Skip to main content

Full text of "CAUSES OF WATER BORNE DISEASES AND PREVENTION IN INDIA"

See other formats


E-ISSN No : 2454-9916 | Volume : 6 | Issue: 9 | Sep 2020 





CAUSES OF WATER BORNE DISEASES AND PREVENTION IN 


INDIA 








Dr. Sushma Rani 


Assistant Prof. (G), Dept of Zoology, C.M. Science College, Darbhanga, Bihar, India. 





ABSTRACT 


Water borne diseases including cholera, Typhoid fever, Diarrhea, Ulcers, Hepatitis, Arsenicosis, Respiratory Tract Infection, Kidney Damage, and Endocrine 
Damages are very risky for lives of individuals and especially for humans ultimately leading to death. In India, over one lakh people die of water-borne diseases 
annually. It is reported that groundwater in one-third of India's 600 districts is not fit for drinking as the concentration of fluoride, iron, salinity and arsenic exceeds the 
tolerance levels. These diseases are mainly due to drinking water problems because of presence of different harmful bacteria and germs which may cause these drugs. 
The water treatment can also be used so no one can drink or use dirty or untreated water and can be saved from these effects. 


KEY WORDS: Diseases, Water, Drinking, Harmful, Bacteria and Infection. 


INTRODUCTION: 

Towns and cities with an abundance of water struggle to manage the water effi- 
ciently, often leading to water collecting in potholes and or in the surrounding 
areas and going unused. This can have severe consequences as water-borne dis- 
eases, such as cholera, malaria and diarrhoea can spread as a result of improper 
management of the water supply as well as discharge. Looking at the figures, the 
Ganges provide water to over 500 million Indians - contamination of just one 
source of water could affect millions of lives in one go. Water contamination 
often occurs due to inadequate and incompetent management of resources as 
wellas inflow of sewage into the source. 


United Nations says that more than three million people in the world die of water- 
related diseases due to contaminated water each year, including 1.2 million chil- 
dren. In India, over one lakh people die of water-borne diseases annually. It is 
reported that groundwater in one-third of India’s 600 districts is not fit for drink- 
ing as the concentration of fluoride, iron, salinity and arsenic exceeds the toler- 
ance levels. About 65 million people have been suffering from fluorosis, a crip- 
pling disease due to a high amount of fluoride, and five million are suffering from 
arsenicosis in West Bengal due to high amount of arsenic. About 70 per cent of 
India’s water supply is seriously polluted with sewage effluents. The UN 
reported that India’s water quality is poor - it ranks 120" among 122 nations in 
terms of quality of water available to its citizens. Water-borne diseases like chol- 
era, gastroenteritis and diarrhoea erupt every year during summer and rainy sea- 
sons in India due to poor quality drinking water and sanitation. 


Water pollution travels slower than air pollution but still may affect large area. 
While the most common water pollution diseases involve poisoning episodes 
affecting the digestive system and/or causing human infectious diseases, water 
pollution may cause a large variety of health diseases including infectious dis- 
eases caused by pathogens (usually micro-organisms) from animal fecal origins, 
of which the most common occur in developing countries, including Typhoid, 
Giardiasis, Amoebiasis, Ascariasis, and Hookworm. Diseases caused by pol- 
luted beach water, including Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Encephalitis, Stomach 
cramps and aches, Vomiting, Hepatitis and Respiratory infections. Infectious dis- 
eases can be spread through contaminated water. Some of these water-borne dis- 
eases are Typhoid, Cholera, Paratyphoid Fever, Dysentery, Jaundice, 
Amoebiasis and Malaria. Chemicals in the water also have negative effects on 
our health. Pesticidescan damage the nervous system and cause cancer because 
of the carbonates and organophosphates that they contain. Chlorides can cause 
reproductive and endocrinal damage. 


REVIEW OF LITERATURE: 

Review of selected literature is an essential part of every research process. It 
helps us to examine and evaluate what has been said earlier on the research sub- 
ject. 


Saxena, M.M, Chhabra, C. (2004) A status survey of common water-borne dis- 
eases in desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan, India). A study conducted on survey 
of common water-borne diseases in desert city Bikaner, Rajasthan. Water is 
scarce and, in general, a low quality resource in desert areas and the Indian desert 
is no exception. The present study was taken up to survey the status of common 
water-borne diseases epidemiological trends in the desert city Bikaner. In the 
city, 15.5 per cent population and 44.5 per cent families were found to suffer from 
one or more common water-borne diseases including amoebiasis, diarrhoea, dys- 
entery, jaundice and typhoid. 


Hamner, S, Tripathi, A, Mishra, R.K, Bouskill, N, Broadaway, S.C, Pyle, B.H, 
Ford, T.E. (2006) The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in inci- 
dence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, A study 
conducted on The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of 
water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India. In 
Varanasi an estimated 200 million liters daily or more of untreated human sew- 
age is discharged into the Ganges River. River water monitoring over the past 12 
years has demonstrated feacal coliform counts up to 10(8) MPN (most probable 
number) per 100 ml and biological oxygen demand levels averaging over 40 mg/1 
in the most polluted part of the river in Varanasi. The overall rate of water- 
borne/enteric disease incidence, including acute gastrointestinal disease, chol- 
era, dysentery, hepatitis-A, and typhoid, was estimated to be about 66% during 
the one-year period prior to the survey. 


Atreya, K, Panthee, S, and Sharma, P. (2006) Bacterial contamination of drink- 
ing water and the economic burden of illnesses for the Nepalese households. A 
study conducted on Bacterial contamination of drinking water and the economic 
burden of illnesses for the Nepalese households. A household survey was con- 
ducted to determine the number of working days lost and household medical 
expenditure due to six water-borne diseases in the Terai region of Nepal. Drink- 
ing water sources of each household were analysed for total coliforms (TC). The 
study found 61% of the household water sources were contaminated with total 
coliforms at the time of sampling. Number of days lost due to water-borne dis- 
eases was 8 days for total coliforms TC-negative households and 10 days for TC- 
positive households per year. 


Otaki, Y, Otaki, M, & Sakura, O. (2007) Water systems and urban sanitation: a his- 
torical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore, A study conducted on Water systems 

and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore. The 

importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recog- 

nized in the modern world.. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of 
Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. 

We analyzed their development processes statistically to determine what the key 

elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities 

constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 

and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (To- 
kyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in 

Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high 

infant mortality rate. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS: 

The method used in this paper is descriptive-evaluative method. The study is 
mainly review based. It is purely supported by secondary source of data, i.e. 
books, journals, papers and articles and internet. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: 

Diseases Caused by Polluted Water: 

Poor water quality becomes inevitable when water gets polluted with industrial 
waste, human waste, animal waste, garbage, untreated sewage, chemical 
effluents, etc. Drinking or cooking with such polluted water leads to waterborne 
diseases and infections such as amoebiasis, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Con- 
taminated water could carry viruses such as Hepatitis A and E, bacteria like E.coli 
(E.coli can be passed from hand to hand, such as via vendors of street food or 
food handled by someone carrying E.coli bacteria. It can lead to food poisoning). 
Waterborne diseases include diarrhoea, dysentery, polio and meningitis and 


Copyright© 2020, IERJ. This open-access article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which permits Share (copy and redistribute the material in any 
medium or format) and Adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) under the Attribution-NonCommercial terms. 


International Education & Research Journal [IERJ] 


Research Paper 


typhoid. Unclean water for washing can cause skin and infectious eye disease 
such as Trachoma. Trachoma can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Rural 
populations are more at risk from waterborne illnesses, but everyone faces risks 
of polluted or contaminated water. Waterborne illness can affect anyone, any- 
where. The risk is more for infants, younger children, the elderly and patients of 
diabetes, chronic diseases of heart disease, kidney, etc. 


Over five years to 2017, water-borne diseases--cholera, diarrhea, typhoid and 
viral hepatitis-caused 10,738 deaths, latest government data show. Diarrhoea 


E-ISSN No : 2454-9916 | Volume: 6 | Issue: 9 | Sep 2020 


remained the leading killer, causing about 60% of all deaths, according to this 
reply to the Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament) by Jai Prakash Nadda, minis- 
ter for health and family welfare, on April 6, 2018. India loses 73 million working 
days due to water-borne diseases, India Spend reported on June 21, 2016. India 
registered 69.14 million cases--or as many people as in United Kingdom--of four 
water-borne diseases over five years to 2017, govt data show. Diarrhoea caused 
6,514 deaths, the most of water-borne diseases in India, over five years to 2017. 
Other killers were viral hepatitis (2,143), typhoid (2,061) and cholera (20). 





Table 1: Reported Cases And Deaths By Water-Borne Diseases in India 


























Disease ~A\) i} 2014 v1) Es) 2016 2017 
Cases Deaths Cases Deaths (erry) Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths 
Cholera 1130 5 844 5 913 4 718 3 385 3 
Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases | 11413610 1629 11748631 1137 12913606 1353 14166574 1555 9230572 840 
Typhoid 1650145 387 1736687 425 1937413 452 2215805 511 1493050 286 
Viral Hepatitis 110125 574 138554 400 140861 435 145970 451 98086 283 























Source: Lok Sabha 





Water borne diseases including cholera, Typhoid fever, Diarrhea, Ulcers, Hepati- 
tis, Arsenicosis, Respiratory tract infection, Kidney Damage, and Endocrine 
Damage are very risky for lives of individuals and especially for humans, these 
can lead ultimately death. These diseases are mainly due to drinking water prob- 
lems because of presence of different harmful bacteria and germs which may 
cause these drugs. These diseases can be cured with proper medications and 
treatment courses. Along the treatment, there are different ways to prevent from 
these diseases. 


Cholera: 

Cholera disease is mainly caused due to water pollution. In polluted, dirty and 
hard water, different bacteria are contaminated, which cause different diseases 
like cholera. Its symptoms include the stomach ulcer, severe dehydration, rapid 
diarrhea and sometimes, it ends with death. Main causes of the cholera are the 
bacteria available in polluted water, hard water ingestion containing cholera caus- 
ing germs. Swimming in dirty unsafe water can cause cholera. Deficiency in 
stomach acid can cause to increase the risks for cholera disease. 


Typhoid: 

Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along with paratyphoid fever. The cause is 
the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype 
Typhi, growing in the intestines and blood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drink- 
ing food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Other symp- 
toms for typhoid are headache, stomach pain, loss of appetite, weakness, weight 
loss, constipation, and sometimes, internal bleeding through vomiting. Bacteria 
that can be found in polluted water, cause the typhoid fever in humans. Food that 
has been contaminated by either drinking contaminated water or being grown 
with contaminated water also a cause of typhoid fever. 


Diarrhea: 

Diarrhea is an increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the 
form of stool (greater looseness of stool). Although changes in frequency of 
bowel movements and looseness of stools can vary independently of each other, 
changes often occur in both. With diarrhea, stools usually are looser whether or 
not the frequency of bowel movements is increased. This looseness of stool-- 
which can vary all the way from slightly soft to watery--is caused by increased 
water in the stool. The main cause for Diarrhea is drinking water which is pol- 
luted with bacteria and chemicals. Without filtration and treatment, use of drink- 
ing water and foods without wash may increase the risks for diarrhea. 


Ulcers: 

Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and 
the upper portion of your small intestine. The most common symptom ofa peptic 
ulcer is stomach pain. Peptic ulcers include: Gastric ulcers that occur on the 
inside of the stomach Duodenal ulcers that occur on the inside of the upper por- 
tion of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic 
ulcers are infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and long- 
term use of aspirin and certain other painkillers, such as ibuprofen (Advil, 
Motrin, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, Anaprox, others). 


Hepatitis: 

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Some people have no symptoms 
whereas others develop yellow discolo- ration of the skin and whites of the eyes, 
poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Hepatitis may be 
temporary (acute) or long term (chronic) depending on whether it lasts for less 
than or more than six months. Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, 
progress to chronic hepatitis, or rarely result in acute liver failure. Over time the 
chronic form may progress to scarring of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer. 
The most common cause worldwide is viruses. Other causes include heavy alco- 
hol use, certain medications, toxins, other infections, autoimmune diseases, and 





non- alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). There are five main types of viral hepati- 
tis: type A, B,C, D, and E. 


Arsenicosis: 

Arsenicosis is a chronic illness resulting from drinking water with high levels of 
arsenic over a long period of time (such as from 5 to 20 years). It is also known as 
arsenic poisoning. The WHO recommends a limit of 0.01 mg/l of arsenic in 
drinking water. It results in various health effects including skin problems, skin 
cancer, cancers of the bladder, kidney and lung, and diseases of the blood vessels 
of the legs and feet, and possibly also diabetes, high blood pressure and repro- 
ductive disorders. 


The symptoms of arsenic poisoning can be acute, or severe and immediate, or 
chronic, where damage to health is experienced over a longer period. This will 
often depend on the method of exposure. A person who has swallowed arsenic 
may show signs and symptoms within 30 minutes. These may include the drows- 
iness, headaches, confusion and severe diarrhea. 


Precautions to prevent waterborne disease: 
« Ensure the water is visibly clean and free from sand and silt. Filter the water 
to getrid of visible dirt. 


¢ Drink only clean and safe water — either portable water or water filtered 
through water purifiers. 


¢ Get water purifying devices like filters, RO unit, etc., regularly serviced and 
maintained. 


¢ Ensure stored water is germ-free. 
¢ Addantiseptic liquid, such as Dettol in dubious-looking bathing water. 


¢ Hand hygiene — regularly wash hands with soap after returning home, after 
using the toilet, before and after preparing food, before eating or drinking 
anything. 


* Teach hand hygiene to children. Children should make it a habit to always 
wash hands when returning home after playing games. 


¢ Ensure food is washed and thoroughly cooked. 


* Use disposable glass and plates whenever possible when eating outside food, 
particularly street food. 


¢ Avoid eating stale cooked food, unrefrigerated food kept exposed outside for 
long hours. 


¢ Take vaccinations for immunization against preventable diseases like 
Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Polio, etc. 


CONCLUSION: 

Water borne diseases including cholera, Typhoid fever, Diarrhea, Ulcers, Hepati- 
tis, Arsenicosis, Respiratory Tract Infection, Kidney Damage and Endocrine 
Damages are very risky for lives of individuals and especially for humans, these 
can lead ultimately death. These diseases are mainly due to drinking water prob- 
lems because of presence of different harmful bacteria and germs which may 
cause these drugs. The water treatment can also be used so no one can drink or use 
dirty or untreated water and can be saved from these effects. 


International Education & Research Journal [IERJ] 


E-ISSN No : 2454-9916 | Volume : 6 | Issue: 9 | Sep 2020 


REFERENCES: 
L Saxena, S.K. (2018) Introductory Chapter: Neglected Tropical Waterborne Infec- 
tious Diseases-Strategies for Mitigation, InTech, pp, 3-12. 





Il. Bartram, J., Bradley, Hunter P. (2015) Classification of disease transmission routes 
for water-related hazards. In: Bartram J., Baum R., Coclanis P., Gute D., Kay D., 
McFadyen S., Pond K., Robertson W., Rouse M., editors. Routledge Handbook of 
Water and Health. Routledge; London, UK:. pp. 20-37. 


Ill. Chhabra, C. A (2004) Status survey of common water-borne diseases in desert city 
Bikaner (NW Rajasthan, India). J Commun Dis. (1):pp.53-9. 


IV. Hamner, S, Tripathi, A, Mishra, R.K, Bouskill, N, Broadaway, S.C, Pyle, B.H, Ford, 
T.E.(2006) The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water- 
borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India. Int J Environ Health 
Res. (2):pp.113-32. 


V. Atreya, K, Panthee, S, & Sharma, P.(2006) Bacterial contamination of drinking water 
and the economic burden of illnesses for the Nepalese households. Int J Environ 
Health Res.; (5):pp.385-90. 


VI. Otaki, Y, Otaki, M, Sakura, O.(2007) Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical 
comparison of Tokyo and Singapore, J Water Health. (2):pp.259-65. 


International Education & Research Journal [[ERJ]