  a 
bill  of  peace  is  to  remove  a  cloud  from  the  title 
which  threatens  to  disturb  the  quiet  and  peace- 
able possession  of  a  plaintiff  in  the  actual  oc- 
cupancy of  land,  and  since  i*^  is  inijiossible  to 
ascertain  from  this  bill  that  the  ]iresent  plaintiff 
is  in  the  actual  occupancy  of  any  particular  foot 
of  land,  the  cause  must  be  dismissed. 

'>  K.     ^V.    Ml   KiNSTRY, 

"  District  Judge." 
This  decision  seems  to    have   effectually  and 
forever,  laid  the  ISIuldrew  title  to  land  acquired 
through  Finssian  occupancy  at  Foil  Ross. 

TUK    AKUOVO   UK  SAN    AN'ni.N'lu. 

This  grant  was  a  source  of  much  disijiiict  and 
unrest  to  settlers.  Originally  there  were  two 
claimants  before  the  board  of  land  commission- 
ers, Ortega  and  Miranda.  Ortega  had  l>een  a 
Mexican  sicklier,  and  married  the  daughter  of 
Miranda.  He  claimed  to  have  received  a  grant 
of  the  Arroyo  de  San  Antonio,  and  placed  his 
father-in-law,  Miranda,  in  occupancy  thereof 
On  account  of  domestic  infelicity  Ortega  went 
to  Oregon  and  was  there  when  gold  was  discov- 
ered in  California.  In  the  meantime  Miranda 
seems  to  have  received  a  grant  for  the  same  land 
on  the  ground  of  abandonment  by  Ortega.  The 
two  titles  passed  into  the  hands  respectively  of 

James  F.  Stnart  and  Thomas  I>.  Valentine. 
They  were  both  laid  before  the  land  commis- 
sioners, but  ultimately  Valentine  witlxlrew  his 
claim,  alleging  as  a  reason  that  he  was  satisHed 
that  the  Miranda  claim  was  without  good  foun- 
dation. Stuart  litigated  the  Ortega  claim  to 
the  highest  tribunal  in  the  land,  and  it  was  re- 
jected. The  land  was  then  declared  subject  to 
entry  as  go\ernmeut  land.  The  outside  lands 
were  so  entei'cd,  and  the  lands  embraced  within 
the  city  of  Petaluma  were  entered  in  lots  under 
what  is  known  as  the  "town  site  bill."  Now 
it  was  that  Valentine  went  to  Congress  and 
sought  the  passage  of  a  special  bill  to  restore 
the  Miranda  grant  to  a  hearing  in  court,  claim- 
ing that  he  had  discovered  new  evidence  which 
showed  the  genuiness  of  that  grant.  For  sev- 
eral years  the  settlers  on  the  land  and  residents 
of  Petaluma  combatted  and  defeated  every  at- 
tempt to  have  the  case  reopened.  Finally  a 
compromise  was  made  whei'eby  Valentine  agreed 
that  if  he  made  his  title  to  the  Arroyo  de  San 
Antonio  grant  he  would  accept  "  lien  scrip " 
from  the  government  for  the  same,  and  not  at- 
tempt to  disturb  the  title  of  settlers  organized 
through  government  to  lands  embraced  in  that 
grant.  The  years  had  run  their  course  and  in 
1873  this  compromise  was  reached.  In  the 
Petaluma  Argvs  of  December  19,  1878.  we  find 
the  following  in  relation  thereto: 

•'  The  cloud  that  has  hovered  over  the  lands 
on  which  the  city  of  Petaluma  is  situated  is 
foi  tiinately  fast  dispelling.  The  history  of  the 
various  struggles  for  title  that  have  involved  the 
settlers  here  would  form  a  voluminous  book,  and 
the  inconvenience,  dread,  uncertainty  and  possi- 
ble insecurity  of  our  title  have  in  no  small  de- 
gree retarded  our  growth  and  prosperity  as  a 
city.  The  time  seems  to  have  arrived  at  last 
when  perfect  security  of  title  can  be  claimed, 
without  possibility  of  being  overwhelmed  or 
being  alarmed  at  some  further  period  by  a 
'trumped  up  claim."  The  'Ortega'  has  been 
killed  by  the  Supreme  Court,  and  the  '  Miranda' 
will  soon  be  tfoatel  off  on  the  public  domain,  no 
more  to  annoy  or  irritate  people.       Then,  with 


ITncIe  Sam's  title  in  our  pockets,  Me  can  say, 
'  These  are  onr  lands;  this  is  onr  heritage;  here 
we  will  hnild  onr  homes  and  fonnd  a  city  that 
will  rank  first  among  the  mnnicipalities  of  the 

"Below  will  lie  found  jnililislied  entire  the 
the  decree  issned  in  the  C!irciiit  Court  for  San 
Francisco,  confirming  the  Miranda  claim  hut 
snhjecting  the  claimant  to  the  proviso  of  the 
act  of  Congress,  which  says  he  '  may  select,  and 
shall  be  allowed  patents  for  an  equal  quantity 
of  unoccupied  and  unappropriated  public  lands 
fif  the  United  States  '  elsewhere. 

"  Following  is  the  decree  which  is  in  sub- 
stance the  same  as  urged  ujkju  the  court  by  the 
(Tnited  States  District  Attorney  Lattimer: 

" '  In  this  case,  on  hearing  the  proofs  and 
allegations,  it  is  ordered,  adjudged  and  decreed 
that  the  said  claim  of  the  petitioners  is  valid, 
and  that  the  same  be  and  hereby  is  confirmed; 
but  this  decree  and  confirmation  are  hereby 
made  subject  to  the  restrictions  and  limitations 
prescribed  in  the  act  of  (!ongress  entitled,  '  An 
act  for  the  Ilelief  of  Thomas  15.  A^alentine, 
approved  June  5,  1872. 

"'The  land  of  which  confirmation  is  made  is 
the  same  which  was  granted  by  Manuel  Mich- 
eltorena,  in  the  name  of  the  Mexican  Govern- 
ment to  Juan  Miranda,  on  the  8th  day  of 
( )ctol)er,  1844,  and  on  which  he  resided  in  his 
life-time,  and  is  known  by  the  name  of  the 
Kanclio  Arroyo  de  San  Antonio,  and  bounded 
by  the  Lagnna  and  Arroyo  of  the  same  name, 
and  the  pass  and  Estredo  of  retaluma,  and  is 
in  extent  three  square  leagues,  if  that  quantity 
is  to  be  found  within  the  exterior  boundaries, 
and  no  more;  and,  if  a  less  quantity  is  included 
in  said  boundaries,  then  said  lesser  (piantity  is 

"  JjOEE.N/.o  Sawyer, 
"  Circuit  .Intlge.'  " 
in  January   of  1S74    the    following  editorial 
relating  to  the  Miranda  grant  appeared  in  the 
I'etaluina   Argvs,   and    was    conclusive    of  nil 
further  trouble  alwut  Valentine's  claim : 

•■When    there   is  a   shadow  upon    the  title  to 

oiir  homes  there  is  always  an  uneasiness  tliat 
periodically  breaks  into  downright  fear,  and 
oftentimes  panic.  There  seems  to  be  no  secu- 
rity. \Vc  build  elegant  residences  and  beautify 
our  grounds,  but  so  long  as  there  is  a  question 
to  the  title  of  our  lands,  there  is  a  lurking  fear 
always  that  some  day  in  our  lifetime  or  of  our 
children,  the  lands  may  be  wrested  from  us,  and 
we  would  have  our  '  trouble  for  onr  pains." 
Again,  in  event  of  a  desire  to  sell  our  realty, 
the  shadow  comes  up,  and  our  property  is  depre- 
ciated thereby.  And  this  has  been  the  case 
with  Petaluma  from  the  very  day  of  its  settle- 
ment. First  we  had  the  Ortega  and  Miranda 
grants  to  fight.  As  if  to  double  teams  against 
the  settlers  the  Miranda  claimant  withdrew 
from  the  United  States  Commission  upon  a 
compromise  and  helped  to  fight  the  battle  for  the 
Ortega  claim,  which,  after  passing  the  Ctnnmis- 
sion,  was  adjudged  a  fraud  by  the  Supreme 
Court.  The  Government  then  issued  its  pat- 
ents to  the  land  claimed  by  the  grant,  and  our 
people  with  Uncle  Sam's  title  in  their  pockets, 
felt  comparatively  secure.  But  the  trouble  had 
not  yet  ceased.  T.  B.  Valentine,  the  claimant 
under  the  Miranda  saw  that  he  had  made  a  mis- 
take in  his  alliance  with  the  Ortega,  rushed  to 
Washington  and  endeavored,  by  an  act  of  C'on- 
gress,  to  get  his  claim  reopened  and  before  the 
courts.  Here  was  trouble  and  vexation  again. 
The  Miranda  claim  was  believed  by  many  to  be 
valid,  while  others  took  the  countrary  view. 
Whoever  was  right  recent  events  go  to  show 
that  it  would  have  been  a  dangerous  experiment 
had  the  bill  l)een  passed  as  it  was  first  inti'o- 
dnced.  Through  the  influence  of  onr  represen- 
tatives, however,  the  bill  was  beaten.  This  ditl 
not  seem  to  satisfy  the  claimant.  At  nearly 
every  successive  ('ongress  he  was  on  hainl  with 
a  bill  for  his  relief.  Finally  to  put  tlie  matter 
forever  at  rest,  a  bill  passed  Congress  allowing 
him  to  jiresent  his  claim  to  the  courts,  and  in 
the  event  that  he  should  ])rove  the  validity  of 
his  title  he  was  to  execute  a  deed  to  the  lands 
claimed  under  the  grant,  and  in  lieu  thereof 
take  a  corresponding  amount  of   public    lands 



wlierever  lie  might  find  tliein  ami  elect.  The 
suit  was  accordingly  coniinenced  in  the  Circuit 
(^oiirt  in  San  Francisco,  and  npon  trial  a  decree 
was  issued  to  tiie  piaintitl',  when  it  was  taken 
on  appeal  to  tiie  Supreme  Court  of  tlie  I'liited 
States  for  tiiuU  adjudication.  Many  rumors 
have  been  rife  that  Mr.  Valentine,  haviiiii-  ijot 
into  court  and  proven  liis  claim,  was  not  neces- 
sarily compelled  by  tlie  terms  of  the  act  to  take 
lien  lands,  hut  might,  upon  the  atHrmance  of 
liis  case  at  Washington,  come  ujion  and  dispos- 
sess the  settlers  here.  A  good  deal  of  talk  has 
been  made,  and  a  great  deal  of  fear  endured  by 
our  people  over  these  complications. 

'•  Finally,  however,  like  all  our  worldly 
troubles  this  vexed  and  complicated  question 
has  been  finally  settled  by  Mr.  Valentine  giving 
a  deed  to  government  through  our  energetic 
and  faithful  Senator,  Mr.  Sargent,  as  the  follow- 
ing dispatches  will  explain: 

"  •WASuiNtiToN,  Jan.  5. — Senator  Sargent  has 
received  from  T.  B.  Valentine,  of  San  Fran- 
cisco, to  be  held  in  trust,  a  deed  in  favoi-  of  the 
United  States,  executed  by  \'alentine  and  wife, 
conveying  the  Miranda  grant,  in  Sonoma 
( bounty;  the  deed  to  be  delivered  to  the  t'om- 
missioners  of  the  (leneral  Land  Office  on  affirm- 
ance by  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  judgment 
recently  rendered  in  Valentine's  favor  by  the 
Circuit  Court  of  California  in  an  action  autlior- 
ized  by  Congress.  The  deed  conveys  to  the 
United  States  all  of  A^alentine's  interest  in  said 
grant,  and  Valentine  by  the  law  of  last  session, 
is  to  receive  land  scrip  to  the  same  extent  on  un- 
occupied puldic  land.  This  quiets  title  in  favor 
of  purchasers  from  the  Government  on  thegrant.' 

"'W.\suiNuT()N,Jan.7. — The  United  Slates  Su- 
preme (Jourthavingconfirmed  the  decision  of  the 
Circuit  Court  upholding  the  validity  of  the 
Miranda  grant,  its  mandate  to  that  effect  was 
sent  to  California  to-day,  and  the  deed  executed 
by  Valentine  conveying  all  his  i-ight  and  title 
to  the  United  States  in  trust  for  the  settlers, 
was  delivered  to  the  Commissioner  of  the  (len- 
eral  Land  Office  this  afternoon.  This  action 
perfects  tlie  settlers'  title  to  all  lands  covered  by 

the  grant,  including  the  town  of  Pctaluma.  and 
puts  an  end  to  all  litigation  ai\d  further  uneasi- 
ness in  the  matter.' 

"  AV^e  may  state  also  in  this  connection  that 
i>ur  fellow-townsman,  lion,  (ieorge  Pearce,  met 
Mr.  A'alentine  on  the  streets  of  San  Francisco 
on  Wednesday,  when  Valentine  tul<l  him  per- 
sonally that  he  had  executed  and  delivered  the 
deed,  thereby  confirming  the  above  dispatches. 
All  hail  to  our  homes,  which  are  now  withuut  a 
cloud  of  uncertainty." 

L.\i:i;.\A     UK    SAN    ANTdNld. 

This  land,  as  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the 
chapter  on  grants,  was  conceded  to  I'artolenius 
Bojorques,  and  embraced  over  24,000  acres  of 
land.  Nearly  half  of  this  lay  in  Sonoma 
County,  embracing  the  fertile  Two  Rock  Valley. 
There  never  was  any  conflict  over  the  confirma- 
tion of  that  grant.  It  passed  to  final  confirma 
tion  without  let  or  hindrance.  IJojorques  %vas 
quite  old  when  the  Americans  began  to  come 
in  and  settle  on  his  grant,  lie  had  eight  sons 
and  daughters,  all  grown  up  and  married.  To 
each  of  these  he  executed  a  deetl  of  one-ninth  of 
his  grant,  reserving  to  himself  a  ninth.  There 
was  no  partition,  bnt  father  and  children  alike 
had  an  undivided  ninth  of  the  vast  estate.  Each 
sold  land  to  the  settlers  as  opportunity  offered, 
and  at  prices  nierely  nominal.  Bnt  few  of  the 
settlers  took  the  precaution  to  get  other  than 
the  signature  of  the  party  from  whom  they 
purchased  to  their  deed.  When  the  grant  was 
all  absorbed  by  such  loose-jointed  titles,  the  out- 
come was  inevitable.  Some  had  barely  title 
enongh  to  cover  their  holdings — some  had  moie 
than  enough,  and  others  had  not  a  shadow  of 
title.  In  the  early  sixties  a  suit  was  commenced 
for  partition,  and  over  two  hundreil,  persons 
were  parties  to  the  suit.  Most  of  the  settlers 
banded  themselves  together  in  what  was  called 
the  "  Bojorques  League"  and  maile  common 
cAuse  for  an  adjustment  of  title.  The  suit 
jilayed  shuttle-cock  back  and  forth  thiough  the 
courts  for  a  sjiace  of  over  twenty  years.  It  was 
one  of  the  most  tangled  skeins  of  land  title  tver 



adjudicated  by  the  California  courts.  It  finally 
lendered  a  conclusion  very  recently,  and  may 
he  ranked  among  the  things  of  the  past — 
although  the  "  Bojorques  League"  still  has  an 
organized  existence. 

In  dismissing  the  subject  of  Spanish  grants 
it  is  in  ])lace  to  say  that  of  all  those  vast  estates, 
there  is  now  only  one  in  the  county,  the  "Cotato 

grant,"'  that  remains  unbroken,  the  balance 
liaving  all  been  subdivided  and  sold  to  settlers. 
Of  the  original  owners  of  these  grants  there  are 
but  few  who  are  now  even  moderately  well  otl'; 
and  very  many  are  in  really  straitened  circum- 
stances. The  manner  in  which  these  vast  prop- 
erties were  dissipated  shows  how  evanescent 
anti  Heeting  is  what  the  world  calls  wealth. 

iirsronr  of  sonoma  county. 





,  ^^•V^^^V^^^x^<^v.A'^A^•v•^?F^.^A.^•^^A^•^,v^s=g;^Y:  

VWW'l'VAl  XIY. 

HasAI.T      RimK ASlJK-ilV 



fi  1 1'^i  late  Dr.  AV.  W.  Oarpenter,  wlio  was  a 
student  of  science,  speaking  of  tliis  soc- 
•^-  tion  of  California  said: 
•'The  county  of  Sononialias  never  Iteen  honored 
with  a  jjeological  survey.  It  is  jn-etty  evenly 
divided  lietween  xalley  and  niountiiin.  The 
valleys  having  formerlv  heen  suhinertfcd  with 
the  waters  of  the  ocean,  were  left  upon  their 
sulisidenee  with  a  soil  of  adohe,  hut  have  since 
received  a  coat  of  sedimentary  deposit  of  allu- 
vium. The  soil  of  the  eastern  part  of  Sonoma 
Valley  rests  upon  a  hard-pan  of  secondary  for- 
mation. The  sandy  loaua  comprisinu;  the  coun- 
try lying  hetween  Petaluma  and  the  coast  is 
modern  alluvium.  The  redwood  forests  adjacent 
to  tlie  coast,  helong  to  the  second  epodi  of  the 
tertiary  period — the  miocene  of  ]V[r.  Lyell.  The 
soil  of  the  Russian  River  A' alley  largely  foi-med 
through  glacial  inHnence,  helongs  to  the  sec- 
onilary  period.  The  mountains  are  volcanic. 
Trap,  or  basalt  is  tlie  leading  rock,  although 
]iorphyry,  sienite,  granite,  slate,  ami  especially 
carbonate,  or  magnesian  limestone  are  found. 
The  mountain  range  of  basalt  dividing  the  i'et- 
aluma  and  Sonoma  valleys  was  poured  out  ot 
the  crater  of  St.  Helena  and  rolling  onward,  u 
mighty  river  of  molten  lava,  couletl  and  hanl- 
ened  where  we  now  find  it.  The  streets  of  San 
Francisco  are  largely  paved  with  this  i-ock.  In 
quarrying  it  small   caverns  are    levealed    most 

beautifully  lined,  ami  crystalized  with  carbonate 
of  lime.  Notwithstanding  that  Sonoma  is 
classed  as  an  agricultural  county,  its  mineral  re- 
sources are  varied,  and  in  the  near  future  will 
be  a  source  of  great  profit. 

•'('<)(//,  of  not  by  any  means  a  superior  (jiiality, 
has  been  found  near  the  surface  on  Sonoma 
l\[ountain  not  more  than  five  miles  from  IVt- 
aluma.  Practical  exjierieuce  has  upset  many 
scientific  theories.  Science  taught  that  the 
native  deposit  of  gold  was  exclusively  in  quart/.. 
The  miner  reveals  some  of  the  richest  leads  in 
slate  rock.  Science  formerly  taught  that  the 
coal  deposit  was  exclusively  in  the  carboniferous 
formation.  The  same  autliority  now  teaches 
that  it  may  be  found  in  any  geological  strata. 
It  is  true  that  all  the  coal  thus  far  found  be- 
longs to  the  tertiary,  or  secondary  formation  — 
lignite  or  brown  coal — yet  competent  observers 
ai'e  sanguine  in  the  belief  that  when  sutiicient 
depth  shall  have  heen  reached  coal  of  good 
quality  and  in  i-easonal)le  abundance  will  be 

•>  J^'trnleum,  a  sister  product,  is  also  known 
to  exist  in  this  county.  It  is  a  question  whether 
oil  wells  will  ever  prove  as  productive  in  Cali- 
I'ornia  as  they  are  in  Pennsylvania,  for  the  reason 
that  the  horizontal  wheels  of  the  palaeozoic  age 
confines  the  oil  beneath  the  surface  in  the  latter 
State,   while    the    tertiary    rocks   of  California, 



turned  up  ^m  edge,  allow  it  to  lie  forced  to  the 
surface  by  liydrostatic  pressure,  and  capillary 
attraction,  and  thus  wasted.  Hence  larj^c  quan- 
tities of  oil  on  the  surface  is  an  unfavorable  in- 
dication for  well-boring. 

•'  It  is  for  tills  reason,  and  not  because  oil  in 
quantities  does  not  exLst,  that  the  oil  business  has 
not  a  promising  out-look  on   the   Pacific  coast. 

'' ^«ic'^'.<.;7/'c/'.  -  Quicksilver,  j)rincipally  in 
the  form  of  cinnaliar,  e.xists  in  this  county  in 
large  quantities.  During  the  (juicksilver  ex- 
citement of  four  or  five  years  ago  many  rich 
deposits  were  developed,  and  worked  until  the 
in)mense  (quantities  of  the  article  found  in  every 
section  of  the  State  reduced  its  price  below  the 
cost  of  extraction,  which  necessarily  compelled 
a  discontinuance  of  operations. 

"The  composition  of  ciimabar  being  81| 
grains  of  (piicksilver  and  19.^  grains  of  sul|ihur 
to  the  hundred,  implies  the  existence  of  an 
abundance  of  the  latter  article  also  in  the  county. 
When  (quicksilver  exists  where  there  is  no  sul- 
phur it  must  needs  be  in  its  native  form.  In 
the  Rattlesnake  mine,  above  Cloverdale,  is  the 
only  place  that  it  is  found  in  this  county,  other- 
wise than  in  the  form  of  cinnabar.  In  that 
mine  the  pure  glolniles  ai-e  interspersed  thi-ough 
soft  tulcose  rock. 

"  Boriw.  -Borate  of  soda  has  been  found,  liut 
not  in  paying  quantities. 

"'Kaolin.  -This  article  is  found  in  this 
county,  but  kaolin  being  decomposed  feldspar, 
and  the  pure  atmosphere  of  California  not  pos- 
sessing the  power  of  decomposing  and  disin- 
tegrating that  article  from  its  native  rocks  like 
the  murky  air  of  England,  the  (juantity  is  cor- 
respondingly small.  So  rapidly  does  the  atmos- 
phere of  England  decompose  feldspar,  that 
granite,  or  sienite,  exposed  to  the  air.  bec(;mes 
honey-coinbed  in  a  few  years.  The  reader  is 
aware  that  fine  porcelain  ware  is  made  of  finely 
))ulverized  (juartz  crystals,  kaolin,  and  the  ashes 
of  ferns — the  fern  ashes  containing  enough 
alkali,  in  the  form  of  bicarbonate  of  potassa  to 
produce  the  requisite  effervescent  action,  in 
union  with  the  silisic  acid  of  the  (piartz.  to  dc- 

velope  the  beautiful  finish  of  that  elegant  ware. 
The  kaolin  for  the  immense  quantity  of  porce- 
lain ware  manufactured  in  England  is  gathered 
in  Cornwall,  where  it  is  decomposed  and  disin- 
tegrated from  the  granite  quarries. 

"  Hod  ami  YMoio  Cinher  (terrd  ih  xleitJia), 
as  well  as  other  ochreous  coloring  earths  of  a 
sn|)crior  quality,  and  in  great  abundance,  are 
found  in  this  county.  No  better  material  for 
paints  exist  upon  the  earth. 

^^  Petrifactlonx  are  found  in  this  county 
and,  in  fact,  everywhere  on  the  coast — under 
circumstances  which  upset  the  accepted  theory 
that  petrifaction  can  (inh/  occur  by  saturating 
the  wood  in  thcriiiHl  waters.  Petrifaction  takes 
place  on  the  surface  of  the  earth — necessarily 
beyond  the  reach  or  intiuence  of  thermal  waters. 
The  large  amount  nf  silex  in  the  soil  mav 
account  for  this  in  some  instances,  as  there  arc 
many  cases  in  which  an  excess  of  that  element 
causes  wood  to  petrify  instead  of  carbonize, 
even  in  the  carboniferous  formation.  Still  the 
proposition  holds  that  petrifactions  are  found 
under  circumstances  which  would  seem  to  im- 
ply that  atmospheric  conditions  mu^L  have 
something  to  do  with  their  transfornialion. 

"  Afi/entlferoii,^  (jalena  exists  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  county,  and  in  the  near  future  will 
become  a  paying  industry. 

^•Copper. — Some  rich  deposits  of  c(qiper-- 
jirincipally  in  the  form  of  red  oxide — have  also 
been  discovei-ed  in  the  northern  section  of  the 

"  I nni  —  Iron  is  found  nearly  everywhere,  but 
the  UKist  valuable  yet  unearthed  are  the  chromic 
iron  oi'es  in  the  mountains  near  ('lo\erdale. 
where  the  rock  formation  is  mainly  st^rpentine. 
Some  of  these  ores  have  been  in  the  process  of 
extraction  for  several  years  with  profit  to  the 
owners.  .\  small  amount  of  hematite  ii'on  \\a» 
found  near  Santa  Ilosa.  Magnetic  and  Titanic 
iron  is  found  in  more  or  less  abundance  as  is 
usual  in  all   volcanic  rocks. 

••  I'ixolltex,  OolUcx,  and  Oh.sidiiui  aw  among 
the  pi-odncts  found  in  attestation  of  the  volcanic 



"  Boiling  i<pruiiis  exist  in  several  localities, 
the  most  noted,  and  reniarkableof  whicli  are  the 
geysers.  These  springs  are  among  the  most 
wonderful  and  magnificent  displays  of  nature  in 
the  world.  Notwithstanding  that  the  springs 
are  located  within  close  pro.ximity  of  each  other, 
the  chemical  properties  differ  much.  We  have 
not  at  hand  a  chemical  analysis  of  these  waters, 
init  chloritle  of  sodium  (table  salt),  borate  of 
sodium  (borax),  carbonate  of  sodium,  sulpluu'i 
iron,  and  sulphate  of  sodium  predominate. 
There  is  a  trace  of  silica  in  all  of  them  we 
believe.  LittoTi  springs  and  Mark  West  are 
well  known  places  of  resort  for  pleasure-seekers 
and  invalids. 

"Imperfect  skeletons  of  several  mastotlonshave 
been  found  protruding  from  the  l)ank8  of  I'eta- 
luma  (Jreek,  a  short  distance  above  the  town  of 
I'etaluma,  where  the  floods  had  exposed  them 
to  view;  and  one  tusk  found — and  now  in  a  cabi- 
net in  the  latter  city — is  ten  inches  in  length. 
They  were  perhaps  mired  down  while  seeking 
water.  Their  discovery  was  merely  accidental, 
paleontological  research  never  having  leceived 
any  more  attention  in  the  county  than  its 
kindred  sciences. 

Blo(Hhtone  ami  aytttc  are  the  only  valualile 
varieties  of  the  quartz  family,  so  far  as  we  know, 
that  have  been  found  in  this  county. 

Suljihate  of  lime  (gypsum)  is  found,  but  in 
comparatively  small  (juantities  to  that  of  the 
carbonate,  or  magnesian  lime." 

As  the  ijuarries  of  basalt  ])aving  blocks  in  the 
neighborhood  of  i'etaluma,  8anta  llosa  and 
Sonoma  have  become  one  of  Sonoma  County's 
profital)le  industries,  the  following  from  the 
Sonoma  County  Jonriud  of  September  25, 1857, 
is  of  interest: 

>'  On  the  summit  of  a  hill  some  threc-tjuarters 
of  a  mile  to  the  south  of  I'etaluma,  a  very  sing- 
ular ledge  of  rocks  has  recently  been  discovered 
by  some  persons  engaged  in  (juarrying  stone  for 
building  purposes.  The  singular  structure  and 
wonderful  uniformity  that  prevails  throughout 
the  ledge,  is  the  feature  that  renders  it  pecu- 
liarly interesting  to  the  curious.     It  is  well  cal- 

culated to   impress  the  mind  with  the  idea  of  its 
being  the  work  of  art. 

"The  ledge  is  composed  of  regular  prismatic 
columns,  inclined  but  a  few  degrees  from  the 
perpendicular  toward  the  center  of  the  hill. 
The  columns  generally  have  five  sides,  but  we 
observed  some  that  had  but  four.  They  are 
usually  about  twenty  inches  in  thickness,  and 
are  divided  into  blocks  varying  from  one  to  four 
feet  in  length,  which  are  so  closely  joined  and 
so  firmly  cemented  together  that  it  is  (juiteditH- 
cult  to  separate  them.  The  columns  are  bound 
to  each  other  by  a  layer  of  grayish  colored 
cement,  about  an  inch  in  thickness.  The  rock 
is  very  hard,  and  of  a  dark  color,  and  belongs  to 
that  class  of  rocks  denominated  basalt  by  ge- 
ologists. The  whole  ledge  presents  the  appear- 
ance of  a  solid  structure  of  masonry,  reared,  like 
the  Jigyptian  pyramids,  to  perpetuate  the  works 
and  memory  of  man,  in  defiance  of  the  flight  of 
ages.  So  abundant,  indeed,  are  the  appearances 
of  design,  that  we  are  not  surprised  that  many 
persons  have  unhesitatingly  pronounced  it  the 
work  of  art.  There  is  abundant  evidence,  how- 
ever, tharf;  precludes  the  possibility  of  such  being 
the  case.  This  columnar  structure  of  rocks  is 
not  unfrequent.  It  is  seen  along  the  margin  of 
Snake  River,  and  in  the  passage  of  the  Columbia 
River  through  the  Cascade  Mountains,  perpen- 
dicular walls  of  this  columnar  structure  are 
often  seen  rising  to  the  height  of  forty  or  fifty 
feet.  The  basaltic  columns  of  Lake  Superior, 
Fingal's  Cave,  in  the  island  of  Staft'a,  and  the 
Giant's  Causeway  in  the  north  of  Ireland,  are 
all  examples  of  similar  columnar  structure. 
Geologists  also  speak  of  its  occurring  quite  fre- 
quently west  of  the  Ilocky  Mountains.  We  are 
too  incredulous  to  look  upon  this  singular  struc- 
ture as  other  than  the  work  of  the  Divine  Arclii 
tect,  and  as  such  it  presents  a  wide  range  for 
human  thought  and  study. 

''  The  discovery  of  this  ledge  of  rocks  so  near 
town,  is  particularly  fortunate  for  Petaluma. 
The  rocks  arc  easily  quarried  aiul  brought  to 
town,  but  the  greatest  advantage  of  all  is  their 
thorough  adaptability  to  the  construction  of  fire- 


proof  Iniildings neither  tire  nor  water  affecting 
them  in  the  least.  We  saw  a  cliip  from  one  of 
the  rocks  subjected  to  fire  until  it  became  heated 
to  a  bright  red  color,  after  which  it  wa.s  im- 
mediately thrown  into  cold  water.  No  chantje 
whatever  from  its  original  appearance  could  be 

In  March  of  18H8  there  was  considerable  ex- 
citement ill  I'etaluma  conseijuent  upon  the  un- 
earthing at  the  head  of  I'etaluma  Creek  of  the 
fosi^il  remains  of  some  animal  of  large  propor- 
tioii^i.  In  reference  to  these  bones  h  corres])ond- 
ent  of  the  Ar<jni<  under  date  of  March  12th  says: 

"To  the  question,  '  AVhat  is  ItV  when  ap- 
plied to  the  jawbone  which  has  excited  so  much 
curiosity,  the  following  answer  is  submitted: 

"It  is  assumed  that  the  bone  in  question  is 
unmistakably  a  lower  jawbone,  and  from  thennm- 
ber  and  conformation  of  the  teeth,  it  is  not  the 
jaw  of  a  hippopotamus,  for  that  animal  has  six 
grinders  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  also  fonr 
incisors  above  and  below,  and  a  canine  tooth  on 
each  side,  above  and  below.  Again,  it  cannot 
be  the  jaw  of  a  rhinoceros,  for  that  has  seven 
grinders  on  each  side  of  both  jaws,  and  from 
two  to  four  incisors  in  each  jaw.  The  number 
of  grinders  in  this  jaw,  the  pairs  of  conical  pro- 
jections on  the  same,  the  entire  absence  of  in- 
cisors and  canine  teeth,  together  with  the  length 
(22  inches)  of  the  shinbone  exhibited,  induces 
the  writer  to  believe  that  it  belongs  to  a  narrow- 
toothed  mastodon  (mastodon  angustidens). 
The  dimensions  of  these  grinders,  seven  inches 
in  breadth  by  three  inches  in  thickness,  answer 
to  the  name.  The  word  mastodon  is  derived 
from  two  (Treek  words,  meaning  conical-shape 
and  tooth.  There  were  two  species  of  mastodons, 
namely:  the  great  mastodon  ( M.  giganteus)  and 
the  narrow-toothed  mastodon.  The  last  s])ecies 
\\a>  one-third  less  in  size  than  the  great  masto- 
don, and  much  lower  on  the  legs.  It  was  not 
unlike  the  elephant,  being  furnished  with  a 
trunk  and  two  huge  tusks,  and  fed  upon  the 
rank  vegetation  of  the  early  world.  Thi>  was, 
probably,  a  juvenile  of  about  seven  years,  its 
age  lioing  determined  from  the  number  of  pairs 

of  conical  jioints  found  on  the  molar  teeth, 
while  his  height  is  estimated  to  have  been  only 
about  eight  feet,  the  estimation  being  based  up- 
on the  supposition  that  the  large  bone  e.xhibited 
last  week  was  a  shinbone.  The  imperfections 
of  that  bone  render  its  identity  somewhat  difh- 
cult,  still  its  superior  articulations  and  triangu- 
lar shaft,  lead  to  the  belief  that  it  is  a  tibia. 

"It  is  hoped  that  other  discoveries  will  soon  be 
made  that  will  throw  more  light  upon  this  in- 
teresting problem." 

In  the  Petahiuia  Anjus  of  Feljruary  25,1869, 
ajipears  this  mention  of  fossil  bones: 

"On  Thursday  last  Messrs.  Dickey  and  (-Jil 
more  discovered  the  skeleti.m  of  a  mastodon  on 
Petaluma  Creek  about  two  miles  north  of  tlii^ 
city.  Portions  of  a  tusk  projected  from  the 
bank  where  the  late  storm  had  washed  the  dirt 
away.  They  (jomnienced  excavating  and  have 
removed  the  dirt  from  the  head  which  i.-  nf 
enormous  size.  The  tusk  measures  twenty-two 
inches  in  circumference,  and  the  width  of  the 
skull  is  nearly  three  feet.  It  is  well  worth  the 
investigation  of  scientific  men.  It  will  be  re- 
membered that  about  a  year  ago  |)ortions  of 
undoubtedly  the  same  skeleton  were  washed  out 
at  the  same  locality,  and  that  we  published  an 
account  of  the  same.  Discoveries  of  fossil  re- 
mains have  become  so  common  in  CaliforniH, 
that  they  liave  almost  ceased  to  excite  comment, 
save  in  scientific  circles."' 

Again  referring  to  the  unearthing  of  fossil 
remains,  the  A/yiis  of  March  4,  1869,  says: 

"Last  week  we  mentioned  the  fact  of  the 
discovery  of  portions  of  a  gigantic  skeleton  in 
the  bank  of  Petaluma  Creek.  From  Mr.  S.  li. 
Dickey,  one  of  the  discoverers,  w'e  receive 
further  particulars.  We  have  also  received  let- 
ters from  several  scientific  gentlemen  requesting 
information  on  the  subject,  which  we  cheerfully 
give.  These  bones  cannot  be  a  part  of  those 
found  last  s])ring,  being  found  fifty  yards  further 
up  the  stream,  imbedded  eight  feet  deep  in 
coarse  gravel.  They  are  undoubtedly  horns,  the 
ii|)per  part  of  the  head  being  found  with  them. 
The  ilimensioiis  are:      From    the  lower  part  of 



the  clieek  Ikhic  to  the  tip  ot'  the  liurii, 
8  feet;  eaxity  nl  the  liraiii.  iJ  I'eet,  making 
I'.t  I'oet  from  ti|i  to  tip  of  the  horns,  which 
measuri'd  ~2  ineiies  at  tlie  base.  One  only  was 
t'ounii.  hut  a  eavitv  in  tlie  earth  corresponding 
in  size  plainly  showed  the  former  existence  of 
another.  Two  feet  ot  the  point  was  solid,  also 
8  inches  of  the  base;  the  balance  crumbled  to 
pieces  on  exposure.  There  were  two  teeth  on 
each  jaw  measuring  11  inches  in  lentjth,  and  3^ 
inches  in  width.  They  are  solid  in  the  jaw,  of 
a  darkish  color,  but  resembling  ivory  in  sub- 
stance. The  cheek  bones  are  solid,  18  inches  in 
length.  The  lnu-iis  shot  outward  from  the  head, 
curving  to  the  >ide  until  within  about  18  inches 
of  the  point,  where  they  turned  forward,  the 
point  being  a  little  in  front  of  the  head  as  if 
for  a  means  of  defense.  An  outside  shell  simi- 
lar to  that  upon  the  horn  of  the  common  cow 
covered  the  horn.  If  the  rest  of  the  skeleton 
bore  a  proportio'iiate  size  to  the  head  and  horns, 
the  animal  was  indeed  a  monster. 

The  fossil  remains  found  near  Tetaluma  was 
the  subject  of  discussion  by  the  California 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences.  What  those 
scientists  thought  on  the  subject,  as  well  as  the 
opinion  of  the  I'etaluma  editor,  appeared  in  the 
Petahnna  Aiyns  of  Api-il  1,  ISi;',),  aud  is  as 
follows : 

"At  a  lecent  meeting  of  the  Califoi'uia  Acad- 
emy of  Natural  Sciences,  at  ISan  Francisco,  the 
subject  of  the  recent  discovery  of  the  remains 
of  the  gigantic  animal  at  Petaluma  was  brought 
up.  Mr.  Yale  said  he  had  been  corresponding 
with  the  -discoverer  of  the  skeleton  of  the 
mastodon  lately  found  near  I'etaluma;  the 
bones  he  understood  were  being  i-enioved,  and 
the  Academy  ought  to  take  some  step  toward 
preserving  the  remains.  The  head  had  been 
entirely  carried  away,  and  other  )iorti<uis  dis- 
turbed. Mr.  Carlton  remarked  that  the  aninial 
was  said  to  have  been  horned,  but  that  which 
was  taken  for  horns  was  more  probably  tusks. 
Dr.  Cooper  said  the  creature  w'as  either  an  ele- 
phant or  a  mastodon,  aud  probably  the  tusk  had 
been  taken  for  horns.     Mr.   Yale  said   that  a 

similar  discovery  had  been  made  last  year  in 
the  vicinity  of  SaJi  Jose.  Dr.  Cooper  stated  that 
Mr.  llotimau.  a  membei'  of  the  society,  had  ex- 
amined the  remains  of  one  of  these  animals 
which  had  been  discovered  in  the  valley  of  Saii 
Jose,  and  that  upon  its  being  exposed  it  cruuj- 
bled  to  pieces." 

The  Ar(jui<  said:  •'  As  to  the  question  whether 
the  bones  found  \\:ei'e  tusks  or  horns,  we  are  de- 
cidedly of  the  oj)iniou  that  they  are  horns,  as 
they  grew  from  the  top  of  the  head,  curving 
horizontally,  for  some  distance,  when  they 
turned  to  the  front  as  if  for  a  means  of  defense. 
Mr.  Dickey  drew  for  us  a  diagram  of  the  head, 
showing  the  position  of  the  root  of  the  horns, 
which  was  the  same  as  in  ordinary  cattle.  Had 
they  been  tusks  they  would  have  grown  from 
another  portion  of  the  head." 

The  Ar(ju8  of  a  still  later  date  said :  "  So- 
noma and  adjacent  counties  ajjpear  to  be  a  j)er- 
fect  mine  of  interesting  curiosities  in  the  shape 
of  petrifaction  belonging  to  both  the  animal  and 
vegetable  kingdom.  What  is  the  most  re- 
markable in  relation  thereto  is  the  fact  that 
these  relics  of  liygone  ages  are  often  found  in 
the  alluvial  deposits  so  near  the  surface  of 
the  earth  as  to  frequently  be  revealed  by  the 
plow.  We  have  before  us  a  petrifaction  re- 
cently plowed  up  on  the  ranch  of  Patrick  J.,aw- 
lor  on  the  Sonoma  Mountains,  four  or  five 
miles  from  this  city,  and  at  an  altitude  of 
several  huiulred  feet  ai)ove  the  valley  or  tide 
level.  The  specimen  is  the  head  and  neck  {vs 
fei/iorls)  of  the  fumur  or  thigh  Iione  of  a 
mastadon  or  some  other  mammoth  animal  be- 
longing to  the  pre-historic  period.  It  is  a  com- 
plete petrifaction  nearly  six  inches  in  diameter 
across  the  crown  and  alioiit  seven  inches  from 
apex  of  crown  to  base.  It  is  virtually  the  head 
(os  feinor'n<\  with  not  more  than  two  or  three 
inches  of  the  neck  remaining.  Looking  at  its 
crown  it  has  very  much  the  resemblance  of  the 
somewhat  round  skull  of  a  nearly  grown  person. 
It  weighs  eight  pounds.  We  have  seen  several 
specimens  of  large  bones  found  in  tliis  vicinity 
but  this  is  the  most  perfect  petrifaction  of  the 


kind  that  has  come  under  our  notice.  As  this 
was  found  so  near  the  surface  we  doubt  not  that 
witli  but  little  labor  other  bones  belonging  to 
tiie  same  monster  animal  of  which  this  is  a  part, 
can  be  found.'' 

One  of  the  wondrous  freaks  of  Nature  in  this 
country  and  one  which  is  well  worth  a  visit  by 
every  one  who  cares  for  such  sights,  is  the  ])et- 
ritied  forest  of  Sonoma.  Away  back  in  some 
pre-historic  age,  Mount  St.  Helena  was  an  act- 
ive volcano  and  threw  out  vast  bodies  of  scoria 
from  its  heart  of  living  tire.  Some  of  this  scoria 
fell  upon  a  forest  of  large  trees  and  in  this  mass 
as  if  cast  in  a  mold  we  have  great  bodies  of 
vegetable  matter  while  retaining  their  shape  and 
fibre  turned  in  lapse  of  ages  into  stone.  These 
trees  of  stone  lie  in  two  tiers  in  a  parallelogram 
a  mile  in  extent  from  east  to  west  and  about  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  from  north  to  south,  the  roots 
of  these  prostrate  trees  being  toward  the  north. 
They  lie  at  an  angle  of  from  live  to  thirty-live 
degrees,  the  butts  being  on  the  lower  ground. 
When  discovered  they  were  almost  covered  with 
volcanic  ashes  or  tnta,  and  the  ground  sparkled 
with  atoms  of  silica.  IMucli  of  llic  brush  has 
been  cleared  awav  and   the    loose  superincum- 

bent  deposit  removed  principally  liy  Charles 
Evans,  "Petrified  Charley,"  a  Swede,  who  seeing 
its  value  for  exhibition  purposes,  enclosed  the 
ground  in  1871,  and  charged  a  small  fee  to  vis- 
itors to  requite  him  for  his  labor  in  excavating 
around  the  trees.  The  largest  tree  thus  ex- 
cavated is  eleven  feet  in  diameter  at  the  butt 
and  sixty-eight  feet  in  length,  but  is  broken 
into  several  pieces.  Much  laljor  has  been  spent 
on  the  place  in  improvements  until  the  thou.sands, 
who  have  visited  the  place  pronounced  it  not 
only  one  of  the  great  wonders  of  the  world,  but 
"one  of  the  prettiest  places"  in  the  hills  of 
California.  The  forest  can  be  reached  and  ex- 
amined in  a  day  by  taking  the  Santa  Rosa  and 
Calistoga  stage,  it  being  only  sixteen  miles  from 
the  former  place.  Visitors  to  the  Geysers  liy 
the  Cloverdale  route,  after  they  have  exhausted 
the  curiosities  of  that  wonderful  region,  with  its 
curious  productions  of  one  of  Nature's  under- 
ground laboratories,  can  reach  the  petrilied 
forest  by  taking  the  stage  which  runs  between 
the  Geysers  and  Calistoga.  No  Eastern  or 
European  tourist  can  truly  say  that  he  "  has 
done  California"  unless  he  has  seen  the  petrified 

HlsruRY    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

Ranchos  MrsALAcoN — CoTATE — GuiLicos — Canada  ue  Pogolome — Llaxo  1)E  Santa   Rosa — El 


— Laguna  de  Sax  Antonio — Aeeoyo  de  San  Antonio — Senode  Mai.comes — Roblar  de  la 
MiSEKA — Canada  de  la  Ioniva — Estero  Ameeicano — Geeman — Petaluma — San  Migvel 
— TzABAfo — Caslamayome — Cabeza  de  Santa  Rosa — Agca  CALfi;NTi:. 

tT  will  be  of  interest  to  future  generations  to 
know  what  value  the  Mexican  government 
'■^  placed  upon  its  public  domain.  When  the 
reader  of  the  next  century  scans  these  grants  as 
listed  below,  and  sees  that  these  pioneer  colon- 
ists of  California  asked  for,  and  got  land  by  the 
league,  he  will  naturally  conclude  that  the  first 
half  of  the  nineteenth  century  must  have  been 
a  period  of  regal  splendor  here.  But  such  was 
not  the  fact.  The  people  were  land  and  stock 
poor.  They  had  but  few  of  either  the  comforts 
or  conveniences  of  civilized  life,  and  could  not 
stand  the  liglit  of  a  higher  civilization.  Like 
the  Indians,  they  have  passed  on. 

The  United  States,  Appellants  vs.  Johnson 
Hokrell,  claiming  the  Rancho  Musalacon. — ■ 
This  was  a  claim  for  two  leagues  of  land  in 
Sonoma  County,  situated  in  Cloverdale  Town- 
ship, confirmed  by  the  Board  of  Commissioners 
and  appealed  by  the  United  States.  The  claim- 
ants in  this  case  produced  the  original  grant 
made  by  Governor  Pio  Pico  to  Francisco  Ber- 
ryesa  on  May  2.  1846.  The  record  of  the 
approval  of  the  Departmental  Assembly  was 
dated  June  3,  1846.  No  doubt  is  suggested  as 
to  the  genuineness  of  any  of  these  documents. 
The  grantee  appears  within  the  year  prescribed 

by  the  grant  to  have  entered  into  possession  ut 
his  land  and  to  have  resided  in  a  wooden  house 
built  by  him  upon  it.  He  also  placed  upon  it 
cattle,  and  commenced  its  cultivation.  There 
is  no  difficulty  in  identifying  and  locating  the 
lauds  by  means  of  the  description  in  the  grant 
and  the  inaj)  to  which  it  refers,  and  which  is 
contained  in  the  expedient.  The  commis- 
sioners in  their  opinion  on  this  case  observe 
"  that  although  the  title  was  executed  hut  a 
short  time  before  the  American  occupation,  it 
appears  to  have  been  made  in  good  faith  and  with 
due  regard  to  the  requirements  of  the  law." 
The  decision  of  the  board  was  attirmed  and  a  de- 
cree entered  accordingly.  On  page  80  of  the 
appendix  we  find:  "Johnson  Horrell.  etui., 
claimants  for  Rincon  de  Musalacon,  two  S(juare 
leagues,  in  Mendocino  and  Sonoma  counties, 
granted  May  2,  1846,  by  Pio  Pico  to  Francisco 
Berryesa,  claim  filed  February  11,  1853,  con- 
firmed by  the  Commission  December  12,  1854, 
by  the  District  Court,  January  14,  1856,  and 
appeal  dismissed  April  2,  1857.  containing 
8,866.88  acres. 

The  United  States,  Appellants  rs.  Thuma- 
S.  Page,  claiming  the  Rancho  Votate. — This 
claim   which  was   for  four  leagues  of  land  in 

HJSTORT    OF    SOaoilA    (JOUNTT. 

Suiioiiia  Cuunty  situated  partly  in  Vallejo  and 
partly  in  Santa  Rosa  townships,  was  cojilirmed 
l>y  tlie  Board,  and  appealed  by  the  United 
States.  Ill  this  case  the  original  j^rant  was  not 
produced,  hut  its  existence  and  loss  are  proved 
beyond  all  reasonalde  doubt  by  the  depositions 
uf  the  witnesses  and  tiie  pioduction  of  the  expe- 
diente  from  the  archives  containing  the  usual 
documents,  and  also  a  certificate  of  approval 
by  the  departmental  assembly.  The  grant  is 
also  mentioned  in  the  index  of  grants  by  the 
former  government.  j\o  doubt  was  entertained 
liy  the  commissioners  as  to  the  sutticiency  of  the 
proofs  on  these  points,  nor  is  any  objection 
raised  in  the  District  Court  in  regard  to  them. 
The  evidence  discloses  a  full  compliance  with 
the  conditions,  and  the  description  in  the  grant 
and  map  determined  its  locality.  No  objection 
is  raised  on  the  part  of  the  appellants  to  the 
confirmation  of  this  claim,  and  on  looking  over 
the  transcript  the  court  did  not  perceive  any 
reason  to  doubt  its  entire  validity,  I'age  48  of 
the  appeiuiix  tells  us:  "Thomas  S.  Page, 
claimant  for  Cotate,  four  s<piare  leagues  in 
Sonoma  County,  granted  July  7,  1844,  by  Man- 
uel Micheltorena  to  Juan  Castanida;  claim  filed 
September  21, 1852,  confirmed  by  the  Commis- 
sion August  27,  1854,  by  the  District  Court 
January  14,  1856,  and  appeal  dismissed  March 
21,  1857,  containing  17.238.60  acres.  Pat- 

Thk  Uniteo  States,  Appellant)!  i»i.  J  lan 
Wilson,  claiming  the  liaiicho  Guilico.s.  —Claim 
for  a  tract  of  land,  supposed  to  contain  four 
leagues,  in  Sonoma  County,  situated  in  Santa 
Rosa  and  Sonoma  townships,  confirmed  by  the 
Hoard  and  appealed  by  the  United  States.  The 
claim  in  this  case  was  confirmed  by  the  Board. 
iS'o  doubt  is  suggested  as  to  the  authenticity  of 
the  dociiniciitary  evidence  submitted,  and  the 
only  point  upon  winch  a  (piestion  was  made 
was  whether  the  grant  anil  map  accompanying 
it  sutticiently  indicate  the  granted  laiui — there 
being  no  designation  of  the  quantity  or  nuni- 
bef  of  leagues  in  the  original  grant.  The  grant 
bears  date    November  13,    1839,  l)ut    was  not 

issued  until  the  20th.  The  signature  of  the 
Governor  to  the  original  grant  is  fully  proved, 
and  the  expediente  produced  fnun  the  archives 
containing  the  proceedings  upon  the  petition, 
the  various  orders  of  the  Governor,  and  the 
decree  of  approval  by  the  Departmental  Assem- 
bly. The  requirements  of  the  regulations  of 
1828  seem  to  have  been  substantially  complied 
with,  and  the  land  cultivated  and  inhabited 
within  reasonable  time.  AVith  regard  to  locat- 
ing the  ti'act,  there  seems  to  be  no  difficulty. 
The  grant  describes  it  as  the  parcel  of  land 
known  by  the  name  of  "  Guilicos,''  within  the 
boundaries  shown  in  the  map  which  accom- 
panies tlie  petition.  On  inspecting  the  map, 
those  boundaries  appear  to  be  indicated  with 
tolerable  certainty,  and  it  is  presumed  that  by 
means  of  it  no  practical  difficulty  will  be  found 
by  the  surveyor  in  laying  off  to  the  claimant 
his  land.  A  decree  of  confirmation  must  there- 
fore be  entered.  Page  5  of  the  appendix  says: 
"Juan  Wilson,  claimant  for  Guilicos,  four 
square  leagues,  in  Sonoma  County,  granted 
November  13,  1839,  by  Juan  B.  Alvaralo  to 
John  Wilson;  claim  filed  P'ebruary  10,  1852, 
confirmed  by  the  Commissioner  Deceember  27, 
1853,  by  the  District  Court  March  3,  1856,  and 
appeal  dismissed  December  8,  1856,  containing 
18,833.86  acres.  Patented." 
j  TuE  United  States,  Appellants  m.  Antonia 
j  (Iazakes,  claiviiiKj  the  Hancho  Canada  <1e  Po- 
I  (jolome. — "Claim  for  two  leagues  of  land  situ- 
:  ated  in  Marin  (and  Sonoma]  County,  in  Borlega 
j  and  Analy  townships,  confirmed  by  the  Boai'd, 
and  appealed  by  the  United  States."'  It  ap- 
pears from  the  documentary  evidence  in  thi.s 
case  that  James  Dawson,  the  deceased  husband 
of  the  present  claimant,  on  December  27,  1837, 
presented  a  petition  to  the  commanding  Gen- 
eral, setting  forth  that  he,  together  with  Mc- 
intosh and  one  James  Black,  had  obtained  a 
grant  for  the  place  called  "  La  Punta  del  Este- 
rodel  Americano;"  that  he  had  built  a  house 
upon  it,  and  planted  a  large  vineyard  and  an 
orchard  with  more  than  200  fruit  trees,  and  had 
placed  upon  it  cattle,  horses,  etc.      He  further 

Hisroltr    OF    HOl^OMA    COUNTY. 

represented  that  the  grant  had  been  obtained  in 
partnership  with  the  two  persons  mentioned,  but 
that  Mcintosh    was   attempting   to   eject   him. 
lie,  therefore,  prayed  that  he  might  be  protected 
in  his  rights.     The   petitioner,  though    he  had 
long  resided  in  the  country,  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  naturalized  at  the   time  of  making 
this  petition,  but  the  documents  show  that  let- 
ters of  naturalization  were  obtained  by  him  on 
December  29,  1841.     On  September  18,  1843, 
he  renewed  his  application  to  be  put  in  posses- 
sion of  the   land,    and    the  Governor,   U>  wliom 
this  second  petition  was  addressed,  referred  it 
to  the  Secretary  for  information.  By  the  reports 
of  that  officer  it  appears,  that  althougli  tlie  pe- 
tition for  the  land  had  been  in  tlie  name  of  the 
three  applicants,  yet  the  grant   had  been  made 
to  Mcintosh  solely,  as   he  alone  possessed  the 
essential  requisite  of  being  a  naturalized  Me.xi- 
can  citizen.     The  Secretary,  therefore,  suggests 
that,  although  the  request  of  Dawson  cannot  be 
granted,  yet,    inasmuch   as  he   had  since  been 
naturalized,  and  had  married  a  Mexican  woman, 
his  application  for  another  piece  of  land  should 
be  favorably  considered.     The  Governor,  in  ac- 
cordance with  this  suggestion,  on  October  21, 
1843,  ordered  the  proceedings  to  be  returned  to 
the  party  interested  for  his  information.       It  is 
presumed  that   it  was  in   this   way  that  these 
documents  came  into  the  parties'  possession,  and 
are  not  now  found  among  the  archives.    It  does 
not  appear  that  Dawson  petitioned  for  a  grant 
before  liis  death,  which  occurred  very  soon  after; 
but  a  grant  is  produced  in  which  it  is  recited 
that    his    widow,    the    present    claimant,    has 
sufficiently  proved  the   right    of   her  deceased 
husband  to  petition  for  the  land  which  she  then 
occupied,    and    in  consideration    of  the    great 
losses  sustained  by  her  husband   on   separating 
himself  from  Mcintosh,  and  the    favorable  re- 
ports, etc.,  the  Governor  grants  to  her  the  land 
solicited,  known  by  the  name  of  •  Canada  de 
Pogolome,'  to  the  extent  of  two  square  leagues, 
a  little  more  or  less.     It  is  this  land  which  is 
now  claimed  by  the  appellee.     This  grant  was 
issued  on  February  12,  1844,  and  it  appears  to 

have  been  approved  by  the  Departmental  As- 
sembly on  September  26,  1845.  The  genuine- 
ness of  the  above  documents  is  fully  proved,  and 
it  is  also  shown  that  the  land  was  long  occu- 
pied by  Dawson  before  his  decease,  and  since 
then  by  the  present  claimant.  Although  the 
expediente  for  this  grant  is  not  among  the 
archives,  yet,  as  observed  by  the  commission- 
ers, 'its  notoriety,  the  long  possession,  and  the 
circumstances  surrounding  it,  relieves  it  from 
any  suspicion  of  fraud  or  forgery.'  The  boun- 
daries, as  well  as  the  extent  of  the  land,  are 
specified  in  the  grant,  and  indicated  with  evi- 
dent precision  on  the  map  to  which  it  refers. 
We  think,  therefore,  that  the  claim  is  valid  and 
ought  to  be  confirmed."'  Of  this  case,  page  3, 
of  the  appendix,  says:  "  Antonia  Cazares, 
claimant  for  Canada  de  Pogolome,  two  square 
leagues,  in  Marin  and  Sonoma  Counties,  granted 
February  12,  1844,  by  Manuel  Micheltorena  to 
Antonia  Cazares;  claim  filed  February  3,  1852, 
confirmed  by  the  commission  April  11,  1853, 
by  the  District  Court,  March  24,  1856,  and  ap- 
peal dismissed  December  8,  1856,  containing 
8,780.81  acres.'" 

The  United  States,  AppeUaiits  vs.  Joaquin 
Carrillo,  claiming  the  Raiicho  Llano  de  Santa. 
Rosa. — Claim  for  three  leagues  of  land  in  So- 
noma County  (situated  in  Santa  Rosa  and 
Analy  Townships),  confirmed  by  the  board  and 
appealed  by  the  United  States.  "  It  appears 
from  the  expediente  in  this  case  that  the  claim- 
ant, on  June  22,  1843,  petitioned  Governor 
Micheltorena  for  a  grant  of  land  on  the  plain 
adjoining  the  rancho  of  his  mother.  The  Gov- 
ernor, however,  suspended  action  on  the  subject, 
as  no  judicial  measurement  had  been  made  of 
the  adjoining  ranchos,  and  the  extent  of  the 
sobrante  or  surplus  reserved  was  not  ascer- 
tained." "  On  March  12,  1844,  the  claimant 
applied  to  the  district  for  permission  to  sow, 
and  build  a  house  upon  the  laud,  during  the 
pendency  of  his  application  to  the  Governor  for 
a  grant.  The  Alcalde  granted  him  leave  to  sow 
the  land,  holding  himself  responsible  to  the 
owners  of  the  land  if  there  should  be  any  dam- 



age,  but  he  refused  him  permission  to  build  the 
house.  On  March  26,  1844,  the  claimant  re- 
newed his  application  to  the  Governor,  stating 
tliat  his  petition  still  remained  unacted  upon  on 
account  of  tlie  neglect  of  the  colindantes  or  ad- 
joining proprietors  to  have  their  lands  meas- 
ured according  to  law.  The  secretary  to  whom 
this  second  petition  was  referred,  reported  favor- 
ably to  it,  and  advised  a  grant  of  not  more  than 
three  square  leagues,  subject  to  the  measure- 
ments of  the  adjoining  proprietors.  In  accord- 
ance with  this  report  the  grant  now  produced 
was  made;  and  it  appears  in  evidence  that  he 
built,  first,  a  small  house  and  afterward  a  very 
large  one  on  the  land,  on  which  he  has  contin- 
ued ever  since  to  reside.  He  has  also  cultivated 
from  100  to  300  acres  of  it  with  corn,  barley, 
wheat,  etc.  The  handwriting  of  the  grant  in 
the  possession  of  the  party  is  fully  proved,  and 
there  seems  no  reason  to  doubt  the  entire 
validity  of  this  claim.  The  map  and  the  desig- 
nation in  the  grant  of  the  colindantes  or  con- 
teminous  owners  abundantly  show  the  locality 
of  the  tract  granted;  and  the  claimant's  title  to 
the  land  solicited  must  be  confirmed  to  the  ex- 
tent of  three  leagues,  subject  to  the  measui'e- 
inents  of  the  land  previously  granted  to  the 
colindantes.  The  decision  of  the  board  must, 
therefore,  be  affirmed."  In  reference  to  this 
case  we  find,  on  page  35  of  the  appendix, 
"  .loaquin  Carrillo,  claimant  for  Llano  de  Santa 
liosa,  three  square  leagues  in  Sonoma  County, 
granted  March  29,  1844,  by  Manuel  Michelto- 
rena  to  Marcus  West;  claim  tiled  May  31, 
1852,  contirmed  by  the  commission  ()ctol)er21, 
1><53.  by  the  District  Court,  March  24,  1850, 
and  appeal  dismissed  January  13,  1857,  con- 
taining 13,33ti.55  acres.'' 

Tmk  U.mtki)  i^,Ajj/H'//(//it.n,'\s.  Jim.N  B.  li. 
('ooPKK,  rlaihiintj  the  Rancho  El  Molina. — 
Claim  four  leagues  of  land  in  Sonoma  County 
(situated  in  Santa  Rosa,  Analy  and  Russian 
River  townships),  contirmed  by  the  board  and 
appealed  by  the  United  States.  The  claimant 
in  this  case,  a  naturalized  Mexican  citizen,  ob- 
tuiiieii  in    December,   1833,  a    grant    from    the 

Governor  for  the  place  called  Rio  Ayoska. 
This  grant  was  approved  by  the  Departmental 
Assembly,  and  certificate  of  its  confirmation  de- 
livered to  the  grantee,  as  appears  from  the 
testimony,  and  the  expediente  filed  in  the  case. 
"  He  subsequently  appealed  to  the  Governoi' 
for  an  exchange  of  the  land  granted  for  that 
now  claimed  by  him.  Rroceedings  on  this  ap- 
plication were  commenced  by  Governor 
Figueroa,  and  the  new  grant  was  made  as 
desired  by  the  petitioner,  by  Governor  Gutierrez, 
on  February  24,  1836.  These  facts  are  proved 
by  the  testimony  of  Harnell  and  Yallejo,  whose 
evidence  is  corroborated  by  the  expediente  on 
file  in  the  archives.  The  genuineness  of  the 
grant  is  fully  established.  Previously  to  ob- 
taining the  last  grant,  the  claimant  had  gone 
into  possession  of  the  tract  solicited,  and  had 
bnilt  a  house  upon  it.  He  also  had,  as  early  as 
1834,  placed  a  considerable  number  of  cattle 
upon  it  and  had  commenced  the  erection  of  a 
mill,  upon  which  he  expended  more  than  ten 
thousand  dollars.  He  also  erected  a  blacksmith 
shop,  and  for  two  years  had  employed  upon  his 
rancho  men  to  the  average  number  of  sixteen, 
and  sometimes  thirty  or  forty  Indians.  It  is 
clear  that  the  grantee  fulfilled  the  conditions 
and  carried  out  the  objects  of  the  colonization 
laws  to  an  extent  very  unusual  in  the  then  con- 
dition of  the  country.  AVith  regard  to  the 
location  of  the  land,  it  appears  from  the  testi- 
mony of  O'Farrell  and  other  witnesses  who  are 
acquainted  with  the  adjacent  country,  that  there 
is  no  difficulty  in  ascertaining  its  locality  by 
means  of  the  diseou  which  accompanies  the 
grant.  O'Farrell,  who  had  long  been  a  surveyor 
under  the  Mexicans,  testifies  that  he  has,  by 
means  of  the  grant  and  the  diseon,  made  a  sur- 
vey of  the  land,  and  that  it  contains,  as  surveyed 
by  him,  only  the  quantity  specified  in  the  grant. 
The  claim  was  held  to  be  valid  by  the  Moard. 
No  objections  to  it  are  suggested  on  the  part  of 
the  United  States,  aiul  we  are  of  opinion  that 
the  decision  of  the  board  should  be  affirmed." 
Page  27  of  the  appendix,  in  regard  to  this  grant, 
remarks:  -'John    1!.  R.  Cooper  claimant  for   El 


ni8T0RT    OF    SONOMA    COUNTY. 

Molino  or  Rio  Ayoska,  ten  and  one-half  square 
leagues  in  Sonoma  County,  granted  December 
81,  1833,  by  Jose  Figueroa,  February  24,  1880, 
by  Nicholas  Gutierrez,  to  J.  IJ.  R.  Cooper; 
claim  filed  April  20,  1852,  confirmed  by  the 
commission  November  14, 1854,  by  the  District 
CJourt,  March  24,  1866,  and  appeal  dismissed 
December  15,  1856,  containing  17,892.42  acres. 
Patented. " 

Thk  United  "Atktyis,  AppeUants  vs.  Jacob  i'. 
Lkese,  ehimhig  the  Rancho  IhileMca. — Claim 
for  live  leagues  of  land  in  Sonoma  County  (sit- 
uated in  Sonoma  Township),  confirmed  by  the 
Board  and  appealed  by  the  United  States. 
"The  claimant  in  this  case  obtained  on  October 
21,  1841,  a  grant  from  Manuel  Jiineno,  acting 
Governor  of  California,  for  two  scjuai-e  leagues 
of  land  as  designated  on  the  map  which  accom- 
panied his  petition.  Juridicia!  possession  was 
given  of  the  tract  as  delineated  on  the  map,  but 
the  extent  of  land  measured  to  iiim  largel}-  ex- 
ceeded the  quantity  mentioned  in  the  grant. 
He  thereupon  petitioned  for  an  augmentation 
and  July  (5,  1844,  he  obtaineil  from  (governor 
Micheltorena  an  additi<inal  grant  for  three  and 
one-half  leagues,  making  in  all  five  leagues  and 
a  half  The  proofs  show  that  as  early  as  1839 
tlie  land  was  occupied  and  u  house  built  upon 
it.  The  grantee  also  placed  tiiere  cattle  and 
horses,  and  cultivated  about  two  hundred  acres 
of  land.  He  has  ever  since  continued  to  occupy 
it.  The  authenticity  of  the  grant  is  shown  by 
])ror)f  (jf  the  genuineness  of  the  signatures,  and 
the  production  of  the  expediente  fnim  the 
archives  of  the  former  government.  The  claim 
was  confirmed  by  the  Board  and  no  objections 
to  it  are  suggested  in  this  court.  A  decree  of 
confirmation  must  therefore  be  entered."  We 
find  on  piige  23  of  the  appendix  the  following: 
"Jacob  P.  Leese,  claimant  for  Huichaca,  two 
square  leagues  in  Sonoma  County,  granted  Octo- 
26,  1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno,  and  July  6, 1844, 
by  Manuel  Micheltorena,  to  J.  P.  Leese;  claim 
filed  April  6,  1852,  confirmed  by  the  commis- 
sion April  18,  1853,  by  the  District  Court, 
April   22,   1856,  and   appeal  dismissed   Decem- 

ber 24,  1856,  containing  18,704.04  acres. 

Mariano  G.  A',  claiming  the  Rancho 

Ynhipa  i'.<i.  THK  Umtei)  States. — Claim  for 
three  leagues  of  land  in  Sonoma  County,  re- 
jected by  the  Board,  and  appealed  by  the  claim- 
ant. "The  claimant  iu  this  case  has  produced 
the  original  grant  by  Governor  IVricheltorena  to 

Miguel  Alvarado,  dated  November  23,  1844. 
This  grant  was  apjiroved  \)y  the  Departmental 
Assembly  on  February  18, 1845.  The  genuine 
ness  of  the  grant  is  fully  proved, and  the  occupa- 
tion of  and  the  cultivation  of  a  portion  of  the 
land  established  by  testimony.  The  claim  was 
rejected  by  the  Board  for  the  reason  that  the 
tract  granted  was  not  segregated  from  the  public 
domain.  The  land  is  described  in  the  grant  as 
known  by  the  name  of  Yulupa,  and  bounded  by 
the  ranchos  of  Petaluma,  Cotate,  Santa  Rosa 
and  Los  Guilicos.  Jasper  O'Farrell,  who  was  a 
government  surveyor  in  1847  and  1848,  and  as 
such  surveyed  raiudios  in  the  vicinity,  states 
that  he  knows  tiie  latter  well,  and  that  the 
Rancho  Yulupa  is  situated  between  them ;  that 
it  is  near  tlie  town  of  Sonoma,  and  can  easily  be 
segregated  from  the  adjoining  ranchos.  Julio 
Carrillo  testifies  that  he  has  known  the  lands  of 
Yulupa  since  1838;  and  that  it  lies  between  the 
ranchos  of  '  Petaluma,'  '  (lotate,'  ■  Santa  Rosa,' 
and  '  Guilicos;'  that  it  contains  about  three 
leagues  and  is  well  known.  Tiie  witness  further 
states  that  Alvarado  built  a  house  on  the  land, 
and  occupied  it  with  cattle  and  horses  in  1843 
or  1844.  The  evidence  of  these  and  other  wit- 
nesses whose  testimony  has  been  taken  in  this 
court  on  appeal,  sufticiently,  in  my  (>])inion, 
establishes  the  identity  of  the  land  granted  to 
Alvarado,  and  removes  tiie  only  objection  urged 
to  a  confirmation  of  the  claim.  A  decree  ot 
confirmation  must  therefore  be  entered.  On 
page  35  of  the  appendix  it  is  recorded:  "  Mari- 
ano Guadalupe  Vallejo  claimant  for  Yulupa, 
three  square  leagues,  in  Sonoma  Count}',  granted 
November  23,  1844,  by  Manuel  ^[icheltorena  to 
Miguel  Alvarado;  claim  filed  May  31,  1.S52,  re- 
jected by  the   commission    May   10,  1854  ;  con- 



firmed  by  the  District  Court  January  21, 1857; 
decree  reversed  liy  the  ITiiited  States  Supreme 
Court  and  cause  remanded  for  further  evidence." 
So  far  unfortunately  do  tliese  cases  go,  we  are, 
therefore,  constrained  to  proceed  to  what  in- 
formation can  be  gleaned  out  of  the  appendix, 
from  whicli  tlie  following  are  taken: 

Archiljald  A.  Ritchie,  claimant  for  Guenoea, 
six  square  leagues,  in  Sonoma  County,  granted 
May  8,  1845,  by  Pio  Pico  to  George  Kock; 
claim  filed  January  27,  1852;  confirmed  by  the 
commission  December  IS,  1852,  and  appeal 
dismissed  December  15,  1856;  containing  21,- 
220.03  acres.  Vide  page  3,  Appendix  Hoff- 
man's Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Josefa  Carrillo  Fitch  et  al.,  claimants  for 
Sotoyome,  eight  square  leagues,  in  Sonoma  and 
Mendocino  counties  (situated  in  Mendocino  and 
Russian  River  townships),  granted  September 
28,  1841,  by  Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Henry  D. 
Fitch;  claim  filed  February  2,  1852,  confirmed 
by  the  commission  April  18,  1853,  and  appeal 
dismissed  November  17,  1857;  containing  48,- 
836.51  acres.  Patented.  Vide  page  3,  Ap- 
pendix Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Stephen  Smith  and  Maiiuela  T.  Curtis, 
claimants  for  Bodega,  eight  square  leagues  in 
Sonoma  County  (situated  in  I'odega  and  Ocean 
townships),  granted  September  14,  1844,  by 
Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Stephen  Smith;  claim 
filed  February  9,  1852,  confirmed  by  the  com- 
mission P'ebruary  21,  1853,  by  the  District 
Court  July  5,  1855,  and  appeal  dismissed  April 
5,  1857;  containing  35,787.53  acres.  Patented. 
\'ide  jiage  4,  App.  Hofi'inan's    Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Ste])hen  Smith,  claimant  for  lUucher,  six 
square  leagues  in  Sonoma  C'ounty  (situated  in 
Analy  Township),  granted  October  14,  1844,  by 
Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Juan  Vioget;  claim 
filed  February  9,  1852;  confirmed  by  the  com- 
mission ( )ctober  31,  1854,  by  the  District  Court 
January  21),  1857,  and  a])peal  dismissed  Novem- 
ber 24,  1856;  containing  22,976.66  acres.  Vide 
page  4,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Archibald  A.  Ritchie  and  Paul  S.  P'orbes, 
flairiiant^  for  (Jallayome,  three  square  leagues  in 

Sonoma  County  granted  January  17,  1845,  by 
Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Robert  F.  Ridley  ; 
claim  filed  February  12, 1852;  confirmed  by  the 
commission  December  22,  1852,  and  appeal 
dismissed  December  8,  1856;  containing  8,- 
241.74  acres.  V^ide  page  6,  Appendix  Hoff- 
man's Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Manuel  Torres,  claimant  for  Muniz,  four 
square  leagues  in  Mendocino  County  (now 
Sonoma,  situated  in  Ocean  and  Salt  Point  town- 
ships), granted  December  4,  1845,  by  Pio  Pico 
to  Manuel  Torres;  claim  tiled  February  17, 
1852;  confirmed  by  the  commission  December 
27,  1853;  by  the  District  Court,  October  17, 
1855,  and  appeal  dismissed  May  7,  1857,  con- 
taining 17,760.75  acres.  Patented.  Vide  page 
7,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Bartolome  J)OJorquez,  claimant  for  Laguna 
de  San  Antonio,  six  square  leagues  in  Marin 
County  (a  great  part  in  Sonoma  County,  Pet- 
aluma  Township),  granted  November  5,  1845, 
by  Pio  Pico  to  B.  Bojorquez;  claim  filed  Feb- 
ruary 17,  1852;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
October  12,  1853;  by  the  District  Court  Septem- 
ber 10,  1855,  and  appeal  dismissed  November 
24,  1856,  containing  24,903.42  acres.  Vide 
page  7,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Thomas  !>.  Valentine,  claimant  for  Arroyo 
de  San  Antonio,  three  square  leagues  in  Marin 
and  Sonoma  counties,  part  in  Petaluma  Town- 
ship, and  embracing  the  city  of  Petaluma. 
Granted  October  8,  1844,  by  Manuel  Michel- 
torena to  Juan  Miranda.  Claim  filed  February 
17,  1852,  and  discontinued  February  6,  1855. 
The  land  was  then  eutei'ed  by  settlers  as  gov- 
ernment land,  and  the  lots  in  Petaluma  were 
entered  under  the  "Town  Site  liill."  \'alen- 
tine,  by  special  act  of  Congress  in  1873,  got  his 
claim  reinstated  before  the  courts,  conditioiu-d 
that  if  he  made  good  his  claim  to  the  Arroyo  de 
San  Antonio  grant,  he  would  not  disturb  the 
title  of  the  settlers  on  the  grant,  but  accept 
from  the  government  "  lien  scrip,"  which  could 
be  located  on  government  land  elsewhere.  Valen  ■ 
tinereceived  a  confirmation  of  his  grant,  accepted 
his  lien  scriii  in  1S74,  ami  so  the  matter  ended. 



Jose  de  los  Santos  Berryesa,  for  Seno  de 
Malaconies  or  Moristal  y  Plan  de  Agna  Cali- 
ente,  four  leagues  in  Sonoma  County  (situated 
in  Knight's  Valley  Township),  granted  October 
14,  1843,  hy  Manuel  Miciieltorena  to  J.  de  los 
Santos  Berryesa;  claim  filed  February  20,  1852; 
confirmed  by  the  commission  June  27,  1854; 
by  the  District  Court  December  24,  1850,  and 
appeal  dismissed  November  24,  1856,  contain- 
ing 12,540.22  acres.  Vide  page  9,  Appendi.x 
Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Lovett  P.  Rockwell  and  Thomas  P.  Knight, 
claimants  for  portion  of  Malacoines  or  ISIoristal, 
No.  58,  two  square  leagues  in  Sonoma  County 
(situated  in  Knight's  Valley  Township),  granted 
October  14,  1843,  by  flannel  Micheltorena  to 
Jose  de  los  Santos  Berryesa;  claim  filed  Feb- 
ruai-y  20,  1852;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
August  29,  185+,  and  ajipeal  di.<missed  Novem- 
ber 24,  1850,  containing  8,328.85  acres.  Vide 
page  9,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

David  Wright  ef  al.,  claimant  for  Roblar  de 
la  Miseria,  fonr  scpiare  leagues  in  Sonoma 
County  (situated  in  PetalumaTownship),  granted 
November  21,  1845,  by  Pio  Pico  to  Juan  Ne- 
pomasena  Padillo;  claim  filed  February  24, 
1852;  confirmed  by  the  commission  February 
14,  1853;  l)y  the  District  Court  September  10. 
1855,  and  appeal  dismissed  December  8,  1856, 
containing  1G,S87.45  acres.  Patented.  Vide 
page  10,  Appendix  Ilotfmau's   Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Jasper  O'Farrell,  claimant  for  Canada  de  la 
Jonive,  two  square  leagues  in  Sonoma  County 
(situated  in  Analy  and  Bodega  Townships), 
granted  February  5,  1845,  bj'  Pio  Pico  to  James 
Black;  claim  filed  l\[arch  2,  1852;  confirmed 
by  the  commission  April  18,  1853;  by  the  Dis- 
trict Court  July  16, 1855,  and  appeal  dismissed 
December  22,  1856,  containing  10.786.51  acres. 
Patented.  Vide  page  12,  A])pendi\-  llotfman's 
Reports,  Vol.  1. 

M.  G.  Vallejo,  claimant  for  lot  150  by  130 
varas,  in  Sonoma  City,  granted  July  5,  1635, 
by  Jose  Figueroa  to  M.  G.  Vallejo;  claim  filed 
March  30,  1852;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
January   17,  1854,  by   the   District  Court   Feb 

ruary  18,  1856,  and  appeal  dismissed  February 
23,  1857;  containing  3.81  acres.  Vide  page  19, 
Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1.  The 
patent  for  this  property  is  on  record. 

Jaspar  O'Farrell,  claimant  for  Estero  Ameri- 
cano, two  square  leagues  in  Sonoma  County  (sit- 
uated in  Bodega  Township),  gi-anted  September 
4,  1839,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Edward  Manuel 
Mcintosh;  claim  filed  March  30, 1852;  confirmed 
by  the  commission  April  11,  1853,  and  appeal 
dismissed  February  2,  1857;  containing  8,849.- 
13  acres.  Patented.  Vide  page  19.  Appendix 
Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Charles  Mayer  et  al.,  claimant  for  German, 
five  square  leagues  in  Mendocino  County  (now 
Sonoma  County,  and  situated  in  Salt  Point 
Township),  granted  April  8,  1846,  by  Pio  Pico 
to  Ernest  Rufus;  claim  filed  April  27,  1852, 
confirmed  by  the  commis.^ion  December  22, 
1852,  by  the  District  Court,  September  10, 
1855,  and  by  the  United  States  Supreme  Court; 
containing  17,580.01  acres.  Vide  page  28,  Ap- 
pendix Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Mayor  and  Common  Council  of  Sonoma, 
claimant  for  Pueblo  of  Sonoma,  four  square 
leagues,  granted  .June  24,  1835,  by  M.  G.  Val- 
lejo to  Pueblo  of  Sonoma;  claim  filed  May  21, 
1852,  and  confirmed  by  the  commission  Jan- 
nary  25,  185(5.  Vide  page  33,  Apperulix  Hoff- 
man's Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Mariano  Guadalupe  Vallejo,  claimant  for 
Petaluma,  ten  square  leagues,  in  Sonoma 
County  (situated  in  Vallejo  and  Sonoma  town- 
ships), granted  October  22,  1843,  by  Manuel 
Micheltorena  to  M.  G.  Vallejo  (grant),  and  five 
square  leagues,  June  22,  1844,  by  Manual 
Micheltorena  to  ^I.  (t.  Vallejo  (sale  by  the  gov- 
ernment); clain:  filed  Maj'  31.  1852.  confirmed 
by  the  commission  May  22,  1855,  by  the  Dis- 
trict Court,  March  16,  1857.  and  appeal  dis- 
missed July  3.  1857;  containing  66,622.17 
aci-es.  Vide  page  35,  ApjitMidix  llotfman's  Re- 
ports, \i<\.  1.     Patented. 

Guadalupe  Vasqnez  de  West  et  al.,  claimant 
for  San  Miguel,  six  square  leagues,  in  Sonoma 
I'uunty    (situated     in    Sautu    Rosa    Tuwuship), 


granted  November  2,  1840,  by  Juau  B.  Alvara- 
do,  and  October  14,  1844,  by  Manuel  Michel- 
torena  to  Marcus  West,  claim  tiled  May  31, 
1852,  rejected  by  the  commission  April  24, 
1855,  confirmed  by  the  District  Court,  June  2, 
1857,  and  decree  confirmed  by  the  United  States 
Supreme  Court  tor  one  leagne  and  a  half.  Vide 
page  35,  Apjiendix  lloti'nuin's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 
J.  Jesus  et  al.,  heirs  of  J.  G.  Pena,  claim- 
ants for  Tzabaco,  four  square  leagues,  in 
Sonoma  (!onnty  (situated  in  Medocino  and 
Washington    townships),  granted    October  14, 

1843,  by  Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Jose  German 
Pena;  claim  filed  August  5,  1852,  confirmed 
by  tlie  commission  June  26,  1855,  l»y  the  Dis- 
trict Court,  March  9,  1857;  and  appeal  dis- 
missed April  2,  1857;  containing  15,439.32 
acres.  Patented.  Vide  page  41,  Appendix 
Hotiman's  Report's,  Vol.  I. 

William  P'orbs,  claimant  for  La  Laguna  de 
los  Crentiles  or  Caslamayome,  eight  square 
leagues  in  Sonoma  County  (situated  in  CMover- 
dale  and  Washington  townships),  granted 
March  20,  1844,  by  Manuel  Micheltorena  to 
Eugenio  Montenegro;  claim  filed  September  7, 
1852,  and  rejected  by  the  commission  Septem- 
ber 26,  1854.  Vide  page  45,  Appendix  llofl:'- 
man's  Report,  Vol.  1. 

John  Hendly  et  al.,  claimants  for  Llano  de 
Santa  Rosa,  one  square  league  in  Sonoma 
County  (situated  in  Santa  Rosa  Township), 
granted  March  20,  1844,  by  Manuel  Micliel- 
torena  to  Joaquin  Carrillo;  claim  filed  Decem- 
ber 24,  1852,  rejected  by  the  commission 
January  23,  1855,  and  aj)peal  dismissed  for 
failure  of  prosecution  April  21,  1856.  Vide 
page  68,  Appendix   Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Jacob  P.  Leese,  claimant  for  Lac,  1,000  varas 
square,  in  Sonoma  County,  granted    July  25, 

1844,  by  Manuel  Micheltorena  to  Damaso  Rod- 
riguez; claim  filed  February  21,  1853,  confii-med 
by  the  commission  December  12,  1854,  and  by 
the  District  Court  December  28,  1857,  and  ap- 
peal dismissed  December  28,  1857.  A^ide  page 
84,  Appendix  llottnuin'a  Reports,  \'ol.  1. 

Julio  Carrillo,  claimant  for  part  of  Cabeza  de 
Santa  Rosa,  in  Sonoma  County  (situated  in 
Santa  Rosa  Township),  granted  September  30, 
1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Maria  Ygnaeia 
Lopez;  claim  filed  Feb.  28,  1853,  confirmed  by 
the  commisson  April  4,  1854;  by  the  District 
Court,  March  2,  1857,  and  appeal  dismissed 
March  27,  1857;  containing  4,500.42  acres. 
Vide  88,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Jabob  R.  Mayer  ef  al.,  claimants  for  part  pf 
Cabeza  de  Santa  Rosa,  in  Sonoma  County  (sit- 
uated in  Santa  Rosa  Township),  granted  Septem- 
ber 30, 1853;  confirmed  by  the  commission  April 
4,  1854,  by  District  Court  March  2,  1857,  and 
appeal  dismissed  March  27,  1857;  containing 
1,484.82  acres.  Vide  page  88,  Appendix  Hoff- 
man's Reports,  Vol.  1. 

James  Eldredge,  claimant  for  part  of  Caabez 
de  Santa  Rosa,  in  Sonoma  County,  situated  in 
Santa  Rosa  Township);  granted  September  30, 
1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Maria  Ygnaeia 
Lopez;  claim  filed  February  28,  1853;  con- 
firmed by  the  commission  April  4,  1854;  by 
the  District  Court  March  2,  1857,  and  appeal 
dismissed  March  27,  1857;  containing  1,667.68 
acres.  Vide  page  88,  Appendix  Hofi'man's 
Reports,  Vol.  1. 

F^elicidad  Carrillo,  claimant  for  part  of  ( 'abeza 
de  Santa  Rosa,  in  Sonoma  County  (situated  in 
Santa  Rosa  Township);  granted  September  30. 
1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Maria  Ygnaeia 
Lopez;  claim  filed  February  28, 1853;  coiifirmed 
by  the  commission  April  4,  1854,  and  by  the 
District  Court  March  2,  1857.  Vide  page  88, 
Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  \o\.  1. 

Juan  de  Jesus  Mallagh,  claimant  for  part  of 
Cabeza  de  Santa  Rosa,  in  Sonoma  County  (situ- 
ated in  Santa  Rosa  Township);  granted  Sep- 
tember 30,  1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Maria 
Ygnaeia  Lopez;  claim  filed  February  28.  1853; 
confirmed  by  the  commission  April  4,  1854, 
and  by  the  District  Court  March  2.  1857,  and 
apjieal  dismissed  March  27,  1857;  containing 
25<').1(^)  acres.  \'ide  page  8S,  Appendix  IJoH' 
maiTs  Ki"pi>rts,  Vol.  1. 



Martin  E.  Cook  et  al.,  claimants  for  part  of 
Maiacoines  or  Moristal,  two  miles  square  in 
Sonoma  (,'onutj  (situated  in  Knight's  Valley 
'rownship);  granted  October,  1843,  by  Manuel 
Miclieltorena  to  Jose  los  Santos  I'erryesa;  claim 
tiled  February  28,  1853;  confirmed  by  the  com- 
mission August  7,  1855,  and  appeal  dismissed 
April  It),  1857;  containing  2,559.94  acres. 
Patented.  Vide  page  90,  Appendix  lloft'man's 
lieports.  Vol.  1. 

John  Henley,  claimant  for  part  of  Cabeza  de 
Santa  Rosa,  one  mile  square  in  Sonoma  County 
(situated  in  Santa  Rosa  Township);  granted 
September  30,  1841,  l)y  ^lanuel  Jijneno  to 
Maria  "^'gnacia  Lopez;  claim  tiled  February  28, 
1853;  confirmed  by  the  commission  December 
19. 1854;  by  the  District  Court  March  2,  1857, 
and  appeal  dismissed  March  27,  1857;  con- 
taining 640.19  acres.  Vide  page  90,  Appendix 
Hoffman's  Report.s,  \o\.  1. 

.Joseph  Hooker,  claimant  tor  part  of  Agua 
C^aliente,  in  Sonoma  County  (situated  in  Son- 
oma Township);  granted  July  13,  1840,  by 
Juan  B.  Alvarado  to  Lazaro  Pena;  claim  tiled 
March  2,  1853;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
April  24,  1855;  by  the  District  Court  March 
2,  1857,  and  appeal  dismissed  March  27,  1857; 
containing  550. 8B  acres.  Vide  page  100,  Hoff- 
man's Reports,  \'ol.  L.      Patented. 

Mariano  Guadalupe  Vallejo,  claimant  for 
Agua  Caliente,  in  Sonoma  County  (sitviated  in 
Sonoma  Township);  granted  July  13,  1840.  by 
Juan  B.  Alvarado  to  Lazaro  Pena;  claim  filed 
March  2,  1853;  rejected  by  the  commission 
December,  1855,  and  by  the  District  Court 
July  18,  1859.  Vide  page  100,  Appendix 
Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Thaddeus  M.  Leavenworth,  claimant  for  part 
of  Agua  Caliente,  in  Sonoma  County  (^situated 
in  Sonoma  Towhship);  granted  July  13,  1840, 
by  Juan  B.  Alvardo  to  Lazaro  Pena;  claim  tiled 
March  2,  1853;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
April  24, 1855,  by  the  District  Court  March  2, 
1857,  and  appeal  dismissed  April  3.  1857;  con- 

taining 320.33  acres.  Vide  page  102.  Appen- 
dix Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol.  1. 

Oliver  iioulio,  claimant  for  part  of  Cabeza  de 
Santa  Rosa,  640  acres  in  Sonoma  County  (situ- 
ated in  Santa  Rosa  Township);  granted  Seji- 
tember  30,  1841,  by  Manuel  Jimeno  to  Maria 
Ygnacia  Lopez;  claim  filed  Marcii  2,  1S53; 
rejected  by  the  commission  January  30,  1855, 
and  appeal  dismissed  for  failure  of  prosecution 
April  21,  1856.  Vide  page  102,  A].pen(li\ 
Hoffman's  Reports,  Vol  1. 

C.  P.  Stone,  claimant  for  part  of  Agua  Cali- 
ente, 300  acres  in  Sonoma  (/ounty  (situated  in 
Sonoma  Township);  granted  July  30,  1840,  by 
Juan  B.  Alvarado  to  Lazaro  Pena;  claim  filed 
Marcli  2,  1853;  confirmed  by  the  commission 
April  24.  1855,  by  the  District  Court  March  2, 
1857,  and  appeal  dismissed  March  31,  1857. 
Vide  page  104,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports, 
Vol.  1. 

Cyrus  Alexander,  claimant,  part  of  Sotoyome, 
two  square  leagues  (situated  in  Mendocino 
Township);  granted  September  28,  1841.  by 
Juan  B.  Alvarado  to  Henry  D.  Fitch;  claim 
filed  March  3,  1853;  rejected  by  the  commis- 
sion February  8,  1855,  and  appeal  dismissed 
for  failure  of  prosecution  April  21,  185().  A'ide 
page  106,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  \(A.  1. 

James  A.  Watmough,  claimant  foi-  part  of 
Petaluma  grant,  one  square  mile  in  Sonoma 
County,  granted  October  22,  1843,  by  Manuel 
Miclieltorena  to  M.  G.  Vallejo;  claim  tiled 
March  3,  1853;  rejected  by  the  commis- 
sion January  30,  1855,  and  appeal  dismissed  for 
failure  of  prosecution  April  21,  1856.  Vide 
page  107,  Appendix  Hoffman's  Reports,  N'ol.  1. 

Jose  Santos  I'erryesa,  claimant  for  200  by 
300  varas,  in  Sonoma  County;  granted  May  30, 
1846,  by  Joaquin  Carrillo  to  J.  S.  Berryesa; 
claim  filed  March  3, 1853;  rejected  by  the  com- 
mission October  17,  1854,  and  appeal  dismissed 
for  failure  of  prosecution  April  21,  l!i56. 
V^ide  page  108,  Appendix  Ifntf'mnn's  itejioits. 
Vol.  1. 




fcyp  cagji^Aw,A\jn 



§    RAlim  HWAYS,  mnOURSES  AND  BAIS,    ^ 

ciiAPTEPt  xvr. 

The  San  Fkanoisco  and  Northkrn  Pacifk'  Ha ilroad-  -North  Pacific  Coast  Railroad — Santa 
Rosa    and   Carquinez    RAir.itoAn — m  lu.ic    highwavs — thk   last  stauk    driver — rivers  and 

water  CoTRSES — BAVS  AND  COVES — CoLoNEI.    PetKR     DoNAHIte. 

fHE  Sail  I'^ranciseo  and  North  Pacific  liail- 
rt)ad  has  been  tlie  means  of  ilevelo|>ing 
tlie  County  of  Sonoma.  It  has  extended 
its  soutliern  terminus  to  Point  Tiburon.  The 
original  terminus  was  at  Donahue,  eigiit  miles 
l)elow  Petaluina,  and  about  thirty-four  miles 
from  San  Francisco,  at  which  point  the  steamer 
connected  for  San  Francisco.  The  passengers 
from  Sonoma  also  connected  with  this  steamer 
by  stage,  coming  for  about  eight  miles  over  the 
divide  between  the  waters  of  Sonoma  and 
Petaluina  Creeks. 

Donahue  was  named  after  the  founder  of  the 
road,  C!olonel  Peter  Donahue.  Here  was  situ- 
ated all  the  workshops  connected  with  the  road, 
with  hotel  and  cottages  for  workmen. 

TratHc  and  travel  outgrew  his  terminus,  and 
the  road  was  extended  on  the  west  side  of 
Petulama  Creek  to  San  llafael,  where  it  con- 
nected by  transfer  to  the  cars  of  the  San  Fran- 
cisco and  North  Paciiic  (Joast  Railroad.  The 
terminus  was  not  found  adequate  for  the  rapidly 
increasing  traffic  of  the  road,  and  in  1883  Colo- 
nel Donahue  pushed  his  broad  gauge  over  the 
track  of  the  S.  F.  &  N.  P.  C.  R.  R.,  and  fixed 
its  terminus  at  Tiburon.  And  to  Tiburon  has 
been  removed  the  buildings  from  Donahue. 

Leaving  San  Francisco  on  the  magiiiticeiit 
donlile  eiiiler   stcnnier     Tdntidii,    |iasst'iigers     in 

twenty  minutes'  time  are  transferred  to  the  cars 
at  Tiburon.  A  run  of  nine  and  a  half  miles 
through  several  considerable  tunnels,  brings 
the  train  to  the  beautiful  city  of  San 
Rafael,  overlooking  the  broad  expanse  of  the 
bay.  Steaming  on  through  the  suburbs  of  the 
town,  up  a  grade,  the  train  suddenly  disappears 
in  a  tunnel  bored  through  one  of  the  ranges 
which  encircle  this  pretty  village.  Emerging 
on  the  north  side  of  the  range,  the  scene  has 
completely  changed.  Glimpses  of  the  bay  may 
be  had  as  the  train  speeds  along,  now  on  tlie 
edge  of  the  marsh,  now  over  an  intervening 
point,  until  the  line  between  Sonoma  and  Marin 
counties  is  passed.  The  road  next  trends  along 
the  shore  of  I'etaliiin.i  (!reek.  Opposite  and  in 
bold  relief,  stands  out  the  old  terminus  of 
I  )onaliiie. 

(.Crossing  Petaluma  CJreek,  after  a  run  oi 
twenty-one  miles  from  San  Rafael,  the  train 
bowls  into  the  commercial  city  of  I'etaliiiiiu,  at 
the  head  of  navigation.  I't'talnina  is  beaiitifullv 
and  eligibly  located.  It  is  surrounded  by 
country  homes  and  orchards  in  the  highest  state 
of  cultivation,  and  is  distinguished  for  its  pro- 
gressive and  intelligent  population.  It  is  well 
drained,  neatly  built,  and  is  one  of  the  most 
prospe  ous  interior  towns  in  California. 

I'Voiir   I'etuhiina   the  train  proceeds  northerly. 



passing  Ely's,  Penn's  Grove,  Cotate  and  Oak 
(rrove  stations  for  fifteen  miles  over  an  ex- 
tremely fertile  country  which  brings  us  to  the 
center  of  the  County  of  Sonoma,  and  to  its 
capital  town,  Santa  Rosa. 

Santa  Rosa  is  situated  on  the  banks  of  Santa 
Rosa  Creek,  and  is  almost  hidden  in  groves  of 
trees  and  luxuriant  shrubs  and  flowers.  It  has 
a  rapidly  increasing  population,  and  is  claimed 
by  all  who  have  seen  it  as  one  of  the  prettiest 
towns  in  the  State  of  California.  It  stands 
upon  an  alluvial  jilain,  sloping  gradually  from 
the  hills,  and  is  surrounded  by  farms,  orchards 
and  vineyards.  Santa  Rosa  is  the  passenger 
station  for   Mark  West  Springs. 

Leaving  Santa  Rosa,  the  next  station,  four 
miles  distant,  is  Fulton,  and  here  a  branch  road 
runs  to  Guerneville  in  the  redwoods  district, 
distant  sixteen  miles  from  Fulton.  Trains  to 
anil  from  (Tuerneville  connect  with  the  main 
line  going  north  and  south  every  day. 

From  P^ilton,  going  north,  the  train  passes 
through  the  village  of  Mark  West  to  Windsor, 
distant  four  miles  from  I'ulton,  then  by  Grant's 
Station  to  Healdsburg,  distant  six  miles  from 

Healdsburg  is  situated  in  the  center  of  the 
wide-famed  Russian  River  Valley,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  farming  country  of  unsurpassed 

Beyond  Healds])urg  the  road  follows  directly 
up  the  Russian  River  Valley  to  Geyserville, 
eight  miles  north  of  Healdsburg.  Geysei'ville 
is  a  pretty  village,  in  the  midst  of  a  fruit-grow- 
ing country.  It  is  also  the  station  where  pas- 
sengers take  stages  for  Skaggs'  Warm  Springs, 
one  of  the  popular  summer  resorts  in  the  State. 
From  Geyserville  to  Cloverdale,  the  north  ter- 
minus of  the  road,  the  distance  is  ten  miles. 

Cloverdale  is  situated  on  Russian  River,  just 
south  of  the  boundary  line  between  Mendo- 
cino and  Sonoma.  Here  stfiges  connect  with 
tlie  train  for  Ukiah  City,  Round  Valley,  Pot- 
ter Valley  :ni(l  Humboldt  County;  also  for  the 
Great  Geyser  Springs,  about  .«ixteen  miles  from 
Cloverdale;  also   the   Highland  Springs,  Lake- 

port,  Kelseyville,  Soda  Ray,  Bartlett  Springs  and 
the  Blue  Lakes.  There  is  also  a  large  freight 
traffic  at  Cloverdale,  hence  it  is  one  of  the 
busiest  towns  in  the  county. 

The  entire  length  of  the  road  by  way  of 
Donahue,  with  water  connection,  is  ninety 
miles.  By  way  of  San  Rafael  it  is  eighty-four 
miles,  as  follow.'?: 


From  San    Francisco  to  Tiburon (i 

From  Tiburon  to  San  Rafael  •  •  ■  • 9 

From  San  Rafael   to  Petal uma 21 

From  Petaluma  to  Santa  Rosa 15 

From  Santa  Rosa  to  Fulton 4 

From  Fulton  to   Windsor 5 

From  Windsor  to   Healdsburg 6 

From  Healdsburg  to  Geyserville 8 

From  Geyserville  to  Cloverdale 10 

But  Cloverdale  will  soon  lose  its  position  as  a 
terminal  city,  for  the  track  is  already  graded  and 
the  mountains  pierced  with  tunnels  for  an  ex- 
tension of  the  road  to  Ukiah,  the  county  town 
of  Mendocino  Count}'.  This  extension  will  be 
in  running  order  early  in  1889,  and  will  open 
up  to  more  complete  development  a  county 
that  has  hitherto  been  without  any  facilities  for 
convenient  or  ra|)iil  communication  with  the 
outer  world. 

Following  is  a  description  of  the  ferry-boat 
connecting  the  S.  F.  it  N.  P.  R.  R.  with  San 
Francisco.  The  Tifiuroii's  dimensions  are: 
Length  between  perpeiuliculars.  224  feet;  beam, 
34  feet;  length  of  cabin,  155  feet.  She  is  of 
the  pattern  known  as  the  *•  (louble  ender,"  and 
is  nearly  a  duplicate  of  the  Bay  OUy,  with 
slightly  increased  speed.  She  is  equipped  with 
powerful  machinery  by  the  Union  Iron  Works, 
the  cylinder  of  the  engine  being  tifty  inches  in 
diameter,  with  eleven  feet  stroke.  Two  low- 
pressure  boilers  of  the  most  approved  pattern 
afford  the  driving  power;  speed  twenty  miles  an 
hour.  There  is  an  uppei--deck  (•ai)in,  like  that 
of  the  (Kthlini(L  The  keel  of  the  Tilnnon  was 
laid  on  the  2yth  of  May,  1883,  and  the  hull  was 

HrsTonr  of  sonoua  county. 

launched  eight  mouths,  lacking  one  clay,  after- 
ward. The  Tibui'ou  is  the  only  douhle-ender 
that  has  ever  been  employed  on  this  liay,  outside 
the  Oakland  and  Alameda  terries. 

NORTH    I'AcIFH;    C<).\ST    UAILKhAIi. 

Of  this  road  the  San  Francisco  JoariMl  of 
t'ouiiiieiTc  says: 

"  The  scenic  route  of  the  8tate  is  on  the 
North  Pacific  Coast  Railroad.  Every  variety 
and  change  is  encountered  on  this  line.  Leav- 
ing the  foot  of  Market  street,  San  Francisco, 
by  one  of  the  fast  ferry  steamers  of  the  com- 
pany, a  rapid  trip  is  made  across  the  liay  to 
Saucelito,  where  the  ti'ain  is  awaiting  passengers 
and  freight  for  the  north.  '  All  aboard !' and 
the  train  moves  out  of  Saucelito  and  rolls  along 
the  shores  of  Richardson's  Bay.  Rounding  the 
noted  Mount  Tamalpais  into  the  beautiful  Ross 
Valley,  it  arrives  at  San  Anselmo  station,  where 
transfer  is  made  to  San  Rafael  and  San  Quentin 
and  thence  to  Fairfax,  one  of  the  finest  and 
most  noted  picnic  resorts  of  the  State.  From 
this  point  on  the  scenery  becomes  wilder, 
grander  and  more  varied.  Climbing  the  steep 
canon  sides,  through  tunnels,  across  trestle 
liridges  hundreds  of  feet  above  the  creek  below, 
thence  winding  its  way  down,  the  train  skirts 
along  the  hill-sides  near  Point  Reyes  to  the 
shores  of  Tomales  Bay.  These  are  followed  for 
a  distance  of  fifteen  miles,  when  a  rich  agricul- 
tural district  is  entered  and  the  thriving  com- 
munities of  Tomales,  Valley  Ford,  Bodega 
Roads,  Freestone  and  Howards  are  passed  in 
(juick  succession  and  the  ascent  of  the  moun- 
tains of  north-western  Sonoma  is  begun.  iVgain 
the  grand  scenery  of  deep  canons  and^  redwood 
forests  is  continued  until  the  thriving  town  of 
Duncan's  Mills  is  reached  and  then  to  Ingrams, 
the  present  terminus.  Camp  Taylor  is  on  the 
line  of  this  route,  and  is  one  of  the  linest  iish- 
ing,  camping  and  picnicing  localities  of  the 

"The  road  cost  over  three  millions  of  dollars, 
and  is  a  magniticient  piece  of  engineering  skill. 
For   its   length    we    believe    it    possesses    more 

varied  scenery  than  any  road  in  the  United 
States.  In  a  distance  of  80  miles,  hills,  moun- 
tains, dales,  valleys,  deep  canons,  rivers,  forests, 
follow  each  other  in  bewildering  succession, 
and  are  presented  to  the  view  of  the  traveler  as 
he  passes  through  the  most  picturesque  part  of 
this  State.  It  is  a  splendid  field  for  the  sports- 
man. The  mountains  and  hills,  valleys  and 
canons  abound  with  game,  and  the  creeks  and 
rivers  are  favorite  resorts  for  the  fisherman,  who 
linds  his  time  well  occupied.  During  the  sum- 
mer months  the  various  places  on  the  line  of 
the  road  are  resorted  to  l)y  thousands  of  campers 
from  the  metropolis  of  the  coast.'' 


This  road  is  a  branch  of  the  Northern  Pacilic. 
It  now  connects  with  the  main  Donahue  line  at 
Pacheco  Station.  It  runs  northward  to  the  old 
town  of  Sonoma,  and  from  thence  to  Glen  Ellen, 
which  is  located  in  the  north  end  of  Sonoma 
Valley  in  a  vale  surrounded  by  sloping  hills, 
which  presents  as  desirable  a  location  for  a  pros- 
perous community  as  could  be  selected.  It  is 
located  in  the  heart  of  the  wine  section  of  the 
county,  and  for  miles  on  both  sides  of  the  valley 
are  to  be  seen  hills  clad  with  vines.  In  summer 
it  is  a  great  reso.t  for  camping  parties  bent  on 
pleasure  and  to  try  their  skill  with  the  rod  and 
gun.  As  many  as  1,500  have  camped  in  this 
vicinity  at  one  time  during  the  camping  season. 

SANTA     UdSA    AND    rAKyllXK/,    KAILKoAI>. 

This  road  was  completed  in  1887.  It  is  a 
branch  of  the  Central  Pacilic  road.  It  leaves 
that  line  at  Napa  Junction;  passes  up  the  whole 
length  of  the  Sonoma  Valley  to  Glen  Ellen;  passes 
on  through  the  Guilicos  Valley  and  terminates 
at  Santa  Rosa.  This  road  is  of  incalculable 
value  to  Sonoma  County,  as  it  affords  a  dii'ect 
and  continuous  connection  with  the  eastern 
lines,  and  thus  opens  a  way  to  ready  market  for 
the  excellent  fruit  of  this  section  of  the  State. 
There  is  now  oidy  needed  a  couple  of  branch 
roads,  one  to  Sebastopol  and  (-Jreen  Valley,  and 
the  other  to  Big   Valley    to    reiidei'    the    whole 


county    well    i)rovided    with    conveniences    for 
travel  and  the  conveyance  of  freight  to  market. 


lU'l'ore  the  advent  of  i-aiiroads  the  jmlilic  high- 
ways of  the  county  were  the  mediums  of  travel 
and  traffic.  The  central  and  most  consequential 
road  was  that  leading  from  Petaluma,  taking  in 
its  way  Santa  Kosa,  Windsor,  llealdsburg,  Uey- 
serville  and  Cloverdale.  were  the  days 
of  staging.  Large  coaches  drawn  by  six  horses 
made  the  trip  daily.  The  stage  driver  was  then 
a  consequential  man,  courted  and  conciliated  by 
those  who  had  much  traveling  to  do.  .V  scat 
with  the  driver  was  a  seat  of  honor,  to  secure 
which  it  was  generally  necessary  to  make  a 
special  engagement.  But  the  occu|)ation  id' 
driver  was  not  entirely  a  sinecure  position,  iiain 
or  shine  he  had  to  mount  his  seat,  and  in  ex- 
cessively wet  winters  he  generally  reached  the 
end  of  his  route  in  a  terribly  mud-bedraggled 
condition.  Then  lie  was  occasionally  stopped 
by  foot-pads,  receiving  a  peremptory  order  to 
throw  out  the  express  box.  Occasionally  a 
driver  would  escape  l)y  giving  lash  to  his 
team,  but  as  one  such  got  a  bullet  through  his 
cheek  and  had  a  passenger  killed  on  the  seat 
along  side  of  him,  drivers  concluded  that  such 
foolishness  did  not  pay.  and  ever  after  they 
accorded  to  foot-j)ads  that  deference  that  their 
vocation  seemed  to  entitle  them  to.  The  rail- 
road came,  however,  and  ran  close  t(.>  and  paral- 
lel with  this  great  artery  of  ti'a\el.  This 
put  an  end  to  staging  on  that  road,  anil  it  is 
now  mainly  used  for  local  purj)Oses  by  the  in- 
habitants along  its  line. 

The  next  public  highway  of  importance  is  the 
one  leading  from  Petaluma  up  the  coast.  It  takes 
in  its  route  Two  Rock,  Ploomlield,  Valley  Ford, 
Bodega  Corners,  Bodega  Bay,  Markhams  Mills, 
I'ort  Ross  and  Gualala.  That  portion  of  this  road 
from  I'odega  to  Petaluma  has  been  the  medium 
of  transportation  of  a  vast  amount  of  produce 
to  market  in  the  years  gone  by.  but  the  Narrow 
Guage  Coast  Line  Railroad  now  carries  much  of 
the  Bodega  produce  direct   to    San    Francisco. 

From  near  the  mouth  of  Russian  River  north- 
ward this  road  is  graded  along  the  elifls  over- 
hanging the  ocean.  For  a  distance  of  several 
miles  the  traveler  looks  down  into  the  surt 
breaking  ujion  the  rocks  below,  and  occasionally 
the  eye  is  I'elieved  by  seeing  in  the  distance  a 
jet  of  water  thrown  up  by  some  sportive  whale. 
When  this  spur  of  the  Ross  Mountain  is  passed 
the  road  is  of  comparatively  easy  grade  to  the 
Gualala  River,  the  boundary  line  between 
Sonoma  and  Mendocino  counties. 

One  among  the  oldest  roads  in  the  county, 
but  not  extensively  traveled,  is  the  one  leading 
from  Petaluma  to  Sonoma,  thence  to  Glen  Ellen 
and  so  on  through  Guilicos  Valley  to  Santa 
Rosa.  This  road  is  through  a  country  of  his- 
toric interest  and  at  every  turn  the  traveler 
encounters  new  and  enchanting  scenery.  All 
along  the  line  of  this  thoroughfare  are  delight- 
ful retreats,  and  it  is  becoming  a  favorite  line 
of  resort  to  pleasure  seekers. 

The  road  from  Petaluma  to  Sebastopol  and 
thence  to  Green  Valley,  although  an  old  one  in 
point  of  use,  did  not  for  many  years  receive  that 
care  and  consideration  that  its  importance  and 
utility  entitled  it  to.  Lately  it  has  been  much 
improved,  and  in  time  it  will  come  into  more 
general  use  as  the  shortest  route  to  the  redwood 

The  roads  mentioned  all  have  a  general  course 
north  and  south,  or  lengthwise  of  the  count}'. 
Of  course  there  are  many  lUteral  branches  to 
these  roads  leading  to  valleys  and  settlements  on 
either  hand.  From  Cloverdale  a  good  road  ex- 
tends easterly  to  the  far-famed  Geysers;  and 
westerly  to  Dry  Creek  Valley,  and  thence  into 
the  coast  mountains.  From  Geyserville  a  road 
leads  to  the  Skaggs  Springs,  a  celebrated  place 
of  resort.  From  Healdsburg  roads  running 
both  east  and  west  tap  a  wide  range  of  country. 
Santa  Rosa  is  the  focus  of  a  regular  system  of 
lateral  roads.  The  most  important  of  these  is 
the  road  by  way  of  Forestville  to  Guerneville, 
and  from  thence  by  way  of  Ingrams  to  Fort 
Ross.  That  portion  of  this  road  between 
Guerneville    and  Ross    is   through   a   country 



of  mountains  and  forests  whicli  will  ever  be  a 
paradise  to  sportsmen.  With  two  lines  of  rail- 
road, one  ending  at  (Tuerneville  and  tlie  otlier 
at  Ingrams,  these  wilds  of  Sonoma  County  are 
rendered  easy  of  access  to  those  who  seek  a  res- 
pite from  the  cares  and  toil  of  business  life. 

Above  mention  is  made  that  as  the  railroads 
advanced  tlie  stage  coaches  retired.  With  the 
exception  of  on  a  short  line  on  the  coast  in  the 
e.xtreme  upper  end  of  the  county,  and  that  be- 
tween Cloverdale  and  the  Geyser  Springs,  the 
stages  have  entirely  disappeared — they  are  a 
thing  of  the  past.  For  many  years  after  our 
raih'uads  were  completed,  a  man  named  Wash- 
ington Gilliam,  who  had  long  been  a  driver  on 
our  stage  route,  continued  to  run  a  two-horse 
thorough  brace,  taking  a  cross-route  which  gave 
accommodation  to  people  between  Stony  Point 
and  Tomales.  At  best,  he  made  bnt  a  precari- 
ous living,  but  it  was  liis  vocation,  and  he  fol- 
lowed it  to  the  end.  On  the  occasion  of  his 
death,  in  1882,  his  friend,  Tom  Gregory,  of 
Bloomfield,  penned  the  following  graceful  lines: 

"  WASH.    <;II,HAJI    SI.EKl'S. 

"The  old  stage-driver  came  (juietly  into  town 
just  as  he  had  done  off  and  on  for  some  fourteen 
years.  P>)it  this  time  he  came  slower  than 
usual.  He  had  a  new  team,  but  the  horses 
tramped  solemnly  along  as  if  they  knew  that 
pace  suited  the  occasion — or  knew  that  some- 
tiiing  was  amiss  with  the  solemn  man  behind 
them.  The  old  driver  had  a  strange  look  on 
his  face  that  we  had  never  seen  before — the 
look  of  one  who  is  moving  deeply  in  a  mystic 
spell.  He  always  was  rather  (juiet,  but  now  his 
silence  was  almost  appalling.  When  the  team 
stoi)ped,  his  old  friends  anxiously  gathered 
around  him,  but  lie  did  not  seem  to  know  them, 
for  he  spoke  not  a  word.  Gne  grasped  his 
hand,  but  no  ]ires8ure  was  returned.  The  fu- 
neral that  day  was  conducted  by  the  Masons,  and 
as  he  was  a  member  of  tluit  mystic  brntherhood, 
he  took  his  place  in  the  procession  and  with 
them  moved  toward  the  cometery.  Soon  they 
were  all  at  the  graveside.  Pausing  a  moment 
on  the  brink,  the  old  stage-driver  went  slowly 

and  steadily  down  his  last  grade;  the  silver  nail 
heads  on  the  cotHn  sparkled  star-like  in  the 
gloom  of  the  still,  dark  depths.  Dust  unto 
dust,  ashes  unto  ashes.  The  bright  little  spray 
of  evergreen  and  the  dull  valley  clods  mingled 
together  as  her  dear  mother  earth  folds  around 
and  hides  away  each  home-returning  child. 
They  spread  young  wings  for  lofty  Hights 
through  life's  warm  golden  dawn,  but  at  chill 
eve  come  wearily  back  to  slumber  on  her  broad 
and  loving  breast.  The  crowd  went  quietly 
from  out  the  enclosure  and  left  him  there  alone. 
Now  only  a  low  narrow  mound,  which  in  a  few 
days  will  be  grass-grown,  marks  the  spot  where 
Wash.  Gilham  sleeps." 

KIVKKS    AND    WATKK    ((iLKsES. 

The  rivers  and  water-courses  ot  Sonoma 
County  are  peculiar  in  character.  The  Pet 
aluma  and  Sonoma  creeks  are  estuaries  of  San 
Pablo  Pay.  The  ebb  and  How  of  tide  in  these 
streams  are  about  six  feet  in  depth.  This, 
with  the  natural  depth  of  water  at  extreme  low 
tide,  enables  vessels  of  from  sixty  to  one  hun- 
dred tons  burthen  to  navigate  them  up  to  the 
cities  of  Petaluma  and  Sonoma,  respectively. 
These  tide  streams  are  of  incalculable  \alue  as 
arteries  of  commerce.  They  atford  cheap  trans- 
portation of  freight  to  San  Francisco,  and  ati'urd 
an  effectual  bar  to  freight  extortions  by  other 
mediums  of  transportation.  Both  of  these  es- 
tuaries have,  beyond  the  reach  of  salt  water 
tides,  fresh  water  fountains  that  abound  in  tis-h 
of  various  kinds. 

The  San  Antonio  Creek  that  forms  the 
boundary  between  Sonoma  and  Marin  counties 
on  the  south  takes  its  rise  in  what  was  called 
the  Laguna  de  San  Antonio  (i)ut  now  drained) 
and  has  an  entire  length  of  not  more  than 
twelve  miles.  It  does  not  atford  much  water 
in  mid-summer,  although  in  rainy  seasons  it 
becomes  a  torrent.  The  Santa  Kosa  and  Mark 
West  creeks  are  fed  by  innumerable  tributaries 
taking  their  rise  in  the  Macnway  range  of 
mountains,  and  which  abound  in  trout.  Dur- 
ing the  summer  months  botli  these  streams  are 


lost  ill  tliu  Santa  Kusa  plains,  luit  during  tlie 
winter  or  rainy  months  they  debuiieh  into  the 
lagooiias  north  ot'  Sehastopol,  and  from  thence 
tlieir  waters  reach  the  Russian   River. 

Sulphur  Creek  takes  its  rise  in  the  (4eyser 
group  of  mountains  and  empties  into  the  Rus- 
sian River  north  of  Cloverdale. 

Dry  Creek  takes  its  rise  in  Mendocino  Coun- 
ty and  enters  Sonoma  County  just  below  Dry 
Creek  canon,  and  tiows  into  the  Russian  River 
near  Healdsburg.  During  the  suininer  it  is 
barely  a  trout  stream,  but  in  the  winter  it  often 
becomes  a  roaring  torrent. 

The  Russian  River  is  a  stream  of  peculiarly  va- 
riable moods.  It  heads  high  up  in  Mendocino 
County  and  is  the  artery  of  drainage  to  an  im- 
mense section  of  country.  In  the  summer  months, 
in  consequence  of  the  gravelly  and  porous  nature 
of  the  country  it  traverses  it  sinks  away  and  is 
easily  fordable  at  all  points.  But  in  the  winter 
months,  especially  if  the  rain  fall  has  been 
copious,  it  becomes  an  angry,  incontrollable 
river.  It  enters  Sonoma  County  just  north  of 
Cloverdale,  and  for  many  miles  has  a  southerly 
course  with  but  little  fall,  until  it  readies  a 
point  nearly  opposite  Healdsburg,  where  it  sud- 
denly deflects  to  the  west,  plunges  down 
through  the  redwood  forests,  and  reaches  the 
ocean  a  few  miles  north  of  liodega  Bay.  There 
are  not  a  few  who  l)elieve  that  Russian  River 
once  flowed  uiiinipeded  to  San  Pablo  Bay,  but 
this  is  but  the  surmise  of  scientists. 

Austin  Creek,  heading  in  the  north  on  the 
dividing  line  that  forms  the  head  waters  of  the 
southern  branch  of  the  Giialala  River,  flows 
south  and  falls  into  the  Russian  River  at  Dun- 
can's mills.  It  is  a  mild,  placid  stream  from 
Ingrams  down  in  the  summer  months,  but  in 
winter  has  its  own  way,  and  puts  on  the  airs  of 
a  very  consequential  stream. 

The  southern  limb  of  the  Gualala  River 
takes  its  rise  in  the  mountains  immediately 
east  of  Fort  Ross.  It  runs  in  an  e.xactly  oppo- 
site direction  from  the  Austin  Creek,  and  after 
traversing  a  country  for  many  miles  of  the 
moBt  wild  and  {'''atid  scenic  ifrandeur  it  falls  into 

the  main  Gualala  River  about  three  miles  above 
where  the  latter  river  flows  into  the  Paciflc 
Ocean.  The  country  traversed  by  the  South 
Gualala,  and  its  fountain  streams,  will  ages 
hence  be  the  resort  of  those  who  seek  com- 
munion with  the  untarnished  grandeur  of  Na- 
ture. Locked  ill  those  fastnesses,  beyond  the 
sordid  grasp  of  pelf  and  gain,  is  a  wealth  of 
respite  from  the  toil  and  moil  of  life  that  will 
be  appreciated  by  the  generations  of  the  future. 

The  Estero  Americano  is  a  tide  stream  up 
to  Valley  Ford,  and  from  thence  upward  is  but 
the  water  conduit  of  the  streams  leading  from 
Big  Valley  westward.  These  streams  are  in- 
consequential except  in  the  winter  season. 

The  latest  water-way  to  be  noted  is  that  drain- 
ing the  water-shed  of  country  compassed  in 
Two  Rock  Valley.  The  water  of  these  various 
streams  And  their  way  into  an  estuary  of  the 
ocean  in  Marin  County,  about  midway  between 
Tomales  Bay  and  the  Estero  Americano. 

There  is  a  peculiarity  of  the  topography  of 
the  country  right  here  worth  mentioning.  The 
ranch  at  present  owned  by  Allen  Rosebnrg, 
about  eight  miles  north  from  Petaluma,  is  the 
saddle  of  a  tridant.  The  water-shed  of  the 
northerly  portion  of  the  ranch  sends  its  water 
down  through  Two  Rock  Valley  and  thence  to 
the  ocean  through  the  channel  last  above  de- 
scribed. The  waters  from  the  southerly  slope 
of  this  ranch  flow  into  the  Petaluma  Creek; 
and  the  water  from  the  western  side  of  the 
place  flows  westerly  and  through  the  medium  of 
Salmon  Creek  falls  into  Tomales  Bay. 


Along  the  ocean  line  of  Sonoma  County  are 
several  bays  and  coves  affording  good  anchor- 
age for  vessels.  Bodega  l!ay  is  a  land-locked 
harbor  affording  good  anchorage  for  vessels.  It 
is  about  two  miles  long  and  one  mile  wide.  Its 
entrance  is  somewhat  narrow  and  dithcult  of 
access  in  stormy  weather,  but  vessels  once  inside 
are  safe  and  secure.  About  ten  miles  north- 
ward, at  Russian  Gulch,  there  is  a  cove  where 
vessels  land  and  take  on  lumber  by  means  of  a 


chute.  At  Fort  Ross  there  is  a  very  good 
landing,  and  vessels  come  and  go  with  great 
regularity,  carrying  to  San  Francisco  railroad 
ties,  cord  wood  and  tan  bark.  At  Timber  Cove  is 
also  a  landing  for  vessels.  Salt  Point  has  a  very 
good  landing  for  vessels,  so  also  has  Fisk's  and 
Stuart's  Points.  At  all  these  places  are  chutes 
for  sliding  lumber  and  freights  of  various  kinds 
down  into  the  vessels  moored  Ijelow.  The 
traveler  along  the  coast  is  constantly  astonished 
to  beliold  the  masts  of  vessels  close  in  shore 
where  lie  would  least  expect  to  see  them.  These 
bays  and  coves  on  the  northwest  coast  of  Sono- 
ma County  are  the  mediums  of  a  lumber  trade 
both  vast  and  protitiible. 

coLONKr.    TETEIl    UnXAHUK. 

As  Sonoma  County  was  largely  indebted  to 
the  late  Col.  Peter  Donahue  for  her  railroad 
facilities  we  account  it  but  just  to  afford  his 
name  some  space  in  Sonoma  County  history. 
Of  his  death,  the  Petaluma  Argus  of  November 
28,  1885,  said: 

"Col.  Peter  Donahue  died  at  his  ri'sidence  in 
San  Francisco  at  10  o'clock  Thursday  evening. 
He  had  been  ill  several  days,  but  a  fatal  ter- 
mination was  not  anticipated  until  within  a  few 
hours  of  his  death.  He  seemed  to  have  had  a 
complication  of  ailments,  but  diabetes  is  given 
as  the  immediate  cause  of  death.  Thus  has 
come  to  an  end  a  remarkably  active  aii<]  useful 
life.  Peter  Donahue  was  eminently  the  archi- 
tect of  his  own  fortune.  The  foundation  of  his 
fortune  was  laid  with  his  own  brawny  arms 
while  toiling  at  the  forge.  AVith  far-seeing 
sagacity  he  made  investments  and  inaugurated 
enterprises  that  not  only  brought  himself  rich 
returns,  but  gave  lucrative  employment  and 
prosperity  to  thousand  of  others.  With  all  his 
vast  accumulations  of  wealth,  Peter  Donahue 
never  forgot  or  looked  down  superciliously  upon 
those  occupying  the  walks  of  life  he  himself 
once  trod.  We  have  neither  time  nor  space  for 
more  extended  mention  of  the  deceased  at  this 
time,  and  conclude  by  saying  that  in  the  death 
of  Peter  Donahue,  San  Francisco  and  California 

has  lost  a  most  enterprising  and  valuable  citi- 

Continuing  the  Argus  said:  '•  We  last  week 
announced  the  death  of  Colonel  Peter  Donahue. 
To  the  San  Francisco  BuUetiu  we  are  indebted 
for  the  following  biographical  sketch: 

"  The  deceased  was  born  of  Irish  parents  in 
Glasgow,  Scotland,  on  the  11th  of  January, 
1822.  In  1835  he  emigrated  with  his  mother 
to  America,  settling  at  Matteawan,  which  is  now 
a  portion  of  Fishkill  Township,  Dutchess 
County,  New  York.  He  worked  some  two 
years  in  a  cotton  factory  and  then  entered  a 
locomotive  manufactory  in  Patterson,  New 
Jersey.  In  1847  he  was  appointed  engineer  of 
the  Peruvian  war  steamer  Itimal.  Mr.  Donahue 
arrived  in  San  Francisco  on  the  steamer  Oregon, 
June  18,  1849,  and  proceeded  to  the  mines. 
Snlisequently  he  returned  to  this  city,  where  he 
met  his  brothers  James  and  Michael.  lie  and 
James  established  a  blacksmith  shop  on  Mont- 
gomery street,  and  about  a  year  afterward  they 
removed  to  First  street.  In  1852  tlie  firm 
obtained  the  franchise  for  lighting  the  city  with 
gas,  and  within  two  years  gas  works  were  estab- 

•'  Peter  Donahue  also  established  a  line  of 
steamers  on  the  Sacramento  River.  In  18(')1 
he  obtained  a  street  railroad  franchise  and  estab- 
lished what  is  known  as  the  Omnibus  line.  The 
same  year  he  obtained  a  contract  for  raising  and 
rebuilding  the  sunken  monitor  Comanche  for  the 
defense  of  this  harbor.  The  first  casting  melted 
and  molded  in  this  State  was  done  at  the  Union 
Foundry,  by  Messrs.  Donahue,  for  the  old  pio- 
neer steamer  McK'un,  the  blasts  for  the  furnace 
being  prepared  by  three  blacksmiths'  bellows, 
which  are  now  the  jT'operty  of  the  Mechanics' 
Institute.  The  first  quartz  mill  constructed  in 
this  State  was  made  at  the  Donahue  foundry. 
A  building  is  now  in  the  course  of  construction 
where  the  old  Donahue  shop  and  wharf  existed 
on  First  street  in  1850.  In  1862  Mr.  Donahue 
and  a  few  associates  built  the  railroad  from  this 
city  to  San  Jose,  and  subsequently  continued  it 
to  Gilroy,  a  distance  of  about  eighty  miles.  This 


road  was  subsequeutlj  sold  to  Stauford  &  Co. 
A  broad  gauge  road  was  also  built  by  Mr. 
Donahue  from  the  town  of  Donahue,  on  Peta- 
luma  Creek  to  Cloverdale,  a  distance  of  fifty 
miles.  All  of  the  rolling  stock  for  this  road 
was  constructed  at  the  Donahue  foundry.  A 
branch  road  was  built  from  Fulton  to  Russian 
River,  a  distance  of  eighteen  miles,  and  from 
Petaluma  to  San  Rafael  twenty-two  miles  in 
length.  This  latter  branch  has  been  extended 
from  San  Rafael  to  Point  Tibnrou  on  Raccoon 
Straits,  which  is  connected  with  this  city  by  a 
ferry  line.  In  1879  Donahue  and  his  associates 
purchaseil  the  unlinisiied  narrow  gauge  from 
Sonoma  to  Sonoma  Creek,  which  they  completed. 
For  a  quarter  of  a  century  Mr.  Donahue  was 
director  of  the    Ilibernia   Bank,   and    for   over 

twenty  years  a  director  of  the  iS'^ational  Gold 
Bank.  He  was  a  life  member  of  the  Pioneer 

"The  deceased  married  Miss  JaneMcGnire  in 
New  York  in  1852,  by  whom  he  had  four  chil- 
dren, two  of  whom  are  living.  A  few  years  ago 
the  daughter  married  Baron  von  Scliroeder,  and 
until  recently  lias  resided  in  the  southern  part 
of  the  State.  The  son,  Mervyn,  a  few  years  ago 
married  the  daughter  of  ex-Supreme  Judge 
Wallace,  and  resides  at  San  Rafael.  On  the  death 
of  the  first  wife,  Mr.  Donahue  married  Miss 
Anna  Downey,  sister  of  ex-Governor  Downey. 

"  The  deceased  was  a  courteous  and  companion- 
able gentleman  who  well  represented  the  dignity 
of  labor  as  an  intelligent  and  industrious 











N  anotlier  chapter  has  been  given  an  epitome 
of  all  the  occnrrences  of  a  year,  as  recorded 
^  in  the  only  journal  then  published  in  the 
county.  We  now  take  up  the  thread  of  current 
events  where  these  dropped,  and  follow  it  to  the 

September  I'.l,  1856 — The  first  Republican 
uiass  convention  assembled  in  the  dining-room 
of  the  old  Petaluma  House. 

September  26,  1856 — The  settlers  held  a  mass 
convention  at  Santa  Kosa. 

(October  3,  1856  -The  subject  of  opening  a 
road  north  to  AV^eavervillc  was  being  agitated. 

December  9,  1856— Dr.  H.  B.  Bonham, 
county  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  re- 
ported the  condition  of  the  schools  in  the 

January  23,  1857 — W.  A.  I)\ister,  county 
treasurer,  proved  a  defaulter  for  several  thou- 
sand dollars — was  tried;  sentenced  to  the  peni- 
tentiary for  five  years,  and  pai-doned  by  the 
Governor  at  the  end  of  three  years. 

April  10,  1857— The  Round  Valley  Indian 
i-eser\atioti,  Mendocino  County,  established  an 
agent.  John  Hendley  reported  several  thou- 
sand Indians  there,  and  doing  well. 

June  5,  1857 — J.  A.  Rudesill  commenced 
running  a  stage  from  Petaluma  to  the  Geyser 

June  12,  1857— At  Bodega,  an  Indian  killed 
one  of  his  tribe — confessed  the  crime,  and  was 
hung  by  order  of  "Judge  Lynch." 

September  4,  1857 — A  large  camp-meeting 
was  held  at  Liberty  school-house. 

September  16,  1857 — Three  Indians  were 
hung  near  Fort  Ross  by  a  vigilance  committee. 
A  peace  ofiicer  was  present  and  forbade  the 
hanging,  but  it  was  of  no  avail. 

October  23,  1857 — There  was  (|uite  an  ex- 
citement over  the  supposed  discovery  of  coal  in 
Two  Rock  Valley. 

November  27,  1857— An  elk  weighing  800 
pounds  was  killed  near  Healdsburg.  This  was 
the  last  elk  that  there  is  any  record  of,  and 
probably  the  last  one  ever  in  the  county. 

February  12,  1858 — There  was  some  excite- 
ment over  the  supposed  disco\ery  of  cinnabar, 
near  Petaluma. 

April  23,  1858— The  beginning  of  trouble 
about  squatters  on  the  Sotoyome  grant,  near 

October  4,  1858 — The  celebrated  comet  that 
had  for  weeks  been  blazing  in  the  heavens,  be- 
gan to  wane. 

April  8,  1859 — A.  B.  Bowers  was  workino- 
on  a  map  of  Sonoma  County.  When  completed 
it  was  a  most  excellent  farm  maji,  vei'v  accurate 
in  every  detail. 



September  9, 1859 — The  animal  fair  was  lield 
at  Healdsburg,  and  the  interest  manifested  in 
Sonoma  County  industries  was  highly  satisfac- 

February  10,  1860  —Discovery  of  quicksilver 
near  Mount  St.  Helena  and  the  Geysers. 

June  15,  1860 — A  monster  grizzly  bear  was 
killed  on  Salmon  Creek,  Marin  County,  by  J. 
S.  Brackett,  the  Estee  brothers,  and  others.  It 
was  brought  to  Petaluma  and  exhibited.  It 
weighed  1,000  pounds,  and  had  been  very  de- 
structive to  stock. 

July  6,  1860 — The  boundary  line  between 
Sonoma  and  Marin  counties  was  finally  placed 
as  located  by  Surveyor  William  Mock  in  1856; 
that  is,  following  a  straight  line  from  the  head 
of  the  Laguna  de  San  Antonio,  to  the  head  of 
the  Estero  Americano  at  Yalley  Ford. 

August  10,  1860 — A  quarry  of  asbestos  was 
found  near  Windsor. 

April  12, 1861 — The  Legislature  passed  a  bill 
submitting  the  question  of  county  seat  removal 
to  a  vote  of  the  people. 

May  24,  1861 — Joe  Hooker,  of  Sonoma,  left 
for  the  theater  of  the  civil  war.  He  became 
the  celebrated  "  Fighting  General  Joe  Hooker  " 
of  that  unfortunate  conflict. 

Ifoveniber  26,  1861 — Lady  Franklin,  relict  of 
the  ill-fated  Sir  John  Franklin  of  Arctic  Ocean 
fame,  visited  Sonoma  County,  accompanied  by 
her  niece.  Miss  Craycroft. 

January  21,  1862 — From  Petaluma  and  other 
portions  of  the  county  liberal  aid  was  sent  to 
the  sufterers  by  flood  at  Sacramento. 

February  11,  1862— Charles  Minturn,  of  the 
Steamer  line,  straightens  a  couple  of  bends  in 
the  creek,  below  Petaluma. 

June  25,  1862 — There  was  considerable  pros- 
pecting for  coal  in  the  easterly  side  of  Santa 
Rosa  Yalley,  opposite  the  old  Half-way  House. 

November  9,  1862 — Judge  McKinstry  re- 
signed the  position  of  judge  of  the  seventli 
judicial  district,  and  Hon.  J.  B.  Southard  was 
appointed  to  the  position. 

December  3,  1862 — Suit  was  commenced  for 
the    partition  of  the    Rancho    Laguna  de    San 

Antonio,  comprising  over  24,000  acres.  This 
ranch  was  familiarly  known  as  the  "  Bojorques 
Rancho,'"  and  the  history  of  this  litigation  is 
scattered  through  over- twenty  volumes  of  the 
California  Supreiue  Court  Reports. 

August  5, 1863 — There  was  great  excitement 
about  the  discoveiy  of  copper  in  the  mountains 
about  eighteen  miles  westerly  from  Healds- 
bui'g.  Copper,  in  small  quantities,  in  a  pure 
state,  was  found,  and  much  prospecting  was 
done,  but  with  no  paying  results. 

November  2, 1865 — A  railroad  company  was 
organized  in  Petaluma  for  the  purpose  of  build- 
ing a  railroad  from  Petaluma  to  Cloverdale. 
There  were  various  moves  and  counter-moves 
about  railroads.  The  question  of  location,  and 
the  granting  of  a  subsidy  of  85,000  a  mile  came 
to  a  vote  on  the  10th  of  September,  1868.  The 
subsidy  was  voted,  and  the  route  from  Petaluma 
to  Cloverdale  selected.  Work  was  prosecuted 
for  a  time  in  1869.  then  was  stopped.  Colonel 
Peter  Donahue  bought  the  road  and  franchise  on 
August  10,  1870,  and  on  October  29,  1870,  the 
first  cars  ran  between  Petaluma  and  Santa  Rosa. 
In  1872  the  road  was  completed  to  Cloverdale. 

November  9,  1865 — There  was  a  heavy  rain- 
storm northward  along  the  coast.  At  the  Gua- 
lala  River  the  saw-log  boom  of  the  Rutherford 
Milling  Company  broke,  and  about  4,000,000 
feet  of  lumber  went  out  to  sea.  Three  schooners 
were  wrecked  upon  the  coast. 

March  29, 1866 — Michael  Ryan  was  executed 
at  Santa  Rosa,  for  the  crime  of  killing  his  wife. 
This  is  the  only  case  of  capital  punishment  yet 
on  record  in  Sonoma  County. 

November  15,  1866 — A  destructive  lire  oc- 
curred at  Sonoma,  and  a  number  of  buildings 
were  destroyed. 

November  7,  1867 — Mineral  paint  of  good 
quality  was  found  near  the  mill  of  O.  A.  Olm- 
stead,  in  the  redwoods. 

November  28,  1868  —  A  stage  robbery 
occurred  near  Cloverdale. 

December  10,  1868— The  schooner  C.  P. 
Heustis,  Captain  H.  Piltz,  went  ashore  near 
Fort  Ross,  and  was  a  total  wreck.  No  lives  lost. 



January  21,  1869. — A  petrified  tree  was 
found  while  grading  for  tlie  railroad,  on  the 
Cotate  Branch. 

March  18,  18(39 — According  to  the  school 
census  Sonoma  County  had  more  school  chil- 
dren than  any  other  comity  in  the  State,  except 
San  Francisco. 

August  19,  1871 — A  daring  attempt  was 
made  to  rob  the  Cloverdale  stage.  The  driver, 
Sandy  Woodworth,  would  not  stop,  and  as  a 
consequence  got  a  bullet  tlirough  his  cheek,  and 
a  young  man,  named  Cofhn,  on  the  seat  beside 
him  was  killed. 

F^ebruary  24,  1872 — A  large  whale  was 
stranded  on  the  shore  near  Timber  Cove,  and 
the  coast  residents  laid  in  a  supply  of  whale  oil. 

March  16,  1872— The  Donahue  line  of  rail- 
road was  completed  and  in  running  order  to 

May  25,  1872 — This  was  an  era  of  road  im- 
provement around  Petaluma  and  in  the  county 
at  large.  Many  miles  of  excellent  macadam- 
ized roads  were  constructed. 

September  6,  1872 — A.  Doty  &  Co.  estab- 
lished a  broom  factory  near  Penn's  Grove. 

August  1,  1873 — Elijah  McMurray,  a  former 
resident  of  Two  Rock  Yalley,  had  a  fearful  en- 
coTinter  with  a  wounded  buck,  and  finally  proved 
victor,  although   badly  wounded  and  lacerated. 

November  21,  1873 — A  telegraphic  line  was 
completed  from  Petaluma  to  Humboldt  Bay, 
and  there  was  Fraternal  greeting  between  the 
presses  of  Sonoma  and  Humboldt  counties. 

May  1,  1874  -The  schooner  Horace  Tem,- 
plcton  was  wrecked  in  Petaluma  Creek  on  what 
is  known  as   the  "  sunken  rock.'' 

May  29,  1874— The  basalt  blocks  of  Sonoma 
County  began  to  be  used  extensively  for  paving 
in  San  Francisco. 

June  26, 1874— The  Forestville  Chair  Factory 
becomes  an  important  manufacturing  industry. 

Sept&mber  18,  1874 — A  destructive  fire 
occurred  at  Bodega  Corners. 

November  27,  1874 — This  was  a  season  of 
floods  to  Sonoma  County,  on  account  of  excessive 

April  16,  1875 — The  steamer  James  M. 
Donahue  was  completed  and  commenced  run- 
ning between  San  Francisco  and  Lakeville. 

April  30,  1875— Granville  P.  Swift,  one  of 
the  "  Bear  Flag  party,"  and  once  a  wealthy  citi- 
zen of  Sonoma  County,  who  had  money  buried 
by  the  thousands  of  dollars,  was  found  with  his 
neck  broken,  in  Solano  County  —  his  mule 
having  stumbled  and  fallen  over  a  precipice. 

June  4,  1875 — A  new  townshi  p  was  created 
by  the  county  board  of  supervisors  called 
"  Knight's  Yallej'." 

June  18,  1875 — A  test  case  was  agreed  upon 
to  settle  the  disputed  boundary  question  be- 
tween Sonoma  and  Napa  Counties.  The 
decision  was  in  favor  of  Sonoma  County. 

October  27,  1876— The  Petaluma  and  San 
Rafael  Narrow  Guage  Railroad  was  sold  and 
transferred  to  Colonel  Peter  Donahue. 

January  18,  1878 — This  was  a  season  of  un- 
usual floods  to  Sonoma  Covmt^',  and  considera- 
ble damage  was  done. 

April  19,  1878 — The  up-coast  stage  was 
robbed  at  a  point  near  the  Gualala  River. 

December  27,  1878 — Congress  was  petioned 
for  $25,000  to  aid  in  improving  Petaluma  Creek. 
The  subsidy  was  granted  and  tlie  creek  much 

January  30,  1880 — The  valleys  of  Sonoma 
County  were  covered  with  snow,  a  very  unusual 

August  20,  1881 — A  destructive  fire  occurred 
at  Sebastopol. 

February  3,  1882 — Foot-pads  robbed  the 
Cloverdale  stage. 

September  1,  1882— J.  R.  Jewell  of  Peta- 
luma Township  Iniilt  the  first  silo  in  the  county. 

March  17,  1883— The  Pacific  Narrow  Guage 
Railroad  was  extended  to  Ingrams. 

October  6, 1883— The  Northern  Pacific  Rail- 
road was  completed  to  deep  water  at  Tiburon. 

The  new  steamer  Gold,  to  run  between  San 
Francisco  and  Petaluma,  was  completed. 

December  8,  1883 — The  first  stone  of  the 
new  court-house  at  Santa  Rosa  was  laid. 

September     25,    1886 — The     first    canning 


establislniient  at  Santa  Rusa  was  destroyud  by 

June  18,  1887 — Tlie  work  of  building  a 
branch  railroad  from  Pacheco  Station  to  con- 
nect with  the  Sonoma  Valley  Railroad  was  com- 

July  30,  1888~The  northern  end  of  the 
count}',  from  Santa  Rosa  upward,  has  a  large 
showing  of  new  vineyards  and  orchards. 

Below  we  give  a  full  list  of  the  present  towns 
and  villages  of  Sonoma  County,  in  alphabetical 
order,  outside  of  Petaluma,  Santa  Rosa,  Sonoma 
and  llealdsburg,  that  are  i-egularly  incorporated 

America  is  ten  miles  north  of  Santa  Rosa; 
including  the  immediate  vicinity;  it  has  a  popu- 
lation of  250.  It  is  more  wideh'  known  as 
Mark  West  Springs.  It  has  a  hotel  and  post- 
ottice  and  is  a  resort  for  tourists  and  invalids. 
A  stage  line  affords  communication  with  Santa 

Bloomfield  is  a  thriving  comumtiity  at  the 
head  of  Big  Valley,  twelve  miles  north  of  Peta- 
luma. The  population  is  about  350.  The 
village  has  a  full  complement  of  stores,  churches 
and  societies;  a  good  hotel  is  maintained.  It 
has  communication  by  stage  with  Petaluma. 
It  is  growing  and  offers  inducements  to  settlers. 

Bodega  is  eighteen  miles  north  of  Petaluma, 
and  located  on  Bodega  Bay  in  the  midst  of  a 
line  dairy  country  from  which,  with  the  fishing 
business,  it  derives  its  support.  It  boasts  of  a 
hotel,  postoffice  and  express  office. 

Clahr'dJe  is  located- twenty  three  miles  north- 
west from  Santa  Rosa  on  the  line  of  the  S.  F. 
cV-  N.  P.  It.  li.  If  is  in  the  midst  of  a  farming 
an<l  vino  growing  disti'ict.  There  are  sevei-al 
wineries  in  the  inimediatt'  neighborhdod.  It 
has  a  population  of  l."U.  Skaggs"  S]irin<;s  are 
six  miles  distant  fnun  tiiis  point  with  which 
communication  is  maintained  liy  stage. 

Cliiverdale. — Cloverdale  is  fourth  in  point  of 
wealth  and  population  amongst  the  towns  of 
Sonoma  County.  It  is  the  present  terminus  of 
tlie  San  Francisco  and  North  Pacific  iiaiiroad, 
and  is  distaut  thirty-three    miles  northwest  of 

Santa  Rosa  and  eighty-four  miles  from  San  Fran- 
cisco. It  is  in  the  midst  of  a  large  and  pro- 
ductive region,  and  is  the  center  of  trade  for 
the  wool  interest  and  extensive  hop  fields  of 
this  part  of  the  country.  The  climate  here  is 
more  bracing  than  in  the  southern  portion  of 
Sonoma,  and  is  especially  adapted  to  the  growth 
of  the  hardier  varieties  of  fruits.  The  popula- 
tion is  about  1,400  and  is  steadily  growing. 
The  leading  denominations  have  places  of  wor- 
ship with  good  congregations.  All  the  leading 
secret  and  fraternal  orders  and  societies  have 
flourishing  organizations.  Hotel  accommoda- 
tions are  good.  The  town  is  amply  supplied 
with  water  furnished  by  the  Cloverdale  Water 
Company.  Real  estate  is  low,  and  the  oppor- 
tunities offered  to  the  settler  are  unexcelled  by 
those  of  other  places.  Stages  leave  here  for 
Ukiah,  Mendocino  City,  Eureka  and  other  points 
on  the  North  Coast,  and  for  all  points  in  Lake 
County  and  northern  Napa.  A  railroad  will, 
in  a  few  months,  connect  it  with  Ukiah,  Men- 
docino County.  The  Cloverdale  Reveille  ably 
advocates  the  interests  of  the  community.  It 
is  published  weekly. 

Cozzens. — A  small  burg  located  a  i^^^  miles 
distant  from  Healdsburg.  It  has  a  population 
of  150  and  is  surrounded  by  a  prosperous  farm- 
ing and  wine  growing  community.  A  sawmill 
is  located  here  and  a  general  merchandise  store 
supplies  the  needed  requirements  of  the  village. 

JJuncan'x  M\U><  is  located  fhirty  miles  north 
from  Petaluma.  It  has  communication  with 
San  Francisco  by  the  North  Pacific  Coast  "Rail- 
road. It  is  supported  by  important  lumber, 
dairy  and  stock  raising  interests.  The  Duncan's 
Mill's  LantI  and  Lumber  t'omjiany  saw  mills  are 
located  here.  The  population  is  about  250. 
The  surrounding  coiintr}-  is  noted  for  its 
romantic  and  pictures(jue  scenery,  and  abun- 
dance of  game  and  fish.  It  is  a  favorite  resor- 
for  the  tourist,  the  sportsman  and  for  camping 
parties  during  the  summer  months.  Stages 
leave  here  for  all  points  in  ^Lendocino  anil  Hum- 
boldt (tonnties. 

J''is/i<ri'iiiitii's    lln/    is    located    on    the   coast 


above  Fort  Ross.  A  population  of  200  is  sup- 
ported by  the  farming  interest  and  employment 
at  the  saw  ami  shingle  mills  which  are  located 

/'Isk's  Mills  is  a  small  village  of  about  150 
population,  in  Salt  Point  Township,  distant 
about  twelve  miles  north  of  Fort  Ross.  Com- 
munication is  had  with  Duncan's  Mills  by  stage. 

Forestville  is  distant  twelve  miles  northwest 
of  Santa  Rosa,  on  the  S.  F.  tte  N.  P.  R.  R. 
Large  quantities  of  tan-bark  are  shipped  from 
this  point.  A  rustic  chair  factory  is  located 
here.  The  business  community  consists  of  a 
hotel,  blacksmith  shops  and  two  general  mer- 
chandise stores.  The  surrounding  country  is 
devoted  to  farming. 

Fort  lioss  is  a  small  settlement  forty-two 
miles  north  of  Petaluma.  It  contains  many 
reminders  of  the  early  days  wdien  a  Russian 
colony  was  located  here.  It  is  one  of  the  old- 
est settlements  on  the  northern  coast  of  Califor- 
nia. The  population  is  about  130,  who  are 
principally  engaged  in  stock  raising  and  farm- 
ing. It  is  connected  with  Duncan's  Mills  by 

Freestone  is  on  the  line  of  the  North  Pacific 
Coast  Railroad.  The  population  is  about  175, 
supported  by  the  dairying  and  farming  carried 
on  in  the  vicinity. 

Fvlton. — An  ambitious  and  growing  village 
on  the  line  of  the  S.  F.  &  N.  P.  R.  R.,  four 
miles  from  Santa  Rosa,  is  surrounded  by  a  rich 
agricultural  district.  Considerable  fruit  is 
raised  here.  The  population  is  200,  dependent 
upon  the  fruit  and  farming  interests  of  the 
vicinity.  From  this  place  a  branch  of  the  S. 
F.  it  N.  P.  R.  R.  extends  to  (xuerneville. 

(jreyser  Springs  are  located  sixteen  miles 
from  Cloverdale,  from  whicli  place  they  are 
reached  by  stage.  It  is  a  noted  health  and  pleas- 
ure resort.  The  numerous  mineral  springs  in 
the  vicinity  are  the  chief  attraction. 

GuerneviUe. — The  progressive  and  j^rosperous 
town  of  GuerneviUe  is  situated  in  the  midst  of 
a  large  lumber  producing  district,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  forests  of  redwood;  a  branch  of  the 

8.  F.  &  N.  P.  R.  R.  has  its  terminus  at  this 
point.  The  town  derived  its  name  from  one  of 
its  pioneer  residents  who  is  engaged  in  the  large 
milling  interests  of  the  town.  There  are  four 
extensive  lumber  mills  located  in  the  town,  em- 
ploying a  large  number  of  men.  The  present 
population  is  variously  estimated  at  from  750  to 
900.  As  the  forests  are  being  cleared  oft'  the 
land  is  put  under  cultivation,  producing  fine 
crops  of  vegetables  and  cereals,  and  a  large  yield 
of  fruit.  The  Korbel  mills  located  about  three 
miles  up  the  Russian  River,  are  the  most  exten- 
sive lumber  mills  in  the  county.  Considerable 
attention  has  of  late  been  paid  to  the  vine,  and 
many  acres  have  been  set  out.  In  addition  to 
the  lumber  mills,  there  is  also  a  box  factory  and 
shingle  mill  in  active  operation.  The  prospects 
of  this  town  are  very  bright.  Its  rapid  growth 
and  prosperity  are  assured. 

Kellogg. — A  summer  resort,  sixteen  miles 
from  Santa  Rosa,  witli  which  it  is  connected  by 

Lakeside  is  a  thriving  and  growing  village, 
twenty-two  miles  southeast  of  Santa  Rosa. 
There  are  large  farming,  dairy  and  stock  raising 
interests  in  the  vicinity ;  the  population  is  about 

Litton  Springs. — A  noted  health  and  pleas- 
ure resort,  four  miles  from  Healdsburg,  on  the 
S.  F.  &  N.  P.  R.  R.  The  water  of  the  mineral 
springs  located  here  is  bottled  and  finds  a  mar- 
ket all  over  the  State.  The  Litton  Sprino-s 
College  is  located  at  this  point.  The  countrv 
in  the  neighborhood  is  rich  and  productive,  and 
inviting  to  settlement. 

Mark  West  is  on  the  line  of  the  S.  F.  ct  N. 
P.  R.  R.  six  miles  north  of  Santa  Rosa.  The 
leading  interests  of  the  vicinity  ure  farmiiio-, 
fruit  and  vine  growing.  The  population  is 
about  100.  I'he  surrounding  country  is  I'ich 
and  fertile  and  excellently  ada])te(l  to  the  growth 
of  vines  and  fruit. 

Occidental.  — This,  growing  and  prosperous 
town  is  located  on  the  line  of  the  North  Pacific 
Coast  Railroad,  about  thirty  miles  north  of  Peta- 
luma.      Farming,    fruit   growing   and    lumber 


iDamifacturing  are  the  principal  industries  in 
wliicii  tlie  inhabitants  are  engaged.  Tiie  popula- 
tion is  225. 

Penn^s  Grove  is  a  sinall  .<ettlen)ent  live 
miles  north  of  Petalnina  mi  tlif  line  of  the  S.  F. 
&  N.  I'.  R.  R.  It  is  in  the  midst  of  a  large 
vine  gniwiiig  an<l  wine  producing  district.  The 
population  is  125. 

Timlier  Core  is  foi-tj'-tive  miles  north  of 
Petahima,  and  has  a  popidation  of  100.  The 
occupation  of  the  residents  is  mainly  farming, 
stock  raising,  and  dairying.  It  is  known  by 
the  Post  Oftice  Department  as  ISeaview. 

iSkaf/ffs'  Sjyringfi, — Has  long  been  noted  as  a 
liealtli  and  pleasure  resort,  twenty-nine  miles  dis- 
tant from  Santa  Rosa.  A  stage  connects  it  with 
Clairville,  si.x  miles  distant.  Tiie  jiopulation  is 
about  115,  who  are  principally  engaged  in  wool 

Smith's  Iian<]i,  or  more  generally  known 
as  Bodega  Roads,  is  twenty-five  miles  north'  of 
Petaluma,  and  is  on  the  line  of  the  North  Paci- 
fic Coast  Railroad.     The  people  of  the  surround- 

ing country  are  principally  engaged  in  dairying 
and  farming,  from  which  their  support  is  chiefly 
derived.     The  population  is  about  is  250. 

Stiiiiy  Point — Is  located  seven  miles  north  of 
Petaluma  in  the  midst  of  a  large  fruit,  dairy  and 
farming  region.  Thepopidation  is  about  20U,  in- 
cluding those  residing  in  the  immediate  vicinity. 

Valley  Ford  is  one  of  the  prosperous  com- 
munities of  Sonotna.  It  is  on  the  line  of  the 
North  Pacific  Coast  R.  R.,  eighteen  miles  north 
of  Petahima.  It  boasts  of  a  flouring  mill.  The 
population  is  about  250.  It  is  snppoi-fed  by 
the  large  dairying,  farming,  and  stock  raising 
interest  by  which  it  is  surrounded. 

Windsor  is  another  of  the  large  aud  thrifty 
villages  of  Sonoma  County.  It  is  ten  miles 
northwest  of  Santa  Rosa,  in  the  midst  of  a  large 
farming  and  fruit  growing  section.  There  are 
many  vineyards  in  the  neighborhooil  aud  several 
nurseries.  It  has  a  population  of  400.  The 
village  boasts  of  a  brick  manufactory,  several 
fruit-drying  establishments,  and  other  industries 
of  minor  imnortance. 




Ill-fated^  Sonoma  Countians — -Doctor  Smeathman — Canfield,  Van  NosTRANn  and  Borton 

Barnes — Judson,   Woodworth,  Baker  and  "Old  Benjamin" — Leihy — Mrs.   Sai.lie    Ann 

flHE  early  American  settlers  of  Sonoma 
W.  Count}'  luckily  escaped  the  clangers  and 
J  bloody  episodes  of  Indian  warfare  so  com- 
mon to  those  who  follow  close  upon  the  foot- 
steps of  receding  barbarism.  Their  immunity 
from  these  usual  accompaniments  of  frontier 
life  are  traceable  to  three  causes.  As  early  as 
1811,  as  has  already  been  shown,  the  Rus- 
sians had  secured  a  lodgment  on  this  coast, 
and  held  real,  if  not  undisputed,  sway  from 
Bodega  Bay  to  the  Ciualala  River.  Those  Mus- 
covites came,  not  only  prepared  with  ample 
munitions  of  war  to  make  their  presence  felt 
and  respected,  but  they  liriHight  with  them 
quite  a  little  army  of  Koiliac  Indians  who,  like 
all  the  Indians  of  the  northern  latitudes,  were 
much  superior  in  intelligence  and  physical 
courage  to  the  dull  apathetic  Indians  of  Cen- 
tral California.  AVhatever  there  may  be  yet  of 
unwritten  history  clustering  around  Fort  Ross, 
it  is  quite  probable  that  the  shortest  chapter 
would  be  that  compassing  the  recital  of  Indian 
warfare  against  the  Russians.  Then,  again, 
for  several  years  by  actual  official  Dccupancy,  the 
California  government  had   exercised  complete 

dominion  over  all  the  southern  portion  of  the 
county  and  up  the  valleys,  inland,  as  far  north 
as  the  present  site  of  Cloverdale.  But  there 
was  another  factor,  the  third  and  last,  more 
effectual  than  the  combined  power  of  Spaniards 
and  Russians  in  paving  the  way  for  a  peaceable 
and  bloodless  occupation  of  this  fair  county  by 
settlers,  and  that  was  the  pestilence  of  1837. 
Before  its  destroying  breath,  there  is  good 
reason  to  believe  many  thousand  Indians  per- 
ished within  the  territory  now  embraced  in 
Sonoma,  Marin,  Napa  and  Solano  counties. 
Where  tribes  were  not  entirely  swept  away, 
they  were  so  reduced  in  numbers  as  to  virtually 
put  an  end  to  organized  tribal  distinctions. 
Before  they  had  time  to  rally  from  this  broken 
and  shattered  condition,  the  tidal  wave  of  ad- 
vancing civilization  engulfed  them.  While  the 
historian  of  Sonoma  County  is  spared  the  re- 
cital of  bloody  and  tragic  deeds  consequent 
upon  civilization  and  barbarism  meeting  upon 
debatal)le  grounds,  they  to  whom  shall  fall  the 
task  of  embalming  in  volumes  the  histories  of 
Mendocino  and  Ilumbolt  counties  will  have  to 
dip  their  pens  deep  in  blood. 


While  the  boundaries  of  Sonoma  County  was 
ever  a  sliield  to  lier  citizens  against  danger  from 
Indians,  not  a  few  wandered  fortli  and  tVli  vic- 
tims to  Indian  savagery  elsewliei-c.  It  is  due 
to  the  memory  of  such  to  give  their  names,  and 
tragic  manner  of  death,  a  place  in  this  volume. 
They  are  given  in  chronological  order,  and  with 
all  the  minuteness  of  time,  place  and  attendant 
circumstances,  at  command. 
•  In  the  early  sixties  Rev.  H.  O.  G.  Smeatli- 
inan  was  installed  rector  of  St.  John's  Episcopal 
Church,  Petal uma.  He  was  an  Englishman  by 
birth,  and  had  a  tinished  education,  being  a 
regular  graduate  of  a  medical  college  of  the 
land  of  his  nati\ity.  lie  was  a  gentleman  as 
unassuming  and  honorable  as  he  was  a  Chris- 
tian kind  and  exemplary.  In  1863  he  resigned 
the  rectorship  of  his  church  and  went  to  the 
tlien.  Territory  of  Nevada.  Having  a  good 
knowledge  of  mineralogy  he  entered  with  zeal 
into  the  search  for  hidden  lodes  of  silver  which 
just  then  was  the  center  of  attraction  to  the 
mining  world.  He  was  in  the  habit  of  ventur- 
ing forth  alone  and  penetrating  the  depths  of 
solitary  wilds.  The  following  brief  letter, 
signed  '-J.  M.  Case,''  and  addressed  to  Mrs. 
Smeathman,  tells  the  rest: 

"Star  City,  N.  T.,  March  30,  1864. 

"Mrs.  Sarah  Smkatuman,  Dear  Friend:  — 
"  The  party  who  went  out  to  see  after  the 
remains  of  your  husband  liave  just  returned. 
Although  it  stormed  every  day  they  were  gone, 
they  succeeded  in  iinding  his  remains,  unmo- 
lested by  any  wild  beasts  or  anything  after  the 
Indians  left  him.  They  found  that  he  was  shot 
by  aritle  ball,  entering  the  back  of  his  head  and 
coming  out  at  his  right  eye.  He  had  no  other 
marks  or  bruises  on  his  body,  but  his 
clothes  were  entirely  stripped  from  him  and 
taken  away.  The  party  found  it  impossiJile  to 
bring  the  remains  in  without  a  wagon  and  a 
coffin,  but  they  buried  him  as  well  as  they 
could,  so  that  if  it  is  still  the  wish  of  his  friends 
to  have  him  sent  to  California  it  can  be  done, 
but  it  will  cost  considerable."' 

Close  followiutf  the  cruel  fate  of  the  ill-starred 

Dr.  Smeathman,  three  more  of  Sonoma  Coun- 
ty's sons,  citizens  of  Eloomfield,  fell  victims  to 
savage  atrocity,  near  the  same  place,  and  at  the 
hands  of  the  same  Indians  who  killed  the  former. 
Hon.  E.  F.  Dunne,  a  former  Representative  in 
the  California  Legislature  fi-om  Sonoma  County, 
in  a  letter  of  date.  Star  City,  N.  T.,  May  9, 
1864,  addressed  to  the  "  Wells  Fargo  Agent, 
Rloomlield,"  wrote  as  follows: 

"  We  have  had  another  Indian  massacre  here, 
and  three  of  your  townsmen  are  killed — II.  I>. 
Cantield,  Perry  Van  Nostrand  and  J.  W.  Borton. 
E.  M.  Noble  is  shot  in  three  places,  and  has 
almost  miraculously  escaped  death,  the  slightest 
show  that  ever  a  man  lived  on  in  this  world. 

"The  above  named  persons  were  on  their  way 
to  Boise,  and  on  Queen's  River,  distant  about 
seventy-five  miles  from  here,  fell  in  with  three 
persons  who  were  out  prospecting.  They  had 
stopped  for  dinner,  and  had  turned  their  horses 
out  to  graze,  having  taken  oft'  the  saddles. 
They  were  surprised  by  a  band  of  sixty  Indians 
who  fired  upon  them  from  behind  some  rocks. 
It  was  certain  death  to  attempt  to  run  away 
on  foot,  so  they  made  for  their  horses.  Noble 
got  his  horse  sooner  than  the  rest  and  had  him 
saddled,  having  only  taken  oft'  the  bridle,  and 
might  have  escaped  without  a  shot,  but  he 
turned  and  with  a  six  shooter  in  each  hand  stood 
his  ground  and  kept  the  whole  band  at  bay  till 
his  comrades  should  get  their  horses  and  saddle 
them.  While  standing  thus  he  was  struck  in 
the  neck  with  a  ball,  entering  a  little  behind 
the  left  ear  down  below  the  hair,  and  coining 
out  about  the  middle  of  the  back  of  the  neck, 
barely  missing  the  neck  bone.  A  few  moments 
later  he  was  struck  in  the  abdomen,  on  the  left 
side,  in  the  lineof  the  navel, some  five  inches  dis- 
tant therefrom.  He  thinks  both  these  shots 
were  fired  by  the  same  marksman,  as  he  noticed 
him  taking  sight.  He  watched  for  his  appear- 
ance the  third  time,  and  as  he  showed  his  head 
above  the  rock  behind  which  he  was  concealed, 
he  fired  at  him,  and  thinks  he  hit  him,  as  he 
saw  him  no  more.  But  the  boys  were  not 
ready  yet,  and  he  still  stood  his  ground.     He 



was  not  knocked  down  by  either  shot.  The 
otliors  who  were  not  yet  killed,  were  now  ready. 
Bnt  just  as  Xohle  was  preparinn;  to  mount,  he 
was  struck  again,])ing  inure  wonderfully 
than  before.  Tlie  ball  entered  from  the  front, 
on  the  left  side,  striking  right  at  tlie  base  of  the 
])elvi8  and  passing  under  it,  came  out  a  little 
back  of  the  right  hip  joint,  and  yet  apparently 
not  injuring  him  in  the  least,  further  than  the 
pain  of  a  ilesli  wound,  (/antield,  Van  Nostrand, 
and  I'orton,  with  Dodge  one  of  the  pros- 
pecting party,  were  already  dead.  The  remain- 
ing two  with  Noble  now  jumped  to  their 
horses  and  escaped.  The  affair  occurred  Tues- 
day, May  3.  The  parties  left  struck  for  the 
Jjoise  River  trail,  to  get  help  to  go  back  for 
the  bodies,  and  met  with  Mr.  Jordan  (after 
whom  Jordan  Creek  is  named)  and  some  men 
with  him,  some  of  whom  took  care  of  Noble, 
and  Joi^dan  and  others  with  Gates  (who  was 
along  and  who,  by  the  way,  is  an  intimate  friend 
of  mine,  and  from  whom  1  learn  these  particu- 
lars) went  back  to  recover  the  bodies.  But 
there  had  fallen  fifteen  inches  of  snow  during 
the  night  and  they  could  not  find  them,  and  the 
horses  could  not  live,  so  they  brought  Noble 
down  here,  and  a  party  will  set  out  immediately 
from  here  to  recover  the  bodies  of  the  dead. 
Borton  was  killed  the  first  shot.  Canfield  and 
Van  Nostrand  were  hit.  The  broke  from  their 
horses  and  ran,  and  a  number  of  Indians  after 
them,  and  no  more  was  seen  of  them.  Dodge 
was  killed  on  the  second  volley." 

The  Petaluma  Argus,  of  same  date  in  which 
the  above  appeared,  said  editorially: 

"  In  another  column  will  be  found  a  letter 
from  K.  F.  Unnne,  Esij.,  giving  an  account  of 
the  murder,  by  Indians,  of  J.  W.  Borton,  Berry 
Van  Nostrand  and  II.  B.  Canfield,  of  Bloom- 
field,  in  this  county.  J.  W.  IJorton  was,  prior 
to  the  departure  for  the  mines,  our  agent  at 
J'loomtield;  and  when  he  bade  us  good-bye,  we 
little  dreamed  that  sucli  an  untimely  fate  was 
in  store  for  him.  Since  Mr.  Dunne's  letter  was 
placed  in  type  we  have  received  a  communica- 
tion from  our  Star  City,  Nevada  Territory, corre- 

spondent in  relation  to  the  same  subject.  The 
only  apparent  discrepancy  between  the  two 
statements  is  in  reference  to  i'orton.  We  make 
the  following  extract  from  the  communication 
of  our  correspondent:  'While  Dodge  was  sad- 
dling his  horse  he  received  a  shot  in  the  head 
and  died  instantly.  Gates  had  the  pi-esence  of 
mind  to  grab  the  ammunition,  and  he.  Noble 
and  Kendall  threw  themselves  on  their  horses 
and  charged  through  the  ranks  of  the  savages 
who  were  fast  closing  around  them,  and  under 
a  perfect  shower  of  balls  and  arrows — all  their 
horses  being  pierced  with  several  arrows  each. 
Dodge  was  dead,  Canfield  and  Van  Nostrand 
dead  or  dying — while  poor  Borton  was  sitting 
where  he  was  when  shot — not  even  blessed  with 
the  sweet  relief  of  a  speedy  death,  with  only 
his  faithful  watch-dug  by  his  side,  which,  when 
last  seen  was  determined  tojierish  in  defense  of 
his  dying  master.' " 

Cotemporaneous  with  the  chronicling  of  the 
above  bloody  episode,  the  Argun  contained  the 
following  brief  mention: 

"  James  D.  Barnes,  who  used  tu  reside  in  Two 
liock  Valley,  in  this  county,  and  brother  to  Dr. 
T.  L.  Barnes,  of  this  city,  was  killed  by  Indians 
near  Areata,  Humboldt  County,  California,  un 
the  fifth  inst.  He  was  out  some  three  miles 
from  home  looking  for  horses  when  he  was  at- 
tacked and  wounded  twice, once  in  the  shoulder 
and  once  in  the  back.  He  succeeded  in  reach- 
ijig  home,  but  died  soon  after.  He  was  buried 
by  the  Masonic  fraternity,  of  which  order  hi; 
was  a  member." 

Only  eighteen  months  bud  run  their  ccjurse 
when  another  requisition  was  made  upon  the 
citizens  of  I'loomfield  and  Big  Valley  for  blood 
to  slake  savage  thirst  -the  treacherous  A})aches 
of  Arizona  Iteing  the  instrumentality,  this 
time,  of  placing  crape  at  the  door  of  several 
Sonoma  Countj'  homes.  In  the  early  part  of 
186t)  there  was  much  excitement  over  reported 
rich  deposits  of  gold  and  silver  in  the  Territory 
of  Arizona.  To  every  new  liehl  of  mining  ex- 
citement Sonoma  County  liad  furnished  her  full 
(juota  of  seekers  after  the  "  golden   fleece,''  and 


many  of  them  were  in  the  vanguard  of  pros- 
pectors lured  to  Arizona.  Andrew  Jmlson, 
Ira  D.  AA'^oodworth  and  Metcalf  iiaker,  all  from 
the  neighborhood  of  Bloomfield,  were  betruiled 
by  the  stories  of  mines  of  almost  fahnlous  rich- 
ness, to  abandon  tlie  qniet  pursuits  of  agricul- 
ture, and  seek  in  Arizona  a  speedier  road  to 
wealth.  After  much  prospecting  they  at  length 
staked  their  chances  upon  a  mineral  ledge  in 
Sacramento  district,  some  distance  from  Hardy- 
viile  in  tliat  Territory.  In  this  mining  enter- 
prise tliey  had  associated  with  them  a  Mr. 
Noodles  and  a  man  known  by  the  sobriquet  of 
"  Old  Benjamin."  That  they  had  earnest  faith 
in  the  richness  of  their  mine,  is  evidenced  by 
the  fact  that  through  the  stubborn  rock  they 
had  excavated  a  shaft  to  the  depth  of  about  100 
feet.  Whether  inistaken  or  not  as  to  the  wealth 
of  mineral  below  them,  it  can  well  be  under- 
stood that  in  that  desert  place,  surrounded  by 
somber  rocks  that  had  been  placed  in  their 
settings  by  the  mighty  forces  of  Nature,  was, to 
them,  centered  much  of  hope  and  expectation  in 
life.  On  the  morning  of  the  29t]i  of  October, 
18i)6.  they  repaired  to  their  work,  doubtless, 
little  dreaming  that  they  were  under  the  shadow 
of  an  impending  calamity.  Andrew  Judson 
(we  knew  him  well  from  sunny  boyhood  up  to 
estate  of  manhood)  had  been  lowered  to  the 
dark  depths  of  the  shaft,  while  his  companions 
stood  ready  to  winze  up  the  tub,  as  filled  with 
rock  below.  Their  horses  were  picketed  in  the 
flats  close  by,  wherever  forage  was  to  be  found. 
The  first  intimation  they  had  that  the  treacher- 
ous Apaches  lay  concealed  behind  the  rocks  was 
the  ringing  report  of  rifles  upon  the  morning 
air.  Woodworth,  Baker  and  " Old  Benjamin'' 
bit  the  dust,  and  Noodles,  although  shot  through 
the  body,  made  swift  foot,  and  with  knife  in 
hand  severed  the  picket  rope  of  a  horse,  and 
vaulting  upon  his  back,  was  the  only  one  to 
escape  to  recount  the  tragic  occurrence.  Of 
the  balance,  human  tongue  never  told,  and  only 
the  recording  angel  knows  what  was  the  agony 
of  poor  Judson  when  his  murdered  companions, 
and  jagged  rocks,  were  tumbled  down  the  shaft 

upon  him  by  cruel  Apache  hands.  That  now 
deserted  shaft,  hewn  down  through  rock,  will 
perpetuate  the  story  of  one  of  Arizona's  most 
tragic  scenes. 

Wiieii  calamity  came  t<i  Sonoma  •citizens 
abroad,  at  tiie  hands  of  Indians,  the  first  seems 
always  to  have  presaged  the  swift  coming  of 
anotiier.  In  less  than  two  months  Ironi  the  oc- 
currence above  narrated  the  Ari/i/.t  chronicled 
the  following: 

'■There  apjiears  to  be  a  singular  fatality  that 
marks  citizens  of  this  county  as  victims  of 
the  iu\tred  and  fiendish  barbarity  of  the  Indians 
of  adjacent  territories.  Only  a  few  weeks  since 
we  clironicled  the  killing  of  three  of  our  citizens 
in  Arizona  Territory,  and  again  we  are  pained 
by  the  intelligence  that  another  of  our  citizens 
has  fallen  a  victim  to  the  treacherous  foe.  G. 
W.  Leihy,  of  this  city,  Indian  agent  for  Arizona, 
and  H.  C.  Everts,  his  clerk,  were,  Mhile  on  the 
road  from  Prescott  to  La  Paz,  on  the  18th  of 
November,  killed  by  the  Indians,  and  tiieir 
bodies  subjected  to  all  the  atrocities  peculiar  to 
savage  barbarity.  Mr.  Leihy  was  a  resident  of 
this  county;  and  his  wife  and  only  child  have 
resided  in  this  city  during  his  absence  in 
Arizona.  *  *  *  We  knew  him  well,  and 
esteemed  him  highly  as  a  gentleman  and  friend. 
Only  a  few  months  since  he  visited  our  oftice, 
and  gave  us  much  valuable  information  about 
Arizona;  and  when  he  bade  us  good-b}'  we  lit- 
tle thought  that  we  would  so  soon  be  called 
upon  to  chronicle  his  death,  under  circumstan- 
ces so  painful. 

"  Since  the  above  was  placed  in  type,  the  fol- 
lowing letter,  written  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Stewart, 
who  used  to  reside  near  Petaluma,  has  been 
handed  us  for  publication: 

"  '  Sax  Bernaedino,  Dec.  3,  186(5. 

'•'Mrs.  Sarau  Leihy — Dear  Madam: — I 
have  a  task  to  perform,  the  most  unpleasant  of 
my  life.  I  have  been  putting  it  off"  for  two 
days,  and  during  that  time  I  have  scarcely  slept 
at  all ;  the  news  has  fairly  stunned  me.  George 
is  dead — killed  bj'  the  Indians,  as  also  his  clerk, 
Mr.    Everts.     They   were    killed    this    side   of 



Prescott,  at  a  place  called  Bell's  Canon,  the 
same  place  that  Mr.  liell  and  Mr.  Sage  were 
killed  last  year.  They  were  traveling  alone 
with  two  Indians;  one  of  them  was  his  old  ser- 
vant, the  other  was  one  of  the  River  Indians, 
who  was  taken  prisoner  at  Skull  Valley  this 
summer.  It  is  supposed  that  they  were  attacked 
by  a  large  number  of  Indians.  I  have  got  my 
news  from  men  that  I  am  acquainted  with. 
They  left  Prescott  two  days  after  Mr.  Leihy 
left,  and  came  to  the  ground  two  days  after  the 
murder  and  saw  his  grave.  They  were  buried 
by  one  citizen  and  some  soldiers.  They  knew 
Mr.  Leihy.  He  had  left  their  camp  about  an 
hour,  when  the  mule  that  Mr.  Everts  rode  came 
back  to  camp.  They  then  followed  on  and 
found  them  dead.  They  took  them  near  the 
station  and  buried  them.  The  two  Indians  who 
were  with  thera  have  not  been  found.  The 
Indians  killed  one  of  George's  horses  and  cut 
all  the  ineat  off  of  it  and  took  the  other  with 
them.  They  also  burned  his  carriage  and  de- 
stroyed or  carried  off  all  that  he  had  with  him. 
You  may  hear  of  his  death  before  you  get  this 
— I  hope  that  I  may  not  be  the  first  to  break 
the  dreadful  news  to  you,  but  I  thought  you 
would  rather  hear  some  of  the  particulars  from 
me.  I  probably  know  more  in  regard  to  his 
affairs  than  any  one  else,  and  I  wish  you  to 
communicate  with  me  freely  and  I  will  do  all 
for  you  that  I  can.'  " 

As  stated  above,  the  two  Indians  accompany- 
ing Leihy  and  Everts  were  not  found — and 
opinion  was  divided  as  to  whether  they,  in  con- 
certed treachery,  had  led  their  over-conliding 
companions  into  an  ambuscade  of  fellow  savages; 
or  whether  they  had  themselves  been  taken 
prisoners,  and  reserved  for  still  more  cruel  tor- 
ture and  mutilation  than  that  which  had  been 
visited  upon  the  lamented  Leihy,  whose  head 
had  been  literally  pounded  to  a  pulp  with 
stones.  Some  six  months  after  the  tragic  occur- 
rence above  narrated,  the  Arizona  Miner  pub- 
lished the  following,  which  would  seem  to 
exonerate  the  missing  In<lian  companions  of 
Leihy  fiom  the  suspicion  of  treachery : 

"Among  some  Apache  prisoners  lately  cap- 
tured by  Colonel  Ilgis  in  the  Mazatzal  Moun- 
tains and  taken  to  Fort  McDowell,  was  a  squaw 
who,  through  an  interpreter,  gave  the  following 
particulars  concerning  the  murder  of  George 
W.  Leihy,  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  for 
this  Territory,  at  Bell's  Canon,  November  18, 
1866.  From  the  circumstantial  and  connected 
way  in  which  they  are  told  they  are  believed  by 
the  officers  at  Fort  McDowell  to  be  entirely 
correct : 

"  A  band  of  Apaches  from  the  Sierra  Ancha 
Mountains  (probably  Tontos)  had  been  visiting 
the  Colorado  River  Indians,  and  were  on  their 
return,  with  passes  given  them  upon  the  river. 
Upon  reaching  Bell's  Canon  they  proposed 
coming  to  Fort  Whipple  for  rations,  thinking 
the  passes  would  protect  them  and  also  procure 
the  supplies  they  were  in  need  of.  While  in 
consultation  upon  the  subject,  an  Indian  in 
their  company,  who  had  spent  much  time  on 
the  Colorado,  saw  Leihy  and  his  clerk.  Everts, 
approaching  by  the  road,  and  announced  to  tiie 
band  who  they  were.  It  was  then  concluded  to 
kill  Leihy;  to  kill  the  great  chief  of  the  whites, 
as  they  thought  him  to  be,  would  alarm  the 
whole  white  population  and  soon  restore  tlie 
country  to  the  peaceable  possession  of  the  In- 
dians. Acting  at  once  upon  this  idea,  they 
brutally  murdered  the  superintendent  and 
Everts;  and  to  make  the  work  more  shocking 
to  the  whites,  the  bodies  were  mutilated  in  the 
most  terrible  manner.  The  Indian  taken  in  the 
famous  Skull  Valley  tight  (August  13,  1866), 
for  whom  Mr.  Leihy,  in  mistaken  kindness,  had 
obtained  a  release  from  Fort  Whipple,  and 
whom  he  was  taking  to  La  Paz,  is  reported  by 
the  squaw  to  have  been  an  Apache  Mohave, 
and  to  have  been  killed  in  the  attack.  She  does 
not  state,  however,  whether  it  was  intended  to 
kill  him.  The  other  Indian,  a  Mohave,  who 
went  from  here  with  Leihy,  was  taken  by  the 
band  to  be  a  Maricopa.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  he  had  just  been  on  a  visit  to  the  Marico- 
pas.  He  insisted  that  he  was  a  Mohave,  but 
the  baud  denied  it  and  charged  him  with  being 



afraid  to  acknowledge  his  tribe.  He  was  taken 
some  distance  in  the  hills  and  tortured  to  death, 
according  to  the  usual  manner  in  which  the 
Apaches  deal  with  the  Maricopas.  His  scalp 
was  taken  and  the  band  started  for  their  ran- 
cheria,  near  Meadow  Valley,  where  they  had  a 
grand  dance  over  it.  A  sub-chief,  the  husband 
of  this  siiuaw,  was  sent  to  Big  Rump's  village 
on  the  Saliscus  River,  near  tli,e  mouth  of  Tonto 
Creek,  with  a  request  that  Big  Rumj)  would 
have  mescal  ready  by  the  next  full  moon,  when 
the  band  from  the  Sierra  Anchas  would  be 
there  to  have  a  jubilee  over  their  killing  of  the 
white  chief,  his  clerk,  and  the  Maricopa.  On 
his  journey  upon  this  mission,  this  sub-chief 
and  his  companion,  including  iiis  wife  (the 
squaw  in  question),  were  attacked  by  Colonel 
Hgis's  party.  The  sub-chief  and  the  other  were 
killed;  the  squaw  and  others  captured,  as  already 

Thus  ends  all  that  will,  probably,  ever  be 
known  in  reference  to  the  motive  and  manner 
of  the  massacre  of  Leihy  and  his  companions. 
In  this  act  of  perfidy,  the  Indians  of  Arizona 
struck  down  their  best  friend,  for  Mr.  Leih}',  in 
honest  faith,  was  their  confiding  friend,  and  we 
know  it  from  his  own  lips  that  he  believed  that 
the  Indians  of  the  Pacific  Coast  were  "  more 
sinned  against  than  sinning."  We  account  it  a 
duty  discharged  to  place  this  token  of  remem- 
brance upon  that  lonely  grave  in  Arizona,  in  the 
deserts  of  which  Aztec  semi-civilization  seems 
to  have  met  its  sunset. 


We  cannot  more  fitly  close  this  chapter  of 
Indian  horrors  experienced  by  Sonoma  County 
residents  than  by  appending  the  following 
obituary  notice  taken  from  the  Petaluma  Anjus 
of  Mrs.  Sallie  Ann  Canfield,  an  aged  lady  whose 
name  was  almost  a  household  word  in  Sonoma 
County,  and  who,  although  dying  peacefully 
surrounded  by  her  family,  had  passed  through  ex- 
periences  of  savage  atrocity  such  as  will  give  her 
name  a  certain  passport  to  future  generations: 

"  It  is  with  deep  regret  that  we  announce  the 

death  of  Sallie  Ann  Canfield,  beloved  wife  of 
William  D.  Canfield,  of  Blucher  Valley,  which 
occurred  at  10  o'clock  Tuesday  evening,  April 
3,  1888.  Mrs.  Cantield's  maiden  name  was 
Sallie  Ann  Lee.  She  was  born  at  Arlington, 
Vermont,  August  20,  1810,  and  married  to  Mr. 
Canfield  June  10,  1828.  In  1837  they  moved 
from  Arlington  to  Springfield,  Pennsylvania, 
where  they  remained  two  ycj^rs  and  then  re- 
moved to  Jensen  County,  Illinois.  In  1812 
they  again  took  up  their  westward  line  of  march 
and  settled  in  Iowa,  upon  the  present  site  of  the 
now  flourishing  city  of  Oskaloosa.  Here  Mr. 
Canfield  erected  the  first  house  and  laid  out  the 
public  square,  the  lines  of  which  has'e  not  been 
changed  to  this  day — though  the  city  has  an 
estimated  population  of  40,000.  In  May,  1817, 
Mr.  Canfield  started  through  the  wilderness  with 
his  wife,  five  children  and  a  small  party  of 
friends,  for  (Oregon.  They  reached  Whitman's 
Mission  in  Walla  Walla  Valley,  in  October  of 
that  year,  where  they  proposed  to  spend  the 
winter  and  look  around  for  a  favorable  location. 
In  this  they  were  doomed  to  disappointment, 
for  in  a  little  more  than  one  month  from  the 
time  of  their  arrival  the  treacherous  Indians 
surprised  them  and  killed  all  the  men  of  the 
settlement  except  Mr.  Canfield  and  a  man  by 
the  name  of  Osborn,  who  made  his  escape.  Mr. 
Canfield  was  badly  wounded,  but  managed  to 
conceal  himself  in  an  old  adobe  house  until  the 
fellowing  night,  when  he  was  informed  by  some 
children  that  the  Indians  intended  to  hunt  him 
up  and  put  him  to  death  in  the  morning.  He 
made  a  heroic  effort,  on  foot,  and  reached  Lap- 
way  Station,  in  Washington  Territory,  a  dis- 
tance of  140  miles,  in  a  few  hours  less  than  one 
!  week.  The  women  and  children  were  all  made 
i  prisoners  and  servants  of  the  Indians,  except 
Mrs.  Whitman,  who  was  killed.  When  it  was 
ascertained  that  Mr.  Canfield  had  escaped  the 
red  devils  put  on  their  war  paint,  surrounded 
the  house  that  contained  the  poor  women  and 
children  and  were  on  the  point  of  massacring 
them  all,  when  '  Old  Beardy,'  a  former  chief, 
rode  suddenly  into  camp  and  standing  upright 


upon  his  lioi-fje  pleaded  eloquently  for  the  lives 
of  the  prisoners.  The  savajres'  after  listening 
spell-bound  to  the  old  man's  oration,  informed 
the  prisouers  that  their  lives  would  be  spared. 
Here  a  long  story  could  be  told,  if  space  per- 
mitted, of  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Canfield,  and  the 
trials  of  the  party,  but  it  is  sufficient  to  state 
that  he  interested  the  men  of  the  Hudson  Bay 
I'ur  ('(iiiipany,  in  behalf  of  the  prisoners,  and  in 
one  month's  time  the  good  Peter  Ogden,  chief  of 
that  Company,  arrived  from  Vancouver,  and  after 
an  ett'ort  of  three  days  and  nights  succeeded  in 
purchasing  their  freedom — paying  the  Indians 
in  blankets,  guns,  ammunition,  knives  and 
trinkets.  After  getting  possession  of  the 
prisoners  he  made  a  contract  with  the  Nez 
Perces  to  bring  Mr.  Canfield's  family  to  Fort 
Walla  Walla  where  he  joined  his  grief-stricken 
wife  and  children  who  had  mourned  him  as  dead. 
Peter  Ogden  took  the  remainder  of  the  party 
down  the  Columbia  River  in  three  small  boats, 
landing  at  Oregon  City  January  12,  1848. 
Mr.  Cantield  and  family  had  lost  everything  ex- 
cept the  scanty  clothing  upon  their  backs,  but 
as  soon  as  they  were  comfortably  situated,  he 
joined  a  party  and  went  back  to  punish  the  In- 
dians.    The  chief  and  four  of  the  Indians  were 

brought  in  and  afterward  hanged  at  Oregon 
City.  March  4,  1849,  Mr.  Cantield  and  family 
sailed  for  San  Francisco,  where  they  landed  on 
the  10th  of  that  month.  They  remained  in 
San  Francisco  until  August  1,  1850,  when 
they  became  residents  of  Sonoma  County,  first 
settling  in  the  oM  town  of  Sonoma.  They  have 
occupied  their  present  Ijeautiful  home  in  Blucher 
Valley  ever  since  January  1,  1852.  Here  they 
have  been  honored  and  loved  for  all  these  lorn/ 
years  by  all  who  came  in  contact  with  them. 
Here  the  good  old  lady  passed  awa}',  surrounded 
by  all  the  surviving  meyibers  of  her  family,  and 
thus  closed  an  eventful  life.  Her  daughter, 
Mrs.  James  H.  Knowles,  of  this  city,  and  her 
son  Oscar,  who  arrived  from  Idaho  a  few  days 
before  her  death,  are  the  only  surviving  children. 
We  now  have  before  us  an  invitation  to  their 
'  Golden  AVedding,'  which  was  celebrated  June 
10,  1878,  and  it  recalls  many  pleasant  reminis- 
cences of  the  past.  Mrs.  Canfield  will  have  been 
laid  away  in  the  family  burying  ground,  on 
their  own  place,  before  this  notice  reaches  our 
readers.  If  there  is  any  reward  beyond  the 
grave — and  we  trust  there  is — -for  a  long  life  of 
virtue,  honor  and  unselfish  usefulness,  our  friend 
is  well  provided  for  now." 








"When  uKliANIZED — its  CHANGE.S  IX  organization lis  FAIRS  AND  OFFICERS — CHANGE  OF  LOCATION     OF 


'HE  history  of  this  society  i>^  a  part  of  tlic 
;  liistory  of  Soiioiim  County,  and  among  its 
^^    iiroinotors  in  tiie  early  days  will  bo  found 
many  names  of  Sonoma  County  pioneers. 

Tiietirst  organization  of  the  society  was  made 
under  tlie  name  of  the  Sonoma  Agricultural  and 
Mechanics"  Society,  on  April  12, 1859.  Pursu- 
ant to  a  call  made  by  publication  a  large  num- 
ber of  snbscribers  to  the  Sonoma  County  Fair 
met  at  the  Masonic  Hall,  Uealdsburg,  on  Thurs- 
day evening,  March  24,  1859,  to  devise  the 
necessary  ways  and  means  of  carrying  out  the 
enterprise.  A  temjwrary  organization  being 
deemed  advisable,  Hon.  W.  I'.  Ewing  was  called 
to  the  chair,  and  stated  the  object  of  the  meet- 
ing, .lames  B.  IJoggs  appointed  secretary.  A 
committee  of  two  from  each  township  was  ap- 
pointed to  solicit  further  subscriptions.  A 
committee  of  live  was  appointed  to  report  per- 
manent organization  and  rules  and  regulations, 
to  report  at  a  future  meeting.  Meeting  then 
adjourned  to  April  12,  1859,  at  which  time  the 
society  was  duly  organized,  with  the  following 
officers:  President,  Washington  P.  Ewing,  and 
nine  Vice-Presidents  ;  Secretary,  J.  B.  Boggs  ; 
Corresponding  Secretary,  G.  W.  Granniss; 
Treasurer,  Lindsay  Carson;  and  a  Board  of  nine 
Directors,  consisting  of  Colonel  A.  Haraszthy, 
Major  J.  Singley,  C.  J.  Robinson,  Josiah  Mnrin, 
G.  P.  Brumtield,  J .  ]S\  Bailhache,  Julio  Carrillo, 

J.  W.  Wilbur,  and  D.  I).  Phillips.  The  first 
fair  was  held  at  Healdsburg.  At  the  election 
of  officers  for  the  next  year,  J.  Q.  Shirly  was 
elected  President,  and  I.  G.  Wickersham,  Secre- 
tar}'.  At  a  meeting  of  the  society  held  March 
3.  1860,  on  motion  of  Mr.  Weston,  a  committee 
of  live  was  appointed  to  confer  with  agricultural 
societies  of  the  counties  of  Marin,  Mendocino, 
Napa  and  Solano,  and  in  case  uo  society  e.xist 
in  those  counties,  then  with  some  ol  the  promi- 
nent agriculturists  and  stock-raisers  therein, 
upon  the  subject  of  establishing  a  District  Agri- 
cultural Society,  to  be  known  as  the  Sonoma  and 
Napa  District  Society.  II.  L.  Weston,  I.  G. 
Wickersham,  Jasper  O'Farrell.  .1.  S.  Robbersoii 
and  Rod  Matheson  were  appointed  said  com- 
mittee. The  second  fair  was  held  at  Petaluma, 
on  the  grounds  of  Uriah  Edwards,  and  for  it 
premium  lists  were  prepared  under  the  direction 
of  Mr.  Wickersham.  Col.  Haraszthy  made  the 
opening  address.  Petaluma  Band  gave  the 
music  for  the  occasion,  at  the  price  of  four  hun- 
dred dollars.  The  records  of  the  society  for  that 
year  are  very  full  and  complete,  made  by  the 
secretary,  S.  D.  Towns,  who  had  been  elected  to 
till  the  place  of  Mr.  Boggs.  E.  Latapie  was  the 
marshal  of  the  week. 

At  the  election  held  at  the  close  of  the  fair. 
Dr.  John  Hendley  was  elected  President;  Wing- 
field   Wright,  Vice-President;  W.  H.  Crowell, 



Secretary,  and  J.  II.  Iloliiics,  Treasurer,  and  it 
was  resolved  to  hold  the  next  fair  at  Santa  Rosa. 
Thereafter  the  fair  was  held  at  different  points, 
until  1867,  wlien  the  society  was  reorganized, 
witli  J.  li.  Rose,  I'resident.  and  Phillip  Cowcn, 
Secretary.  That  year  the  pavilion  was  erected, 
and  a  large  part  of  the  cattle  stalls  and  horse 
stalls  constructed,  and  the  society,  under  its 
management,  held  its  first  fair;  J.  P.  Clark  was 
marshal;  X.  C.  Stafford,  superintendent  of  the 
pavilion,  and  il.  JJoyle.  superintendent  of  the 
stock  gnninds.  To  make  the  purchase  of  per- 
manentgrounds  about  250  life  memberships  were 
sold  at  the  price  of  $25  per  share,  with  privilege 
of  free  admission  to  all  subsequent  fairs  and  right 
to  exhibit.  The  old  race-track,  about  two  miles 
from  the  city,  was  still  used  for  all  races.  The 
second  annual  election  of  the  society  was  held 
on  the  second  Saturday  of  May,  1868.  The 
counties  of  Sonoma,  Marin,  Mendocino  and  Lake 
constituted  the  district  at  this  time.  J.  R. 
Hose  was  re-elected  President;  Andrew  Mills, 
Vice-President,  and  Phil.  Cowen.  Secretary, 
with  nine  Directors.  The  fair  for  1868  was 
lield  at  the  new  grounds,  September  Slst  to 
25th,  inclusive.  George  Pearce  made  the  open- 
ing address,  and  E.  S.  Lippitt  the  annual  ad- 
dress. J.  P.  Clark  acted  as  marshal,  and  F.  W. 
Lougee  and  M.  Doyle  as  superintendents  of  pavil- 
ion and  stock  grounds.  This  year,  for  the  first 
time,  the  society  confci-red  diplomas  for  meri- 
torious exhibits. 

At  the  annual  election,  in  May,  l86'J,  J.  R. 
Rose  was  unanimously  elected  President;  A. 
Mills,  Vice-President;  P.  Cowen,  Secretary;  I. 
G.  Wickersham,  Treasurer;  with  the  same  num- 
ber of  Directors.  The  fair  this  year  was  held 
September  27th  to  October  1st.  N.  L.  Allen 
acted  as  marshal,  D.  W.  C.  Putnam  was  super- 
intendent of  pavilion,  and  Thomas  Rochford, 
superintendent  of  stock  grt)unds.  The  fair  was 
very  creditable,  and  the  society  felt  the  need  of 
more  room.  A  committee  was  appointed  to  secure 
more  ample  grounds  for  the  fair  and  race-track. 

On  the  15th  of  January,  I.  (i.  Wickersham 
presented  a  petition  to  send  to  the  liegislature 

to  solicit  State  aid,  and  a  meeting  of  life  mem- 
bers was  called  to  meet  April  2,  1870,  to  select 
new  grounds  for  the  fair.  The  result  of  the 
action  of  the  meeting  was  to  l)uy  grounds  adja- 
cent to  the  old  fair  grounds,  and  upon  them 
construct  a  half-mile  race-track,  grand  stand,  and 
other  conveniences  for  a  permanent  fairground. 
The  new  board  of  officers  were  elected  in  Dec- 
eml)er,  1870,  and  consisted  of  E.  Dunnian, 
President;  Lee  Ellsworth  and  II.  Mecham,  Vice- 
Presidents;  J.  Grover,  Secretary;  and  Williaui 
Hill,  Treasurer.  Society  during  this  year  duly 
incorporated,  and  J.  R.  Rose,  to  whom  tho 
several  parcels  of  land  of  the  fair  ground  had 
lieen  deeded,  as  trustee  for  the  society,  deeded 
them  to  the  society.  A  committee,  of  E.  Den- 
man  and  C.  Tempel,  was  also  appointed  to  make 
arrangements  to  pay  the  large  indebtedness  of 
the  society. 

The  fair  for  1871  was  held  September  25th 
to  BOth,  and  was  well  attended.  The  third  stage 
of  the  society's  existence  had  now  commenced. 
The  receipts  were  largely  in  excess  of  former 
years,  amounting  to  .S3,370.  The  annual  meeting 
for  1871  was  adjourned  until  January  6,  1872, 
when  an  election  of  officers  was  had,  with  the 
following  result:  President,  Lee  Ellsworth:  E. 
Denman  and  J.  R.  Rose,  Vice-Presidents;  Frank 
Lougee,  Treasurer;  and  J.  Grover,  Secretary. 
The  great  expeiise  of  the  new  purchase  and 
grand  stand,  and  construction  of  race  track,  had 
been  met  by  the  generous  action  of  the  public- 
spirited  citizens  of  the  city  of  Petaluina  and 
county,  who  assumed  the  liabilities  by  their 
joitit  note,  amounting  to  about  812,000.  About 
forty  signed  the  note.  This  amount  was  after- 
ward ])aid  by  them,  as  the  note  became  due'  ex- 
cept 85,000,  which  was  paid  by  the  city  of 
Petaluma.  The  j)ayment  of  this  debt  by  these 
men  relieved  the  society  from  a  great  burden. 

The  society's  fair  for  1872  was  held  Septem- 
ber (ith  to  llth,  inclusive.  B.  Ilaskel  was 
superintendent  of  pavilion.  The  receipts  of  the 
society  this  year  were  larger  than  any  preceding 
year,  amounting  to  -85,841,  besides  the  sum  of 
82,000  appropriated  l>y  the  State.    At  the  annual 


election  held  December  7,  1872,  the  retiring 
Tresident,  L.  Ellsworth,  made  a  report  to  the 
society  of  their  progress,  from  its  reorganization 
in  18(37  to  date,  by  which  it  appeared  that  the 
total  receipts  of  the  society  had  amounted  to 
s29,633,  and  that  the  society  had  expended,  for 
grounds,  pavilion,  grand  stand  and  premiums, 
the  sum  of  §40,751  leaving  an  indebtedness  of 
$11,118,  secured  as  heretofore  stated.  The  fol- 
lowing officers  were  elected  for  ensuing  year: 
Tresident,  E.  Denman  ;  Vice-Presidents,  L. 
Ellsworth,  William  Zartman;  Secretary,  E.  S. 
Lippitt;  Treasurer,  Kobert  Seavey. 

The  fair  for  1873  was  held  October  6th  to 
lltli,  inclusive,  Captain  Watson  acting  as  mar- 
shal. Ilev.  G.  B.  Taylor  delivered  the  annual 
address.  The  receipts  for  the  year  were  $6,- 
200  besides  s2,000  received  from  the  8tate,  most 
of  which  was  expended  in  enlarging  the  accom- 
modations for  stock  and  enlargement  of  the 
grand  stand.  The  annual  meeting  for  1873 
was  held  on  December  7th,  and  the  following 
officers  were  elected  to  serve  for  the  ensuing 
year:  President,  J.  E.  Rose;  Vice-Presidents, 
Lee  Ellsworth  and  IT.  Mecham;  Secretary,  E. 
S.  Lippitt;  Treasurer,  A.  J.  Pierce;  Directors, 
A.  Morse  and  Robert  Seavey. 

The  fair  for  the  year  187-1  was  held  Septem- 
ber 14th  to  19th,  inclusive.  D.  W.  C.  Putnam, 
was  elected  superintendent  of  pavilion,  and 
Judge  Shafter  delivered  the  annual  address.  At 
the  annual  meeting  in  1874  the  following  othcers 
were  elected  to  serve  for  the  ensuing  year:  Pres- 
ident, J.  R.  Rose;  Vice-Presidents,  H.  Mecham, 
G.  D.  Green;  Secretary,  E.  S.  Lippitt;  Treasurer, 
A.  Morse;  Directors,  P.  J.  Shafter  and  Robert 
Crane.  The  district  was  enlarged  now  by  taking 
in  Napa  and  Solano  counties,  and  exhibitors 
restricted  to  the  district. 

At  the  fair  held  in  1875  Prof.  Fitzgerald, 
State  Superintendent  of  Public  Schools,  deliv- 
ered the  annual  address.  This  year  the  pavilion 
was  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  agricultural 
and  horticultural  halls.  The  receipts  amounted 
to  S5,614.  At  the  annual  election  in  1875  the 
following  othcers    were  elected  for  the  ensuing 

year:  President,  L.  Ellsworth;  Vice-Presidents, 
A.  P.  Whitney  and  P.  J.  Shafter;  Secretary,  E. 
S.  Lippitt;  Treasurer,  A.  Morse;  Directors, 
Robert  Crane  and  H.  Mecham.  Mr.  Ellsworth 
having  resigned,  H.  Mecham  was  afterward 
elected  by  the  Board  of  Directors  to  till  his  place. 

The  fair  for  1876  was  held  from  October  9th 
to  14th,  and  was  in  extent  and  quality  greatly 
in  excess  of  any  heretofore  held.  The  display 
of  stock  was  the  finest  exhibited  at  any  of  the 
fairs  of  the  State,  and  the  departments  of  agri- 
culture and  horticulture  were  greatly  in  advaiice 
of  former  fairs.  Major  Armstrong  acted  as 
marshal.  Judge  Shafter  delivered  the  annual 
address.  At  the  annual  meeting  held  December 
2,  1876,  the  following  ofHcers  were  elected: 
President,  li.  Mecham;  Vice-Presidents,  A.  P. 
Whitney,  P.  J.  Shafter;  Secretary,  E.  S.  Lip- 
pitt; Treasurer,  A.  Morse;  Directors,  G.  D. 
Green,  Robert  Crane.  By  action  of  the  society 
the  district  was  enlarged  to  take  in  the  counties 
west  of  the  Sacramento  and  north  of  the  bay, 
including  Humboldt  and  Yolo.  The  fair  for 
1877  was  held  September  24-29.  M.  D.  Bo- 
rnck  delivered  the  annual  address,  James  Arm- 
strong acting  as  marshal.  The  receipts  were 
the  largest  ever  held  by  the  society,  amounting 
to  $7,577.  The  pavilion  was  enlarged  by  ex 
tending  the  west  wing  forty  feet.  A  large 
number  of  stalls  for  horses  and  stock  were  Iniilt 
and  the  whole  grounds  thoroughly  overhauled 
and  repaired,  which  not  only  absorbed  the 
large  receipts  but  entailed  a  debt  of  $1,385. 
At  the  annual  election  this  year,  1877,  the  old 
board  of  officers  were  re-elected  and  the  time  of 
fair  fixed  for  September  21st  to  28th  inclusive. 
During  this  year  the  grounds  had  been  greatly 
adorned  by  the  planting  of  trees.  An  art  gal- 
lery was  built  twenty-tive  feet  wide  by  eighty 
feet  long  and  other  permanent  imjirovements  of 
the  grounds  and  buildings. 

The  fair  held  in  1878  was  the  largest  and 
most  interesting  of  the  whole  series.  The  re- 
ceipts amounted  to  $7,665.  The  expenditures, 
$8,436.  Leaving  a  small  debt  subsisting  against 
the  society. 



Tlie  Legislature  at  the  session  of  1877-'8 
enacted  a  new  law  in  regard  to  agricultural 
societies,  making  the  president  and  two  directors 
to  be  chosen  eacli  year  and  the  treasurer  and 
secretary  to  be  other  than  members  of  the  Board. 
At  the  last  election  held  December,  1878,  the 
following  Board  of  Directors  was  elected:  Pres- 
dent,  A.  P.Whitney;  E.  Denman  and  K.  Crane, 
Directors  forone  year;  J.  McM.  Shafter  and  PI. 
Mecham,  for  two  years;  A.  Morse  and  R.  Seavey, 
for  three  years.  F.  W.  Lougee  was  by  the  Board 
elected  Treasurer  and  W.    E.    Cox,  Secretary. 

During  the  last  year  the  same  enterprising 
spirit  has  been  exhibited  by  the  Board — new 
gates  to  the  park  have  been  built  and  a  new 
ticket  office  and  treasurer's  office.  The  grand 
stand  was  enlarged  one-half  its  former  dimci- 
sions.  jVew  trees  planted  and  new  stalls  erected. 
The  last  fair  was  equal  to  any  that  preceded  it. 
J.  P.  Clark  was  marshal  of  the  week;  D.  W.  C. 
Putnam,  superintendent  of  the  pavilion.  E.  S. 
Lippitt  delivered  the  annual  address. 

The  fair  of  1880  was  held  during  the  week 
commencing  Monday  the  6th  of  September. 
Hon.  A.  P.  Wliitney  was  the  president  of  the 
society.  The  fair  that  year  was  largely  at- 
tended, and  made  memorable  by  the  presence  of 
President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  General  Wm. 
T.  Sherman,  Secretary  of  War  Ramsey  and  Gov- 
ernor George  Perkins. 

In  1881  the  district  fair  was  held  at  Petal u- 
ma,  commencing  Monday  the  5tli  of  Septemlier. 
A.  I'.  Whitney,  President;  P.  J.  Shafter,  H. 
Mecham  and  Wm.  Zartman,  Directors.  A  very 
able  annual  address  was  delivered  iiy  Rev.  E.  R. 

Notwithstanding  t)ie  large  amount  of  money 
that  had  been  cxpendeil  in  fitting  up  tiie  "  old 
fair  grounds'"  in  the  northern  portion  of  the 
city  of  Petaluma,  it  was  found  that  the  society 
was  cramped  for  room.  The  race-tr.ack  was  a 
half  mile  one.  and  tlie  exhiiiitsof  stock  was  get- 
ting beyond  the  possii)le  accommodations  of 
stall  room.  Something  had  to  be  done.  The 
society  determined  to  sell  the  old  grounds  and 
purchase  elsewhere.     This  change  was  made  in 

1882,  and  the  grounds  selected  was  a  tract  of 
100  acres  in  the  eastern  edge  of  the  city  limits. 
A  mile  track  was  graded  and  put  into  excellent 
condition;  and  the  pavilion,  grand  stand  and 
other  movable  buildings  from  the  old  grounds 
were  put  up.  On  the  western  side  of  the 
grounds,  between  the  pavilion  and  grand  stand 
was  planted  several  acres  of  miscellaneous  shade 
trees.  There  is  now  nearly  a  running  mile  of 
stall  room,  with  space  for  further  additions,  as 
may  be  required.  Taken  as  a  whole  this  is  now 
one  of  the  finest  fair  grounds  in  the  State,  in 
all  its  appointments.  In  truth,  it  is  a  conceded 
fact,  that  the  Sonoma  and  Marin  district  fairs  only 
rank  second  to  the  State  fairs  at  Sacramento. 

The  fair  for  1882  commenced  on  the  28th  of 
August  and  continued  for  a  week.  It  was  fully 
up  to  the  standard  of  former  fairs.  A.  P. 
Whitney  elected  President;  Henry  Lawrence 
and  H.  T.  Fairbanks  elected  Directors.  The 
annual  address  was  delivered  by  Professor  A. 
G.  Burnett,  then  of  Healdsburg. 

In  1883  the  annual  fair  commenced  on  Mon- 
day, 28th  of  August.  The  list  of  entries  and 
premium  awards  were  unusually  large.  A.  P. 
Whitney,  President;  Robert  Crane  and  E.  Den- 
man were  re-elected  Directors. 

The  annual  fair  of  1884  commenced  on  the 
27th  of  August.  Jiulge  James  McM.  Shafter 
was  president  of  the  society  and  delivei-ed  the 
opening  address.  Professor  A.  G.  Burnett,  the 
accomplished  orator,  delivered  the  annual  ad 
dress.  A.  P.  Whitney,  President;  M.  Page  and 
P.  J.  Shafter  were  elected  Directors. 

On  Monday,  August  24,  1885,  the  district 
fair  opened  under  most  favorable  auspices  and 
was  an  entire  success.  J.  H.  White,  President; 
J.  H.  White,  II.  F.  Fairbanks  and  ,1.  E.  Gwin, 
elected  Directors.  Hon.  E.  C.  Munday  deliveretl 
the  annual  address. 

The  annual  fair  for  1886  fell  on  Monday, 
the  23d  of  August.  .1.  II.  White,  President; 
George  P.  McNear,  John  Switzer,  elected  Di- 
rectors. L.  C.  Byel  was  stijierintendent  of  the 
pavilion.  P.  J.  Shafter,  of  Marin  County,  de- 
livered the  annual  address. 


Ill  1887  the  I'iiir  wa.s  held  as  usual  in  the 
last  week  of  August.  It  showed  au  increased 
attendance.  J.  H.  White  was  still  President. 
J.  E.  Gwiu  and  Wilfred  Page  were  re-elected 
members  of  the  Duard  of  Directors. 

The  fair  of  1888  was  by  far  the  most  suc- 
cessful one  ever  held.  Notwithstanding  the 
ftreat  room-capacity  of  the  stock-grounds,  it  was 
inadcijuate  to  meet  all  the  requirements  of  ex- 
hibitors. The  ]>avilion  exhibits  were  better 
than  Gw.v  before.  Tliis  society  has  done  a  good 
work  in  pi-omoting  Sonoma  County  industries. 
Its  present  otticers  are:  II.  Mecham,  Presi- 
dent; A.  L.  Whitney,  A.  W.  Foster,  T.  C.  Put- 
nam, W.  H.  Gartman,  O.  Hubble,  Directors. 

At  this  fair  of  1888,  Hon.  J.  Iv.  Dougherty, 
now  one  of  Sonoma  County's  Superior  Judges, 
delivered  the  following  annual  address: 

Mi:.  Pkksidknt,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen: — 
This  association  has  done  ine  mucli  honor  in 
inviting  me  to  deliver  the  annual  address  upon 
this  occasion.  In  accepting  the  task  I  was 
aware  of  the  responsibility  incurred,  and  I  had 
no  grounds  of  encouragement. 

I  remembered  that  the  subject  of  agricultural 
fairs  and  festivals  of  this  nature  was  one  upon 
which  I  was  not  in  the  habit  of  bestowing  much 

I  remembered  that  from  a  crowd  of  people 
upon  the  grand-stand,  where  there  is  so  much 
else  to  occupy  its  attention,  I  could  not  expect 
close  attention  or  be  heard. 

I  remembered,  too,  that  my  closest  listeners 
would  be  those  most  interested  in  the  fair  and 
better  qualiiied  and  more  capable  of  addressing 
you  than  I  myself.  So  that  it  is  with  a  feeling 
of  awe  that  I  undertake  the  task,  and  I  would 
that  I  were  more  qualified  to  do  justice  to  the 
theme,  that  iny  appreciation  of  the  honor  might 
lie  better  shown. 

AVlien  I  begun  to  revolve  the  subject  over  in 
my  mind,  to  determine  what  1  should  say,  the 
first  question  that  I  naturally  asked  myself  was, 
what  is  the  origin  of  the  American  fair?  Is  it 
a  legacy  from  some  foreign  country  or  the  pro- 
duct of  American  enterprise,  ambition  and  in- 

genuity. Wherein  docs  it  diti'cr  from  the 
prehistoric  harvest  festival  or  the  fairs  of  ancient 
and  modern  time  of  other  countries. 

Py  some,  the  word  fair  is  derived  from  a 
Latin  word  nicaning  holiday,  a  day  exeni[)t 
from  labor;  by  others,  from  a  Latin  word  mean- 
ing to  trade,  to  barter. 

There  were  festival  occasions  in  early  times, 
the  object  of  which  would  make  either  deriva- 
tion acceptal)le. 

Heathen  mythology  aixuinds  with  allusions  to 
the  festivals  held  in  honor  of  their  gods.  Under 
the  inspiration  of  a  false  yet  beautiful  theology, 
it  was  the  custom  at  stated  intervals  to  render 
homage  at  temples  consecrated  to  their  deities. 

Gifts  were  brought  to  propitiate  the  all-pow- 
erful Demeter  —  the  fabled  representative  of 

We  read  of  the  corn  and  harvest  festivals 
held  in  honor  of  Ceres. 

Horace  sings  from  his  Sabine  farm  of  the 
festival  of  golden  fruits  in  honor  of  Pomona. 

When  the  harvest  season  was  over,  when  the 
wine  press  had  been  laid  away,  Italia's  vine- 
dressers used  to  meet  at  some  nook  on  the  vine- 
clad  hills  and  tap  the  last  year's  cask  in  hoiun- 
of  Bacchus. 

The  old  Roman  used  to  seek  the  excitement 
of  the  hippodrome  and  witness  the  horse  races 
and  chariot  races. 

These  were  purely  holiday  festivals.  There 
is  another  class  of  festivals  in  foreign  lands  of 
early  origin  and  now  common  in  many  parts  of 
Europe  and  Asia.  It  is  called  the  Fair.  Lord 
Coke  defines  it  as  ''a  greater  species  of  market 
recurring  at  more  distant  intervals  "  and  calls 
them  legalized  public  places  for  the  sale,  ex- 
change and  barter  of  commodities. 

These  fairs  originated  because  of  the  want  of 
proper  communications  between  producers  and 

One  of  the  most  noted  of  these  is  that  of 
Hurdniar,  on  the  upper  course  of  the  Ganges. 
A  quarter  of  a  million  of  people  annually  visit 
the  exposition,  and  every  twelfth  year  a  million 
or  upward  make  a  special  pilgrimage  from  all 



parts  of"  Asia  taking  tliithor  Persian  shawls, 
rugs  and  carpets,  Indian  silks,  Cassimere  shawls, 
preserved  fruits,  spices,  drugs,  et  cetera,  together 
with  immense  numbers  of  cattle,  liorses,  slieep 
and  camels. 

The  annual  fairs  of  Beaucaire  in  France,  of 
Nihni  Norgorod  of  Russia,  the  German  fairs  of 
Frankfort  and  Leipsic,  wliere  gather  the  pro- 
ducers and  traveling  merchants  from  the  four 
corners  of  the  earth,  bringino;  with  them  their 
fabrics  and  costly  wares,  are  all  the  outgrowth 
of  a  necessary  common  center  of  exchange. 

The  American  Agricultural  i'^airis  peculiarly 
an  American  institution.  We  come  not  here  to 
do  sacrifice  to  an  imaginary  protectress  or  .scat- 
ter offerings  npon  her  saci'ed  shrine. 

We  come  not  here  solely  to  barter  our  own 
jiecnliar  productions. 

Ours  the  better  part  to  meet  together  for 
mutual  counsel  and  improvement,  to  compare 
e.xperiences,  to  witness  the  achievements  of  the 
present,  and  seek  to  expand,  enlarge  and  perfect 
our  capacities  for  future  usefulness. 

The  harvest  having  closed,  the  season's  work 
being  over,  it  is  a  holiday  week  when  the  farmer 
throws  aside  his  tools,  selects  the  choicest  of 
his  grain,  vegetables  and  live  stock;  the  fruit 
grower  brings  his  peach,  jiear,  apple,  fig,  apri- 
cot, plum  aad  olive;  the  wine-grower,  the  pure 
juices  of  his  press;  the  merchant,  his  stock  of 
goods,  wares  and  merchandise;  the  stock-raiser 
liis  finest  herds  of  imported  cattle  and  thorongh- 
l)red  standard  work  and  ti'otting  horses;  the 
mother  brings  the  little  baby,  the  daughter  her 
needlework,  to  exhibit  them  to  the  world,  to 
compare  them  with  their  neighbors,  and  with 
frietully  rivalry  contend  for  a  prize. 

How  grand  is  the  scene  before  ns!  a  mile  of 
stalls  filled  with  blooded  horses  with  ears  erect 
and  nostrils  extended  ready  for  a  race.  Live 
stock  of  every  description  from  every  nook  and 
corner  of  the  district,  and  a  pavilion  filled  to 
overflowing.  *  •'■  "  *  * 

In  belialf  of  this  association  and  its  directors, 
a  cordial  welcome  is  extended  to  all. 

This  association  has  great  cause  to  rejoice  at 

the  rapid  progress  which  our  j)eople  are  making 
in  all  that  tends  to  build  up  a  great  and  powerful 

The  lively  interest  which  is  now  manifested 
in  the  improvement  of  all  sorts  of  stock  has 
given  us  in  our  genial  climate  the  best  variety 
of  animals  in  tiie  world. 

Our  rich  lands  are  largely  under  cultivation, 
and  we  are  not  dependent  upon  others  for  the 
necessaries  of  life. 

The  yearly  reports  which  this  society, is  com- 
pelled to  make  to  the  State  Board,  show  a  vast 
increase  in  every  department  of  agriculture 
from  year  to  year. 

Indeed  we  have  within  our  own  district  com- 
prising the  counties  of  Sonoma  and  Marin  all 
the  elements  of  true  greatness. 

With  a  population  nnsurpassed  for  intelli- 
gence and  patriotism,  with  as  rich  and  pro- 
ductive lands  as  the  world  affords,  and  sufficient 
rainfall  to  insure  annual  crops  without  irriga- 
tion, if  we  act  wisely  and  use  properly  the 
means  which  have  been  so  profusely  spread 
before  us,  there  is  for  ns  a  glorious  future. 

I  am  asked  by  members  of  this  association  to 
extend  to  its  courteous  president,  active  secre- 
tary and  able  board,  its  thanks  for  their  liberal 
attention  and  successful  work  in  its  behalf. 

The  management  and  work  of  the  year  must 
necessarily  fall  upon  them,  but  there  is  work 
for  every  man  and  woman  in  the  district. 

If  we  are  to  have  a  good  fair  and  pleasing 
exhibition,  we  must  bring  sometluTig  here  to 

The  larger  and  more  varied  the  exliiliit  the 
better  the  record  among  the  archives  of  State, 
the  better  pleased  the  visitors,  the  better  its 
financial  condition. 

County  and  county,  city  and  city,  town  ami 
town  must  all  co-operate  in  order  that  each  an- 
nual meeting  shall  sur[iass  the  last  and  iiiipai't 
an  abiding  good. 

It  is  not  for  to-day  or  for  to-morrow,  nor  for 
tlie  brief  period  of  existence  allowed  to  those 
who  particii)ate  here  to  day  that  wo  perpetuate 
these  fairs. 


Natukh's  Laboratory— ThI'  Geysers 

h^^;jl3Tj;j  jp  j^  ^'^  ^^^^  j^a  j^  ^  jjatx: 

iS^'  '^■i^^^^^zri^-^^^^c::::^:::^^^'^  ><^^: 



Bowles,  editor  of  the  Si>KiN(;FiKr.ii,  ]\[as-;aohi'setts.  Republican — what  Mr.  Bowles  wrote 
— Clark  Foss — the  kahtiujuake,  1808. 

fHE  present  terininns  of  tlie  Donalme  Roail, 
otherwise  tlie  San  Francisco  A:  North 
Pacific  Railroad,  is  Cloverdale,  jnst  eiglity 
miles  from  the  city  of  San  Francisco.  A  pleas- 
ant journey  of  three  hours  in  the  handsome  new 
cars  with  which  the  company  have  lately 
equipped  the  road  will  land  the  traveler  all  safe 
and  sound  at  that  place.  Leaving  San  Fran- 
cisco at  8  A.  M.,  the  journey  is  finished  by  11 
o'clock,  in  time  for  noon  refreshments.  As  the 
dinner  progresses,  the  sound  and  hustle  of  the 
preparation  of  many  lines  of  stages  with  passen- 
gers for  the  upper  coast  of  Mendocino,  the 
Geysers,  Flighland  Springs  and  other  splendid 
summer  resorts  fill  the  air.  The  Geysers  of 
Sonoma  County  are  pre-eminently  the  one  un- 
paralleled wonder,  the  something  which  no  other 
country  in  the  world  can  duplicate,  illustrati\e 
of  the  wondrous  waj's  of  Providence  visible  in 
this  world  below.  FVom  Cloverdale  to  the 
Geysers  is  sixteen  miles,  making  the  whole  dis- 
tance from  San  Francisco  ninety-six  miles  and 
al)out  six  hours'  journey. 

A  distinguished  European  geologist  describes 
the  California  Geysers  as  "  fearful,  wonderful." 
The  visitor  is  surrounded  by  all  kinds  of  con- 
tending elements,  boiling,  roaring,  thundering. 

hissing,  bubbling,  spurting  and  steaming  here 
extremes  meet  in  a  most  astonishing  way — if  a 
diversity  of  mineral  springs  can  be  called  ex- 
tremes— as  there  are  over  three  hundred  in 
number  that  possess  every  variety  of  character- 
istic. Some  are  hot;  others  icy  cold;  some  con- 
tain iron;  some  soda;  others  sulphur.  Side  by 
side  boil  and  bubble  the  hottest  of  hot  springs 
and  the  coldest  of  cold  ones,  being,  frequently, 
but  a  few  inches  apart.  Indeed  so  closely  do 
they  lie  together  that  the  greatest  care  must  be 
exercised  lest  one  should  step  knee-deep  into  a 
"  cauldron  ''  or  an  "  icy  bath.''  Even  the  rocks 
become  thoroughly  heated,  and  quantities  of 
magnesia,  sulphur,  alum  and  many  other  chemi- 
cals lie  thickl}'  strewn  about  the  lava  beds, 
making  a  sort  of  druggists'  paradise.  The  noise, 
too,  and  the  smell  are  as  diversified  as  the  char- 
acter of  the  springs.  Of  the  lioiling  springs 
and  steam  receptacles,  one  is  known  as  the 
"  Devil's  Grist  Mill,"  another,  "  The  Calliope," 
then,  the  "Steamboat  (xeysers,"  the  "Witches' 
Cauldron,"  the  "  Mouutain  of  Fire,''  the  latter 
of  which  contains  several  hundred  apertures. 
In  all  of  these  are  shown,  each  for  itself,  some 
interesting  and  remarkable  peculiarity. 

It  is  a  place  that  recalls  to    our    mind    the 



Witches"  Retreat  in  Shakespeare's  Macbeth. 
The  water  in  a  pool  of  the  stream  forms 
Nature's  Cauldron,  and   one  cannot  liut  repeat: 

"  Round  about  the  CiUlUli-on  go; 
In  tlie  poisoned  entrails  throw — 
Toail,  that  under  coUlest  stone, 
Days  and  nights  has  thirty-one. 
Swelter'd  venom  sleeping  got, 
Boil  thou  first  i'the  cliarmed  pot ! 

Double,  double,  toil  and  trouble; 
Fire,  burn;  and  cauldron  biililile. 

"  Fillet  of  a  fennj'  snake. 
In  the  cauldron  boil  and  bake; 
Eye  of  newt,  and  toe  of  frog. 
Wool  of  bat,  and  tongue  of  dog, 
Ailder's  fork,  and  blind-worm's  sting, 
Lizzard's  leg,  and  owlet's  wing, 
For  a  charm  of  powerful  trouble. 
Like  a  hell-broth  boil  and  bubble. 

Double,  double,  toil  and  trouble ; 
Fire,  burn  ;  and  cauldron  bubble." 

(Jf  tlie  Geysers,  the  most  enjoyable  features 
is  the  stage  ride  from  Oloverdale  through  Sul- 
piiur  Creek  Canon.  The  road  is  of  easy  grade, 
and  the  scenery  inost  picturesque. 

Samuel  Bowles  (since  deceased),  editor  of  the 
Springfield,  Massachusetts,  liepuhliean,  accom- 
]ianied  Vice-President  Colfa.x  to  this  county  in 
1865,  and  they  visited  the  Geysers.  The  fol- 
lowing is  Mi;.  I)Owles'  description  of  what  they 
saw  in  their  journeyings: 

"Similar  and  prolonged  experience,  with 
some  added  and  fresh  elements,  came  from  a 
rai)id  three  day's  journey  northerly  to  see  the 
Geysers  or  famous  boiling  springs,  and  the 
neighboring  valleys,  famous  for  farms  and  fruits 
and  vineyards.  A  steamer  took  us  up  through 
San  Pablo  Uay,  one  of  the  widen ings  of  the 
outcoiTiing  waters  of  the  interior,  and  Petaluma 
Creek,  to  the  thriving  town  of  the  latter  naine. 
I  took  a  sharp  look  at  it  because  of  its  persistent 
desire  to  steal  your  neighbor,  llev.  Mr.  Harding, 
away  from  Longmeadow,  and  found  it  one  of 
the  most  prosperous  and  pleasant  of  California 
towns,  at  the  foot  of  one  of  the  richest  agricul- 
tural regions  of  the  coast.  The  rest  of  the  day 
we  rode  through  driest  dust  and  reposing 
nature,  up   through    the    Petaluma  Valley  and 

over  into  that  of  the  Russian  River,  famous  and 
peculiar  here  for  its  especial  kindliness  to  our 
Indian  corn,  also  for  its  toothsome  grouse,  first 
cousin  to  our  partridge;  stopping  at  the  village 
of  Healdsburg  for  brass  band,  speeches  and 
supper,  and  after  a  rapid  hour's  drive  by  moon- 
light, at  a  solitary  ranch  under  the  (Teyser 
Mountain  for  the  night. 

"Sunrise  the  ne.xt  morning  found  us  whirling 
along  a  rough  road  over  the  mountains  to  the 
especial  object  of  the  excursion.  But  the  drive 
of  the  morning  was  the  more  remarkable  fea- 
ture. We  supposed  the  Plains  and  the  Sierras 
had  exhausted  possibilities  for  us  in  that  re- 
spect, but  they  were  both  outwitted  here.  For 
bold  daring  and  brilliant  execution,  our  driver 
this  morning  must  take  the  palm  of  tl'ie  world, 
1  verily  believe.  The  distance  was  twelve  miles, 
up  and  down  steep  hills,  through  inclosed  pas- 
tures; the  vehicle  an  open  wagon,  the  passen- 
gers six,  the  horses  four  and  gay,  and  changed 
once;  and  the  driver,  Clark  T.  Foss,  our  land- 
lord over  night  and  the  owner  of  the  route. 
For  several  miles  the  road  lay  along  the  llog's 
Back,  the  crest  of  a  mountain  that  ran  away 
from  that  point  or  edge,  like  the  side  of  a  roof, 
several  thousand  feet  to  the  ravine  below,  and 
so  narrow  that,  pressed  down  and  widened  as 
much  as  was  possible,  it  was  rarely  over  ten  or 
twelve  feet  wide,  and  in  one  place  but  seven 
feet,  winding  in  and  out,  and  yet  we  went  over 
this  narrow  causeway  on  the  full  gallop. 

"  After  going  up  and  down  several  inountains, 
having  rare  views  of  valleys  and  ravines  and 
peaks,  under  the  shadows  and  inists  of  early 
morning,  we  came  to  a  point  overlooking  the 
Gej'sers.  Far  belovv  in  the  valley  we  could  see 
the  hot  steam  pouring  out  of  the  ground,  and 
wide  was  the  waste  arouml.  The  descent  was 
alinost  j^erpendicular;  the  road  ran  down  1,600 
feet  in  the  two  miles  to  the  hotel,  and  it  had 
thirty-five  sliarp  turns  in  its  course.  'Look;it 
your  watch,'  said  Foss,  iis  ho  started  on  the 
steep  decline;  crack,  crack,  went  the  whip  o\(>r 
the  heads  f)f  the  leaders,  as  the  sharp  corners  came 
in  sight,  and  they  plunged   with  seeming  reck- 


lessness  aliead,  and  in  nine  minntes  and  a  lialf 
they  were  pulled  up  at  the  bottom  and  we  took 
breath.  Going  l)ack,  the  team  was  an  liour  and 
a  ijuarter  in  the  same  passage.  Wlien  we  won- 
dered at  Foss  tor  liis  perilous  and  rajiid  di'i\ing 
down  sucli  a  steep  road,  he  said:  'Oh,  there's 
no  danger  or  ditiiculty  in  it.  All  it  needs  is  to 
Ivcep  your  liead  cool,  and  the  leaders  out  of  the 
way."  l)Ut  nevertheless  I  was  convinced  it  not 
only  does  require  a  quiclc  and  cool  Ijrain,  but  a 
ready  and  strong  and  experienced  hand.  The 
whole  morning  ride  was  accomplished  in  two 
hours  and  a  quarter,  and  thougii  everybody  pre- 
dicts a  catastrophe  from  its  apparent  dangers, 
Foss  has  driven  it  after  this  style  for  many 
years,  and  never  liad  an  accident. 

"The  Geysers  are  exhausted  in  a  couple  of 
hours.  Tiiey  are  certainly  a  curiosity,  a  mar- 
vel, but  there  is  no  element  of  beauty;  there  is 
nothing  to  be  studied,  to  grow  into  or  upon 
you.  We  had  seen  something  similar,  but  less 
extensive,  in  Nevada,  and  like  a  three-legged 
calf,  or  the  Siamese  twins,  or  P.  T.  Ijarnum,  or 
James  Gordon  Hennett,  once  seeing  is  satisfac- 
toi-y  for  a  life-time.  They  are  a  sort  of  grand 
natural  chemical  shoj)  in  disorder.  In  a  little 
ravine  from  ofi' the  valley  is  their  jirincijial  the- 
ater. The  ground  is  white,  and  yellow,  and 
gi-ay,  poi-ous  and  mtten  with  long  and  high  heat. 
The  air  is  also  hot  aiul  sulphurous  to  an  un- 
pleasant degree.  All  along  the  bottom  of  the 
ravine  and  up  its  sides  the  earth  seems  hollow 
and  full  of  boiling  water.  In  frequent  little 
cracks  and  pin  holes  it  finds  vent,  and  out  of 
these  it  bubbles  and  emits  steam  like  so  many 
tiny  tea  kettles  at  high  tide.  In  one  place  the 
earth  yawns  wide,  and  the  'Witches' Cauldron,' 
several  feet  in  diameter,  seethes  and  sprouts  a 
black,  inky  water,  so  hot  as  to  boil  an  egg  in- 
stantly, and  capable  of  reducing  a  human  body 
to  pulp  at  short  notice.  The  water  is  thrown 
up  four  to  si.K  feet  in  height,  and  the  general  ef- 
i'ect  is  very  devilish  indeed.  The  '  Witches' 
Cauldron '  is  reproduced  a  dozen  times  in  min- 
iature— handy  little  pools  for  cookinfr  your 
breakfast  and  dinner,  if  they  were  only  in  your 

kitchen  or  back  yard.  Farther  up  you  follow  a 
puffing  noise,  exactly  like  that  of  a  steamboat  in 
progress,  and  you  come  to  a  couple  of  volumes 
of  steam  struggling  out  of  tiny  holes,  but 
mounting  high  and  spreading  wide  from  their 
force  and  heat. 

"  You  grow  faint  with  the  heat  and  smell, your 
feet  seem  burning,  and  the  air  is  loaded  with  a 
mixture  of  salts,  sulphur,  iron,  magnesia,  .soda, 
ammonia,  all  the  chemicals  and  compounds  of  a 
doctor's  shop.  You  feel  as  if  the  ground  might 
any  moment  open,  and  let  you  down  to  a  genu- 
ine hell.  You  recall  the  line  from  Milton,  or 
somebody:  'Here  is  hell — myself  am  hell." 
And,  most  dreadful  of  all,  you  lose  all  appetite 
for  the  breakfast  of  venison,  trout  and  grouse 
that  awaits  your  return  to  the  hotel.  So  you 
struggle  out  of  the  ravine,  every  step  among 
tin}-  volumes  of  steam,  and  over  bubbling  pools 
of  water,  and  cool  and  refresh  yourself  among 
the  trees  on  the  mountain  side  beyond.  Then, 
not  to  omit  any  sight,  you  go  back  through  two 
other  ravines  where  the  same  phenomena  are  re- 
peated, thougli  less  extensively.  All  around  by 
the  hot  pools  and  escape  valves  are  delicate  and 
beautiful  little  crystals  of  sulphur  and  soila,  and 
other  distinct  elements  of  the  combustibles  be- 
low, taking  substance  again  on  the  surface. 

"  All  this  wonder-working  isgoing  on  day  and 
night,  year  after  year,  answering  to-day  exactly 
to  the  descriptions  of  yesterday  and  five 
years  ago.  Most  of  the  waters  are  black  as  ink, 
and  some  as  thick;  others  are  quite  light  and 
transparent;  and  they  are  of  all  degrees  of 
temperature  from  150  to  500.  ^sear  by,  too, 
are  springs  of  cold  water,  some  as  cold  as 
these  are  hot,  almost.  The  phenomena  carries 
its  own  explanation;  the  chemist  will  reproduce 
for  you  the  same  thing,  on  a  small  scale,  by 
mixing  sulphuric  acid  and  cold  water,  and  the 
other  unkindred  elements  that  have  here,  in 
nature's  lal)oratory  chanced  to  get  together. 
Yolcanic  action  is  also  most  probably  connected 
with  some  of  the  demonstrations  here.  There 
must  be  utility  in  these  waters  for  the  cure  of 
rheumatism  and  other  blood  and  skin  diseases 



The  Indians  have  long  used  some  of  the  pools 
in  this  way,  with  results  that  seem  like  fables. 
One  of  tiie  pools  has  fame  for  eyes;  and  with 
clinical  examination  and  scientific  application, 
doubtless  large  benefits  might  l)e  reasonably 
assured  among  invalids  from  a  resort  to  these 
waters.  At  present  there  is  only  a  rough  little 
bathing-house,  collecting  the  waters  from  the 
ravine,  and  the  visitors  to  the  valley,  save  for 
curiosity,  are  but  very  few.  It  is  a  wild,  unre- 
deemed spot,  all  around  the  Geysers;  beautiful 
with  deep  forests,  a  mountain  stream,  and  clear 
air.  Game,  too,  abounds;  deer  and  grouse  and 
trout  seemed  plentier  than  in  any  region  we 
liave  visited.  There  is  a  comfortable  hotel;  but 
otherwise  this  valley  is  uninhabited. 

"  Back  on  the  route  of  our  morning  ride,  we 
then  turned  off  into  the  neighboring  valley  of 
Napa,  celebrated  for  its  agricultural  beauty  and 
productiveness,  and  also,  for  its  Calistoga  and 
Warm  Springs,  charmingly  located,  the  one  in 
the  plains  and  the  other  close  among  mountains, 
and  consisting  of  the  fashionable  summer  resort 
for  San  Franciscans.  The  water  is  sulphurous; 
the  bathing  delicious,  softening  the  skin  to  the 
texture  of  a  babe's;  the  country  charming;  but 
we  found  both  establishments,  though  with  ca- 
pacious headquarters  and  family  cottages, 
almost  deserted  of  people.  I'assed  farms  and 
orchards,  through  parks  of  evergreen  oak  that 
looked  as  perfect  as  the  work  of  art,  we  stopped 
at  the  village  of  Napa,  twin  and  rival  to  Peta- 
luma,  and  from  here,  crossing  anothing  spur  of 
the  West  Range,  we  entered  still  another 
beautiful  and  fertile  valley — that  of  Sonoma. 

"Here  are  some  of  the  largest  vineyards  of 
northern  California,  and  we  visited  that  of  the 
Enena  Vista  Viiiicultural  Society,  under  the 
management  of  Colonel  Ilarasztliy,  a  Hunga- 
rian. This  estate  embraces  about  5,000  acres 
of  land,  a  princely-looking  house,  large  wine 
manufactory  and  cellars,  and  about  a  million 
vines,  foreign  and  native.  Tiie  whole  value  of 
its  property  is  half  a  niillii)n  dollai's.  including 
$100,000  worth  of  wine  bratidii's  ready  and  in 
preparation  for  market.      We  tasted  the  liquors, 

we  shared  the  generous  hospitality  of  the  estate 
and  superinteiident;  bnt  we  failed  to  obtain, 
here  or  elsewhere,  any  satisfactory  information 
as  to  the  success  of  wine-making  yet  in  Cali- 
fornia. The  business  is  still  very  much  in  its 
infancy,  indeed;  and  this  one  enterprise  does 
not  seem  well  managed.  Nor  do  we  find  the 
wine  very  inviting;  they  partake  of  the  general 
character  of  the  Rhine  wines  and  the  Ohio 
Catawba,  bnt  are  rougher,  harsh  and  beady — 
needing  apparantly  both  some  improvement  in 
culture  and  manufacture  and  time  for  softe?iing. 
I  have  drank,  indeed,  much  better  CJalifornia 
wine  in  Springfield  than  out  here.'' 

As  a  Knight  of  the  Whip,  Clark  Foss  had  a 
wide  reputation  only  equalled  by  that  of  "  Hank 
Monk."  But  he  was  caught  by  death  on  the 
down  grade,  and  his  foot  could  not  reach  the 
break-bar.  The  Santa  Rosa  Democrat  of  Sep- 
tember 5,  1885,  said: 

"James  P.  Clark  received  a  dispatch  from  J. 
A.  Chesboro,  of  Calistoga,  announcing  the  death 
of  Clark  Foss,  which  occurred  at  his  residence 
near  Kellogg,  (ui  Tuesdaj'  afternoon.  Mr.  Foss 
was  one  of  the  most  widely  known  men  on  the 
Pacific  coast.  Ilis  reputation  as  a  skillful 
driver  was  second  only  to  Hank  Monk  of  the 
old  Overland  stage  line.  For  the  past  thirty 
years  he  has  run  stages  to  and  from  the  Geyser 
Springs.  He  was  for  a  long  time  a  resident  of 
Ilealdsbui'g,  and  ran  stages  from  there  to  Ray's 
Station,  from  whence  passengers  were  taken  over 
the  Geyser  Peak  to  the  springs.  When  the 
railroad  was  completed  up  Napa  Yalley,  he 
moved  to  Calistoga,  built  a  toll-road  over  the 
mountain  by  way  of  Pine  Flat  and  thence 
down  Sulphur  Creek  to  the  springs,  and  put  on 
a  line  of  six-horse  wagons.  Until  the  comple- 
tion of  the  Donahue  mad  to  Clovurdale  all  travel 
went  by  that  route.  .Mr.  I-'oss  was  a  man  of 
great  nerve,  and  you  could  not  rake  up  six  of 
the  most  vicious  mustang  tribe  that  he  would 
not  tone  down  after  a  very  short  experience.  He 
would  whirl  around  the  curves  on  his  grand 
road  at  a  gait  that  would  stiffen  the  hair  on  the 
head  of  a  timid  tourist." 


A^  the  forces  of  nature  as  exhibited  by  tiiese 
tkr-taiiied  Geysers  are  very  siio^gestivp  fif  vol- 
canic ornptions  and  eartiiquakes,  we  cannot 
more  titly  close  tliis  chapter  than  with  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  heaviest  earthquake  experienced  in 
California  since  its  occupancy  by  Americans, 
that  of  October  27.  1868.  Its  force  and  effect 
at  Petaluma  is  tlius  described  by  the  Anjus  : 

'•  Yestenlay  moining,  at  abont  nine  minutes 
to  eight  o'clock,  an  earthquake  was  felt  in  this 
city  wliich  for  severity  and  damaging  results 
surpassed  anything  of  the  kind  ever  before  ex- 
perienced in  this  vicinity.  The  oscillation  of 
the  earth  seemed  to  be  from  east  to  west,  and 
there  were  three  distinct  shocks,  following  each 
other  in  rapid  succession,  lasting,  we  should 
think,  from  ten  to  fifteen  seconds.  liuildings 
seemed  to  sway  back  and  forth  like  reeds  in  a 
storm,  and  onr  excited  and  panic-stricken  citi- 
zens of  conrse  made  hurried  movements  to  get 
in  the  streets.  Horses  plunged  and  fretted  as 
the  earth  trembled  beneath  their  feet.  All 
nature  seemed  for  the  moment  to  tremble  in 
fear  at.  the  threatened  convulsion.  Several 
buildings  were  badly  damaged  on  Main  street, 
though  none  fell — the  most  of  the  damages 
done  being  in  the  stores  wherein  were  piled 
goods  of  a  perishable  nature,  ^fany  chimneys 
were  toppled  and  thrown  down,  and  a  stone 
dwelling  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  city  had 
its  front  shaken  out,  but  the  family  occupying 
it  being  abed  when  the  shock  occurred,  miracu- 
lously escaped  injury.  A  great  deal  of  crockery 
ware  was  also  broken,  and  most  of  the  clocks  in 
the  town  stopped;  in  fact,  for  the  moment,  it 
looked  like  the  end  of  all  time.  From  all  we 
can  leai'n  before  going  to  press,  the  following 
are  the  names  of  those  suffering  damaofes:      F. 

T.  Maynard,  breaking  of  bottles  and  loss  of 
drugs,  §1,000;  8.  I).  Towne,  ditto,  !?l()0;  Man- 
ning &  Son,  $20;  DeMartin  &  Co.,  $200; 
Symonds,  !f;75;  Lamoreaux  ^  Cox,  $20;  A.  !'. 
Whitney,  $150;  Carothers  A:  Todd,  $100;  and 
several  others  whose  damages  are  comparatively 
trivial.  During  the  whole  forenoon  of  yester- 
day light  shocks  were  felt,  and  every  one  seemed 
to  be  more  or  less  nervous  lest  another  heavy 
shock  might  visit  us  with  more  disastrous  re- 
sults. There  were  no  casualties.  Up  to  present 
writing  everything  is  quiet,  and  the  fright  of 
our  people  is  diminishing.  There  was  a  report 
that  the  brick  school-honse  was  badly  damaged, 
but  this,  like  a  thousand  other  reports,  is  totally 
without  foundation  or  truth." 

In  continuation  of  matters  in  relation  to  that 
memorable  earthquake,  the  Petaluma  Anpix  of 
October  211th,  said: 

'•  In  this  city  the  earthquake  did  little  damage 
outside  of  what  was  mentioned  in  last  week's 
paper.  A  brick  kiln,  in  the  lower  part  of  town, 
the  property  of  C.  A.  Hough,  sustained  consid- 
erable damage,  there  being  about  twenty  thou- 
sand brick  broken.  We  have  experienced 
several  shocks  since,  but  none  that  compared  in 
severity  with  the  one  on  Wednesday  of  last 
week.  The  effect  on  San  Francisco  turns  out 
not  to  be  so  damaging  as  at  first  reported.  ( )nly 
five  persons  were  killed  outright.  The  damages 
to  property  is  quite  large,  and  will  probably 
reach  over  two  millions  of  dollars.  In  other 
portions  of  the  State,  at  San  Jose.  San  Leandro, 
Oakland,  Napa,  Ilaywoods  and  Gilroy  the  shock, 
was  more  or  less  severe,  doing  considerable 
damage  and  resulting  in  the  loss  of  two  or  tliree 
lives.  At  Sacramento  and  above  tlie  shock  was 
felt,  but  was  comparatively  light." 



Extent  of   ekdwood  forests — the   lumber  output  of    mills — Coloxel    Armstrong's  grove — 


IXTENDTNG  from  Mendocino  southward 
long  the  coast  line  of  the  county,  to  a 
distance  averaging  about  ten  miles  inland, 
is  a  magniticent  redwood  belt  of  timber.  There 
are  considerable  quantities  along  Russian  River 
and  tlieGualalaand  at  intermediate  points,  possi- 
bly' one  thousand  millions  of  feet  of  lumber  if  all 
the  lumber  is  accessible. 

The  soil,  generally  throughoit  this  region  is 
very  fertile.  The  valley's  are  mainly  sandy  loam, 
the  deposits  of  ages.  The  hillsides,  usually 
a  dark  loose  mold  of  vegetable  matter,  some- 
times with  gravel,  and  clay  and  rocks.  It  would 
seem  as  if  the  earth  that  produces  this  enor- 
mous growth  ought  to  raise  almost  any  kind  of 
vegetation,  and  so  far  as  tried,  it  does.  There 
is  no  better  land  in  the  State  for  general  farming 
purposes.  Fruit,  grapes,  alfalfa,  corn,  vines, 
etc.,  grow  to  perfection.  The  land  too  is  cheap 
as  compared  with  other  more  vaunted  localities. 
But  it  is  rough  and  laborious  work  to  put  these 
raw  clearings,  left  by  the  loggers,  in  shape  for 
the  plow.  Rears,  apj)les,  peaches,  figs,  grapes 
and  especially  French  prunes  flourish  in  perfec- 
tion, and  produce  with  unbroken  regularity. 
It  is  a  section  of  the  State  little  heard  from 
heretofore  and  destined  to  become  better 

To  give  the  reader  some  idea  of  the  resources 
of  tiie  redwoods — what  is  left  of  them — it  may 
be  stated  that  Occidental,  Duncan's  Mills  and 
Guerneville  are  villages  which  are  sustained 
mostly  by  saw-mills  and  lumber  industries. 
The  daily  average  .shipments  from  Guerneville 
are  about  eighteen  carloads,  of  which  ten  are 
lumber  furnished  by  the  Rig  Bottom  saw-mill. 
The  annual  output  of  lumber,  ties, posts,  pickets, 
shingles,  cordwood,  bark  and  piles  is  about  half 
a  million  dollars  from  these  little  stations  on 
Russian  River.  Near  the  mouth  of  the  Gualala 
River  there  is  a  fine  mill,  owning  an  immense 
tract  of  15,000  acres  of  timber,  and  making 
extensive  shipments. 

NotwithstaTiding  the  great  value  of  this  tim- 
l>er  for  exj)ort,  its  chief  value  is  its  proximity 
to  the  Santa  Rosa  and  Petaluma  valleys,  which 
extend  from  fifty  to  sixty  miles  northward 
from  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco.  Throughout 
that  entire  country  all  the  fencing  and  building 
lias  been  furnished  by  thcs.'  redwoods.  The 
first  settlers  went  there  and  camped  while  they 
made  rails,  shingles  and  ])ickets  on  Uncle  Sam's 
domain.  It  was  common  property.  When  the 
first  saw-mill  was  built  by  Powers  on  the  river, 
and  after  he  had  taken  up  the  land,  he  was 
powerless  to  keep  the  farmers  of  the  valley  from 


felling  the  timber  under  his  nose  and  carrying 
it  ott".     Things  are  l)etter  managed  imw. 

liedwodds  are  far  taller  than  the  xequoia 
(jujantea  of  Calaveras,  whicli  do  not  attain  a 
greater  heiglit  than  about  250  feet.  J. umber 
men  have  cut  timber  here,- and  can  still  show  it 
in  Big  Bottom,  over  350  feet  high.  The 
diameter  is  less,  ranging  from  saplings  to  18 
feet  across  the  stump.  Fifty  acres  of  this  heavy 
timber  lias  been  set  apart  for  a  public  park  by 
Colonel  Armstrong,  with  an  extension  of  the 
Donahue  Itailroad  leading  to  it,  and  completed 
but  for  a  link  in  the  line  crossing  lands  owned 
by  parties  who  will  neither  lease  nor  sell,  near 
the  village  of  Guerneville.  The  road  will  doubt- 
less be  finished  after  resorting  to  the  courts, 
when  future  generations  can  have  free  access  to 
the  picnic  ground.  It  will  be  the  last  remnant 
of  a  mighty  forest  before  ten  years,  and  the 
nearest  one  accessible  (seventy  miles  distant  by 
rail)  to  the  city  of  San  Francisco. 

The  Petaluma  ^[/yus  of  October,  1S82,  says: 
"  Some  months  ago  mention  was  maile  in  the 
Aiyii.'^  of  the  felling  of  a  mammoth  redwood 
tree  on  the  land  of  John  Torrence,  near  Guerne- 
ville, in  this  county.  The  following  additional 
particulars  concerning  this  giant  of  the  forest  is 
furnished  us  by  Wm.  L.  Van  Doren,  of  this 
city:  The  standing  heiglit  of  the  tree  was  34:7 
feet,  and  its  diameter,  near  the  ground,  was  14 
feet.  In  falling  the  top  was  broken  off  200  feet 
distant  from  the  stump,  and  up  to  the  point  of 
breaking  the  tree  was  perfectly  sound.  From 
the  tree  saw-logs  were  cut  of  the  following 
lengths  and  diameters:  1st,  14  feet  long,  9  feet 
diameter;  2d,  12  feet  long,  8  feet  diameter; 
3d,  12  feet  long,  7  feet  7  inches  diameter;  4tli, 
14  feet  long,  7  feet  G  inches  diameter;  5tli,  10 
feet  long,  6  feet  10  inches  diameter;  7tli,  10 
feet  long,  6  feet  6  inches  diameter;  8tli,  10  feet 
long,  0  feet  4  inches  diameter;  9tli,  10  feet 
long,  0  feet  3  inches  diameter;  10th,  18  feet 
long,  0  feet  diameter;  11th,  12  feet  long,  5  feet 
10  inches  diameter;  12tli,  18  feet  long,  5  feet 6 
inches  diameter.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  180 
feet  of  this  remarkable  tree  was  converted  into 

saw-logs.  As  the  length  and  diameter  of  each 
log  is  given,  the  reader  can.  at  leisure,  figure 
out  the  quantity  of  inch  lumber  the  tree  con- 
tained. If,  instead  of  being  cut  into  lumber,  it 
had  been  worked  up  into  seven  foot  pickets  it 
would  have  afforded  fencing  material  to  enclose 
a  good  sized  ranch." 

A  correspondent  of  the  Healdsburg  Fla<j, 
who  some  years  ago  visited  the  saw-mill  of 
Guerne  it  Heald  in  the  l^ig  Bottom  redwood 
forest  on  Russian  liiver,  thus  describes  what  he 
saw : 

"The  mill  has  been  running  in  its  present 
location  about  one  year.  It  is  a  very  substan- 
tial and  well  arranged  structure,  the  workman- 
ship of  ilessrs.  Bagley  and  Goddart  of  this 
town.  It  has  a  new  48-horse  power  engine, 
14  cylinders  and  18  inch  stroke,  and  runs  a 
double  circle  saw — the  lower  one  02  and  the 
upper  one  70  inches — edger  and  planer.  The 
capacity  of  the  mill  is  20,000  feet  per  day. 
The  mill  is  twenty  miles  from  Healdsburg  by 
the  road — about  twenty-five  miles  by  the  course 
of  the  river.  J.  W.  Bagley  is  head  sawyer. 
We  remained  but  one  niglit  at  the  mill,  and  the 
next  morning  penetrated  into  the  foi-est  for  the 
pur])ose  of  seeing  one  of  the  resources  of 
Sonoma  County — her  redwoods.  Three  and  a 
half  miles  from  the  mills  we  found  •  Outch 
John  "  making  shingles.  This  stalwart  speci- 
men of  Teutonic  muscle  eats,  sleeps,  cooks, 
lives  and  battles  with  the  giants  of  the  forests 
alone.  Sometimes  he  does  not  see  a  human 
form  or  hear  a  human  voice,  but  his  own,  for 
weeks  at  a  time.  He  has  felled  trees.     Two 

of  them  are  nearly  worked  up,  and  he  has  now 
on  hand,  made  from  them,  over  200,000  shingles. 
He  informed  us  that  on  his  place  trees  that 
would  make  180,000  shingles  are  common. 
Some  will  go  to  200,000.  I  applied  the  tape- 
line  to  one  tree  that  measured  07  feet  in  cir- 
cumference two  feet  above  the  ground.  This 
monster  of  the  forest  measures  nearly  200  feet 
in  height  to  the  first  limb,  at  which  point  it  is 
about  ten  or  twelve  feet  through.  Mr.  Bagley 
made  a  calculation  upon  this  huge  trunk,  from 



wliicli  lio  says  it  would  cut  180,000  feet  of 
luiulicr,  make  pickets  to  fence  a  ten  acre  lot 
and  fifty  cord  of  wood.  The  Plaza  church  in 
IlealdBljurg  is  80x40  feet,  and  has  a  steeple  20 
feet  higli;  it  contains  aI)out  30,000  feet  of  lum- 
ber. This  tree,  then,  would  cut  luinf)er  enough 
to  make  six  such  buildings. 

"  Near  Ileald's  mill  is  a  very  large  tree,  kuowji 
as  'The  Htable,'  which  is  hollow  at  the  ground, 
inside  of  which  a  man  can  stand  upright  and  walk 
fifteen  feet.  It  measures  inside  twenty  seven  feet 
across,  and  is  capaljle  of  staliliiig  twelve  horses, 
with  a  haymow  to  supply  them  for  one  winter. 

"  Not  far  from  this  is  the  '  Bean  Pole.'  This 
is  a  large  tree,  but  it  is  somewhat  tall.  A  meas- 
urement taken  by  professional  mechanics  gives 
this  sprout  a  height  of  844  feet.  This  is  one  of 
the  finest  bodies  of  timber  on  the  coast,  and  is 
of  a  superior  quality. 

"  Mr.  J.  G.  Dow  has  taken  a  section  of  the  bark 
from  around  one  of  these  trees — thirteen  feet  in 
diameter — in  pieces  three  feet  long  and  one  foot 
wide,  which  may  be  set  up  .like  the  staves  of  a 
tub,  showing  the  size  of  the  tree.  This  bark  is 
from  live  to  ten  inches  thick,  lie  also  had  a 
piece  of  bark  six  feet  long  and  about  two  feet 
wide,  which  is  twenty  inches  thick,  lie  designs 
taking  these  barks  East  for  exhibition.  They 
will  be  on  exhibition  at  the  Mechanics'  Pavilion 
in  San  Francisco  during  the  fair  this  fall.  He 
will  perhaps  give  the  people  of  llealdsburg,  who 
may  wish  it,  an  opportunity  of  seeing  this  won- 
derful.growth  before  removing  it  to  the  city.  He 
has  had  the  tree  photographed  and  will  have  for 
sale  the  pictures,  in  sizes  to  suit  the  wishes  of  all. 

"  We  visited  the  Steamer  Jititei'prise,  lying  one 
mile  below  the  mill.  Captain  King  is  quite 
confident  that  he  will  visit  llealdsburg  by  steam- 
er before  Christmas.  Says  he  intends  next  sum- 
mer to  make  regular  trips  three  times  a  week  to 
llealdsburg.  Next  Saturday  he  intends  making 
his  first  trip  to  the  mouth  of  the  river." 

In  speaking  of  these  redwood  forests,  J.  P. 
Munro-Frascr  a  few  years  ago  penned  the  follow- 
ing in  reference  tn  the  lumbiTing  business  in 
Ocean  Township: 

"There  are  several  very  large  saw-mills  in 
this  townshij),  in  fact,  there  is  more  mill  capac- 
ity in  it  than  in  any  other  in  the  county  at  the 
present  time,  aggregating  about  150,000  feet 
daily.  The  Duncan's  Mill  Land  ami  J^umbcr 
Association's  mill  will  cut  30,000  feet  a  day. 
The  mills  owned  by  the  llussian  River  J^and 
and  Lumber  Association  at  Moscow,  Tyrone, 
Russian  River  Station,  and  at  other  points  in 
the  Howard  Canon,  will  eacli  cut  30,000  feet 
daily;  none  of  the  mills  belonging  to  the  last- 
named  association  are  running  at  the  present 
time,  but  the  mill  of  the  first  named  is  in  ope- 
ration. To  give  a  history  of  Duncan's  mill,  we 
must  needs  go  back  to  the  pioneer  days  both  of 
California  and  of  saw-milling.  In  1840  a  num- 
ber of  carpenters,  employed  in  the  erection  of 
the  barracks  at  Beuicia,  conceived  the  idea  of 
forming  into  a  company  and  starting  a  saw-mill. 
Lumber  at  that  time  was  worth  $;300  per  1,000 
feet,  and  of  course  at  that  rate  the  business 
would  pay  far  better  profits  than  even  mining. 
The  company  was  organized  under  the  name  of 
the  Blumedale  Saw-mill  and  Lumber  Company, 
in  honor  of  F.  G.  Blume,  of  whom  they  leased 
the  timber  land.  It  was  located  on  Ebabias 
Creek,  in  Analy  Township,  a  few  miles  east  of 
the  present  site  of  Freestone.  Clias.  McDer- 
mot  was  president,  and  John  Bailiff,  secretary 
of  the  company.  They  formed  the  company 
and  rented  the  land  in  1848,  but  it  was  not  un- 
til November  of  1840  that  the  mill  was  got  into 
operation,  but  by  this  time  the  price  of  lumber 
had  so  materially  decreased,  and  the  expense  of 
getting  it  to  market  was  so  great,  that  but  little 
lumber  was  ever  cut  by  this  company.  In  1850 
General  George  Stoiieman  (then  lieutenant), 
Joshuallendy,  and  Samuel  Al.  Duncan  purchased 
the  property  of  the  Blumedale  Mill  and  Lumber 
Company,  and  continued  to  run  it  at  that  place 
until  the  spring  of  1852.  In  the  meantime, 
however,  either  late  in  1851  or  early  in  1852, 
Stoneman  disposed  of  his  interest  to  his  part- 
ners, and  they  continued  in  business  under  the 
firm  name  of  Ilendy  A:  Duncan. 

In  1852   Messrs,   Ucndy  iV    Duncan    moved 



their  mill  to  a  mining  camp  known  as  Yankee 
Jim's.  Here  they  remained  a  year,  and  in  1858 
tlie  macliineiy  was  moved  to  Michigan  Blutt's, 
another  mining  town.  In  1854  they  brought 
the  machinery  back  to  Sonoma  County,  locating 
at  Salt  Point,  and  establishing  the  first  steam 
saw-mill  in  Sonoma  County,  north  of  Russian 
[liver.  Up  to  this  time  the  capacity  of  the  mill 
had  only  l)een  5,000  feet  per  day,  but  the  new 
boilers  were  procured,  making  it  a  sixteen-horse 
power  engine,  and  increasing  the  capacity  to 
12,000  feet  a  day.  In  1855  Joshua  Ilendy  dis- 
posed of  his  interest  to  Alex.  Duncan,  and  un- 
der the  firm  name  of  Duncan  IJrothers,  the  bus- 
iness was  conducted  very  successfully  at  this 
point  until  1860,  when  the  mill  was  moved  to 
the  old  mill  site  near  the  mouth  of  Kus?ian 

While  at  Salt  I'oint  they  sawed  30,000,000 
feet  of  lumber,  being  an  average  of  5,000,000 
per  year.  At  the  time  the  mill  was  moved  to 
Russian  Ri\er,  its  machinery  was  greatly  en- 
larged and  improved,  and  its  capacity  increased 
to  25,000  per  diem.  While  tiie  mill  was  locat- 
ed at  this  place,  tliey  cut  about  100.000,000  feet 
of  lumber.  No  one  has  any  conception  of  what 
those  figures  mean,  or  how  much  luml)er  it  is; 
yet  even  that  great  number  would  iiave  been 
greatly  increased,  had  it  not  been  that  almost 
every  year  large  quaTi titles  of  logs  were  carried 
out  to  sea  during  the  freshets.  The  winter  of 
1862  was  the  worst,  carrying  away  probaljly 
7,000,000  feet  of  lumber  in  the  logs.  It  seemed 
almost  impossible  to  construct  booms  strong 
enough  to  withstand  the  mighty  force  of  the 
raging  floods  of  water.  In  1877  the  Duncan's 
Mill  Land  and  Lumber  Association  was  formed, 
and  the  mill  moved  to  its  present  location.  At 
that  time  it  was  enlarged  to  a  capacity  of  35,- 
000  feet  per  day.  whicli  is  about  the  greatest 
capacity  of  any  mill  in  this  section.  The  ma- 
cliinery  in  the  mill  consists  of  one  pair  of 
doulde  circular  saws,  each  sixty  inches  in  diam- 
eter; one  pony  saw,  forty  inches  in  diameter; 
one  muley  saw,  capable  of  cutting  a  log  eight 
feet  in  diameter;    two   planing    machines,  one 

picket  lieader,  one  shingle  machine,  together 
with  edgers,  jointers,  trimmers,  and  all  the  nec- 
essary machinery  and  appliances  for  conducting 
the  business  of  sawing  and  working  up  lumber 

We  will  now  give  a  detailed  description  of 
the  modux  operandi  of  converting  monster 
redwood  trees  into  lumber,  as  we  saw  it  done 
at  this  mill.  We  will  begin  with  the  tree 
as  it  stands  on  the  mountain  side.  The 
woodsman  chooses  his  tree,  then  proceeds 
to  build  a  scaffold  u])  Ijeside  it  tliat  will 
elevate  him  to  such  a  height  as  he  may  de- 
cide upon  cutting  the  stump.  Many  of  the 
trees  have  been  burned  about  tlie  roots,  or  have 
grown  ill-shaped  near  the  ground,  so  that  it  is 
often  necessary  to  build  the  scaffold  from  ten  to 
twenty  feet  liigh.  This  .scaffold,  by  the  way,  is 
an  ingenious  contrivance.  Notches  are  cut  at 
intervals  around  the  tree  at  the  proper  height, 
deep  enough  for  the  end  of  a  cross-piece  to  rest 
in  securely.  One  end  of  the  cross-piece  is  then 
inserted  in  the  notch,  and  the  other  is  made  fast 
to  an  upright  post,  out  some  distance  from  the 
tree.  Loose  boards  are  then  laid  upon  these 
cross-pieces,  and  the  scaffold  is  completed.  The 
work  of  felling  the  tree  then  begins.  If  the 
tree  is  above  four  feet  in  diameter  an  ax  is  used 
with  an  extra  long  helve,  when  one  man  works 
alone,  but  the  usual  method  is  for  two  men  to 
work  together,  one  chopping  "right-handed" 
and  the  other  "left-handed."  When  the  tree 
is  once  down  it  is  carefully  trimmed  up  as  far 
as  it  will  do  for  saw-logs.  A  cross-cut  saw  is 
now  brought  into  re(juisition,  which  one  man 
plies  with  case  in  the  largest  of  logs,  and  the 
tree  is  cut  into  the  reijuired  lengths.  The 
logs  are  then  stripped  of  their  bark,  which  pro- 
cess is  accomplished  sometimes  by  burning  it 
off.  Then  the  ox-team  puts  in  an  apj)earance. 
These  teams  usually  consist  of  three  or  more 
yoke  of  oxen.  The  chain  is  divided  into  two 
parts  near  the  end,  and  on  the  end  of  each 
part  there  is  a  nearly  right-angled  hook.  One 
of  these  liooks  is  driven  into  either  side  of 
the  log,  near  the  end  next  the  team,  and  then, 



witli  many  a  surge,  a  gee,  and  a  liaw.  and 
an  occasional  (^)  uatli,  the  log  is  drawn  out  tu 
the  main  trail  to  the  landing-place.  If  on 
the  road  there  should  he  any  up  hill,  or  other- 
wise rough  ground,  the  trail  is  frequently  wet, 
so  that  the  logs  may  slip  along  more  easily. 
Once  at  the  landing-place,  the  hooks  at  the  end 
of  the  ciiain  are  withdrawn,  and  the  oxen  move 
slowly  hack  into  the  woods  for  another  log. 
The  train  has  just  come  up,  and  our  log,  a  great 
eight-foot  fellow,  is  carefully  loaded  on  one  of 
the  cars.  As  we  go  along  the  track  on  this 
novel  train  on  our  road  to  the  mill  let  us  exam- 
ine it  a  little.  Beginning  at  the  foundation,  we 
wilj  look  at  the  track  first.  We  find  that  the 
road  bed  has  been  well  graded,  cuts  made  where 
necessary',  fills  made  when  practicable,  and 
trestle  work  constructed  where  needed.  On  the 
ground  are  laid  heavy  cross-ties,  and  on  them  a 
six  by  six  square  timber.  On  this  an  iron  bar, 
about  half  an  inch  thick  and  two  and  a  half 
inches  wide,  is  spiked  the  entire  length  of  the 
track.  The  two  rails  are  five  feet  and  live  inches 
apart,  and  the  entire  length  of  the  tramway  is 
five  miles.  Mow  we  come  to  the  cars  which  run 
on  this  (pieerly-constructed  track.  They  are 
made  nearly  scjuare,  but  so  arranged  that  by 
fastening  them  together  with  ropes  a  combina- 
tion car  of  almost  any  length  can  be  formed. 
And  lastly,  but  by  no  means  the  least,  we  come 
to  the  peculiarly-contrived  j)iece  of  machinery 
which  they  call  a  "dummy,"  which  is  the  motor 
power  on  this  railroad.  This  engine,  boiler, 
tender  and  all,  stands  on  four  wheels,  each  about 
two  and  a  half  feet  in  diameter.  They  are  con- 
nected together  on  each  side  by  a  shaft.  On  the 
axle  of  the  front  pair  of  wheels  is  placed  a 
large  cog-wheel.  Into  this  a  very  small  cog- 
wheel works,  which  is  on  a  shaft,  to  which  the 
power  of  the  engine  is  applied.  There  is  an 
engineer  on  either  side  of  the  boiler,  and  they 
have  a  reverse  lever,  so  that  the  dummy  can  go 
one  way  as  well  as  another.  By  the  cog-wheel 
combination  great  power  is  gained,  but  not  so 
much  can  be  said  for  its  speed,  though  a  maxi- 
mum of  five  miles  an  hour  can  be  obtained.  On 

our  way  to  the  mill  we  passed  through  a  little 
village  of  shanties  and  cottages,  which  jiroved 
to  be  the  residences  of  the  choppers  and  men 
engaged  in  the  woods.  Farther  on  we  pass 
through  a  barren,  deserted  section,  whence  the 
trees  have  all  been  cut  years  ago,  and  naught 
but  their  blackened  stumps  stand  now,  grim  ves- 
tiges of  the  pristine  glory  of  the  forest  prime- 
val. Now  we  pass  around  a  grade,  high, 
overhanging  the  river,  and,  with  a  grand 
sweep,  enter  the  limits  of  the  mill-yard.  (Jur 
great  log  is  rolled  off  the  car  on  to  the  plat- 
form, and  in  his  turn  passes  to  the  small  car 
used  for  drawing  logs  up  into  the  mill.  A 
long  rope  attached  to  a  drum  in  the  mill  is 
fastened  to  the  car,  and  slowly,  but  surely,  it 
travels  up  to  the  platform  near  the  saw.  Our 
log  is  too  large  to  go  at  once  to  the  double  cir- 
cular, hence  the  "muley,''  a  long  saw,  similar 
to  a  cross-cut  saw.  oidy  it  is  a  rip  saw,  and 
stands  perpendicular,  must  rip  it  in  two  in  the 
middle  to  get  it  into  such  a  size  that  the  double 
circular  can  reach  through  it.  This  is  rather 
a  slow  process,  and  as  we  have  nearly  thirty 
minutes  on  our  hands  while  waiting  for  our 
log  to  pass  through  this  saw,  let  us  i)ay  a  visit 
to  the  shingle  machine.  This  we  find  on  a 
lower  floor.  The  timlter  out  of  which  shingles 
are  made  is  cut  into  triangular  or  wedge- 
shaped  pieces,  about  four  feet  long,  and  about 
sixteen  inches  in  diameter.  These  are  called 
"bolts.'"  The  first  process  is  to  saw  them  off 
into  proper  lengths.  These  blocks  are  then 
fastened  into  a  rack,  which  passes  by  a  saw,  and 
as  the  rack  passes  back  a  ratchet  is  brought  into 
requisition,  which  moves  the  bottom  of  the 
block  in  toward  the  saw,  just  the  thickness  of 
the  thick  end  of  the  shingle  and  the  top  end 
to  correspond  with  the  thickness  of  the  thin 
end.  The  l)lock  is  then  shoved  past  the  saw, 
and  a  shingle  is  made,  except  that  the  edges  are 
of  course,  rough,  and  the  two  ends  probably  not 
at  all  of  the  same  width.  To  remedy  all  this, 
the  edge  of  the  shingle  is  subjected  to  a  trim- 
mer, when  it  becomes  a  first-class  shingle. 
They    are  packed  into  bunches,   and  arc   tlien 


ready  fur  tlio  market.  We  will  now  return  to 
(lur  ki^-.  It  lias  just  lieen  run  back  uii  the  car- 
ria>j;e,  an<l  awaits  further  processes.  A  rope  at- 
tached to  aside  drum  is  made  fast  to  one-half  of 
it,  and  it  is  soon  lying  on  its  back  on  the  car- 
riage in  front  of  the  double  circular  saws. 
Through  this  it  passes  in  rapid  rotation  till  it 
is  sawed  into  l)road  slabs  of  the  proper  thick- 
ness to  make  the  desired  lumber.  It  is  then 
jia^sed  alonjj^  on  rollers  to  the  "pony'"  saw, 
when  it  is  a^•ain  cut  in  jiieces  of  lumber  of  dif- 
ferent sizes  as  required,  such  as  two  by  four, 
four  by  four,  four  by  si.\,  etc.  It  is  then  piled 
u]«)ii  a  truck  and  wheeled  into  the  yard,  and 
piled  up  ready  for  the  market.  The  other  half 
of  the  log  is  sawed  into  boards,  three-quarters 
of  an  inch  thick.  At-the  "pony'"  saw,  part  of  it 
is  ripi)ed  into  boards,  ten  inches  wide,  and  part 
into  plank,  four  inches  wide.  The  boards,  ten 
inciies  wide,  pass  along  to  a  planing  machine, 
and  it  comes  out  rustic  siding.  The  four-inch 
plank  passes  through  another  planing  machine, 
and  comes  out  tongued  and  grooved  ceiling. 
The  heavy  slabs  which  we  saw  come  off  the 
tirst  and  second  time  the  saw  passed  through 
are  cut  into  different  lengths,  and  sawed  into 
the  right  size  for  pickets.  They  are  then  passed 
through  a  planer,  then  througii  a  picket-header, 
a  machine  with  a  series  of  revolving  knives, 
wliich  cut  out  the  design  of  the  picket-head  the 
same  as  the  ditierent  niembersof  a  molding  are 
cut  out.  Thus  have  we  taken  our  readers 
through  the  entire  piocess  of  converting  the 
mighty  forest  monarchs  into  lumber.  We 
hojie  we  have  succeeded  in  making  the  dcsci'ip- 
tion  of  the  process,  in  a  small  measure  at  least, 
as  interesting  to  our  readers  as  it  was  to  us 
wlien,  for  the  first  time,  we  witnessed  it.  AVheti 
you  have  witnessed  the  process  of  making  lum- 
ber in  one  mill  you  have  seen  it  in  all,  with  the 
e.xception  of  here  and  there  a  minor  detail. 
There  are  but  few  mills  which  use  a  "dum- 
my" engine  to  draw  their  logs  to  the  mill, 
most  of  them  using  iiorses  or  cattle  on  the 
tramwavs.       The  lumber  and   wood   industi'ies 

of  this  township  will  always  n.iake  it  of  con- 
siderable importance,  and  a  prosperous  future 
may  reasonably  be  expected. 

In  reference  to  these  redwood  forests,  the 
engineer  of  the  California  State  Board  of  For- 
estry recently  said: 

'•  r  am  indebted  to  J.  AV.  Jiagley,  C.  E.  of 
Guerneville,  for  interesting  figures,  lioth  as  to 
the  size  of  trees,  and  yields  of  redwood  lumber 
near  that  formerly  famous  vicinity.  Mr.  Hag- 
ley  measured  one  tree  84!)  feet  nine  inches  in 
height,  and  another  nineteen  feet  in  diameter 
underneath  the  bark,  and  states  that  the  yield 
of  one  measured  acre  scaled  in  milled  lumber 
1,431,530  feet  board  measure." 

There  are  thousands  of  acres  that  will  yield 
this  amount.  During  the  past  few  years  many 
thousand  acres  of  redwood  timber  land,  as  fast 
as  surveyed,  have  been  taken  by  individuals  in 
160  acre  locations  under  the  act  peculiar  to 
the  Pacific  States  and  Territories,  for  tlie  sale 
of  public  timber  lands,  and  under  the  home- 
stead and  pre-emption  laws.  Tracts  from  160 
to  640  acres  in  extent  of  land  as  good  as  any 
that  has  yet  been  cut  over,  can  be  found  in  the 
hands  of  the  original  locators,  for  sale  at  prices 
varying  with  the  individual  financial  needs  or 
business  shrewdness  of  the  owners.  To  secure 
larger  tracts,  however,  requires  a  constantly  in- 
creasing amount  of  perseverance,  energy  and 
capital,  in   consolidating  these  small    holdings. 

The  exports  of  redwood  from  California  have 
until  within  two  or  three  years,  been  merely 
nominal,  and  yet  with  only  the  local  demand, 
over  one-third  of  the  redwood  timber  area  has 
been  cut.  As  an  evidence  of  the  growing  scar- 
city of  the  wood,  we  will  mention  that  around 
Guerneville,  in  Sonoma  County,  the  price  of 
stumpage  has  appreciated  to  ^-4.50  per  1,000 
feet.  Eight  hundred  acres  at  Willow  Gulch, 
in  Sonoma  County,  were  sold  some  time  ago  by 
the  -North  Pacific  Coast  Ilailroad  Company,  to 
Mr.  A.  Markham,  of  Duncan's  Mills,  at  the 
rate  of  $3.00  ]ier  1,000  feet  stumpage.  This 
tract,  it  is  estimated,  will   cut  100,000,000  feet. 




Names  Belonging  to  Histoey.  i^ 




PKK-IDKNr    RuTIIKRKORn      I).    IIaYK-<,    (tENKKAI,     Wlf.LIA^r     T.    SlIKKMAX    AND    SkcBKTARV    <iF    WaK, 
Ar.liXANDKB    IlAM-iKV CuI.ONKL      RoD     MaTIIKSOX — JullX      MlLLEU      CaMKKOX SaI.MI    M'HtSE. 

X  tliu  I'ctiiluiiia  AnjKS  of  Septeiiilier  lOtli, 
<]1  1880,  the'  folluwiiig  iiieiitioii  is  made  of 
-V  several  di.-jtiiiguislieil  visitors  to  Sonoma 

"  According  to  aunouncumeiit  I'resideat 
Hayes  and  party,  together  with  Governor  Per- 
kins and  staff,  arrived  in  this  city  at  11  o'clock 
a.  m.,  Friday.  The  news  ot"  their  coming  had 
been  widely  made  known  both  ijy  telegraph 
and  the  daily  Anjas,  and  as  was  to  be  expected 
there  was  attracted  to  Petaluma  the  largest  con- 
course of  people  ever  seen  here  before.  At  an 
early  hour  the  people  came  pouring  in  from  all 
parts  of  the  surrounding  country,  and  from 
every  part  of  this  and  contiguous  counties  easy 
of  access  to  railroads.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
cars  from  San  Rafael  conveying  our  dis- 
tinguished visitors,  together  with  the  commit- 
tee of  our  citizens  who  met  them  at  San  Rafael 
to  escort  them  up,  a  jjresident's  salute  of  twen- 
ty-one guns  was  tired  from  the  eminence  at  the 
western  end  of  Washington  street.  While  the 
cannon  was  looming  forth  a  welcome,  the  pro- 
cession, consisting  of  a  long  train  of  coaches 
and  carriages  of  all  kinds,  moved  through  our 
streets  in  the  direction  of  the  fair  grounds. 
The  |)rocessioii  was  led  by  the  Petaluma  Cornet 
Hand,  llewston  (Guards,  St.  Vincent  Cadets  and 
the  Swiss  Society.  The  carriage  in  which  Pres- 
ident Hayes  rode  was  drawn  by  four  elegant 
caparisoned  iiorses;  tiien  followed  carriages  with 
(feneral   Slieririan,  Secretary  li.imsey,  Ciovernor 

Perkins,  Burchard  Hayes,  Colonel  John  AIc- 
Comb  and  other  distinguished  visitors.  The 
streets  along  which  the  procession  moved  were 
a  perfect  cloud  of  banners.  Considering  the 
short  notice,  we  have  reason  to  feel  proud  of 
our  city's  holiday  attire.  Arriving  at  the  grand 
stand  a  large  number  present  paid  their  respects 
to  and  took  by  the  hands  our  national  digni- 
taries. When  the  first  flutter  of  excitement 
had  passed,  and  the  vast  audience  had  become 
settled,  Hon.  J.  McM.  Shafter,  in  a  few  well- 
timed  and  elo(^uent  i-emarks,  referred  to  the  dis- 
tinguished gentlemen  present  on  the  stand,  and 
introduced  President  Hayes,  who  was  received 
with  hearty  applause.  Mr.  Hayes  spoke  about 
an  hour  a'ld  his  expression  of  encomium  and 
sallies  of  wit  called  forth  repeated  ajiplause. 
Secretary  of  War  Alexander  Ramsey,  was  next 
inti'oduced,  and  made  a  pungent  speech  of  about 
fifteen  minutes,  which  produced  both  mirth  and 
applause.  General  Wm.  T.  Sherman  was  next 
presente<l  and  hailed  with  enthusiastic  applause. 
His  speech  was  short,  and  related  mainly  to  his 
visit  to  this  part  of  the  Pacific  Coast  in  1848. 
TheCieneral  expressed  his  utter  astonishment  at 
the  change  that  has  taken  place  in  thirty  years. 
Governor  Perkins,  who  was  to  delivei-  the  an- 
nual address  of  the  fair,  was  then  iiitroduceil, 
and  spoke  for  about  half  an  hour  in  a  vein 
which  kept  the  audience  in  a  continuous  uproar 
of  merriment,  lie  exhiliited  tjic  adilress  in 
nninuscript,  wliii-h    lie   bad    iiiteiiile(|  u>  (jeliver. 

llISToHY    (IF    SONOMA     COi'NTY. 

but  said  it  would  answer  for  some  other  fair, 
and  he  would,  like  the  gentlemen  who  preceded 
him,  rest  content  witli  an  extemporaneous  eilbrt. 
After  witnessing  the  races,  our  visitors  repaired 
to  the  residence  of  Professor  E.  S.  Lippitt, 
where  lunch  was  served,  and  at  four  oVdock,  \: 
M.,  were  escorted  to  tlie  cars  and  departed  for  San 
Francisco.  This  is  necessarily  but  brief  mention 
of  an  event  whicli  will  long  be  remembered  by 
our  citizens  as   a  noted  day   in  l^etaluma. 

Cill,ONEI.    KOI)    MATUESllX. 

Wiien  civil  war  came  it  found  Rod  Matlieson 
the  principal  of  an  academy  he  had  established 
at  Ilcaldsburg  in  this  county.  From  tlie  very 
outset  he  had  identified  himself  with  tlie  Free 
Soil  party  and  when  the  civil  war  came,  incited 
as  lie  believed  by  the  slave  power,  lie  was  not 
long  in  determining  tliat  his  duty  lay  at  the 
front.  Taking  his  life  in  his  hand  he  went 
forth  to  battle  for  tlie  right,  as  God  gave  him 
to  see  the  right.  His  intelligence  and  dash 
marked  him  fur  a  leadfer,  and  he  was  made 
Colonel  of  the  First  California  (Tliirty-secoml 
New  York)  llegiment.  lie  led  his  regiment  in 
the  memorable  battle  of  South  Mountain  on  the 
14th  of  October,  1S()2.  Like  the  true  and 
bi-ave  man  that  he  was,  although  in  tlie  face  of 
defeat  and  disaster,  he  only  left  the  field  when 
borne  away  "  on  his  shield.'"  The  following  com- 
memorative of  his  worth  and  the  esteem  in  which 
he  was  held  by  ins  neighbors  and  fellow-citizens 
legitimately  belongs  to  Sonoma  County  history. 

In  September,  18(51,  a  war  coirespondent  of 
the  San  Francisco  Alt<(  wrote:  •'  1  visited  Hod 
Matheson"s  regiment,  composed  alinust  exclu- 
sively of  returned  Californians, and  a  finer  body 
of  men  I  never  saw.  They  are  drilled  like 
veterans,  and  have  a  happy  facnlty  of  getting 
along  better  than  most  uf  the  other  regiments 
about  them.  1  was  impressed  into  their  service 
for  four  days,  and  became  the  guest  of  tlie 
Colonel  and  Major  l-"rank  Lemon.  They  seem 
to  live  off  tiie  fat  of  the  land,  have  a  theatrical 
company  among  their  members,  a  band  of 
serenaders,  and  seem  to  have  more  fun  going  on 

in  their  encampment,  than  all  the  others  put 
together.  Strict  discipline,  while  on  diity,  is 
maintained,  and  the  men  appear  cheerful  and 
contented.  George  Wilkes  and  Tom  IJattel. 
and  other  choice  spirits,  make  tliis  regiment 
their  headcpiarters.  At  the  battle  of  Bull  Run, 
about  150  outsiders,  all  Californians,  well  armed, 
did  duty  as  irregulars  with  the  regiment.  It 
rendered  the  most  effective  service  in  covering 
the  retreat  of  the  Union  forces,  dro\e  back  the 
pursuing  secession  cavalry,  and  were  the  last 
to  return  to  Alexandria,  which  they  di<l  not 
till  the  next  day,  in  good  order,  saving  150 
wagons,  most  of  the  artillery,  and  the  best  por- 
tion of  the  baggage.  The}'  elected  Matlieson 
General  pro  fuu.^  when  ever}'  other  (reneral  had 
left  the  field,  and  being  joined  by  Col.  IJlen- 
ker's  (ierman  regiment,  succeeded  in  holding 
in  check  any  attempt  of  the  rebels  to  pursue. 
These  two  regiments,  alone,  saved  several  mill- 
ions worth  of  property.  They  had  a  battery  of 
liglit  artillery  in  the  command,  and  did  good 
service  with  it.  They  lost  none  killed,  but  sev- 
era  Islightly  wounded." 

The  death  of  Col.  Rod  Mathesun.  and  the 
events  preceding  and  following  it  are  thus 
described  in  Washington  correspondence  of  the 
New  York  Ilerahl,  dated  October  5,  18ti2: 

"The  body  of  Col.  Matlieson,  of  the  First 
(Jalifoi'Tiia  (Thirty-second  New  York)  Regiment, 
was  brom/ht  here  and  embalmed  to-day  by  Doc- 
tor>  Ibiiwn  and  .Mexander.  Col.  ^[athesmi  was 
wiiundfd  while  leading  his  regiment  in  the 
meiiKirable  battle  of  South  Mountain,  on  the 
l-lth  lilt.  It  was  found  impossible  to  shell  the 
rebels  out  of  Coinpton  (/iap,  and  General  Slocum 
determined,  after  consulting  with  his  I'rigadier 
(xenerals,  to  take  by  assault  with  iiit'antry  the 
mountain  which  commanded  the  gap.  It  was 
one  of  the  most  brilliant  atiairs  of  the  war.  The 
division  cliarged  up  the  steep  mountain  side,  on 
which  the  rebels  were  posted  behind  three  stone 
walls,  with  batteries  placed  on  the  crest  of  the 
mountain.  The  division,  composed  of  l>artlett's, 
Newton's  an<l  Torbett"s  brigades,  advanced  in 
line   steadily   up   the  hill    under  a  terrible  fire, 

HIsrollY    OF    tiONoMA     VOliNTT. 


forming  upon  tlieir  colors  after  passing  tlie  bar- 
riers successfully,  and  drove  the  rebels  from  the 
]iositiun.  A  rebel  J\[ajor  who  was  wounded  and 
t.iken  prisonei',  said  the}'  had  been  told  that  the 
Union  troops  to  come  against  them  were  green; 
but  when  they  saw  their  steady  advance,  in 
which  they  moved  as  if  on  dress  parade,  the 
word  ran  through  the  rebel  lines:  '  These  are 
no  recruits — these  are  from  that  damned  old 
Army  of  the  Potomac.'  In  this'charge  Colonel 
Matheson  was  wounded,  while  in  front  of  his 
regiment  calling  them  on.  A  ball  lacerated  the 
arteries  of  his  right  leg  and  fractured  the  bone. 
He  died  of  secondary  hemoi'rhage. 

"  Tiie  Californians  in  this  e,\ty  met  to  day  at 
the  residence  of  Mr.  William  Dayton,  and  passed 
resolutions  expressing  their  sense  of  the  high 
cliaracter  and  gallant  conduct  of  Colonel  Mathe- 
son. Senator  McDougall,  who  presided,  paid 
an  eloquent  tribute  to  the  excellent  qualities  of 
the  deceased,  and  Cajjtain  Fish,  of  the  First 
California  Regiment,  spoke  feelingly  in  praise  of 
his  late  commander. 

"  Atameeting  of  Californians  now  here.  Sena- 
tor McDougall,  chairman,  the  following  named 
gentlemen  of  this  city  were  a])pointed  a  com- 
mittee to  receive  the  remains  of  the  gallant 
dead:  Messrs.  C.  K.  Garrison,  (4eorge  Wilkes, 
W.  T.  Coleman,  Warren  J-eland,  Charles  X. 
Stetson  and  Alfred  E.  Tiiton.  These  gentle- 
men are  expected  to  meet  at  the  Astor  House 
on  Sunday  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements 
to  carry  into  effect  the  part  assigned  them. 

"The  body  will  be  conveyed  to  New  York 
this  afternoon,  where  it  will  lie  in  state  a  few  days 
before  l)eing  carried  to  San  Francisco  for  burial.'" 

When  tlie  news  of  the  <lcath  of  Colonel  Math- 
eson reached  Ilealdsburg  on  <  )ct(ibcr  24,  1802, 
a  public  meeting  was  at  once  called,  which  was 
presided  over  by  Captain  L.  A.  Norton — J.  J. 
Maxwell,  secretary — at  which  the  following 
action  was  taken: 

On  motion  of  i)r.  I'iper  a  conimittee  of  five 
was  appointed  to  draft  resr)lutions  expressive 
of  the  feeling  of  the  meeting.  The  |]iesi(lcnt 
appointed  Dr.  Tiper,  Ju<lge  Spencer,  J.  .J.  .May, 

J.  A.  Bagley,  and  the  president  was  added  by 
the  meeting. 

The  president  said  he  would  bu  glad  to  hear 
from  the  gentlemen  present.  Mr.  Fenno,  in 
behalf  of  the  Sotoyome  Guards,  of  which  Col- 
onel Matheson  was  a  member,  moved  that  the 
membei-s  of  the  guard  wear  mourning  upon  the 
right  arm  thirty  days  in  memory  of  the  deceased. 

Kemarks  were  offered  by  various  gentlemen 
present,  after  which  the  committee  on  resolutions 
made  the  following  report  which  was  adopted: 

WnicKEAs,  Recent  telegraphic  dispatches  have 
contirnied  therumored  death  of  our  fellow-towns- 
man, Colonelllod  Matheson,  while  bravely  and 
heroically  defending  the  honor  of  onr  national 
tlag;  therefore, 

liexidi'ed,  That  we  bow  submissively  to  this 
atHictive  dispensation  of  Divine  Providence, 
and  in  common  with  others,  nionni  the  loss  of 
a  pure  patriot. 

Rcsiili-ed,  That  in  the  death  of  Colonel 
Matheson,  the  nation  has  lost  a  brave  defender, 
the  army  an  etttcient  othcer  and  daring  soldier, 
the  people  of  California  one  who  has  nobly  rep- 
resented them  on  the  field  of  battle,  his  parents 
a  ilutiful  son,  his  wife  an  affectionate  husband, 
his  children  a  kind  and  indulgent  parent,  and 
the  people  of  Sonoma  a  worthy  citizen,  whose 
name  will  be  long  cherished  and  honored. 

liesoli'ctl,  That  we  sincerely  and  heartily 
sympathize  with  the  family  of  the  deceased  in 
their  deep  atHiction,  and  that  a  committee  be 
a])pointe(l  by  this  meeting  to  tender  them  the 
sympathy  of  this  meeting,  and  a  copy  of  these 

Ri'siilr,',!,  That  a  committee  of  three  be  ap- 
pointed to  confer  with  the  mayorof  the  city  of  San 
Francisco  with  regai-d  to  the  conveyaTice  of  there- 
mains  of  the  deceased  to  this  place  for  interment. 

A  committee  to  report  the  proceedings  ot 
this  meeting  to  the  widow  was  appointed  by 
the  president.  William  i)ow,.ludge  Spencer  and 
P.   Griost.  were    a])j)oiiitcd  on  that  (;c.mmittee. 

Committee  ap|>ointed  liy  the  jiresident  lo 
confer  with  the  mayor  cjI'  San  Francisco:  Mr. 
Ilhjoni,    Mr.  I'iehls  and  .I..J.  May. 


IlISTOHY    OF    60N0UA    COUNTY. 

In  the  Petaluma  Argus  of  xsovember  12, 
1862,  the  following  appeared: 

"On  Thursday  evenint^  last  tlie  remains  of 
Colonel  IJoderick  Matlieson,  who  died  troiii 
wounds  roeeired  at  the  battle  of  Cheat  Moun- 
tain, Octoljer  '2d,  arrived  in  San  Francisco  on 
the  steamer  Sonora.  The  remains  of  the  fallen 
hero  were  borne  to  i'latt's  Ilall  and  laid  in 
state,  whither  vast  throngs  of  people  repaired 
to  take  a  last  look  at  all  that  remained  of  the 
lamented  Matlieson.  The  funeral  pageant  was 
solemn  and  imposing.  Rev.  Starr  King  deliv. 
ered  the  funeral  oration  on  Saturday,  after  which 
the  body  was  conducted  aboard  of  the  steamer 
PcUiluind  with  due  milit.iiry  and  civic  lionors. 

'•The  steamer /'e^<?^««i'«  with  the  remains  of 
Colonel  Matlieson,  in  charge  of  a  detachment 
of  the  National  (Guards,  of  San  Francisco, 
reached  her  landing,  below  the  city,  at  7  o'clock 
Saturday  evening.  His  remains  were  escorted 
to  this  city  from  the  boat  by  the  Healdsbnrg 
Band,  retaluma  Gurds,  Emmet  Rifles  and  eight 
pall-bearers,  consisting  of  E.  F.  Dunne,  Will- 
iam Ordway,  Captain  Creorge  E.  Lovejoy, 
George  Campbell,  T.  K.  Wilson,  F.  D.  Coltoii, 
II.  L.  Weston  and  Samuel  Cassiday.  .Night 
had  cast  her  sable  mantle  over  the  earth,  thus 
lending  additional  solemnity  to  the  occasion. 
The  plaintive  strains  of  the  funeral  marches 
played  by  the  band  floated  mournfully  on  the 
still  night  air;  with  slow  ami  measured  tread  the 
procession  entered  our  city,  and  passing  up 
Main  street  halted  in  front  uf  ^[(-('une's  Ilall. 
Tiie  pall-bearers  received  the  cothn  from  the 
hearse  and  bearing  it  up  the  flight  of  stairs  to 
the  hall,  ]ilaced  it  on  the  eatafahjue  prepared  foi' 
the  occasion.  A  guard  of  honor  was  detailed, 
and  stationed  in  the  hall,  after  which  the  cottin 
was  opened,  and  for  several  hours  there  was  a 
throng  of  visitors  to  look  at  the  corpse  of  the 
gallant  soldier  whose  life  has  l)een  sacriflced 
upon  the  altar  of  his  country.  Although  con- 
siderably emaciated  the  features  of  the  deceased 
had  not  undergone  sufficient  change  to  prevent 
thosewhokncw  him  from  recogniziiifj  his  familiar 

"  About  9  o'clock  Sunday  morning,  the  pro- 
cession was  again  formed — the  coffin  was  placed 
in  the  hearse  and  escorted  out  of  the  city.  A 
detachment  of  the  Petaluma  (iuards,  in  con- 
iunction  with  the  detachment  from  the  National 
(iiiards,  proceeded  witli  the  body  to  Ilealdsliurg. 
Six  pall-bearers,  selected  by  the  citizens  of 
Santa  Rosa,  met  and  escorted  the  corpse  to  the 
2)laza,  in  that  town,  where  an  appropriate  ad- 
dress was  delivered  by  General  O.  Hinton.  Tlie 
procession  again  took  up  its  line  of  march  for 
liealdsburg.  arriving  at  tlie  residence  of  the 
lamented  Roderick  Matheson  at  8  o'clock  in 
the  evening.  The  citizens  of  liealdsburg  had 
made  every  necessary  preparation  to  pay  suita- 
ble honor  to  the  memory  of  their  esteemed 
fellow-citizen,  who  was  to  lind  a  last  resting 
place  in  their  midst.  At  11  o'clock  on  Monday, 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Thomas,  of  San  Francisco,  deliv- 
ered an  appropriate  and  touching  funeral  dis- 
course, after  which  the  body  of  Colonel 
Matheson  was  consigned  to  its  mother  earth, 
and  a  military  salute  flred  over  his  grave. 

"  He  sleeps  his  last  sleep,  he  has  fought  his  last  baule. 
Xo  sound  can  awake  him  to  glory  again." 

.loHN    yi.    CAMEKOX. 

The  following  sketch  of  the  life  of  John  Mil- 
ler Cameron,  who,  together  with  his  wife,  re- 
poses in  the  Sebastopol  Cemetery,  is  worthy  a 
place  in  this  history,  not  only  on  account  of  liis 
own  merits  and  Worth,  but  because  in  his  family 
young  Abraham  Lincoln  made  his  home,  all  un- 
conscious of  the  measure  he  was  to  till  in  the 
drama  of  life.  In  all  the  histories  of  Lincoln 
mention  is  made  i)f  his  residence  witli  the  Cam- 
eron family: 

"  Rev.  John  Miller  Cameron,  a  resident  of 
Sebastopol,  Sonoma  County,  California,  and  a 
minister  of  the  gospel  in  I'acific  Presbytery,  of 
the  C.'umberland  Presbyter/an  Church,  was  born 
in  Elbert  County,  Georgia,  on  the  12th  of 
August,  17111,  and  died  at  his  residence  at  Se- 
bastopol, Sonoma  (bounty,  after  a  painful  and 
distressing  aflliction  of  two  months,  on  the  12th 
of  February,  1878,  being  eighty-six  years,  six 
months  and  nine  days  old, 


"  The  deceased  went  with  his  t'atlieraud  i'umily, 
while  a  youth,  to  Kentucky,  in  the  year  1S04. 
and  settled  near  the  mouth  of  the  Green  River, 
in  Henderson  County,  at  which  place  he  was 
married  to  IMary  (^reiidorrt',  in  l>Sll;  from 
which  place  he  removed  to  the  Territoi'y  of  Illi- 
nois, and  settled  in  what  is  now  White  (Jonnty, 
in  1813.  He  removed  from  there  to  JJellviliu, 
in  St.  Clair  County,  in  ISKJ,  and  from  there  to 
Sangamon  County  in  1818.  This  last  move 
was  made  about  the  time  Illinois  was  admitted 
into  the  Union.  He  stopped  for  a  time  near 
Springfield,  after  whicli  he  settled  on  Uock 
Creek,  in  the  same  county.  lie  was  at  the  time 
a  candidate  for  the  ministry  in  the  bounds  of 
Sangamon  Presbytery,  and  about  the  year  1827 
was  licensed  to  preach,  and  devoted  the  principal 
part  of  his  life-time  to  the  ministry  until  1S32, 
when  he  removed  to  Fulton  County,  Illinois, 
where  he  was  instrumental  in  buildino;  up  seve- 
ral church  organizations.  He  remained  there 
until  1887,  when  he  removed  to  the  Territory 
of  Iowa,  and  settled  in  Jefferson  County,  whei-e 
he  was  instrumental  in  building  several  more 
church  organizations.  Shortly  after  the  admis- 
sion of  the  State  into  the  Union,  he  again  re- 
moved to  Oskaloosa,  Mahaska  County,  Iowa, 
and  at  that  place  built  up  an  organization  and 
erected  the  first  house  of  worship  in  the  place, 
devoting  a  portion  of  his  time  to  preaching  in 
the  counties  of  Mahaska,  Wa'pello,  Van  Huren, 
Jefferson,  Ivcokuk,  Henry,  Jasper  and  others. 
He  was  always  punctual  in  attendance  to  the 
appointments  of  the  church,  and  seldom  failed 
to  meet  his  own.  In  the  spring  of  1840  he 
started  with  his  family  across  the  plains  to  (,'al- 
ifornia,  and  arrived  at  a  place  known  as  Fre- 
mont about  the  1st  of  October  the  same  year, 
remaining  there  but  a  short  time.  He  then 
went  to  Sacramento,  wiierc  lie  remained  during 
the  winter.  In  the  summer  of  185(J  he  removed 
to  Martinez,  preaching  occasionally  until  the 
fall  of  1851,  when  he  removed  to  Sonoma  ('oun- 
ty,  near  the  present  town  of  Sebastopol,  where 
he  purchased  a  farm,  on  which  he  has  since  re- 
sided.    He  was  set  a])art  to  the  whole  wf)rk  of 

the  ministry  by  California  I'l-esbylery  of  tlie 
Cumberland  Fresbyterian  Church  in  1854,  after 
which  his  time  was  mostly  spent  in  visiting 
destitute  places,  preaching  and  organizing 
churches,  and  after  the  organization  in  visiting 
and  supplying  said  chui'cjies,  until  prevented  by 
affliction  and  extreme  old  age. 

•'  His  wife  died  after  a  short  illness,  at  her  home 
in  Sonoma  County,  on  the  25th  of  March,  187t'), 
at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-two  years.  He 
and  his  wife  had  eleven  children — ten  daughters 
and  one  son.  Nine  of  the  daughters  are  still 
living,  all  but  one  in  California.  Thomas  Por- 
ter Cameron,  his  son,  was  killed  by  the  explo- 
sion of  the  steamer  Secretary  in  1854,  near  San 
F]-ancisco.  One  daughter,  the  wife  of  A.  Mc 
Namer,  died  at  the  family  home  in  1855;  one 
resides  with  her  family  near  Cincinnati;  the 
others  are  Mrs.  Judge  B.  B.  Berry,  Mrs.  S.  M. 
Martin.  Mrs.  liev.  B.  JS'.  i'onham  and  Mrs.  C. 
Purvine,  of  Sonoma  County;  Mrs.  Judge  T.  A. 
Brown,  of  Contra  Costa  County;  Mrs.  Hr.  B. 
B.  I'onham,  of  Butte  County;  Mrs.  Henry  Lys- 
tor,  of  Monterey  County  and  Mrs.  Cynthia  War- 
ner, of  Petaluma,  the  widow  of  the  son  deceased. 
The  deceased  liad  at  the  time  of  his  death  filty- 
one  grand-children  and  sixty-live  great-grand- 
children. Since  the  deatli  of  the  wife  of  tic- 
ceased,  he  has  seemed  to  be  broken  down  in 
spirits,  discontented,  lonely  and  dejected. 
Father  Cameron  was  eminently  a  pioneer  at  the 
time  of  his  settlement  in  Illinois  in  1813,  in 
Iowa  in  1837,  and  in  California  in  1849;  those 
States  respectively  not  having  been  admitted 
into  tiie  Union.  His  life  has  been  spent  upon 
the  frontier,  and  his  occupation  practically  to 
clear  the  way  for  those  who  would  follow.  He 
was  a  devoted  husband,  kind  and  affectionate 
fathci'  and  generous  neighbor.  He  died  as  he  had 
lived,  faithful  to  every  obligation;  was  beloved 
Ijy  all  who  knew  him,  and  a  large  number  of  rel- 
atives ;ind  friends  mourn  hisloss.  He  wasamem- 
ber  111'  the  Masonic  fraternity  about  fifty  years." 

SAI.MI    MoliSi:. 

The  Petal nma  Arytis  of  March  1,  1884.  said 
editorially:    •'  On  last  Saturday  a  telegraphic  dis- 

iriSTOnY    OF    SONOMA     COUNTY. 

patch  from  JS'ew  York  announced  tiie  liii(iingol'the 
body  of  Salmi  Morse  in  tlie  Hudson  River  under 
circumstances  strongly  indicating  deliberate  sui- 
cide. For  several  years  past  the  name  of  Salmi 
Morse  has  been  prominently  before  the  people  of 
United  States  in  connection  with  his  persistent  the 
etforts  to  gain  for  his  "  Passion  I'lay,"  the  right 
of  exhil)ition.  His  long  and  fruitless  struggle 
to  achieve  this  end  in  New  York  City  is  familiar 
to  all  who  keep  posted  on  the  current  news  of 
our  country,  but  we  hazard  little  in  saying  that 
many  persons  in  Sonoma  and  adjoining  counties 
who  personally  knew  Mr.  Morse,  have  never 
once  thought  of  associating  him  with  the  Salmi 
Morse  of  '  Passion  Play '  fame.  The  attention 
of  the  writer  was  first  attracted  to  Mr.  Morse 
at  a  Methodist  camp-meeting,  near  Liberty 
school  house  in  this  county,  the  summer  of 
either  1856  or  1857.  After  the  usual  sermon 
the  exercises  consisted  in  alternate  singing  and 
prayer.  A  call  was  made  for  Brother  Morse  to 
lead  in  prayer.  As  is  usual  in  Methodist  meet- 
ing the  entire  membership  assumed  a  kneeling 
posture,  when  Mr.  Morse,  a  man  small  in 
stature  and  bald-headed,  stepped  upon  a  bench 
and  with  his  head  thrown  back,  delivered  a  very 
earnest,  eloquent  invocation,  to  which  emphasis 
was  given  l)y  a  rapid  forward  and  backwai-d 
movement  of  the  head.  At  that  time  we  got 
the  impression  that  he  either  was  or  iiad  been 
a  Baptist  minister.  Time  sped  on  and  in  a  few 
years  we  were  involved  in  civil  war.  Mr.  Morse 
was  a  Unionist  of  the  most  radical  type.  He 
contributed  many  communications  to  the  Argus 
on  national  politics.  He  was  a  vigorous  and 
forcible  writer,  but  so  ultra  that  even  the  Argus, 
accounted  among  the  most  radical  of  journals, 
often  found  it  necessary  to  tone  down  and  ex- 
tract some  of  the  vinegar  and  gall  from  his 
articles.  His  whole  soul  seemed  to  be  wrought 
up  to  a  white  heat  of  righteous  indignation  over 
the  iniquity  of  human  slavery,  and  he  never 
seemed  to  tire  in  anathematizing  that  accursed 
institution.  He  was  a  frequent  visitor  of  the 
Argus  sanctum   dnriiig    war  time,  and  lie  never 

departed  without  leaving  it  vapory  with  his  in- 
vective against  those  who  were  trying  to  found 
a  government  with  human  slavery  as  its  'chief 
corner-stone.'  He  was  a  great  reader,  and 
evidently  a  close  student  of  the  Bible.  One  of 
his  most  telling  shots  was  the  calling  the  atten- 
tion of  the  ri'aders  of  the  Argus  to  the  12th 
chapter  of  Nnmliers  as  an  unanswerable  refu- 
tation of  the  pro-slavery  theoiy  that  the  black 
race  was  to  be  servile  and  despised  on  acconnt 
of  the  curse  of  God  visited  upon  Ham  and 
his  descendants.  During  the  closing  j'ears  cif 
the  civil  war,  Mr.  Morse  had  a  ranch  in  the 
upper  part  of  Mendocino  County,  from  whence 
he  sent  occasional  contributions  to  the  Argus. 
That  his  ranching  business  was  not  a  financial 
success  will  readily  be  inferred  from  the  fact 
that  in  the  spring  time  of  each  year  he  usually 
came  to  the  lower  valleys  and  devoted  his 
time  to  grafting  and  budding  fruit  trees. 
From  and  after  186t)  the  Argus  lost  sight  of 
Mr.  Morse  for  more  than  a  decade,  and  only  had 
knowledge  of  him  again  when  there  w-as  a 
furor  over  the  introduction  of  the  '  Passion 
Play'  in  San  Francisco.  H  was  during  this 
lapse  of  years,  probably,  that  he  traveled 
abroad  and  visited  the  Holy  Land,  from  whence 
he  drew  the  inspiration  for  his  biblical  play. 
His  career  has  certainly  l)een  a  most  checkered 
one.  Earnest  and  zealous  in  all  his  undertak- 
ings, his  life  became  essentially  a  '  warfare.' 
Even  before  his  great  life  struggle  had  fairly 
begun,  there  was  a  glint  to  his  eyes,  when 
aroused  to  earnestness  on  any  subject,  that  be- 
tokened a  brain  very  sensitive  to  morbid  influ- 
ences. His  was  not  an  organism  fitted  to 
challenge  the  '  slings  and  arrows '  of  a  great 
city  like  New  York.  What  the  outcome  would 
be  was  only  a  question  of  time.  The  time  came 
at  the  noon  of  night.  On  the  one  hand  was  the 
city  that  he  thought  had  wrongfully  proscribed 
the  '  Passion  Play,'  the  crowning  work  of  his 
life,  and  on  the  other  the  placid  Hudson. 
Of  the  latter  Salmi  Morse  asked  and  received 
rel)ii~e  friun  the  moil  of  life." 

EtSTOltY    OF    SONOMA    COUNT y. 



0  D 





Animals    xati\k    of    Sonuma    Coixtv — gkizzi.v,    urown    and     black    ukak — paxthkr — fox — 


tITTELL,  who  is  good  authority,  enumer- 
ates the  indigenous  animals  of  California 
as  follows:  The  grizzly  bear  ;  the  black 
bear  ;  the  cinnamon  bear;  the  elk  ;  one  deer  ; 
one  antelope  ;  the  mountain-sheep;  the  panther  ; 
the  wild  cat ;  the  gray  wolf  ;  the  coyote  ;  three 
foxes  ;  the  badger  ;  the  raccoon  ;  the  opossum  ; 
the  mountain-cat ;  the  weasel  ;  two  skunks  ;  one 
porcupine  ;  three  squirrels  ;  two  spermophiles  ; 
two  ground-squirrels  ;  three  rats  ;  three  jumping- 
rats  ;  one  jumping-monse  ;  nine  mice  ;  one  mole; 
three  hares  ;  two  rabbits  ;  the  seal  ;  the  sea- 
otter  ;  the  sea-lion  ;  the  beaver  ;  two  vultures  ; 
the  golden  eagle  ;  the  bald  eagle  ;  the  tislih;iwk; 
eighteen  other  hawks  ;  nine  owls  ;  the  road- 
runner  ;  twelve  woodpeckers  ;  four  humming- 
birds ;  eleven  tlyeatchers  ;  one  hundred  and 
nine  singers  ;  one  pigeon  ;  two  doves  ;  three 
grouse  ;  three  quails  ;  one  sandhill  crane  ;  forty- 
one  waders  ;  sixty-six  swimmers,  including  two 
swans  and  five  geese  ;  about  two  dozen  snakes, 
including  the  rattlesnake  ;  half  a  dozen  salmon  ; 
two  codlish  ;  and  one  mackerel. 

Of  these,  all  were  indigenous  to  Sonoma 
(bounty  except  the  oj)08sum,  the  jnmping-rats, 
the  mountain-sheej),  and  possibly  a  few  varie- 
ties of  the  birds  and  salmon.  Our  grizzly  bear 
(^f'rxii.t  horriliiliti)  is  the  largest  an<l  most 
fnnniilablc  of  the  (iiiadnijicds.      lie  grows  to  be 

four  feet  high  and  seven  feet  long,  with  a  weight, 
when  very  large  and  fat,  of  a  thousand  pounds, 
being  the  largest  of  the  carnivorous  animals, 
and  )nuch  heavier  than  the  lion  or  tiger  ever 
get  to  be.  The  grizzly  bear,  however,  as  ordi- 
narily seen,  does  not  exceed  eight  hundred  or 
nine  hundred  pounds  in  weight.  In  color  the 
l)ody  is  a  light  grayish-brown,  dark  brown  about 
the  ears  and  along  the  ridge  of  the  back,  and 
nearly  black  on  the  legs.  The  hair  is  long, 
coarse,  and  wiry,  and  stiff  on  the  top  of  the  neck 
and  between  the  shoulders.  The  "  grizzly."  as 
he  is  usually  called,  was  at  one  time  exceedingly 
numerous  for  so  large  an  animal  ;  but  he  offered 
so  much  meat  for  the  hunters,  and  did  so  much 
damage  to  the  farmers,  that  he  has  been  indus- 
triously hunted,  and  his  numbers  have  been 
greatly  reduced.  The  grizzly  is  very  tenacious 
of  life,  and  he  is  seldom  immediately  killed  l)y 
a  siuirle  bullet.  His  thick,  wirv  hair,  toiiyfli 
skin,  heavy  coats  of  fat  when  in  good  condition, 
and  large  bones,  go  far  to  protect  his  vital 
organs  ;  but  he  often  seems  to  preserve  all  his 
strength  and  activity  for  an  hour  or  more  after 
having  been  shot  through  tlie  lungs  and  liver 
with  large  rifle  balls.  He  is  one  of  the  most 
d-angerous  animals  to  attack.  There  is  much 
probability  that  wlicn  shot  he  will  not  be  killed 
ontficrbt.      Wlien    mei'dy    wounded   he   is   fero- 


cious  ;  liis  weight  and  strength  are  so  great  that 
lie  bears  down  all  opposition  before  him  ;  and 
he  is  very  quick,  his  speed  in  running  being 
nearly  equal  to  that  of  the  horse.  In  attacking 
a  man,  he  usually  rises  on  his  hind-legs,  strikes 
his  enemy  with  one  of  his  powert'u!  fore-paws, 
and  then  commences  to  bite  him. 

The  black  bear  ( Ursus  Ameiicanns)  is  found 
in  the  timbered  portions  of  the  county.  Dr. 
Newberry,  speaking  of  the  food  of  the  black 
bear,  says:  "The  subsistence  of  the  black  bears 
in  the  northern  portion  of  California  is  evid- 
ently, for  the  most  part,  vegetable.  The  man- 
zanita,  wild  plum,  and  wild  cherry,  which  fruit 
profusely,  and  are  very  low,  assist  in  making  up 
his  bill  of  fare. 

The  brown,  or  cinnamon  bear,  is  also  common 
to  Sonoma  County.  The  panther,  supposed  by 
Dr.  Jsewberry  t(j  be  the  Felis  conrolor — the 
same  with  the  panther  found  on  the  Atlantic 
slope  of  the  continent — has  a  body  larger  than 
that  of  the  common  sheep,  and  a  tail  more  than 
half  the  length  of  the  body.  Its  color  is  dirty- 
white  on  the  belly,  and  elsewhere  a  brownish- 
yellow,  mottled  with  dark  tips  on  all  the  hairs. 
The  panther  is  a  cowardly  animal,  and,  except 
when  driven  by  some  extraordinary  motive, 
never  attacks  man.  The  jianther  is  nocturnal 
in  his  habits,  and  always  prefers  the  night  as  a 
time  for  attacking  colts,  which  are  a  favorite 
prey  with  hiin. 

Tlie  American  wild-cat  {Lyn.r  ruftis)  is  com- 
mon here. 

The  gray  wolf  [L!anis  occidcntalis)  is  found 
here,  but  is  not  abundant. 

The  coyote  used  to  be  very  common,  and 
occupied  the  same  place  here  with  that  occupied 
in  tlie  Mississippi  Valley  by  the  prairie-wolf.  Dr. 
Xewberry  thinks  the  two  belong  to  the  same 
species  (( 'a /lis  latrans).  The  color  of  the  coyote 
has  a  reddish  tinge.  His  food  consists  chiefly 
of  rabbits,  grouse,  small  birds,  inice,  lizzards, 
and  frogs  ;  and  in  time  of  scarcity  he  will  eat 
carrion,  grasshoppers,  and  bugs.  lie  is  very 
fond  of  poultry,  ])igs,  and  lambs,  and  will  destroy 
almost  as  nnuiy  of  tiiem  as  would  a  fnx.      lie  is 

one  of  the  worst  eneiiiies  and  most  troublesome 
pests  of  the  farmer. 

The  gray  fox  {Vu/j>es  Virghi'nouis]  is  the 
only  animal  of  that  species  we  know  to  exist  in 
Sonoma  County,  although  many  years  ago,  we 
heard  that  a  black  fox  had  been  killed  in  the 
northern  end  of  the  county. 

The  American  badger  {Ta.cidea  Americavr/) 
used  to  be  common  here,  but  they  are  now 
nearly  extinct. 

The  black-footed  raccoon  (^Proycon  hernande:;- 
sii)  is  very  common  in  the  forests  and  along  the 
water  courses  of  the  county. 

Of  the  yellow-haired  porcupine  [Erethison 
epixantJnis),  a  few  have  been  found  in  Sonoma 
County,  but  they  are  very  rare. 

The  mountain-cat,  or  striped  bassaris  [Bks- 
saris  astida),  is  occassionally  found  liere,  but 
are  not  numerous.  The  body  is  about  the  size 
of  that  of  the  domestic  cat,  but  the  nose  is  vevy 
long  and  sharp,  and  the  tail  very  long  and  large. 
The  color  of  the  animal  is  dark  gray,  with  rings 
of  black  on  the  tail.  The  miners  call  it  the 
"mountain-cat,"  and  frequently  tame  it.  It  is 
a  favorite  pet  with  them,  becomes  very  playful 
and  familiar,  and  is  far  more  atlectionate  than 
the  common  cat,  which  it  might  replace,  for  it 
is  very  good  at  catching  mice. 

The  yellow-cheeked  weasel  (^I'tdoriiix  .nintho- 
fjenyif)  is  found  here,  but  are  not  numerous. 

The  common  mink  {Put<irini<  r/.w/zlhasa" 
skin  as  valuable  as  that  of  •the  beaver  ;  the  fin- 
is of  a  dark,  brownish,  chestnut  color,  with  a 
white  spot  on  the  end  of  the  chin.  They  exist 
here,  but  are  very  rare. 

California  has  two  skunks  (^Jlejy/titis  orci- 
denfalis  and  Mephitis  bicolor'),  very  common 
animals.  The  Jlejdiitis  bicolor,  or  little  stri])ed 
skunk,  is  chiefly  found  south  of  latitude  3!)°  ; 
the  other  in  the  northern  and  central  parts  of 
the  State.  The  colors  of  both  are  black  and  white. 
They    both    have    a    place  in   Sonoma  C'ounty. 

T/ie  S<iuirrei  Faiiidij. — The  California  gray 
squirrel  (iSciurui  fossory  the  most  beautiful 
and  one  of  the  largest  of  the  squirrel  genus, 
inhal>its  all  the  jjine  forests  of  tlie   State.      Its 

nrsToRT  OF  sotroMA  county. 


color  on  tlio  hack  is  a  tiiiely-Lrfizzled  l)luisli 
fj;ray,  and  white,  heneath.  At  tiie  haso  of  the 
ear  is  a  little  woolly  tuft,  of  a  chestnut  culor. 
The  sides  of  tiie  feet  are  covered  with  hair  in 
the  winter,  hut  are  l)are  in  the  summer  ;  the 
hod}'  is  more  slender  and  delicate  in  sliape  than 
that  of  the  Atlantic,  gray  squirrel.  It  some- 
times erows  to  he  twelve  inches  long  in  the  head 
and  hody,  and  fifteen  inches  in  the  tail,  making 
the  entire  length  twenty-seven  inches.  Dr.New- 
herry  says:  "The  t'alifornian  gray  squirrel  is 
eminently  a  tree-squirrel,  scarcely  descending  to 
the  ground  but  for  food  and  water,  and  it  sub- 
sists almost  exclusively  on  the  seeds  of  the 
.largest  and  loftiest  pine  known  (^2mius  lamher- 
tiana),  the  '  sugar-pine  '  of  the  Western  coast. 
Tliese  squirrels  inhaliit  the  forests  of  Sonoma 

The  Missouri  striped  ground-squirrel  has  five 
dark-brown  stripes  on  the  iiack,  separated  by 
four  gray  stripes;  the  sides  are  reddish-brown, 
the  belly  grayish-white,  and  the  tail  rusty-black 
above  and  rusty-brown  beneath.  The  animal  is 
four  or  five  inches  long.  It  is  found  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  State.  It  eats  acorns  and 
the  seeds  of  the  pine,  inanzanita,  and  ceanothns, 
in  the  thickets  of  which  last-named  bush  it  prefers 
to  hide  its  stores.  This  species  of  squirrel  is 
e.\ceedingly  rare  in  Sonoma  County. 

The  Sj)cr)iio2>hile  has  two  species  in  Califor- 
nia, which  resemble  each  other  so  closely,  that 
they  are  usually  sup])0sed  to  be  the  same;  the}' 
are  popularly  known  as  the  California  ground- 
squirrels,  the  little  pests  which  are  so  destruc- 
tive to  the  grain  crops.  Their  bodies  arc  ten  or 
eleven  inches  long  in  the  largest  specimens;  the 
tail  is  eight  inches  long  and  bushy,  the  ears 
large,  the  cheeks  pouched,  and  herein  consists 
the  chief  difference  between  them  and  squiri-els; 
the  color  above  black,  yellowish  lnown,  and 
brown,  in  indistinct  mottlings,  hoary-yellowish 
on  the  sides  of  the  head  and  neck,  and  pale  yel- 
lowish-brown on  the  under  side  of  the  body  and 
legs.  They  dwell  in  burrows,  and  usually  live 
in  communities  in  the  open,  fertile  valleys,  pre- 
fering  to  nnike  their  burrows  under  the  shade  of 

an  oak  tree.  Sometimes,  iiowover,  single  spcr- 
mophiles  will  be  found  living  in  a  solitary  man- 
ner, remote  from  their  fellows.  Their  burrows, 
like  those  of  the  prairie-dog,  are  often  used  by 
the  rattlesnake  and  the  little  owl.  Dr.  New- 
berry says:  ''The}'  are  very  timid,  starting  at 
every  noise,  and  on  every  intrusion  into  their 
privacy  dro])])ing  from  the  trees,  or  hurrying  in 
from  their  wanderings,  and  scudding  to  their 
hole's  with  all  possible  celerity;  arriving  at  the 
entrance,  however,  they  stop  to  reconnoitre, 
standing  erect,  as  squirrels  rarely  and  spermo- 
philes  habitually  do,  and  looking  about  to  satisfv 
themselves  of  the  nature  and  designs  of  the  in- 
truder. Should  this  second  view  justify  their 
flight,  or  a  motion  or  step  forward  still  further 
alarm  them,  with  a  peculiar  movement,  like  that 
of  a  diving  duck,  they  plunge  into  their  bur- 
rows, not  to  venture  out  till  all  cause  of  fear  is 
past.  The  scpiii'rels  of  this  species  were  exceed- 
ingly rare  in  Sonoma  County  until  within  the 
past  decade.  They  seem  to  have  effected  an  en- 
trance from  the  valleys  to  the  east,  and  are  iu>w 
multiplying  along  the  foot-hills  of  the  Sonoma 
range  of  mountains.  The  farmers,  as  yet,  seem 
not  to  realize  the  magnitude  of  the  damage  these 
squirrels  will  ultimately  accomplish. 

The  California  gopher  (  Thonionii/s:  bidljirorus) 
is  the  most  al)iindant  and  most  troublesome 
rodent  of  the  county.  AVhen  full  grown,  it  has 
a  body  six  or  eight  inches  long,  with  a  tail  of 
two  inches.  The  back  and  sides  are  of  a  chest- 
nut-brown color,  ])aler  on  the  under  parts  of  the 
body  and  legs;  the  tail  and  feet  are  of  grayish- 
white;  the  ears  are  very  short.  In  the  cheeks 
are  large  jjouches,  covered  with  fur  inside,  white 
to  their  margin,  which  is  dark-brown. 

Of  rats  and  mice  there  are  many  species  in 
Sonoma  County.  There  is  very  common  in 
the  forests  a  wood-rat  that  builds  conical- 
shaped  burrows  l)y  means  of  piling  up  sticks 
and  i)ramble.  ^Ve  have  seen  these  rat  houses 
as  much  as  ten  feet  in  diameter  at  the  base  and 
five  or  six  feet  high.  Of  mice  there  are  many 
species  of  both  field  and  house  pests.  We  have 
seen  here  two  or  three  specimens  of  the  Jerboa 



family,  called  by  some  kangaroo  mice,  on  ac-. 
count  of  their  great  length  of  hind  legs,  from 
whicli  they  spring,  as  does  the  kangaroo. 

The  American  elk  [Cermis  atnadensix)  used 
to  be  ])lentifiil  in  Sonoma  County,  but  is  now 
extinct.  Tliis  animal  was  nearly  as  hirge  as  u 
horse.  It  freiiiiently  readied  the  weight  of 
from  six  hundred  to  one  thousand  pounds. 
The  color  was  a  chestnut-brown,  dark  on  the 
head,  neck,  and  legs,  lighter  and  yellowish 
on  the  back  and  sides.  The  horns  were  very 
large,  sometimes  more  than  four  feet  long,  three 
feet  across  from  tip  to  tip,  measuring  three 
inches  in  diameter  above  the  burr,  and  weigh- 
ing, with  the  skull,  exclusive  of  the  lower  jaw, 
forty  pounds.  The  horns  of  the  old  bucks  had 
from  seven  to  nine,  perhaps  more,  i)rongs,  all 
o-rowing  forward,  the  main  stem  running  uj)- 
ward  and  backward. 

In  Sonoma  County  there  never  were  any 
white-tailed  liuei-,  l)ut  instead,  we  have  the  black- 
tailed  deer  [i'erriix  ri>lir>/i/>ianus),  which  is  a 
little  larger  and  has  brighter  colors,  but  does 
not  furnish  as  good  venison,  the  meat  lacking  the 
juiciness  and  savory  taste  of  the  venison  in  the 
IVIississippi  Valley.  The  average  weight  of  the 
buck  is  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  pounds, 
and  of  the  doe  one  hundred  pounds,  but  bucks 
have  been  found  to  weigh  two  hundred  and 
seventy-five  pounds.  The  summer  coat  of  the 
black-tailed  deer  is  composed  of  rather  long  and 
coarse  hair,  of  a  tawny  brown,  approaching 
chestnut  on  the  back,  in  September  this  hair 
becrins  to  come  otf,  exposing  what  the  hunters 
call  the  '•blue  coat,"  which  is  at  tirst  fine  and 
silkv,  and  of  a  bluish-gray  color,  afterward  be- 
coming chestnut  brown,  inclining  to  gray  on  the 
'  sides,  and  to  l)lack  along  the  back.  Occasion- 
ally deer  purely  white  are  found.  The  horn, 
when  long,  is  about  two  feet  long,  and  forks 
near  mid- length,  and  each  prong  forks  again, 
making  four  points,  to  wdiicli  a  little  spur,  issu- 
ino-  from  near  the  base  of  tiie  horn,  may  be 
added,  making  five  in  all.  This  is  the  general 
form  of  tlie  burn;  sometimes.  howe\er.  old 
bucks  are  fouml  with  but  two  points. 

The  prong-horned  antelope  (^ji7itilocajria 
americana)  used  to  range  the  valleys  of  Sono- 
ma (bounty  like  bands  of  sheep.  They  are  new 
extinct.  In  size  the  antelope  was  not  quite  so 
large  as  the  California  deer,  which  it  resembled 
closely  ill  form  and  general  appearance.  They 
were  distinguished  at  a  distance  by  their  mcition; 
the  antelope  canters,  wliile  the  deer  runs;  the 
antelope  went  in  herds,  and  moved  in  a  line 
following  the  lead  of  an  old  buck,  like  sheep, 
to  which  they  are  related,  while  deer  more  fre- 
quently are  alone,  and  if  in  a  herd  they  are 
more  independent,  and  move  each  in  the  way 
that  suits  him  best.  In  color,  the  back,  upper 
part  of  the  sides  and  outside  of  the  thighs  and 
forelegs  were  yellowish-brown;  the  under  parts, 
lower  part  of  the  sides,  and  the  buttckos  as 
seen  from  behiiul,  were  white.  The  hair  was 
very  coarse,  thick,  spongy,  tubular,  slightly 
crimped  or  waved,  and  like  short  lengths  of 
coarse  threads  cut  otf  bluntly.  The  horns  were 
very  irregular  in  size  and  form,  but  usually  they 
were  about  eight  inches  long,  rose  almost  per- 
pendicularly, had  a  short,  blunt  prong  in  front, 
several  inches  from  the  base,  and  made  a  slioi-t 
backward  crook  at  the  top.  The  female  had 
horns  as  well  as  the  male.  The  hoof  was  heai-t- 
sliaped,  and  its  jnint  upon  the  ground  could  be 
readily  distinguished  from  the  long,  narrow 
track  of  the  deer.  The  antelope  was  about  two 
feet  and  a  half  high,  and  four  feet  long  from  the 
nose  to  the  end  of  the  tail. 

'  Audubon's  hare  (Zejcw-v  auduhonii)  is  the 
most  common  species  in  Sonoma  County.  Its 
tail  is  about  three  inches  long,  and  its  color  is 
mixed  with  yellowish-brown  and  black  above, 
white  beneath,  thigiis  and  rump  grayish. 

The  sage  rabbit  [LepuK  arfe>nlsi</)  is  also 
found  here. 

Of  the  birds  and  fish  of  Sonoma  County  we 
will  not  undertake  to  speak.  Of  the  former 
there  is  almost  an  infinite  variety,  and  to  at- 
tempt to  classify  and  describe  each  would  re(|uire 
a  vast  amount  of  labor  and  research.  Of  fresh 
water,  salt  water  and  shell  tish,  the  varieties 
nearly  equal  that  of  the  birds  and  fowls. 



,  -i'     ^  -til 


5i-^»>ri "    ' '^'  ^^-''-^- —  ,. 7,~ 



fori  the  flora  and  conifera  of  Sonoma  County 
we  are  indebted  to  W.  A.  T.  Stratton,  the 
Of  Fetahuiia  florist,  who  has  given  the  sub- 
ject years  of  patient  research  and  study: 

"The  emerald  sheen  of  hill  and  dale,  the 
gorgeous  kaleidoscopic  picture  whifli  no  pen  or 
brush  could  ever  portray,  in  justice  to  nature's 
bounteous  gifts,  should  engage  a  far  more  facile 
])en  than  mine.  Indeed,  so  inexpressibly  beau- 
tiful are  all  our  primitive  flora,  the  multiplicity 
of  forms  and  colors,  my  effort,  no  matter  how 
exhaustive  it  might  be  to  even  faintly  mention 
the  more  jjrominent,  would  be  wholly  inade- 
(piate  to  do  justice  to  so  glorious  a  sulyect. 

"  In  early  spring,  our  golden  A'sehsc/iolfzias 
dancingly  nod  and  kiss  the  morning  breeze  in 
wavy  masses,  the  first  to  tell  us  of  nat\ire's 
awakening,  while  in  sheltered  vales  delicate 
ferns  come  forth  anew  clotiied  as  it  were  in  na- 
ture's wedding  garb  of  faultless,  yet  exquisite 
loveliness.  Then  successively  come  our  Bi'o- 
diaeafi,  our  Tritdeiai^,  our  C'atiKtsaias  and  Stni- 
hiciimx,  intersj)ersed  and  commingled  with 
Lupins  in  charming  shades  and  forms,  while 
Fr'ilUltii'hifi  and  the  butterfly  tuli[)S  [Cdlvo- 
limidn)  in  countless  myriads  bleml  their  beati- 
ful  colors  so  bright,  so  lovely,  that  'language  is 
useless,  its  expression  dumb.' 

"  Nothing  was  known,  comparatively,  of  our 
tbira,  till  D(jugl:iss  made  his  first  exj)lririiti(jn  in 

tlie  year  179().  Menzies,  Lindley,  Lowson  and 
Michaux  had  traversed  Puget  yonnd.  and  fol- 
lowing down  the  coast  to  the  Columbia,  and 
some  of  them  penetrated  the  northern  portion 
of  our  State;  but  Douglass,  the  energetic  En- 
glish botanist,  followed  down  the  coast  range  to 
San  Francisco  Bay,  and  has  said  in  his  report 
no  section  of  the  world  ever  presented  so  ricii 
and  varied  a  flora  as  that  section  of  country 
lying  adjacent  to  and'  north  of  the  bay;  and 
more  especially,  its  coast  i-ange  and  valleys; 
and  in  honor  to  his  eminent  services  our  peer- 
less conifera  Ahies  DoiitjUisxil  was  named,  one 
of  our  most  beautiful   native  evergreen  trees. 

"  IVEany  enthusiastic  explorers  then  visited 
our  region,  and  Alta  California  soon  gave  the 
world  many  floral  treasures,  for  which  our  cool, 
moist  climate  was  so  favorable  for  the  devel- 
opment of.  And  yet  what  a  sad  remnant  of  the 
past;  vandalism,  the  greed  for  gain,  so  rapidly 
obliterated  our  forests  of  those  noble  structures 
that  nature's  effort  took  centuries  to  build; 
our  hills  and  vales  swej)t  as  it  were  by  flames, 
are  nearly  obliterated  of  all  those  gems  of  crim- 
son and  gold,  and  the  cottage  and  trellis  deck 
the  once  primitive  scene.  Our  choicest  flora  is 
cast  aside  for  the  less  l)eautiful  forms  of  other 

"Of  the  evergreen  trees  indigenous  to  our 
section  may  be  prominently  mentiuncd  our  red- 



wood  Seijno'ui  tSenipervi'rens,o{  whose  mam  moth 
proportions  all  are  well  a&niainted,  forming 
as  it  were  so  extensive  and  valuable  forests  all 
over  our  county;  but  it  is  not  generally  known 
that  its  relative  S.  Gigantea,  also  grows  here, 
but  in  ver^'  limited  quantities.  Some  years  ago, 
a  gentleman  hunting  along  on  our  northern 
boundary  found  a  small  grove  on  a  tributary  of 
the  Russian  Kiver,  and  very  thoughtfully 
brought  me  a  small  liml)  and  some  cones,  to  be 
certain  of  their  identity.  The  trees  were  very 
small  comparatively,  growing  less  than  100  feet 
high  and  very  stunted  in  habit.  Abies  Douglassii 
is  very  plentiful,  growing  to  regal  proportions 
near  the  coast  in  sheltered  places,  and  we  can 
justly  feel  proud  of  this  beautiful  conifera  as 
the  most  beautiful  of  all  trees  i.ative  of  Cali- 
fornia. I  have  seen  natural  specimens  of  this 
noble  tree  nearly  150  feet  high,  clothed  from 
near  the  ground  in  natural  graceful  outlines,  as 
perfect  in  form  as  the  hand  of  man  could  make, 
and  vet  how  few  are  ever  to  be  found  in  culti- 
vation. It  is  I  if  \ery  rapid  growth  and  worthy 
of  attention.  In  the  vicinity  of  Sebastopol  it  was 
very  plentiful,  the  ynung  trees  being  largely  used 
for  Christmas  trees.  A.  Pattonlana  (Patton's 
giant  spruce),  is  also  foimd  sparingly.  It  is  of 
a  bright  glaucous  green,  growing  150  feet  high, 
existing  only  near  the  coast.  I'hiun  Murt<ata 
(Bishop's  jiine),  a  s])aringly  clothed  tree  of 
medium  size,  may  be  found  only  in  the  more 
southern  [Kirtion.  It  is  of  no  use  in  the  arts  or 
for  ornament.  /'.  i//t>i)/ti/x  (Oregon  pitch  pine), 
is  a  very  beautiful  species  plentiful  all  over  our 
county  especially  in  the  middle  and  northern 
part,  but  a  few  comiiaratively  are  found  in  cul- 
tivation, though  for  some  years  quantities  were 
grown  for  forest  culture;  but  its  value  for  tim- 
ber is  worthless.  /'.  tuherculata  in  stunted 
form  may  be  found  along  the  Mark  West  Creek, 
growing  70  to  100  feet  high;  it  is  of  very  slow 
growth,  though  lieautiful  in  lorm,  color  and 
outline.  /'.  Sah'uina,  Sabine's  pine,  is  one  of 
the  most  l)eautinil  of  all  our  native  ])ines.  It  is 
only  found  in  the  nortjiwestern  portion,  growing 
in  natural  tapering  outline  100  to  150  feet.      It 

is  more  commonly  known  as  bull  piue,  tiie  seed 
or  nuts  being  very  large  and  are  gathered  by 
Indians  as  a  staple  article  of  food.  P.  radiatn, 
grows  only  over  in  canons  near  the  coast;  it  is 
a  small  tree,  but  the  timber  is  said  to  be  val- 
uable, being  exceedingly  tough  and  strong.  J'. 
nuicrocarj>a,is  vevy  near\y  related  to  J',  insignis 
and  is  the  variety  so  largely  found  in  our  yards 
and  gardens.  There  may  be  other  species  of 
the  pine  family  to  l)e  found  in  scattered  local- 
ities, but  I  have  luentioned  all  of  those  I  have 
personally  found  growing  here.  I  had  forgot- 
ten a  beautiful  species  of  the  pine  sub-family, 
ahies  nohilis,  noble  silver  lir;  and,  as  its  name 
implies,  is  one  of  our  most  magnificent  pro- 
dtictions.  It  is  a  singular,  majestic  tree  grow- 
ing along  our  most  northern  border,  producing 
timber  of  fine  quality,  in  some  localities  grows 
200  feet  high;  but  further  northward  to  Oregon 
thence  to  the  Columbia,  its  size  increases,  be- 
comes nmre  plentiful,  occupying  almost  ex- 
clusive entire  tracts  of  countrj'.  It  is  a  fitting 
companion  to  ^1.  Poiiglassii,  two  of  the  most 
magnificent  evergreens  of  the  Pacific  coast.  We 
can  boast  of  one  jnnipev ./an Ijieni.i  <iri<h'iit((li.-<, 
a  small  tree  of  about  filfy  feet  high,  growing 
sparsely  along  Jhe  San  Antonio  Creek.  It  is  a 
handsome  tree  and  well  suited  for  dry,  rocky 

"  Some  few  specimens,  I  am  told,  may  be  found 
of  Thttja  Gigantea,  giant  arbor  vitiK,  over  near 
the  mouth  of  Russian  River.  In  more  favored 
locations  it  grows  200  feet  high  and  -10  feet  in 
diameter.  In  cultivation  it  is  of  majestic  ap- 
pearance, of  most  pleasing  contour  and  color, 
and  well  worthy  of  attention. 

'•  Of  the  cypress  family  we  have  cuj)resfiti>i 
Laiusoniana,  a  very  beauitful  ornamental  tree 
so  well  known  in  our  gardens.  It  is  found  sc> 
far  as  I  know  only  in  tiie  most  northeastern 
portion  of  our  county.  C.  fragrdns  is  a  small 
tree  of  about  forty  feet  high,  of  a  bright  glaucous 
green,  and  exceedingly  beautiful;  its  slender 
branches  droop  gracefully  down,  and  form  a 
charming  tree.  I  have  found  it  over  near 
Sonoma,  in   the  upper  end  of  the   valley.      It  is 


!i<)t  generally  known  that  our  California  nut- 
meg-tree is  a  conifer.  It  belongs  to  the  yew 
sub-family,  botauically  known  as  To/rei/  t'al- 
ifoiiini'ii.  There  is  imtiiing  very  beautiful 
about  it,  but  it  is  a  plant  to  be  seen  but  to  be 
let  alone,  as  it  possesses  in  a  large  degree  the 
unpleasant  odor  of  the  family;  and  hence  is 
called  the  stinking  yew. 

"Of  other  prominent  trees  of  our  county  men- 
tion must  be  made  of  the  noble  family  of  oaks. 
Ot  the  genus  Queix-nx,  we  have  (J.falcata,  the 
tanbark  oak;  (J.  ii'kji'u,  the  black  oak;  Q.  alba, 
the  white  oak;  C/  aijtiafica,  the  water  oak;  Q. 
liiurifolio,  the  laurel-leaf  oak;  and  Q.  ile.i\  the 
holly-leaf  oak.  There  several  sub-species  of 
these  interesting  trees,  all  well-known  to  'the 
native  born.' 

"We  now  mention  a  more  interesting  group, 
our  flowering  plants,  of  which  we  have  countless 
numbers;  and  as  the  lily  deservedly  is  the 
(pieen  of  our  native  tiora,  it  sliall  have  the 
jirecetience  in  these  brietly  written  notes. 

'■'■  L'dhuii  Washingtoiilaniiiii.  This  beauti- 
ful species  is  found  only  on  the  highest  hill- 
tops. It  is  an  Alpine  plant,  and  when  grown 
in  low  localities  slowly  pines  away.  It  is  of  a 
p"nre  white  color,  becoming  of  a  purj)lish  cast 
with  age;  often  delicately  dotted.  To  tiiosewho 
attempt  its  cultivation,  let  me  waiii  them  it  is 
sensitive  to  all  stimulants,  and  must  be  gi-own 
in  a  cool,  shady  place.  It  is  our  most  lovely  na- 
tive species,  and  worthy  of  generous  care,  in  the 
hopes  of  ultimately  succeeding  in  its  more  suc- 
cessful culture.  L.  ruheKceiis  is  in  reality  a  sub- 
species of  the  foregoing.  It  has  been  found  on 
the  moutitains  near  Sonoma  and  in  iJedwoods 
near  Guernevilie,  often  seven  fert  high,  flowers 
nearly  white,  ciianging  to  purple  or  rose  lilac 
in  coloi'.  /,.  parrHin,  is  another  pretty  variety 
of  an  orange-yellow  color.  It  is  of  easy  cul 
ture  and  grows  well  in  any  cool,  di-y  soil.  /,. 
Pardalinuia  is  of  a  bright  orange  color,  and 
enjoys  a  very  moist,  deep  soil.  I  have  seen 
large  quantities  of  these  i)eautil'iil  lilies  on  the 
banks  of  the  San  Antonio  that  at  times  of  the 
year  must  be  subirjerged    by    overHowing  wa- 

ters. It  has  succeeded  well  with  me,  and  well 
repays  any  generous  attention.  L.  IlximhohUii 
may  be  found  only,  as  far  as  I  can  learn,  on  the 
coast  near  Foi't  Iloss.  It  grows  three  to  four 
feet  high,  much  resembling  our-tiger  lily  in  col- 
or. A  sub  variety  of  this  lily,  L.  Colauibiamnn, 
was  sent  nie  from  Ilealdsburg  some  years  ago, 
having  broad,  flats  terns  and  massive  large,  creep- 
ing root-like  bulbs.  In  fact,  all  our  California 
lilies  possess  this  characteristic  form  more  or  less, 
that  so  plainly  distinguishes  them  from  the 
more  common  forms  of  lilies.  Of  the  lily  sub- 
family the  Vaiochortus  ranks  ne.xt  in  beauty  of 
our  native  flora.  They  are  more  commonly 
known  as  Mariposa,  or  Butterfly  Tulips,  so 
named  from  their  gaudy,  showy  colors;  of  these 
we  have  C.  jia/o/igllus,  of  a  beautiful  orange- 
yellow  color,  with  darkliloches  on  each  petal.  It 
comes  very  late  in  flower,  generally  in  July  and 
August,  and  is  plentifully  found  in  tiry  pas- 
tures and  hill-sides. 

"  C  jViuIus,  a  very  beautiful  dwarf  species, 
scarcely  one  foot  in  height,  of  a  delicate  lilac, 
and  white  color,  grows  only  in  the  shade  of 
trees.  ('.  yialii  is  of  a  deep  yellow  color, 
blooming  in  June,  often  we  have  seen  it  spot- 
ted a  pure  magenta,  giving  it  a  unique  ap- 
pearance. V.  Lupins  is  of  a  deep  yellow  color, 
spatted  brown  and  purple,  exceedingly  showy. 

'•f)f  our  Fi'itillarias,  also  a  sub  variety  of  our 
lilies,  and  more  popularly  known  as  Cn.iwn  Im- 
perials, we  have  some  most  beautiful  species, 
and  to  those  who  know  of  them  we  heartily 
commend  them  as  well  worthy  of  extended  cul- 
tivation. They  all  have  most  beautiful  flow- 
ers, and  succeed  well  ill  most  any  position:  in 
fact,  are  one  of  the  lew  that  don't  c.-ire  what 
treatment  they  recei\'e,  only  jilant  them  in  th(> 
ground.  7''.  r<-fnri\i.  is  \ery  lieautil'ul,  beiuLCol' 
a  yelluw  spotted  brown  color,  generally  found 
in  dry  pastures  in  loose,  sandy  soil.  Cultivation 
largely  improves  the  flowers,  they  being  fully  as 
beautiful  as  anyof  the  foi-eign  species.  F.  hlffora 
has  flowers  of  a  darl<-l)rowii  purple, I  inted  green, 
and  grows  oidy  over  near  the  coast.  W'e  often 
have  seen  it  in  the  dry,  sliilting  sands  on  the  sea 


sliore,  indifferent  to  exposure  alike,  be  it  spray 
from  the  ocean  ur  the  dry,  parching  winds  and 
sunsliine.  F.  L<inreolaf<t  is  of  tlie  most  deli- 
cate structure  and  habit.  Its  dark  purple  flow- 
ers mottled  with  greenish  yellow,  so  frail  and 
slender,  seem  incapable  of  withstanding  the 
rough  frontier  life,  yet  its  delicate  chalice, 
drooping  modestly,  seems  indifferent  to  the 
praise  of  its  admirers.  F.  plurlliora  is  of  a 
reddish  purple  color,  and  to  us  the  more  beauti- 
ful of  the  species.  It  may  be  found  only  in 
the  shade  of  fences  or  trees  or  on  tiie  north 
side  of  rocky  hill-sides.  Some  lovely  speci- 
mens may  be  found  in  April  or  May  on  the 
shady  banks  of  dry  creeks,  and  possil)]y  many 
other  similar  locations  all  over  our  county.  Its 
l>entlnlous,  drooping  flowers  are  of  most  ex- 
ijuisite  loveliness,  and  as  it  takes  kindly  to  cul- 
tivation, should  be  more  extensively  grown. 

"The  next  most  interesting  genius  of  flower- 
ing bulbous  plants  are  the  Brodiaeas.  All  the 
species  are  of  the  easiest  cultivation  an<l  will 
repay  the  most  simple  attention.  Many  of  them 
grow  with  me  in  hard  walks,  dry  corners,  where 
they  get  no  care  or  attention;  but  when  tlie 
slightest  interest  is  given  tiiem,  most  amply  re- 
pay, with  grateful  appreciati<^n.  /*.  M idtiliour 
is  of  a  most  lovely  violet-purple  color,  growing 
about  one  foot  in  height, and  the  earliest  variety 
to  flower.  B.  CviHjeMn,  is  of  a  lovely  purple 
color,  often  flowering  when  two  or  three  inches 
high.  It  is  the  easiest  grown  of  the  species,  and 
in  cultivation  blooms  almost  continuously  from 
May  to  August.  B.  Capitata  blooms  the  eai'- 
liest  of  all,  generally  from  January  to  May.  Its 
dark  purple  flowers  are  \ery  attractive  and 
showy,  usually  growing  one  and  a  half  feet 
high.  (Tather  some  bulbs  of  Itrodeas,  friends, 
no  matter  if  in  full  flower,  give  them  kiml  at- 
tention, and  a  rich  reward  awaits  you. 

"  1  now  chauge  to  a  highly  interesting  group 
of  plants,  one  admired  by  all — Ferns — which 
our  county  possesses  in  matchless  beauty.  I 
shall  not  attempt  a  botanical  description.  The 
reader  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge  must  inter- 
view a  more  competent  teacher.  Our  California 

Botany,  edited  by  the  gifted  Prof.  Asa  Gray,  and 
the  California  Flora,  are  authorities  of  unques- 
tionable character.  The  most  noble  and  majes- 
tic of  all  our  species  is  Woodwordia  radican.s. 
I  have  gathered  fronds  of  this  beautiful  variety 
fully  ten  feet  long.  In  dark,  moist  canons  near 
the  coast,  sheltered  from  winds  and  sunshine, 
it  may  be  found  in  its  best  estate.  In  cultiva- 
tion it  seems  to  pine  out  a  miserable  existence, 
growing  at  best  not  more  than  four  feet  high. 
Near  the  head  of  Bear  Valley  in  Marin  Coiiii- 
ty  some  massive  beauties  were  growing  a  few 
years  ago.  Their  graceful,  arching  fronds  made  a 
leafy  bower  of  fairy  splendor.  One  specimen  I 
measured  covered  a  space  of  twenty  feet  across. 
Another  beautiful  fei-n,  not  by  any  means  plen- 
tiful, is  Lomari'i  Sj^irant.  At  the  base  of  Spring 
Hill,  a  few  miles  from  our  city,  some  most  love- 
ly specimens  may  be  found,  the  fronds  growing 
six  to  seven  feet  high;  the  beauty  of  this  fern  is 
the  finely  dissected  leaves  or  fronds. 

"There  are  but  few  ferns,  however  small  in 
structure,  so  delicately  divided  in  formation,  and 
though  large  and  massive  ini'orm,  is  of  most  ex- 
(juisite  grace  and  loveliness.  Of  the  Adiantuni, 
or  maiden-hair  ferns,  we  have  only  two  species. 
A  jhjdatuiii  or  bird-foot  fern,  or  nnjre  common- 
ly known  as  five-ttnger  fern,  is  a  most  graceful 
and  attractive  plant.  Under  good  culture  its 
delicate  fronds  gi'ow  to  regal  beauty.  A.  Va^i- 
illxs  reui'-r/n,  often  known  as  ,1.  Cliilensis,  is 
of  low  growth,  yet  most  beautiful  and  attractive. 
It  does  not  take  kindly  to  cultivation  and  much 
prefers  the  wilds  of  its  I'ocky  hoioe.  In 
Eurojje,  however,  it  is  a  variety  of  deep  in- 
terest, where  it  appears  to  stand  on  its  good  be- 
havior. PeJlea  denna  is  indeed  a  most  ex- 
quisite and  lovely  fern.  Years  ago  I  found  this 
variety  near  Ilealdsburg,  almost  completely 
covering  a  huge  rock.  Interspersed  in  cracks 
and  Assures  was  one  matchless  CheUimtheH 
Cidiforihica  or  lace  fern,  almost  completely  cov- 
ering from  sight  the  little  mossy  covering  that 
seemed  to  alone  give  life  and  nutrition,  while  at 
its  base  were  tine  specimens  of  l'(dyj>odiiiiii 
Vahjare,  I*.  T'a/ca^itm  and    1'.   Cal-iforicuvi, 



stately,  grand  sentinels  of  tlieir  more  delicate 
relatives  above  tlieni.  Of  other  species  of  ferns 
found  growing  in  our  county,  1  mention  Gi//n- 
noijiHinvie  t/'ian(/ul(trh<i,  the  gold-back  fern, 
and  possibly  some  others.  1  have  often  sent 
specimens  for  identification  to  different  botan- 
ists, and  their  classification  often  caused  con- 

''As yet, much  remains  to  be  learned  as  to  the 
botany  of  our  State.  Changes  are  repeatedly  l)e- 
ing  made  by  savants,  showing  conclusively  of 
tlieir  indecision,  and  years  must  elapse, — years 
of  study,  and  a  comjjarison  of  notes  and  speci- 
mens,— before  a  final  permanent  basis  is  reached. 

"  I  have  very  hastily  and  very  briefly  sketched 
these  rambling  notes  of  history,  and  though 
but  a  mere  mention  of  our  vast  flora  has  been 
noticed,  it  is  to  l>e  hoped  it  may  afford  some  lit- 

tle pleasure  to  onr  readers.  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  at  no  distant  day  an  earnest  effort  may  be 
made  to  collect  and  classify  the  many  different 
genera  of  plants  growing  in  our  county. 

"  It  would  be  of  great  interest  to  the  student 
of  nature,  and  a  valuable  auxiliary  for  all  fu- 
ture generations  in  learning  of  uur  primitive 
flora.  Such  a  monograph  could  be  easily  ac- 
complished by  the  higher  academic  classes  of 
onr  schools.  In  fact,  when  elementary  botany 
is  taught,  students  should  be  instructed  to  bring 
in  specimens  of  all  jilants  they  could  And  at  all 
times  of  the  year.  These  should  be  mounted 
and  exchanged  with  different  sections,  thus  se- 
curing many  different  forms  froni  all  locations. 
Let  me  suggest  a  permanent  herbarium  for  all 
our  schools,  be  they  of  a  primary  or  more  ad- 
vanced graile,  and  if  need  be  it  should  lie  com- 





Bi  11 

VM?i>Miii''!ii1 1^  »»fe^<?jriii'(it  ife'»g 

4^t^^^  i^^'m<(Mi>  i  'fs>  i'Vitii'^l^) 


Tin;    Indians — mis-kin   kki  oki>  mi-    ri;ii!Ai,  xamks — Yai-le-ih's  estimaii:  oi--  tiikik   ximrkr — thkik 
Ni  mi;i;k  at  timk  oi-  Amkrhan  sKiri.KMKNr  —  iiikiu  c  imitjixiox  and  stati  kk — iiuw  tiiev  j.i\  ed 

TIIEIK     IM1'LEMI;MS  —  INTKin  lEW      WITH     CasKIUEL     AND     Jo-E     VivlAK)  —  JolIN     Wai.KEk's 


N  those  chapters  historic  of  Padre  ^Vltiiiiira's 
tbiiiiding  tlie  mission  San  Francisco  Sohiiio 
^  at  Sonoma,  and  the  iirst  colonization  of  tliis 
county  by  tlie  Spaniards,  necessarily  appeared 
most  of  what  is  authentic  history  in  connection 
with  the  Indian  tribes  occupyino;  tlie  territory 
embraced  in  the  subject  of  this  history.  It  is 
to  be  regretted  that  much  of  this  is  su  indefi- 
nite as  to  preclude  a  possibility  of  writing  with 
specific  e.xactness  in  reference  to  the  names  of 
tribes;  their  numerical  strength,  or  the  bounda- 
ries of  the  territory  over  which  each  triljc 
claimed  jurisdiction. 

According  to  the  mission  books  of  Sonoma 
the  following  named  Indian  tribes  furnished 
neophytes  to  that  institution:  Alocjuiomi,  Aten- 
oniac,  C'anoma,  ("arcpiin,  C^anijolmano,  Caymus, 
Chemoco,  Chichoyoini,  CliinMivi'iii,  Coyayomi, 
Iluiluc,  Ilnymen,  Lacatiut,  Loiujuionii  Libayto, 
Locnoma,  Afayacma,  Mnticoimo,  Malacu,  Na- 
pato,  Oleomi,  Putto,  Polnomanoc,  Pacjue,  Peta- 
luina,  Suisun,  Satayonii,  Soneto,  Tolen, 
Tlayacma,  Tamal,  Tojiayto,  L'lulato,  Zadow  and 

But  tlie  heathen  thus  gathered  in  evidentlv 
took  the  wide  range  between  Toniales,  Afarin 
County,  and  Canjiiiiicz  Straits.  There  were 
uniniBtakably      tribes     bearing     the;    following 

names:  The  Petalmnas,  occupying  the  country 
north  of  San  Pablo  Pay  and  contiguous  to 
the  Petaluma  Creek.  This  is  evidenced  by  the 
record  of  the  expedition  of  I'adre  Altiniira.  in 
which  mention  is  made  that  their  first  encamp- 
ment in  Petahinia  Valley  was  with  some  Peta- 
luma Indians  who  were  hiding  from  their 
enemies,  the  Cainemeros  Indians  of  the  now 
Santa  Rosa  I'e^-ond  the  Cainemeros  of  Santa 
Rosa  were  the  Soteomelos,  or  Yapos  (braves), 
who  occupied  the  Russian  River  country  from 
the  neigliborliood  of  the  present  Healdsburg 
northward  to  Cloverdale.  That  this  was  a  pow- 
erful and  aggressive  tribe  is  evidenced  by  tJie 
fact  that  they  overcame  and  slaughtered  a  large 
number  of  the  Cainemeros,  whose  wrongs  were 
avenged  by  the  assistance  of  Salvador  Vallejo 
and  his  troops  in  battle  np  in  the  (Peyser 
Mountains,  as  appears  in  another  chapter.  Thus 
it  would  seem  that  the  centi'al  valleys  of  the 
County  from  Petaluma  northward  was  occupied 
by  three  distinct  tribes  of  Indians:  the  Peta- 
lumas,  the  Cainemeros  and  the  Soteomelos  or 
\  apos. 

Wliile  every  lateral  valley,  subsidiary  to  these 
main  valleys,  in  the  early  days  seem  to  have 
been  the  center  of  an  Indian  rancharie,  yet  it 
is  doubtful   if  they  had   separate  and   distinct. 


i\'i'  ti'ilial  L'xititoiicu.  (icDd'al  Vallt'jcj  lirst  vis- 
itod  tliu  territory  now  uuibraced  in  Sonuiiia 
Coiiiity  in  1828,  and  we  liave  it  direct  from  his 
li]is,  that  in  every  little  valley  was  a  rancharie 
ot' Indian?.  To  use  his  exact  lanonage:  ''The 
Indians  were  swarming  every  where.'"  In  refer- 
ence to  the  possible  nnniber  of  Indians  here  as 
late  as  in  1835,  the  reader  is  referred  to  an  ad- 
dress of  (General  Vallejo  delivered  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  the 
iK'W  court-l'.ouse  at  Santa  llosa  in  1884. 

Making  due  allnwance  for  exti'avaganee  of 
estimate  of  Indian  population  in  what  is  now 
embraced  in  Sonoma  County,  in  1835,  there 
must  have  been  several  tiionsand  of  these  dusky 
children  of  nature  here.  I>ut  the  small-pox 
pestilence  in  1838  must  have  made  sad  havoc 
among  them,  for  never  since  American  occu- 
]taney  could  they  have  mustered  1,000  all 
told.  In  185-4  the  writer  traveled  afoot  and 
alone,  with  only  a  small  pocket  pistol  as  a 
weapon  of  defense,  from  Petaluma  to  a  point 
twelve  miles  above  Ilealdsburg,  a  total  distance 
(if  over  forty  miles,  and  he  did  not  see  fifty 
Indians  in  the  whole  distance.  At  that  time 
there  was  (jnite  a  rancharie  at  Cioverdale;  one 
near  Ilealdsburg,  another  in  the  neighborhood 
of  the  lagoonas  about  Sebastopol  and  a  small 
number  of  Indians  who  made  a  precarious  living 
by  hunting  around  Smith's  Ranch  and  Hodega 
r>ay.  As  hiW.  as  1854  "55  there  was  finite  a 
rancharie  of  Indians  at  Toinales  !!ay.  Marin 
(Jounty;  and  a  very  small  lancharie  in  the 
edge  of  Marin  Countv,  about  tive  miles  distant 
from  Petaluma.  The  last  Indians  we  find  any 
trace  of  as  living  apart  by  themseKcs  in  a 
rancharie,  in  the  neiglibiji-lidod  ot'  Petaluma, 
was  on  what  is  now  known  as  tlie  l'"i-('il  Starkie 
place,  about  two  miles  nm-tb  nf  that  citv.  At 
the  present  wi'iting  tbci-e  is  mil  to  exceed  100 
Indians  left  in  the  county.  Most  of  these  are 
hovering,  like  the  last  shadows  of  their  race, 
around  Ilealdsburg  and  Cioverdale,  eking  out 
a  miserable  existence  as  the  servitors  of  the  race 
that  has  supplanted  then). 

Tlie  Indians  of  this  regic>n  are  very  ^imilal•  in 

stature,  complexion,  and  habits  of  life  to  those 
of  other  portions  of  California.  They  arc  very 
thick  in  the,  and  have  voices  of  wonderful 
strength.  The  children  are  clumsy,  and  heavy 
set.  The  women  are  very  wide  in  the  shoulders 
and  hips,  and  strongly  built.  Men  and  women 
are  large  in  the  body,  and  slim  in  the  legs  and 
arms,  as  compared  with  Caucasians.  They  are 
physically  and  intellectually  inferior  to  their 
relatives  in  Nevada  Territory,  and  far  inferior 
to  the  Indians  who  dwelt  during  the  last  cen- 
tury east  of  the  Mississippi  River.  They  are  of 
a  very  dark  com])!exion,  and  their  hair  always 
black,  is  coarse  to  the  verge  of  that  of  a  horse's 
mane.  The  women  (niohalas)  cut  their  hair 
straight  across  the  forehead  just  above  the  eye- 
brows, inueh  as  their  Caucasian  sisters  do  for 
"  bangs."  In  their  native  state  the-se  Indians 
were  far  from  models  of  neatness  or  cleanliness; 
bTit  now  that  most  of  them  wear  modern  gar- 
ments and  often  seek  labor  on  ranches,  they 
have  in  a  measure  ahjured  their  former  filthy 
habits.  Their  rancharie  habitations  were  of  the 
rudest  and  cheapest  possible  construction.  The 
indispensable  sweat-house,  however,  was  a  sort 
of  joint-stock  structure,  and  as  it  generally  con- 
sisted of  an  excavation  in  the  ground,  with  a 
surface  structure  made  tight  by  baid<ing  up  the 
earth  arouml  it,  its  construction  cost  some 

Their  food  was  composed  chiefly  of  acorns, 
clover-grass,  grass-seeds,  grasshoppers,  hr)rse- 
chestnuts.  fish,  game,  ])ine-nuts,  edible  roots, 
and  berries.  The  acorns  are  large,  abundant, 
and  some  (jf  them  not  unpleasant  to  the  taste, 
but  they  do  not  cimtain  mncb  nutriment  as 
compared  with  an  ei|ual  imlk  of  those  articles 
conininnly  used  bir  loixl  by  the  Caucasian  race. 
The  aci.i-iis  were  gathered  by  tli('  scjuaws,  and 
preserved  in  various  methods.  The  m(;st  coiri- 
mon  plan  was  to  build  a  basket  with  twigs  and 
rushes  in  an  oak-tree,  and  keep  the  acorns  there. 
The  ac(jrns  were  ])repared  for  eating  by  grind- 
ing them  and  hoiling  them  ^ith  watci-  into  a 
thick  paste,  or  by  baking  them  in  bread,  'i'lin 
oven    was  a  hojc  in  the  ground   about  eighteen 


inches  cubic.  Ked  liot  stones  were  ])laci'd  at  the 
liottdui  of  the  liole,  a  little  dry  sand  ur  loam 
llitdwii  over  them,  and  next  came  a  layer  of  dry 
leaves.  The  dough  or  jwste  was  poured  into 
the  hole  until  it  was  two  inches  or  three  inches 
d<'e[).  Then  came  anotiier  layer  of  leaves,  more 
sand,  red-hot  stones,  and  finally  dirt.  At  the 
end  of  five  or  six  hours  the  oven  had  cooled 
down,  and  the  bread  was  taken  out,  an  irregular 
mass  nearly  black  in  color,  not  at  all  handsome 
to  the  eye  or  agreeable  to  the  jialate,  and  mixed 
through  with  leaves  and  dirt.  l''or  grinding 
the  acoi'us  a  stone  mortar  was  used.  This  mor- 
tar was  sometimes  nearly  Hat,  with  a  iiollow  not 
more  than  two  inches  deep;  and  occasionally 
one  will  be  seen  fifteen  inches  deep,  anil  not 
more  than  three  inches  thick  in  any  part  of  it. 
The  pestle  was  of  stone,  round,  ten  inches  long 
and  three  thick. 

llorsechestnuts  were  usually  made  into  a  gruel 
or  soup.  After  being  ground  in  the  mortar, 
they  were  mi.xed  with  water  in  a  waterproof 
basket,  into  which  redhot  stones  were  thrown, 
and  thus  the  soup  was  cooked.  As  the  stones 
when  taken  from  the  fire  had  dirt  and  ashes  ad- 
liering  to  them,  the  soup  was  not  clean,  and  it 
often  set  the  teeth  on  edge. 

(-irass-seeds  were  ground  in  the  moi'tar  and 
I'oasted  or  made  into  soup. 

Grasshoppers  were  roasted,  and  eaten  without 
further  preparation,  or  mashed  U])  with  berries. 

Fish  and  meat  were  broiled  on  the  coals. 
The  intestines  and  l)lood  wei-c  eaten  as  well  as 
the  muscle. 

Clover  and  grass  were  eaten  i-aw.  The  In- 
dians would  go  out  into  the  clover  patches,  pull 
up  the  clover  with  their  hands,  and  eat  stalks, 
leaves,  and  flowers.  They  considered  clover  a 
great  blessing,  and  got  fat  on  it.  The  [)ine-