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Advances in Materials 

2015; 4(6): 95-100 

Published online November 9, 2015 (http://www.seieneepublishinggroup.eom/j/am) 

doi: 10.11648/j.am.20150406.11 

ISSN: 2327-2503 (Print); ISSN: 2327-252X (Online) 



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Science Publishing Group 


Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield 
Energy Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide 

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1 , Rama Mohan Tallapragada 1 , Alice Branton 1 , Dahryn Trivedi 1 , 

Gopal Nayak 1 , Omprakash Latiyal 2 , Snehasis Jana 2,4 

1 Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA 

2 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 

Email address: 

publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana) 

To cite this article: 

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Omprakash Latiyal, Snehasis Jana. 
Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide. Advances in Materials. 

Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 95-100. doi: 10.11648/j.am.20150406.11 


Abstract: Barium calcium tungsten oxide (Ba 2 CaW0 6 ) is known for its double perovskite-type crystal structure. The present 
study was designed to see the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical, atomic, and structural properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 . In 
this study, Ba 2 CaW0 6 powder sample was divided into two parts, one part was remained as untreated, denoted as control, while 
the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated. After that, the control and treated 
samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and electron 
spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size was decreased by 20% in the treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample as compared to the control. The surface area of treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 was increased by 9.68% as compared to 
the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis exhibited that the absorbance band corresponding to stretching vibration of 
W-0 bond was shifted to higher wavenumber from 665 cm" 1 (control) to 673 cm' 1 after biofield energy treatment. The ESR 
spectra showed that the signal width and height were decreased by 88.9 and 90.7% in treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample as compared to 
the control. Therefore, above result revealed that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physical and structural 
properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 . 

Keywords: Ba 2 CaW0 6 , Biofield Energy Treatment, X-ray Diffraction, Surface Area, 

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance 


1. Introduction 

Quaternary perovskites type mixed metal oxides with 
general formula A 2 MM'0 6 , also known as double perovskites, 
has 1:1 ordering of the M and M' cations [1]. Recently, these 
mixed metal oxides with 5d transition metals have attracted a 
significant attention due to their peculiar electric and magnetic 
properties. For instance, Cd 2 Re 2 0 7 and AOs0 6 (A=K, Cs, Rb) 
exhibit superconductivity [2-5]. The mixed metal oxides 
A 2 FeRe0 6 (A=Ba, Ca, Sr) are ferrimagnetic with high 
transition temperatures [6, 7]. In addition, for A=Ba and Sr, 
A 2 FeRe0 6 are conductors and exhibits negative 
magnetoresistance effect [8-10]. Similarly, double 
perovskite-type barium calcium tungsten oxide (Ba 2 CaW0 6 ) 
is known for its luminance properties and applications in 
activation of tungsten cathodes for high pressure discharge 
lamps [11]. Ba 2 CaW0 6 has cubic double perovskite structure, 


where W ions form octahedral crystal structure with oxide 
ions. In this compound, W atoms are in hexavalent oxidation 
state i.e. W +6 with 5d° electronic configuration [12]. Riedel et 
al. had used Ba 2 CaW0 6 as activators in tungsten cathode [13]. 
In order to use Ba 2 CaW0 6 in industries, its physical, structural, 
and atomic properties play a crucial role. Recently, researchers 
have used various doping techniques to modify the atomic, 
physical and structural properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 . For instance, 
Yu et al has modified the Ba 2 CaW0 6 through doping with 
Sm +3 and Dy +3 for orange-red emitting phosphors applications 
[14]. However, the doping process required very high 
temperature upto 1200°C in order to get desired properties. 
Nowadays, the biofield energy treatment has been known as 
lucrative surrogate approach that may be useful in that 
concern. The National Center for Complementary and 
Integrative Health (NCCIH), allows the use of 
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies 







96 


Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.\ Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy 

Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide 


like biofield energy treatment or healing therapies as an 
alternative in the healthcare field [15]. Mr. Trivedi’s unique 
biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi effect®) has been 
extensively studied in the field of material science [16-18]. 
The biofield energy treatment had significantly altered the 
atomic, physical and thermal characteristics in several metals 
[19, 20] and ceramics [21, 22]. After considering the potential 
impact of biofield energy treatment in materials science, this 
work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of biofield 
energy treatment on the atomic, physical, and structural 
properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 using X-ray diffraction (XRD), 
surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) 
spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) 
spectroscopy. 

2. Materials and Methods 

The Ba 2 CaW0 6 powder sample was procured from Sigma 
Aldrich, USA. The sample was equally divided into two parts. 
One part was remained as untreated, termed as the control. 
While, the other part was in sealed pack, handed over to Mr. 
Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under standard laboratory 
conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his 
energy transmission process, without touching the sample and 
this part was coded as treated. Subsequently, the control and 
treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 samples were characterized using XRD, 
surface area analyzer, FT-IR, and ESR techniques. 

2.1. XRD Study 

The XRD analysis of control and treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 
samples was performed on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray 
diffractometer system. The data obtained from the XRD 
diffractogram in table format, which includes peak position 
(0°), peak intensity counts, d value (A), full width half 
maximum (FWHM) (0°), and relative intensity (%) of each 
peak. The PowderX software was used to compute the lattice 
parameter and unit cell volume of the control and treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 samples. The Scherrer equation was used to 
compute the crystallite size (G) as following: 

Crystallite size (G) = kAZ(bCosO) 

Here, b is frill width half maximum (FWHM) of XRD peaks, 
k is equipment constant (=0.94), and X =1.54056 A. 

The percentage change in crystallite size (G) was calculated 
using following equation: 

% change in crystallite size = [(G t -G c )/G c ] *100 

Where, G c and G t are the crystallite size of control and 
treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 powder samples respectively. 

2.2. Surface Area Analysis 

The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyser, 
Smart SORB 90 was used to calculate the surface area of the 
control and treated sample. It has a measuring range of 0.2 
m 2 /g-1000m 2 /g. 


2.3. FT-IR Spectroscopy 

The FT-IR analysis of control and treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 
samples were carried out on Shimadzu’s FT-IR (Japan) with 
frequency range of 4000-500 cm" 1 . The analysis was 
accomplished to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on 
dipole moment, force constant and bond strength in the 
chemical structure. 

2.4. ESR Spectroscopy 

The ESR analysis of control and treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 
samples were performed on Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), 
E-112 ESR Spectrometer of Varian USA. In this experiment, 
X-band microwave frequency (9.5 GHz), having sensitivity of 
5x1010, AH spins was used. 

3. Results and Discussion 

3.1. XRD Study 

The XRD technique is a quantitative and non-destructive 
technique, which is commonly used to study the crystal 
structure and its parameters of a compound. Figure 1 shows 
the XRD diffractogram of control and treated samples. The 
control sample showed the crystalline peaks at Bragg angle 
(20) 18.29°, 30.09°, 35.43°, 43.08°, 43.21°, 53.45°, 53.6°, and 
62.75°. These peaks can be indexed to the cubic double 
perovskite structure Ba 2 CaW0 6 according to Joint Committee 
on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) file no. 54-0188 
[23]. The treated sample also showed similar crystalline peaks 
with slight alterations in positions. Nevertheless, the crystal 
structure parameters of control and treated samples were 
computed using PowderX software. The results are presented 
in Table 1. The data showed that the lattice parameter and 
volume of unit cell were slightly reduced in treated samples 
Tl, T2, and T3. However, the lattice parameter and volume of 
unit cell were slightly increased in treated sample T4. It is 
reported that the change in temperature caused alterations in 
the crystal structure properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 [24]. 
Furthermore, it is possible that the energy transferred through 
biofield treatment might induce stress in treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 
samples. Due to this, the internal strain might be generated in 
the treated samples after biofield energy treatment and that 
could be responsible for the alteration in the lattice parameter 
and unit cell volume of Ba 2 CaW0 6 . Furthermore, the data 
showed that the density and molecular weight of treated 
samples were slightly altered as compared to the control. The 
crystallite size of treated sample was decreased in treated 
sample Tl, though it was not changed in T2, T3 and T4 
samples, as compared to the control. 

The data exhibited that the crystallite size was decreased 
from 107.09 nm (control) to 85.68 nm in treated sample (Tl). 
This indicated that crystallite size of treated sample (Tl) was 
reduced by 20% as compared to the control. It is possible that 
the internal strain, which probably generated through biofield 
energy treatment might cause fracture in the coarse grain to 
form sub-grains. Due to this, the crystallite size might be 



Advances in Materials 2015; 4(6): 95-100 


97 


reduced in the treated sample as compared to the control. It is 
reported that the crystallite size have strong correlation with 
the photoluminescence properties of a compound [25]. Thus, 


based on the alteration in crystallite size in T1, it is assumed 
that the biofield energy could affect the photoluminescence 
properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample. 




Fig. 1 . X- ray diffractogram of Ba2CaW06powder. 


Table 1 . Effect of biofield energy treatment on lattice parameter, unit cell volume density atomic weight, and crystallite size of Ba 2 CaW 0 6 powder. 


Group 

Lattice parameter (A) 

Unit cell volume (x 10' 23 cm 3 ) 

Density (g/cc) 

Molecular weight (g/mol) 

Crystallite size (nm) 

Control 

8.393 

59.11 

6.731 

599.13 

107.09 

T1 

8.388 

59.01 

6.743 

597.67 

85.68 

T2 

8.392 

59.09 

6.733 

598.52 

107.09 

T3 

8.392 

59.10 

6.733 

598.53 

107.09 

T4 

8.396 

59.19 

6.722 

599.52 

107.09 
































98 


Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al .: Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy 

Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide 


3.2. Surface Area Analysis 

The surface area analysis of control and treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 
samples is shown in Table 2. The data showed that the surface 
area of treated sample was increased from 0.31 m 2 /g (control) 
to 0.34 m 2 /g, after biofield treatment. This indicated that the 
surface area was increased by 9.68% as compared to the 
control. It was reported that the crystallite size and surface 
area are inversely proportional to each other [26]. Thus, the 
increase in surface area of treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 was attributed to 
the decrease in particle size after the biofield treatment. 
Moreover, the increase in surface area was also supported by a 
decrease in crystallite size of treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample after 
biofield treatment. It is assumed that the biofield energy 
treatment probably induced the fractures in treated particles 
and break them down into smaller particles. Due to this, the 
size of particles might be reduced in the treated sample and 
that may cause an increase in surface area of treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, it 
is reported that the change in surface area of a compound 
affects its photoluminescence [27]. Thus, it is presumed that 
the alteration in surface area in treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 might 
affect its photoluminescence properties. 


Table 2. Surface area analysis of Ba 2 CaW0 6 powder. 


Surface Area (m 2 /g) n , , 

Control 

Treated (Tl) 

/o cuaugt 

0.31 

0.34 

9.68 


3.3. FT-IR Spectroscopy 


Figure 2 shows the FT-IR spectra of control and treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 samples. The band observed at 1456 cm" 1 and 
1460 cm' 1 in control and treated sample, respectively was 
assigned to -OH bending vibrations. The band observed at 
3643 cm" 1 in control and treated sample was attributed to O-H 
stretching vibrations [28]. The band found at 665 cm' 1 with 
shoulder at 584 cm" 1 in control, was shifted to 673 cm' 1 in 
treated sample. It is reported that the band observed at around 
700-600 cm' 1 in IR spectra was due to W-0 stretching 
vibrations [29]. In addition, the band observed at 810 cm' 1 
with shoulder at 856 cm' 1 in control, was split into two bands 
in treated sample at 808 cm" 1 and 746 cm" 1 It can be attributed 
to internal bonding vibrations of W0 6 . Thus, it indicated that 
the bonding properties of W0 6 probably altered after biofield 
treatment. 




Fig. 2. FT-IR spectra of Ba 2 Ca W0 6 powder. 

























Advances in Materials 2015; 4(6): 95-100 


99 


The wavenumber ( v) corresponding to the stretching 
vibration of a bond is directly related to the bond force 
constant (k) as follow: 


1 

27 TC 



the control. Therefore, it is assumed that biofield energy 
treatment could be applied to modify the physical and 
structural properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 for photoluminescence 
applications. 

Acknowledgments 


Here, p is effective mass of atoms, which form the bond and 
c is the speed of light (3x 10 8 m/s). From the above equation, it 
can be concluded that the change in bond force constant of 
W-0 bond may cause an alteration in wavenumber 
corresponding to stretching vibration of W-0 bond in treated 
sample as compared to the control. Hence, these data 
suggested that the biofield energy treatment may influence the 
bonding properties in Ba 2 CaW0 6 and thus bond strength. 

3.4. ESR Spectroscopy 

The ESR analysis result of control and treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 is 
illustrated in Table 3. The data exhibited the similar g-factor of 
2.001 and 2.007 in control and treated sample, respectively. 
The emergence of ESR signal could be attributed to 
paramagnetic oxygen ions. However, the ESR signal intensity 
of treated sample was decreased by 88.9 % as compared to the 
control. In addition, the ESR signal height of treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 was reduced by 90.7% as compared to the control. 
It is reported that the change in temperature and magnetic 
susceptibility of ions could alter the intensity and height of the 
ESR signal [30]. Thus, it is assumed that the biofield energy 
treatment probably alter the magnetic susceptibility of treated 
sample as compared to the control. 


Table 3. ESR analysis result of Ba2CaW0 6 powder. 


Group 

g-factor 

ESR signal width 

ESR signal height 

Control 

2.0011 

90 

1.69xl0* 3 

Treated (Tl) 

2.0073 

10 

1.56xl0‘ 4 

Percent Change 

0.31 

-88.9 

-90.7 


4. Conclusions 


Authors would like to express sincere appreciation to Dr. 
Cheng Dong of NLSC, Institute of Physics, and Chinese 
Academy of Sciences, China for permitting us to use 
Powder-X software. The authors would also like to thank 
Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi 
Testimonials for their support during the work. 


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In summary, the biofield energy treatment has a significant 
impact on the physical and structural properties of Ba 2 CaW0 6 . 
The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size of treated 
Ba 2 CaW0 6 was decreased by 20% as compared to the control. 
The decrease in crystallite size led to increase the surface area 
of treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 by 9.6% as compared to the control. It is 
assumed that the biofield energy treatment may induced 
internal strain, due to which the crystallite might fracture and 
form subgrains. The FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the 
absorbance band corresponding to stretching vibration of W-0 
bond was shifted to higher wavenumber from 665 cm" 1 
(control) to 673 cm' 1 after biofield energy treatment. It could 
be due to alteration of bonding strength of W-0 bond in 
treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 after biofield energy treatment. The ESR 
showed that the signal width and height were decreased by 
88.9 and 90.7% in treated Ba 2 CaW0 6 sample as compared to 


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Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Biofield Energy 

Treated Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide 


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