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RARE, SCARCE and OUT OF PRIN7 
BOOKS, DOCUMEINTS. ETC 
For Sale By 
WALTER M. MURDIE 
134. Radcliffe Ave 

PROVIDENCE, R, I. 




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HEATH'S 



INFALLIBLE 



otii^ritm^it! I^ounfcrfeit jji^f^tlor, 



AT SIGHT. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH ENTIRE NEW PLATES OF BOTH GREENBACKS 
AND NATIONAL BANK NOTES. 



THE ONLY INFALLIBLE METHOD OF DETECTINO COUNTER- 
FEIT, SPURIOUS, ALTERED BANK NOTES 
AND GOVERNMENT BONDS, 



AS SOW IN CniCIILATION OR THAT MAT BE ISSUED, 

Applicable to all Banks in the United States and Canada, 

■WITH 

GENUINE DESIGNS FROM THE OEIGINAL GOTERN¥ENT PLATES, 
authority from the United State$ Treasury Department. 

Twelfth Edition. 



Boston, Mass., and Washington, D. C. : 
FXJBILJSIIKr) BY LA.BA3Sr HEA-TH &; CO., 
No. 30 Hanover St., Boston, Mass., 
To whom all orders should be addresaed. 

1877. 



C o p J' r i g ht, 
1 8 7 7 . 

LABAN HEATH & COMPANT. 



P1UE88 or RorKwrxi. and CnrncniLi,, 
22 Arch Street, Boston. 



CONTENTS. 



TXQTS 



Introduction 5 

CnATTER I. 
Process op Engraving anj> Piunting Bank Notes . . 9 

CHAPTER 11. 

Art of Detecting Counteufeits, with Rules for Gene- 
R>\x Glidance 1-1 

CHAPTER III. 
GENurNE Bank Notes 21 

CHAPTER IV. 

COUNTERrEIT BANK N0TE8 25 

CHAPTER V, 
ALTERED Bank Notes 30 

CHAPTER VI. 

Description of United States Treasury and National 

Bank Notes 31 



INTRODUCTION TO THE TWELFTH EDITION. 



• ♦ « 

Heath's Infallible Counterfeit Detector at 
Sight has maintained an undiminished reputation from 
the time of its first publication to the present day, and 
there is no work to compare with it for simplicity of ar- 
rangement, and fidelity of description of both genuine 
and counterfeit bank notes and bonds. In presenting this 
new and twelfth edition of the Counterfeit Detector, we 
have carefully revised the text, eliminating all superflu- 
ous matter and substituting therefor what new facts we 
have been able to obtain in relation to the detection of 
counterfeits since the revision of our eleventh edition. 

We find, notwithstanding the U. S. Government employ 
in the engraving and printing bureaus of the Treasury de- 
partment the best talent in the country, and have spent 
hundreds of thousands in machinery for the purpose of 
perfecting the art of engraving and printing, and have been 
untiring in their labors devising methods whereby to pre- 
vent the great flood of counterfeiting, the counterfeiter 
has been equally as diligent in Ms efforts to perfect the art 
of counterfeiting, and has made such rapid progress that 
the country, especially South and West, is flooded with 
counterfeit greenbacks and national bank notes, of such 
superior workmanship that one must need be an expert to 
prevent imposition. Being aware of this fact, and feeling 

5 



6 



INTRODUCTION. 



a safc^ard for the better protection of the public a^^ainst 
the devices of the counterfeiter was necessary, we resolved 
to revise the text of the Detector, and to embellish it with 
new plates of genuine work printed from the original dies. 
Consequently, we petitioned the Treasury Department, ask- 
ing the privilege of using sectional portions of the new 
issues of the greenbacks and national bank notes, with 
wliich to illustrate the new edition of the Detector. To 
accomplish this object we have spared neither time nor 
money, and arc pleased to say, after due consideration, 
and for the better protection of the public, the Treasury 
Department granted our petition, reserving, however, the 
right of mutilation, as in their best judgment would be a 
safe protection against the counterfeiter's nefarious art. 
(See the line of mutilation across the face of each sectional 
portion of bank notes illustrating this work.) We are 
thereby enabled to furnish these sections in two ccwivenient 
book forms, — one for banking and counting houses, and 
the other as a pocket edition. This will enable the stu- 
dent at all times to have before him the genuine work, 
from clear and distinct impressions, of United States and 
national bank notes, with the method of detecting coun- 
terfeits adopted and invariably observed by enfjravers, 
treasury officers, bankers, and other experts, and which 
can be kept constantly at hand for ready and permanent 
reference, and for facilitating the instruction of clerks and 
beginners. 

Wc have illustrated this edition with sectional portions 
of U. S. greenbacks (new issue) of the following denom- 
inations, viz. : the right-hand half of the One, Two, 
Five, Ten, Twenty, Fiftv and One IIundued. Also 



INTItODUCTION. 



7 



sectional portions of tlio National bank notes, viz. : tlio 
right-hand half of the Oxk, Two, Five, Ten, Twi:ntv, 
Fifty and One Hundred. For the convenience of stu- 
dents and others, wo have caused to be i)rirtted the 
right-hand half of the United States notes and National 
currency of the same denomination on the same plate, 
thereby enabling them, when they wish to compare the 
counterfeit with the genuine, to refer to either the United 
States greenback or the National cun-cncy at one and 
the same time, giving the most beautiful devices and 
best work of the Government. These devices, with the 
rules for detecting counterfeits, are considered the only 
reliable safeguard against the nefarious designs and 
ingenuity of counterfeiters. 

Before closing the introduction, we cannot refrain from 
tendering our acknowledgments to the ofBcers connected 
with the United States Treasury Department, as well as 
to many others who have cheerfully rendered us their 
valuable assistance in the consummation of our ciitciiirisc, 
and especially to Hon. Lot M. Morrill, Secretary of the 
U. S. Trcasiiry ; Hon. Charles F. Conant, Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Treasury ; Hon. A. H. Cragin, United States 
Senator; H. C. Jewell, Esq., Chief of tlie Engraving and 
Printing Bureau; George W. Casilear, Esq., Superin- 
tendent of the Engraving Bureau ; George B. McCartec, 
Esq., Ex-Chief of Engraving and Printing; Elmer Wash- 
burn, Chief of the United States Secret Service Division. 
Also Charles B. Hall, Esq., Cashier of the Boston 
National Bank and Secretary of the Association of Banks 
for the Suppression of Counterfeiting. 

LABAN HEATH. 



CHAPTEE I. 



PROCESS OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING BANK 
NOTES, ETC. 

"When an engraver takes in hand a subject, 
either a Vignette or Portrait, he has it reduced 
b}' the camera to the proper size he wishes to en- 
gi-ave it ; he then makes a tracing of the same by- 
placing over the reduction or drawing a piece of 
gelatine ; he then traces an outline of the subject 
with a fine etching tool, slightly scratching the 
gelatine. After the tracing is complete, he fills 
the lines of the same with red chalk, and then 
selects a piece of properly prepared steel, of the 
required size and thickness, and lays upon the 
polished surface an etching ground, composed of 
asphaltum, burgundj'-pitch and beeswax, which 
is applied b}' rubbing and dabbing over the heated 
die until it lays smooth over the surface of the 
steel. He then smokes the same over a jet of 
gas, or a wax taper, until the surface is quite black. 
After the die cools it is ready for receiving the 
tracing, which is placed upon the die reversed, 

9 



10 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



and submitted to the pressure of the roller press. 
The gelatine is then removed, and the outline, as 
traced in red, ^ill be observed on the ground. 
The engraver then proceeds with his etching 
needle or point, and etches the water or land- 
scape, outlining the figures, etc. ; this is done by 
scratching the surfoce of the steel through the 
composition or ground. After the etching is 
completed a border of beeswax and pitch is 
closed around the etching, and a solution of 
nitric acid and water, or other acids used for cor- 
roding steel, is poured on the die. The acid at- 
tacks the steel through the etched lines, or where 
the metal is exjDosed hy the removal of the ground 
with the point. After the action of a few minutes 
with the acid the same is removed, and, if the 
biting is of the required depth for the lighter 
work, the same is stopped out witli a varnish com- 
posed of asphaltum and turpentine ; and for the 
parts which are to be made darker the process is 
renewed until the required depth of line is ob- 
tained, when the composition is removed by tur- 
pentine, and the work is finished by the graver, 
which is emploj-ed exclusively for cutting in the 
drapery and flcsli and all the small details. 

The principal tools or instruments used by the 
engraver arc the scraper, burnisher, etching point. 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



11 



e^'e-glass, square and lozenge gravers, the ruling 
machine for ruling parallel lines for water, sky, 
and uniform tints, and the geometrical lathe. 
The ruling machine carries a diamond point, 
which cuts through the etching ground with great 
delicacy and evenness of tint. After the die is 
thus finished, it is proved, and is then ready for 
the hardening process. 

The hardening or recarbonization of the die is 
effected hy inclosing the same in a small crucible, 
or iron box, a trifle larger than the size of the die 
to be hardened, with the interstices filled with 
animal carbon made of ivory black or bone, and 
then heating the whole to a white heat, propor- 
tionate to the character of the steel, after which 
the die is withdrawn from the fire and plunged 
into cold water. This carbonization or tempering 
renders the die read}' for the Transfer Process. 
For this purpose, a soft roller of about two and a 
half inches in diameter, of decarbonized steel, is 
placed upon the die, and then submitted to a strong 
presure of the Transfer Press, with a forward and 
backward motion, so as to force the soft steel of 
the roll into the engraved lines of the subject on 
the die so that the impression of the engraving is 
seen upon the roll in relievo. The roll or cylinder 
is then hardened in its turn and used in the 



12 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



same manner upon the surface of a decarbonated 
steel plate. The result is a perfect cop}' of the 
original die, showing the finest touch of the 
graver. Thus, from a single engraving an infinity 
of transfers can be made, and can be readil}' re- 
peated, in a perfect manner, with but little extra 
cost, after the first expense of the original en- 
graving. This art is peculiar!}' adapted to Bank 
Notes, Bonds, Checks, etc., as, by a series of rolls 
composed of vignettes, scroll work and lettering, 
they can be used in making several copies on one 
plate, or series of plates, with perfect identit}'. 
The plates thus made are then cleaned b}' scraping 
and burnishing away any uneven surface thrown 
up by the great pressure of the roll, and are 
ready for the roller printing press. 

The printing process is as follows : the plate 
being duly rolled in with ink made of linseed oil 
and Frankfort black, the surplus ink is then care- 
fully removed, onl}- charging with ink the en- 
graved lines in the plate ; here the printer must 
use some precaution and have some appreciation 
of the nature of the work in hand. He can con- 
siderably vary the relative shade of the component 
parts, and can control the general tone and shades 
of the vignettes and heads by carefully keeping 
the lines and shades clear in his management of 



COUNTEUFEIT DETECTOR. 



13 



wiping the plate. Thus, with skilful hands, the 
printer is made to co-operate with the engraver in 
producing a good effect from the work. The 
plate is then laid upon the plank of the pi'css, and 
a sheet of moist paper is laid upon its face, and 
the same is drawn with a strong pressure between 
the roller, which is covered with blankets, and the 
plank, by means of cross arms attached to the 
press. Thus the paper takes up the ink perfectly 
from the engraved lines on the plate. 



CHAPTER II. 



ART OF DETECTING COUNTERFEITS, WITH RULES 
FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE. 

The art of detecting counterfeits consists in 
becoming thoroughly familiar with genuine worJc, 
and in bringing any new or untested bond or note 
to a critical comparison loilh a plate known to be 
genuine. It will be seen that this method is pre- 
cisely the opposite of the old sj'stem, which made 
the counterfeit the basis of investigation, and 
which was consequent!}'' alwa3's at the mere}- 
of ax\y new or unfamiliar deception ; for, under 
that s^-stem, the counterfeit must be learned be- 
fore it could be detected, while by this method, as 
illustrated b}' this work, an accurate knowledge 
of the genuine, once obtained, renders an}' sub- 
sequent imposition impossible, except tlirough 
indifference and neglect. 

The following description of the various styles 
of Bank Note engraving, noting the variations 
therefrom as observed in counterfeits, and in- 
dicating the proper method of discriminating 

14 



COUNTERFEIT DBTECTOIt. 



15 



between counterfeit and genuine work, is com- 
mended to tlie careful study of all who desire to be- 
come familiar with the art of detecting counterfeits. 
And the student is advised that a casual or su- 
perficial reading of these pages is not sufficient to 
make him at once a master of this art. lie 
must, b}' close analysis of, and careful and re- 
peated reference to, these explanations and 
directions, familiarize his mind with the facts 
and principles here stated, and, by frequent ex- 
aminations and comparison of plates, and of the 
various devices and sections of the bonds, educate 
his ej'e to an exact knowledge of the constituent 
elements of genuine worlv. In the examination 
of plates and bonds the microscope, should be 
invariabl}^ used until the eye has become suffi- 
ciently experienced to dispense with this important 
aid. 

The devices upon Bank Notes consist of Angn- 
ettes, scrolls, borders, counters, corners, marine 
views, war scenes, etc. On genuine plates these 
devices are pei'fectly formed and sj'mmetrically 
grouped. Such, however, is not the case in 
counterfeits ; and no matter how near counterfeit 
worlc may approximate to the genuine, a close 
observer, with an ordinary'' microscope, and with 
the illustrations in this work from the genuine 



16 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



plates before him, may at once detect the imper- 
fections and irregularities which distinguish the 
. counterfeit from the genuine. 

yiGNETTES. 

The figures and likenesses, which form the 
principal characteristics in vignettes, are drawn 
in accordance with a certain ideal standard of 
perfection. Female figures are generally repre- 
sented with the arms, neck and feet bare, and their 
accuracy of proportion, and the delicacy of the 
work, are important guides in detei*mining the 
genuineness of the plates. The texture of the 
skin is represented by fine dots and lines, an ad- 
mixture of styles of engraving which is to be 
found in all vignettes, and the fineness and reg- 
ularity of these dots and lines indicate the 
quality and reliabilit}' of the work. In the human 
figure, upon genuine plates, the e3'e, mouth, hair 
and attitude are perfectly- natural, and the features 
are always sharp and striking. In counterfeits 
the features are usuall}- blurred and expression- 
less, the e3'e is dull, the arms, feet and hair 
imperfect, and the dots and lines which form the 
face and the exposed portions of the person are 
large, coarse, and uneven. A careful study of 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



17 



vignettes is recommended to all who desire to 
become experts in the art of detecting counterfeits. 

See the exquisitely executed vignettes on the 
$10, S20, $oO, $100, United States notes, also on 
the$l, $0, $10, $20, $50, and $100, National 
Currencj'. 

THE ROUND HAND. 

This form of lettering is observed in the legend 
on the Bank Notes (which is the same in all), 
and in the words " Will pay the bearer." The 
curves and hair lines are drawn with positive ac- 
curacy. There may be a difference in the style 
of letter, but this will not change the precision 
of the woi'k, as may be seen by comparing the 
curves and lines of one with those of another. 
This precision is never attained in counterfeits, 
as the microscope will disclose. For genuine 
specimens see any issue of Bank Notes in the 
illustrations which accompany this work. 

PARALLEL RULING. 

The shading of letters and all parallel ruling 
upon Bank Notes is executed by the Parallel 
Ruling Machine. This machine is governed by 



18 



COUNTBItFEIT DETECTOU. 



an index which regulates the mcUh of the lines. 
On all genuine notes the work is fine and clear, 
and the lines are strictly parallel. It is executed 
with such mathematical accuracy that, b}' the aid 
of the microscope, tlie lines are seen to be perfect, 
and, iiowever minute, can be easil}' counted. 
Clear skies are also usually formed of fine paral- 
lel lines. "When cloudy or hcaxy skies are re- 
quired, these lines are made to cross each other. 
Sometimes sky is formed of several broken etched 
lines. Great care should be taken to learn, by 
an examination of the plates, which portion of 
such work upon the genuine notes is done b}" 
etching, and which b}' parallel ruling. Parallel 
ruling is a very important branch of engraving, 
and one which cannot be too attentively studied. 
For specimen of genuine work, see parallel ruling 
on the upper side of the one dollar and five dollar 
United States greenback. See also the shading 
of letters on all other plates. In counterfeits this 
work is usuall}' coarse and imperfect, and the lines 
are seldom parallel. In endeavoring to count 
them they will be found broken, of irregular thick- 
ness, and lacking uniformity. Observe closely in 
the genuine plates the shading of letters and all 
other parallel lines. 



COUNTEIiFEIT DETECTOR. 



19 



GEOMETRICAL LATHE WORK. 

' The lathe work upon Bank Notes is executed 
b}- the Geometrical Lathe, a machine which no 
counterfeiter can have opportunit}', if he have the 
means, to properly construct or perfectly operate. 
By the simple turning of a screw, patterns are 
arbitrarily formed upon the die, comprising many 
variegated and beautiful combinations of geomet- 
rical figures, mathematically true to each other. 
This engraving can be made intricate at will, by 
certain peculiar manipulations, creating at every 
movement of the machine an intermingling of 
elaborate figures of design and finish which can 
never be exactl}' reproduced by the operator a 
second time. Lathe work is, therefore, the chief 
feature in note engraving. It is found in all the 
Government issues of notes, from the three-cent 
scrip, and ending with any denomination of 
Bank Notes or Bonds the Government may deem 
proper to issue. 

Tlie borders, corners, denomination counters, 
and all oval and circular forms upon the Bank 
Notes are formed by the Geometrical Lathe. 
Notwithstanding the difficulties attending a suc- 
cessful counterfeiting of lathe work, there has been 
such work executed ; and so well and elaborately 
was this work performed that additional precau- 



20 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



tions against deceptioa have been felt to be neces- 
sary. Not only must the general clearness, exact- 
ness and finish of the genuine work be studied, but 
it is also essentiall}- requisite that the peculiar 
formations of the lathe engraving upon an}' par- 
ticular genuine note be thoroughly learned, as 
eacli plate and figure has its own special and 
characteristic features. 

In examining lathe work, for proof of genuine- 
ness, begin at the centre of the curvilinear figures, 
and then gradually follow the lines around the 
circles, one within the other, for the discovery 
of special defects which would otherwise be over- 
looked ; also be careful and minute in comparing 
general designs. 

For illustrations, see the excellent counterfeit 
five-dollar note on the Traders National Bank of 
Chicago, which made its appearance in the West 
a few months ago, having a large circulation. 
The engraving on this note is admitted to be su- 
perior in many respects to the original, and is 
liable to deceive the most skilful exports. Through 
the vigilance of Elmer "Washburn, Chief of the 
Secret Service, the counterfeiters of this issue 
were arrested, their plates, presses, and slock in 
trade captured, and yet upwards of $200,000 of 
this counterfeit paper is in circulation among the 
business comnumity. 



CHAPTER III. 



GENUINE BANK NOTES. 

It is incorrect to suppose tliat it is neces- 
sary to become familiar with tiie work on counter- 
feit bank notes, to enable the student to 
determine what is genuine or counterfeit. This 
method of detecting (which was the old one) 
would make it necessar}'^ to see every denomina- 
tion of counterfeits issued, from the fact that no 
two counterfeits of different denominations are 
alike. This is not so with genuine bank notes, 
they being alike in all the principal parts that go 
to determine the genuine from the counterfeit. 
Therefore, if the student becomes thoroughly 
familiar with what constitutes a genuine bank 
note, he will readilj'^ detect at sight a counterfeit 
of any denomination. 

PAPER. 

The paper used by the government for bonds 
and bank notes is possessed of a substantial 

21 



22 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



bod}^, has a fine finish, and presents to the cj-e a 
fibrous surface. When examined with a micro- 
scope these fibres have the appearance of coarse 
black hairs, of all conceivable lengths and shapes, 
scattered promiscuouslj', regardless of regularit}-, 
over the entire surface of the bond or note. A 
narrow strip of bluish color, termed " localized 
tint," extends across the entire note. This paper 
is the result of a second process, known as the 
Wilcox fibre, and presents a serious obstacle for 
counterfeiters to overcome. 

INK. 

The ink used by the United States Treasury 
Printing Bureau and all Bank Note Companies is 
manufactured expressly for printing bonds and 
bank notes. It is jet black, and at first has a 
gloss}!- appearance ; the gloss, however, in time 
evaporates, 3'et the ink always retains its original 
and rich jet-black appearance, never assuming 
that rust}' brown generally observed on counter- 
feits. The same ma}^ be said of the red ink in 
which the figures, letters and seal are pnnted on 
the face of the note. It alwa3-s retains tlio 
original color, in no case turning to a wood-red 
color as is the case with the red ink used on 
counterfeits. 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



23 



president's and cashier's signatures. 

The president's and cashier's signatures pre- 
sent a striking individuality, which counterfeits, 
no matter how well executed, never possess. 
The genuine signatures, written with a naturalness 
and case, are free from that forced and cramped 
appearance always discernible in the counterfeit. 

vignettes. 

The vignettes on all bonds and bank notes are 
engraved by the best artists in the country, and 
no pains arc spared in bringing tliem to the 
highest state of perfection the mind can imagine. 
The}' are always noticeable for their superior 
workmanship, exquisite beauty and finish. In 
the vignettes the counterfeiter finds an obstacle 
not easily overcome, and seldom, if ever, suc- 
ceeds in producing one that will not betray its 
base origin. 

THE HUMAN FIGURE- 

Portraits, male or female, are executed in the 
most artistic manner ; the featur^js being admi- 
rably engraved. The texture of the skin is 
composed of stipple work and lines intemiingled. 
The stipple work, or dots, generally denote the 
parts on which the light falls, as m&y be seen by 



24 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



referring to the female portrait on the fifty-dollar 
greenback. The lines represent the parts that 
are slight!}' shaded, as may also be seen on the 
same portrait. 

The hair is tastefully and naturally- arranged, 
and plainly denotes it is the work of an artist. 
When examined with a microscope, it will be 
observed that it is not a mere daub, as if made 
with a brush, but has a light and wavj- appear- 
ance, looking perfectly natural. 

The e3'es are the most important feature of the 
portrait, and must nccessai'ily be filled with 
animation, in order to give to the portrait an 
expression of naturalness. The pupil is, invaria- 
bly, distinctl}- visible, showing the white clearly, 
thereb}' giving to the countenance a life-like 
appearance. 

The nose, mouth, chin and neck are also 
engraved with a degree of perfection that is 
never found in counterfeits. The shape of the 
neck is displayed b}' the delicate shading. The 
arms possess a graceful sphericity. The fingers 
are natural, and display a life-like sense of 
touch. The draper}- is gracefully arranged, and 
is composed of heavy and fine lines, — the heavy 
lines denoting the coarser drapery, and the fine 
lines that which has a gossaraer-iike appearance. 



CHAPTER IV. 



COUNTERFEIT BANK NOTES. 

Herewith we present a few of the principal 
points which determine counterfeit bank notes. 

PAPER. 

The paper on which counterfeit bank notes are 
printed is generally of a pale gra}- color, soft 
and flimsy to the touch, and is destitute of the 
high-toned finish of that used by the government 
on wdiich genuine notes are printed. 

Counterfeiters succeeded, however, in produc- 
ing an article so near like the genuine that the 
government deemed it expedient to have a paper 
manufactui-ed expressly on which to print bonds, 
bank notes and scrip, the result of which was the 
invention and manufacture of the paper known 
as the Wilcox fibre, now used exclusively by the 
government. 

It was thought this would baffle the ingenuity 
of the counterfeiters, — and it did for a time ; but 

25 



26 



COUKTEIiFRIT DETECTOR. 



these brilliant geniuses have overcome this diffi- 
culty to a great extent in the production of a 
paper in good imitation of the Wilcox fibre, so 
that it becomes necessar}- even for connoisseurs 
in the art of detecting counterfeits to be on the 
alert. 

INK. 

The ink used is generall}' of an inferior qualitj', 
lacking both the bod^- and the rich brillianc}^ of 
the genuine, and in a short time assumes a gray- 
ish appearance. The letters, figures and char- 
acters printed in red soon change to a pale wood 
red, instead of retaining the brilliant carmine 
color like that used by the treasury department. 

PRINTING. 

It will be observed the printing, when com- 
pared with the genuine, is poorly executed, liav- 
ing a coarse and blurred appearance, and espe- 
cially when examined with a microscope. 

SIGNATURES. 

The president's and cashiei-'s signatures can be 
detected in many cases b}'^ their forced, cramped 
and coai*se ai)pearance. For illustration, take 
the characteristic and bold signature of General 



COUNTEItFEIT DETECTOR. 



27 



Spinner on the greenbacks, on which there have 
been some excellent counterfeits ; yet they lack 
the grace, ease andiiuish of the original, and can 
easilj' be detected by experts. 

PAUALLEL RULING. 

The parallel ruling used for shading the letters 
and backs is invariabl}^ imperfect ; the lines are 
coarse and broken, and when subjected to a 
microscopical examination present a ragged and 
blurred appearance, and are seldom parallel. 

GEOMETRICAL LATHE "WORK. 

Counterfeit lathe work can be detected by the 
blurred and dotted appearance of the lines where 
the}' intersect each other. These defects, which 
might be overlooked, can easily' be detected by 
beginning in the centre of the curvilinear figures, 
and gradually' following around the circles. On 
manj' counterfeits actual work of the lathe is to 
be found, the figures being made up of small 
circles, which would readily be deteoted by an 
educated eye. 

PRINCIPAL FIGURE. 

The object of the counterfeiter is to make the 
principal figure in the vignette the most attractive, 



28 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



and therefore he gives it the best finish, and bi'ings 
it nearer to a state of perfection, knowing if he 
accomplishes this point the surrounding imper- 
fections will not so readily be observed, which is 
true. With this idea deeply impressed upon his 
mind, he becomes so absorbed in what he con- 
siders the principal feature of the note, that he 
neglects those minor points that lnvariabl3' add 
grace and beaut}-, and give to the note an 
exquisite finish. 



THE HUMAN FIGURE. n 

In a counterfeit the hair is coarse, and not 
artisticall}' arranged. The ej-es are alwa3S im- 
perfect, having a blurred and expressionless ap- 
pearance. The arms, hands and feet are invari- 
ably poorlj' drawn. The dotted lines or stipple 
work denoting the flesh are coarser and darker. 
The shaded sides of the arms and less are <ren- 
crallj- ver}- dark. The fingers and toes are coarse 
and clumsy, seldom fully developed, and often- 
times drawn to a point, in both cases lacking the 
animation of the genuine. The draperj- is slov- 
enl}- arranged, and has an untid}' appearance, 
whilst on the genuine it is artistically and grace- 
fuU}- arranged on the figure. 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



29 



In conclusion, however, we must add, that 
counterfeiters have made such rapid strides in 
the art of counterfeiting on all these points, 
even experts are oftentimes deceived, unless they 
subject the counterfeit bank note to a microscopi- 
cal examination. 



CHAPTER V. 



ALTERED BANK NOTES. 

Altered bank notes, or raising a smaller to a 
higher denomination, is not as extensivel}' prac- 
tised now as during the circulation of the old 
system of State Bank Notes. However, the 
practice has not become obsolete, for we occa- 
sionall}' find them in circulation. 

An altered bank note can be instantly detected 
by any one familiar with genuine engraving, in 
consequence of the striking contrast between the 
genuine portion of the note and the counterfeit 
portion substituted. The counters are generally 
extracted and counterfeits printed in their places, 
which will be perceived at a glance, on account 
of their miserable execution. The letters and 
figures are poorly engraved, and their outline 
coarse and imperfect. 

Sometimes counters torn from genuine notes are 
substituted for those extracted. This is done by 
what is termed the pasting process. Those alter- 
ations can readily be detected by holding the 
note to the light, which will at once disclose the 
parts pasted on. 

30 



CHAPTER VI. 



DESCRIPTION OF UNITED STATES TREASURY 
AND NATIONAL BANK NOTES. 

Of the vast iinmber tliat are constantlj^ hand- 
ling the paper currency of our countr}', but few- 
persons are familiar wilh the portraits, scenes, 
and the various designs with which it is embel- 
lished. Being constantly in receipt of letters 
making inquiries relative to these points, and for 
the benefit of those desiring such information, wc 
herewith append a description of the Greenbacks 
and National Bank Notes used to illustrate the 
Pocket edition of Heath's Infallible Counterfeit 
Detector at sight. 

PLATE I. 

Plate one represents One Dollar Greenback and 
National Bank Note. 

On the upper corner of the Greenback is a 
geometrical lathe counter, with the figure " 1" 
and "one" across it. 

On the National is an incised oval lathe-work 
counter displaying white " 1." 

31 



32 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



PLATfi II. 

Plate two represents Two Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On upper corner of the Greenback is a circular 
counter of lathe work, with large " 2." 

On the National, in upper half of note, is an 
elongated "G^^>" composed of star lathe work, 
with white lettering in upper portion. 

PLATE nr. 

Plate three represents Five Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the Greenback, in upper corner, is a heart- 
shaped counter of lathe work, with white " 5." 

On the National is a vignette representing 
Columbus introducing America to Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. 

PLATE IV. 

Plate four represents Ten Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the lower corner of the Greenback is 
vignette, and represents Columbus presenting the 
newly-found America to her sisters of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, or otherwise called the intro- 
duction of the new world to the old. 

On the National is vignette representing a 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



33 



female on an eagle, soaring above the clouds, 
snatching the lightning, and is intended to repre- 
sent the genius of America seizing and utilizing 
the lightning of heaven. 

PLATE V. 

Plate five represents Twenty Dollar Green- 
back and National Bank Note. 

On the Greenback is vignette, the " Genius of 
Libert}', holding in her left hand the staff with the 
cap of Liberty, and covering herself with the im- 
penetrable shield. 

On the National is vignette representing the 
"Genius of Liberty" unfurling the American 
Flag, exciting the 103'alty and enthusiasm of the 
workmen of the nation to the defence and preser- 
vation of the Union. 

PLATE VI. 

Plate six represents Fifty Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

The vignette on the $50 Greenback repi-esents 
America resting on her buckler or shield, on 
which is embossed the national eagle bearing the 
striped shield, clutching in one claw the olive- 
branch of peace, in the other the arrows of de- 
fence. The head of this emblematic figure bears 



34 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



a jewelled circlet of stars representing the thir- 
teen original states, the motto " E Pluribus 
Unura." She is crowned with an armor, and 
holds in her right hand a sword, completing with 
the shield her arms, offensive and defensive. 

On the National is vignette, and represents a 
soldier of the Revolution of 1776 on picket duty. 
He sees in a vision the future glory of his countr}', 
tj-pified by the Union of Libex't}' and Justice with 
Victory, represented by the three females in mid 
air, with " Victory- " crowning the whole. 

PLATE VII. 

Plate soven represents One Hundred Dollar 
Greenback and National Bank Note. 

On the Greenback is vignette, representing 
"Architecture;" the Goddess is crowned with 
stars, as a diadem ; she seems girded with sym- 
bolic strip of our material emblem, and is squar- 
ing the blocks of construction, which convej's the 
idea of " Reconstniction." In the background an 
unfinished temple, indicating that all the material 
is not yet gathered which is to complete the great 
American Temple of the Republic. A young 
student appears to be pondering over the problem 
of the rise and spread of the thirteen original 
stars. 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOlt. 



35 



On the National is vignette, an angel, with 
coronet, on which is "Liberty;" a large star 
forms a broocli, clasping her drapery ; her hands 
are extended towards fasces planted on a rock 
and entwined by wreaths and belts, the latter 
bearing "The" and "Union," at the right 
" maintain it," in a burst of sunlight ; the whole 
designed to represent the genius of America in- 
voking the aid of Heaven to maintain and pre- 
serve the Union. 

NUMBERS ON BANK NOTES. 

The top number on the right hand side of the 
note is the serial number put on by the Govern- 
ment. The number on the lower part of the note 
(left side) is tlie serial number of issue by the 
Bank. The large numbers on each end of the 
note, is the charter number of the Bank and 
series of 1875, and denotes when the printing of 
the faces was transferred from the Bank Note 
Companies in New York to Washington, or to 
the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. 



THE 

BANKING AND COUNTING HOUSE EDITION. 



INFALLIBLE GOVERNMENT COUNTERFEIT 
DETECTOR AT SIGHT. 



Containing an entire set of the new issue of 
Greenbacks, together with the National Bank 
Notes, hy authority from the U. S. Treasury 
Department,' giving a full and complete descrip- 
tion of the process of making and printing Bank 
Note plates, treating fully, in detail, the beautiful 
Geometrical lathe work, Ruling lingine work. Vig- 
nettes, and solid print, with rules for the detec- 
tion of altered Bank Notes, and with directions 
that enable ^'ou to discover at once the difference 
between genuine and counterfeit worlc. This is 
the most complete work of the kind ever pub- 
lished. The work contains two-thirds of the 

entire note, engraved and printed at the Treas- 

36 



COVNTBItFEIT DETECTOR. 



37 



ur3^ Department, Irom one dollar to one thousand 
inclusive. 

TABLE or CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. — Process of Enqbavinq and Printing Bank 
Notes. 

CHAPTER II. — Art of DETECTiNa ConNTERPEiTS, witu 
Rules for General Gcidance. Vig- 
nettes — Round Hand — Parallel Rul- 
ing AND Geometrical Lathb Work. 

CHAPTER nr. — Genuine Bank Notes. 

CHAPTER IV. — Counterfeit Bank Notes — Paper — Ink 
— Printing Signatures— Parallel Rul- 
ing — Principal Figure and the Hu- 
MAN Figure. 

CHAPTER v.— Altered Bank Notes. 

CHAPTER VI. — Description of United States Treasdet 
AND National Bank Notbs. 

PLATE I. 

Plate one represents One Dollar Greenback and 
National Bank note. 

In centre of Greenback is portrait of George 
"Washington, in oval form ; on left end is vignette, 
representing discovery of the new land, Columbus 
being the principal of a group of figures on the 
quarter-deck of the Caravel. 

On the National will be observed a vignette 



38 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



representing two females clasping right hands be- 
fore an altar, and is designed to convey the idea 
of the Union re-established over the Altar of our 
Countr}-, b}' the return of Peace and the aid of 
Heaven. 

PLATE II. 

Plate two represents Two Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On Greenback, in an oval, with a scroll border, 
is a portrait of Thomas Jefferson. In centre is 
vignelte of east front of Cai^itol. 

Tlie vignette on the National Bank note is a 
female, representing America, seated on a para- 
pet, unfurling an American flag, surmounted by 
a wreath, a ship, and buildings in back-ground, 
with thirteen stars in firmament. 

PLATE HI. 

Plate three represents Five Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the lower corner of the Greenback is a por- 
trait of Andrew Jackson ; in centre of note is a 
vignette, " Frontier Life ;" the principal figure is 
in the attitude of alarm, and seems to be reach- 
ing with the right hand for a gun laying beside 
him ; the excited female, having an infant in her 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



39 



arms, and the watchful dog, indicate that their 
peace has been disturbed. 

On the National, the vignette represents the 
discovery of the new land, Columbus being the 
principal of a group of figures on the deck of the 
Caravel. 

PLATE IV. 

Plate four represents Ten Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the lower corner of Greenback is an admira- 
bly engraved portrait of Daniel Webster. 

The vignette on National Bank Note represents 
Franklin with kite in hand, experimenting with 
electricity, with his assistant seated on a rock near 
him; Leyden jar in the foreground, and 1752 in 
lower left corner. 

PLATE V. 

Plate five represents Twentj' Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the Greenback, in ornamental oval frame, 
is portrait of Alexander Hamilton ; above is 
" vSeries of 1869." 

On National Note is a vignette, representing 
battle at Lexington, 1775. 



40 



COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR. 



PLATE VI. 

Plate six represents Fifty Dollar Greenback 
and National Bank Note. 

On the Greenback is vignette of Benjamin 
Franklin, in oval frame; above it "Act of 
March 3d, 1863." 

On the National is vignette, Washington Ci'oss- 
ing the Delaware ; above this is large " 50," 
crowned by " Fifty," in ornamental letters. 

PLATE VII. 

Plate seven represents One Hundred Dollar 
Greenback and National Bank Note. 

On Greenback is vignette, the best likeness ex- 
tant of the lamented Abraham Lincoln. 

On the National Note is a vignette representing 
Commodore Peny leaving his flag-ship Lawrence ; 
above is a large ornamented "C," and " 100." 

PLATE VIII. 

Plate eight represents Five Hundred Dollar 
Greenback and National Bank Note. 

The vignette on the $500 Greenback represents 
Victor}-. She stands passive, divested of armor 
— holding in her right hand the palm of victory ; 
in the other hand the laureled crown. Broken 



COVNTEItFEIT DETECTOR. 



41 



arms and implements of war are strewn around 
lier, and the dark clouds of battle are swiftly 
passing awa}'. 

On the National is vignette, female crowned 
with stars, sitting upon a cannon, sword and an- 
chor resting upon same; charts, compass, etc., 
in foreground, with ship and camp in background, 
with the bow of promise in the heavens and eagle 
soaring overhead ; and is designed to represent 
the Genius of the American Navy. 

PLATE IX. 

Plate nine represents One Thousand Dollar 
Greenback and National Bank Note. 

On Greenback is a portrait of Dewitt Clinton, 
ex-Governor of the State of New Yoi"k, to whom 
we owe the great Ei'ie Canal. On left side is 
vignette, representing Columbus dreaming of the 
supposed land beyond the great Atlantic ; globes, 
charts, etc., surround him. 

On the National is vignette representing Gen. 
Scott, at the head of the armj'^, entering the City 
of Mexico. 

Send for Circular. 

L-AJBAOSr HE^TH Sz CO., 

30 Sanover St., BOSTON, MASS. 



MAGFIFTraG G-LASSES. 



The work of the counterfeiter has reached such a 
state of perfection, that it has become almost a nec- 
essity for banking-houses, moneyed institutions, 



and the 
business 
com m u - 
nity gen- 
erall3', to 
have a 
good mag- 
nify ing 
glass to 
aid them 
in the ex- 
amination 
of bonds, 
b a n k 




notes, 

A goo d 
magnify- 
ing glass 
is a valu- 
able as- 
sistant in 
the exam- 
ination of 
vignettes, 
geom e t ri- 
cal lathe 
work, par- 



allel ruling, and all the fine and delicate shading 
that constitutes a genuine bank-note. The 
best one we have seen for this purpose is a 
double lens glass with an ox3-dizcd frame (see 
cut), which we import direct from Paris, and keep 

42 



COUNTEItFEIT DETECTOR. 



43 



constantly on hand. These glasses are manufac- 
tnred to order, and are intended particularly 
to accompany the Detector. They ai e graduated 
to the right power for the examination of bank 
no4es and engraving. They are also a valuable 
acquisition to the domestic circle, for the exami- 
nation of photographs, insects, flowers, leaves, 
seeds, -etc., etc., showing to us more plainly 
the wondrous works of the original artist nature. 
Price $3.00. Sent prepaid to any address on 
receipt of price. 

"We also have^a combination magnifying glass, 
secured b}^ letters patent, which can be readily 
changed into a microscope of very great power. 

This glass and microscope is very useful for 
students in Botany and Mineralogy. 

For particulars send for illustiated circulars. 
Price $5.00. Sent prepaid to any address on 
receipt of price. 



TO BANKS AKD BANKERS. 



" Heath's Infallible Counterfeit 
Detector," containing an entire set 
of the new issue of greenbacks, 
with the National currency notes, 
is just published by authority of 
the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment, and I take pleasure in saying 
that I consider it a work indispens- 
able to every Banking and Counting 
House in the country. 

CHAS. B. HALL, 

Secretary of the Association of Banks for the 
Suppression of Counterfeiting . 



» 



DESCRIPTIVE PAMPHLET, 

DESCRIBING IN DETAIL 

The three diffjrent series of notes forming the currency of the 
country, with a Preface giving the process of making bank-note 
plates ; also, an Introductory to each series, followed by a cor- 
rect description of each note, describing in detail the beautiful 
allegorical designs of vignettes ; on heavy, tinted paper, printed 
in cannine and black. 

This work is designed to accompany " Heath's Infallible Gov- 
ernment Detector, at sight; " the, two combined completely cov- 
ering the whole field of the art of detecting counterfeit Bank and 
U. S. Treasurj' Notes at sight. Tlie pamphlet was also designed 
as a guide, to familiarize the public with the composition of the 
difierent notes forming the currency of the country, in order to 
enable them to judge, at sight, whether or not the note had been 
raised from a lower to a higher denomination. For this pur- 
pose the pamphlet is infallible. 

We often think it strange that so important a matter is so 
sadly neglected. "We have never yet met a person who could 
describe a single series of these notes : and all this time they are 
liable to be imposed upon by some of the following notes, viz: 

TENS RAISED FROM ONES, 

On the First National Bank of Manitonock, Wisconsin. 
Third National Bank, Chicago, Illinois. 

TWENTYS RAISED FROM ONES, 
On the First National Bank of Springfield, Illinois. 

43 



46 



Mohawk National Bank, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Tradesman's National Bank, New York City. 
Consolidation National Bank, Philadelphia, Pa- 
Concord National Bank, Concord, Mass. 
First National Bank, Boston, Mass. 
National Bank of Redemption, Boston, Mass. 

FIFTYS RAISED FKOM FFTES, 
On the Tioga National Bank, Oswego, N. Y. 

ONE HUNDREDS raised from FIVES, 
On the Wyoming County National Bank, Warsaw, N. T. 
The National Bank of Bristol, Bristol, R. I. 

TENS RAISED FROM ONES, 

" Greenback " Treasury Notes. 

FIFTYS RAISED FROM TWOS, 

" Greenback " TreasuTj Notes, 
and others are liable to be put upon the market at any dav. 

To Bankers we will say that this work might be rightly 
termed indispensable, for how important it is that they should be 
familiar with the composition of everj' note, and able to de- 
scribe one in detail, without referring to it. Also, how much 
satisfaction there is in being able to describe the beautiful alle- 
gorical designs forming the vignettes on the different series of 
notes. 

Upon receipt of One dollar the work will be forwarded to any 
address, post paid. 

LABAN HEATH & CO. 
Publishers of the U. S. Government Counterfeit 
Detectors, 
By authority of the U. S. Trcasurj' Department. 

30 Hanover Street, 

Boston, Mass. 



||cconnnencla(ion| front ^cntkr| of ;|oujgrj!s^. 



U. S. HousK OF Representatives, | 
Washington, D. C, ) 

The undersigned having examined the Proof Sheets and Plates 
of Heath's " Government Detector," concur in the utility of his 
Bjstem, and clieerfully recommend his work. 

Hiram Price, Pres't State Dank, Iowa, M. C, 2d Dist. Iowa. 

J. B. Grinnell, M. C, 4th Dist., Iowa. 

T. W. Fern-, Banker, and M. C, 4th Dist., Michigan. 

Charles Upsom, M. C, 2d Dist., Michigan. 

Columbus Deleno, President 1st National Bank, Mount Vernon, 
and M. C, 13th Dist., Ohio. 

James M. Ashley, M. C, 10th Dist., Ohio. 

Francis C. I.eBlond, M. C, 5th Dist., Ohio. 

Sidney Clark, M. C, Kansas. 

Dclos. K. .Ashley, JI. C, Nevada. 

Thomas N. Stilhvtil, Cashier 1st National Bank of AndersoQ, 

and M. C, 11th Dist., Indiana. 
Godlove S. Ortli, M. C, 8th Dist., Indiana. 
Shelby Jl. Cutlum, M. C, 8th Dist., Illinois. 
John "Wentwortli, M. C, 1st Dist., Illinois. 
General II. li. I'aine, M. C, 1st Dist., Wisconsin. 
Philetus Sawyer, M. C, 5th Dist., Wisconsin. 
Henry T. Blow, M. C, 2d Dist., Missouri. 
John Fkogan, M. C, Ist Dist., Missouri, 
(ieorge W. Anderson, M. C, Ulh Dist., Missouri. 
47 



48 



Ignatius Donnelly, M. C, 2d Dist, Minnesota. 

Adam .1. Giossbrenner, M. C, 15th Dist , Pennsylvania. 

Myers Strouse, M. C, 10th Dist, I'ennsj'lvania. 

George V. Lawrence, M. C, 24th Dist., Pennsylvania. 

EdniiinJ Cooper, M. C, 4th Dist., Tennessee. 

Samuel McKee, M. C, 9th Dist., Kentucky. 

General Lovell H. Rousseau, M. C , 5th Dist., Kentucky. 

Cliarles E. Phelps, M. C, 3d Dist., Maryland. 

John L. Thomas, M. C, 2d Dist., Maryland. 

John A. Xitholson, M. C, Dover, Delaware. 

George Latham, M. C, 2d Dist., Western Virginia. 

John F. Starr, M. C, 1st Dist., New Jersey. 

William A. Newell, M. C, 2d Dist., New Jersey. 

John II. D. Henderson, M. C, Oregon. 

I). C. McRuer, M. C, California. 

Theodore M. Pomroy, M. C , 24th Dist, N. Y., and CSiainnan 

Com. on ISanking and Currency. 
William E Dodge, M. C, 8th Dist., New York. • 
Daniel Morris, M. C., 25tli Dist, New York. 
John .V. Griswold, President Troy City National Bank, and 

M. C, 15th Dkt, New York. 
Calvin T. Ilulburd, M. C, ITth Dist., New York. 
Hamilton Ward, M. C, 27th Dist., New York. 
Henry C. Deming, M. C, l.st Dist., Connecticut 
Augustus Brandeges, M. C, 3d Dist., Connecticut 
James G Blaine, M. C, 3d Dist., Maine. 
Samuel Hooper, M. C, 4th Dist, Massachusetts. 
Thomas A. Jencks, M. C, 1st Dist., Rhode Island. 
James W. Patterson, M. C, 3d Dist, New Hampshire. 
Mward H. Rollins, M. C, 2d Dist, New Hampshire. 
Piirtus Baxter, M. C, 3d Di.st., Vermont 
r. W. Hitihcm-k, Delegate in Congress, Nebraska. 
W. H. Iloooper, " " " Utah. 
Arthur II. Denn}-, " " " Ter'y of Washington. 
Samuel McLean, " " " Montana. 
J. F. Chaves, " " » New Mexico. 

John N. Goodwin, " " " Arizonia. 



1'1.7. 





I 

I