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Volume 1 Nui 


U02A 14355 


-WHat to Tell the Taxman 

The Federal Res erj^^ ^ 
Discovers the SiHl 



/ ri fl|H 

-w jw-^ jjiBiL 

aH 






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A lot of quality products from companies like 
Visicorp, Ashton-iate, lUS, Hayes, and Corona Data 
Systems have made life for the IBM PC user a whole lot 
easier. And more productive. 

Add Curtis to that list. 

Because now, thanks to our PC Pedestal’^”, you can 
“tilt and swivel” your IBM display, 
instead of your body. No more bobbing 
and weaving to avoid glare. No more 
neck and eye strain. That means you’ll 
pay a lot more attention to what 
vou’re doing, then to how uncomforta- 
ble you’re feeling. 

To make your life even easier (and a 
bit more comfortable), you can have extension cables, 
too. A 3-foot set for your display unit and a 3 to 9-foot 
coiled cable for your keyboard let you arrange your 
system any way you want. They’re fully shielded, and 
come with the highest quality connectors. 



So next time you sit down at your IBM PC, make 
yourself a little more comfortable. 

Available at all Computerland stores or your local 
computer dealer. In Canada: RMP Ltd., P.O. Box 251,, 
Ajax, Ontario, Canada LIS 3C3, (4l6) 668-4048, 

Telex 06986766 

Curtis PC Pedestal’" S79.?. 

3-Fooi Monochrome Display 
Extension Cable Set S49 *. 

3 to 9- Foot Coiled 

Keyboard Extension Cable <39.?. 

U to nu fact urtn g Company, InnI 

CLKTiS 

Very comfortable accessories for your computot 

Curtis Manufacturing Co. Inc., One Curtis Roa£< 
Winchester, NH 03470, (603) 239“68(Di 



€> 19H2 Curtis Manufacturing Co. Inc 


How to re-arrange 
your IBM PC..T 
very comfortably. 


If flying your IBM'PC got any more 
realistic^youU need a license. 


You took off from Boston-Logan with nothing above 
you but blue sky. Now you’re 5,000 feet over Long Island 
Sound, and New York-La Guardia, your destination air- 
port, reports high winds. Connecticut-Bridgeport is the logi- 
cal alternate, but clouds with a low ceiling are going 
to make life difficult. You're in for an instrument approach . . . 
The plane inside your PC. Run the Microsoft* Flight 
Simulator on your IBM Personal Computer, and put your- 
self in the pilot's seat of a Cessna 182. You control 
everything from flaps and ailerons right down to the magneto 
switch. You can even navigate using radio signals and 
fly totally by instruments if you run into bad weather. Best 
of all. Flight Simulator features a full-color, out-the-window 
flight display. With detailed graphics that closely simulate 
a pilot’s actual perspective. 

The world beneath your fingers. Once you're in flight, 
don’t worry about running out of airspace. You can 
take off and land at over 20 airports from Los Angeles to 
New York. Each, with its own particular set of challenges. 
The learning curve. In its "easy" mode, the Flight Simu- 
lator gives new pilots an aircraft which readily forgives 
errors in flight, engine control, and navigation. As you 


gain skill, move into "reality" mode. Then get ready for 
simulations of everything from running out of fuel to 
carburetor icing. 

The Ace in your soul. When you think you’ve earned 
your wings, turn the clock back for a round of "British 
Ace." Fly into a World War I air battle complete with 
scouting flights, bombing runs and hair-raising dogfights. 
Destroy your targets, shoot down the enemy fighters, 
and you just might survive to be decorated. 

Throttle on. Take a test flight at your computer store or 
software dealer. Once you’ve been aloft, you’ll want 
to buckle up behind your own IBM PC with the Microsoft 
Flight Simulator. It’s the closest you can get to flying. 
Without leaving your nest, 

BETTER TOOLS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

MICROSOFT 

MICROSOFT CORPORATION 
10700 NORTHUP WAY 
BELLEVUE. WASHINGTON 98004 
Microsoft IS a registered trademark and the Microsoft logo 
IS a trademark of Microsoft Corporation 
IBM IS a registered trademark of IntefmatKxral Business Machines Corporation 








f 







; 




SuperCalc^i Su 
Super SpellGuardi SuperChai% 
SuperData-Fife Manager 


bupei cprv\ce-rree. 

1 Su(iei-ReWW^®gpyy4BE! 

FLY SOB2J*,f^T^BEHlND. 
leave the p^^33,ch. I 

rt CPIM86 are MicrosottCorpor^ 


^rtho Q 


SORCIM 

SOFICIM CORPORATION, 2310 LUNDY AVENUE, SAN JOSE, CAUFORNIA 95131 

WE LEAVE THE REST BEHIND. 

SupvrWv*. St<ierCaJC*. Sup*rNMiier, Super SpMGuard. SuperChsr and SuperOaU ar* al trademarks of Sorom Corperaaort 



In This Issue 

MARKETPLACE 

Hot Deal: Blackjack 52 
Software Goes to 
Market/David Searls 
A gameware company, 
an advertising agency, and 
a gambler combine their 
expertise to market a 
professional product. 

How to Shop for 45 

Educational Software/ 
Douglas Q, Cobb 
Doing your homework can 
prevent frustration at the 
terminal. 

GAMES 

Adventure Is the 82 

Game/Greg Estes 
Fantasies that take you from 
Darwin to Captain Kirk. 
Games People Play/ 89 

Martin Oakes 
Crosswords and puzzles for 
the stress-weary exec. 

From Fantasy to Video 99 

Reality /Richard Cook 
Indulge your imagination with 
a trip to the unknown. 

A Sideshow of Horrors 111 
and Delights/Les Cowan 
The thrill of discovery and 
a chance encounter with 
the cosmos. 



Super Players Run the 131 
Gauntlet/Lindsy Van 
Gelder 

When being human just 
isn't enough. 

' Running, Reptiles and 139 
‘Rithmetic/Douglas Q. 

. Cobb 

; Games for the agile adult. 


From Stock Portfolios 150 
to Art Portfolios/Davis 
Foulger 

Sophisticated fun for the 
millionaire, the treasure seeker, 
or the artist. 

Space Wars and Earth 165 
Games/Steve Liebson 
Take a ride on a starship or stay 
home and revel in a hand of 
blackjack. 

Fear and Learning/ 174 
Corey Sandler 
Video with a flair for 
knowledge. 

EDUCATION 


LOGO: A Language 216 
for Children of All 
Ages/Danny Goodman 
Seymour Papert's delightfully 
simple language, customized 
for the PC. 

Educational Software 226 
for the PC/Ronald H. Axtell 
& Richard A. Walker 
PC reviews educational games. I 
systems and training software. | 
drills, and tutorials. 

Recess Is Over/Linda 252 
V. Williams 

An allocated $27.5 million I 
adds computer literacy to the 
traditional curriculum. 


A Lab for All Seasons/ 184 1 
Stan Franklin 

At Memphis State University 
the PC is the big machine on 
campus. 

Computer Camps/ 195 | 

Barbara Harvie 
From reluctant adult to eager 
teen, computer camps offer 
literacy to all ages. 

The PC Goes to 208 

School/Gary Young | 

The rise and fall of computer- 
assisted instruction in the 
classroom. 


SECT Demystifies 259 
the Microcomputer/Lindsy 
Van Gelder 

Gotham crams the high tech 
revolution into a 90-minute 
crash course on computer 
training. 



PC MAGAZINE 4 DECEMBER 1982 





PRODUCT REPORT 


LEGAL 


to Copyright 277 
Your Software/Daniel 
Remer 

Part Three: The legal penalties 
that help stop software pirates. 


PROGRAMMING 


Speak to Me, PC!/ 
Frank J. Derfler 

The Echo GP Speech 
Synthesizer. 


271 


The Best Little 241 

Programs in Texas/ 

Arlene J. Berlin 

How ya gonna keep 'em down 
on the farm after they've seen 
Friendlyware? 

A Graphic 304 

Rendition/Corey Sandler 

Graphmogic generates pie 
charts, bar charts, and line 
graphs on your screen with the 
ease and eloquence of an artist. 


Modus Operand!: 285 

How to Write a Computer 
Game/ Alan E. Heimlich 
A game designer reveals his 
hook. line, and sinker strategy 
for producing successful 
computer games. 

Baking Pi in Your 291 
PC/Marshall Fraser 
How to compute pi on your PC. 
The Next Step; 296 

Introducing the Participant 
Novel/Scott Prussing 
.<\n aspiring novelist uses the 
PC to create a new literary 


BUSINESS 


genre. 


FedLine: The Bankers’ 246 
Bank Installs the 
PC/Jeremy Joan Hewes 
Keeping bankers hours 
with a PC. 


PC PROFILES 

Computers on 
Campus/Jeremy Joan 
Hewes 

Micros proliferate among 
the halls of ivy. 

COLUMNS 

Zero Base Thinking/ 
Jim Ediin 



DEPARTMENTS 


Letters to PC 15 

P-Communiques 29 

PC Tutor/ 37 

Mark Zachmaiui 
PC Cartoon 309 



COVER 


Illustration; Harold Ikuwsk\' 


User-to-User,'' Andrew 320 

Fluegelman 

Club News/Susan 347 

Hurley 

Communications 348 

Briefs/Frank J. Derfler 
PC Book Review 352 

PC; BliicBook 355 

PC Annual Index 370 

New on the Market 382 

Index to Advertisers 396 

Coming Up 399 

Wish Ust 400 


PC MAGAZINE S DECEMBER 1982 



TRAINING so ADVANCED 
it makes 

SOFTWARE SIMPLE! 


TIWNi®FOWEf Tl»INl®IWn« 








MBASIC 


dBASEil 


S«PetCalc 


ATI TRAINING POWER takes the confusion out of learning software! 
It’s simplel Insert ATI's training disk Into your computer 
and follow the simulated practice sessions as they appear on your screen. 

In minutes, you'll be using your software like a prol On-the-Job reference book included. 
Match your software to ATI TRAINING POWER today. 


OPERATING SYSTEMS 

PC-DOS 

ATTs Operating ^em Series teaches yxr 12 of the 
most common commands, such as: display the direc- 
tory. copy fiies and disks, rename files, etc. You'll learn 
to prepare, monitor, maintaia and troubleshoot your 
own system like a pro! 

BASIC PROGRAMMING 

MBASIC. IBM or CP/M 

ATI's Basic Programming Series teaches you how to 
write, enter, det)ug. and use programs that analyze 
business expenses, organize mailing lists, and more. 

FINANCIAL PLANNING 
SuperCalc ibm or cp/m 
VisiCalc IBM 
Multiplan. IBM or cp/m 
Microplan, ibm or cp/m inov. isth) 

ATI's Financial Planning Senes teaches you how to 
create, modi^. manipuiate. save, retrieve, label, and 
print sophisticated financial tables. You'll leam how to 
perform "what if analysis and other financial planning 
functions, fasti 


WORDPROCESSING 

WordStar ibm or cp/m 
Benchmark, ibm or cp/m inov. isth) 
EasyWriter II. ibm (Available Nov. 15. 1962) 
ATI'S Wordprocessing Series for Benchmark aryl Easy- 
Wriwr teach you to create documents, edit with insert, 
delete and strike over, and print documents The series 
iso offers Power-Pack consisting of two training pro- 
grams: ( 1 ) Menu-Power for WordStar which teaches 
you the same basic fimctions plus (2) Command- 
Power for WordStar. an advanced training course which 
teaches you how to create, revise, format and print pro- 
fessional looking reports ty using such functions as cur- 
sor movement block operations search and replace, 
format control, and others 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 

dBASEII. IBMorCP/M 

Earlier, ibm (Available Nov. 15. 1982) 

ATI's Database Management Series teaches you to 
create a data base, enter data, sort data— plus add, 
modify, change, and edit important data to generate 
comprehensive reports and update mailings lists 


SUPERIOR TRAINING 

SOFTWARE TRAINING COMPANY offeis only the 
best software training available. That's why we carry 
products by American Training International — the 
leader in microcomputer training. ATI's staff has 
developed programs for industry leaders like Digital 
Research. IBM. Xerox. NEC. and Toshiba. 
igQQQQ QQQQQQQQOQ QQjlQQQQQQQ^ 
^ ATI MONEY BACK GUARANTEE^ 

Ifyou'tTnolcompInclyMlMlfdii'llhhos'iMt 

yoocanlcarnbyiMjngawrATIIiMfractlvTTrati^ 

Inf Program, timplyraium H within ihr«« day* 

S3 loY * lull purrhaar refund 


SOFTWARE TRAINING COMPANY 

RUSH ORDER NUMBER 



(213) 546-5579 


ATI TRAINING POWER 

for this software; □ Ea^wnter. S75.m □ SuperCak . .$75.00 

□ PC-006 ... S7S.00 □ MBASIC S7S.X □ VhiCalc $75.00 

□ WordStar. . . $75.00 □ dBASE $75.« □ Muttiplan. . $75.W 

□ Benchmarti. $7S00 □ Earner $7500 □ Microptan $75.00 


Enclosed IS $75.00 each, plus $2.50 sNeXng (CA add ew«) SPCaPYroRMATi □ CP/M 


□ PC-005 


Mall to: SOFTWARE TRAINING COMPANY. SalM 

3770 Highiartd Avenue Suite 201. Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 

m OT w^m a^m maa hb ^ 

Menu Power end Command-Power are oademvks of Amencan Training International. CP/M e a trademant of Oigrtai Research PC-005 6 a 
oadcrnadi of Interriitianai Business Madwci WordStar B a tradvriark of Mioopm. Benchmark ts a tradernvk of Metasoft EasyVVnter «id Ea^Fto 
are DakemarksoT Inform a tion Unlimted software MBASIC b a traderrurk of Mcrosoft dBASE H s a trademark of Aditon Tate. SuperCaic Ba 
eademark of Sortim. VbiCalc B a trademark of VBCorp. Mcropian s a trademark of Chang Laboratones Mutnptan b a trademark of Mtaosoft 


The Independent Guide to 
IBM PersonM CoffNwters 


Ziff'Davis Publishing 

Riclkird P FriesH 

PresidenI 

Allx'rt S. Traina 

PresidenI, Consumer 


Magazine Division 

Furman Helih 

Executive Vice 


President 

Phillip T lleffeman 

Senior Vice President 

Sidnpv Holtz 

Senior Vice President 

Etlwanl D Muhlfekl 

Senior Vice President 

Phillip Sin«> 

Senior Vice President 

Rnherl Bavier 

Vice President 

Paul H. Chook 

Vice President 

Bitinl Ddvis 

Vice President 

George Mnrrissev 

Vice Prwldent 

Selwvn Taiihinan 

Treasurer 

Bertram A Abrams 

Secretary 

Editors 

David Ahl 

Arthur Salserg 

Peler Fee 

Les Solomon 

Susan Hurlev 

Bets)- Staples 

Bnrrv Owen 

Chris Terr)' 

Ann Ovodow 

Stan V'iel 

Contributing Editors 

Ekl Cum- 

Kev’in Goldstein 

Frank I Derfler. Jr. 

Corev Sandler 

Will Fitstie 


ART & Production 


Design Director Brian Dessin Day. Production Art- 
ists: M.inanne Ackftrman, Susanne Anderson, Cyn- 
ihia lohnnff. Ritu Wood. Illustrators: Stuart Bradford. 
Don [)a\. [ack Desncher. Harold Ikuwaky. |immy Lee. 
|im l.uclke. Chuck Pyle. Spain Rodrigutrz. Photogra- 
phers: Ed Kashi. Linda V. Williams. Vice PresidenI 
Production: Baird Davis Advertising Production: Di- 
rector. Paul Levinsort. EdilorlaJ Production: Manager, 
Walter Tehecki 


Circulation 


Vice PresidenI Circulalton: Bernard Lacy. Vice Presi- 
dent Subscriptions; Carole Mandel. Sufaiscrtptioa Dl- 
reclor/Computer Group; Chester Klimuszko New 
Business Manager/Computer Croup: Linda Rossiler. 
Assistant New Business Manager/Compuler Group: 
Eric Bernhard Fulfillment Director Rocco Sudani. 
Fuinilmenl Manager: Roberta Wolf. Business Man- 
ager/Singie Copies Sales: |ohn Kayser. Western Divi- 
sion Manager/Single Copies Sales: Michael Riso. 
Eastern Divisltm Manager/Single Copies Sales: Ken- 
neth leffcoll. Coofdinalor/Relail Store Sales: Lynn 
Kiijawa. 

ADVERTISING SALES 

Vice PresidenI Advertising Sales: Syd Rogers. Sales 
Director |ohn Babcock Sales Manager Tobv' Finkel- 
son Sales Representatives: Ted Bahr, Michael Ma- 
hana, Melody Reed. Pauline Scherer. Ad Coordina- 
tor Karen )acobs. 


Founder Anihonv Cold 
Publishing Director Larry Sporn 
Vice PresidenI General Manager 
Consumer Computer Magazine Group: Eileen 
Markovs itz 


PC; The ImfependeM Cuide 10 /SM Persona/ Compuien |18SN ap> 
[>lled (or| is published monihb’ (or S24.07 one year. >43 97 two yaais. 
Addilimal pnlear $8 00 for Caneda. >20 00 otim foreign by Software 
Commiimcaliana. Inc. lUS Irving Si. San FrancUco. CA 94122 Sec- 
ond-Claaa ptaitigs it pmding al Waahfn0on. DC and at AddMonal 
Mailifty (XficeL POSTMASTER Snrtd addrees changas to PC. 152S 
Irving San Frartdacn. CA M122 

EdHorial and Buiineaa Office; l&2> IrvtngSt .San FrBnciacaCAMI22 
|41S/7S3-«on| Edilorul only I4IS/SM-0I4U 
CompuServe 70370.532 The Source STO 940 
PC la an indeiiendenl |oumal. nol amiisled In any way wHh Interna- 
tKmal BuantMas Machines Coqiaralion IBM tea regislered trademark 
of Inlemallortal Business Machines Carp. Entire contents Copyright * 
1902 PC (VenmteiicBtkiRf Carp All ri y Oi reserved, reproducitan in 
I whr4e nr in (wri without pertnteeMn te pnitubtled The following are 
tradefnark* of PC Cnmmimlcalliins Co^ PC. PC; The Independent 
(•uide In IBM Personal Compuiera. PC Guide. PCM. Personal Com- 
(luter (<uide. Hiane Ounputer (<ulde Computer Guide. PC-Lab. PC- 
(aitnmuniques. PC Ptevpen. Protect PC. Wish LteL PC: BlueBook. 
Printed In the United Stales nl America 


PC MAGAZINE 6 DECEMBER 1982 




As IBM would design it 

The Personal Hard Disk- from Corona-. 

Only for the IBM Personal Computer. 

Corona specialization makes the difference: 

It fits right in — right inside the IBM Personal Computer, with no 
external power supply. 

And it makes friends fast — with self-documenting, menu-driven, 
very “user-friendly” software. 

It responds to your needs — for multiple operating systems on the 
same disk at the same time, in flexible partitions that grow as needed. 
It backs you up — on floppies, using "selective” backup (by date, by 
volume, by category), so an additional backup device is not needed. 
And it has reliability you can count on — combining exclusive use of 
Seagate drives with Coronas DataGuardyw and FailSafe.tM 

And the price? 

$1993 for 3 MB, 

$2493 for 10 MB 

Experience the difference specialization makes. 

Ask your dealer to show you the Corona Personal 
Hard Disk (or call us for dealership and quantity' 
purchase information). 

corona 

The Third Generation Micmamiputer Company 



Corona Data Systems 31324 Via Colinas, Section 110, Westlake Village, CA 213-706-1505 



0]ADBQ\RD 


THE RRSr AND ONLY 
BCARDYDURIBM PC 
rW EVER NEED. 

Your IBM personal computer is a very 
versatile piece of equipment. Perhaps 
more versatile than you realize. New 
applications and functions are being 
developed every day. Now with Quadboard 


by Quadram you can keep your options 
open for tomorrow's technology. Following 
in the tradition of Quadram Quality, four 
of Quadram's best selling IBM boards 
have been combined into one board. 
Your remaining slots will be left free and 
available to accommodate future expan- 
sion needs and uses which you may not 
even be able to contemplate today. 



PROVEN DESIGN. 

Quadrom has been shipping IBM boards 
with each of the Quadboard functions 
on separate boards since December, 
1981. They are still available as separates 
(including o Dual Port Async Board) tor 
those who desire a quality board but do 
not need to keep slots open for future 
expansion. And they oil come with a 
one year warranty from the leader in 
technology applications. 


256K MEMORY EXPANSION. 

Socketed and expandable in 64K 
increments to 256K, full parity generation 
and checking are stondord. A Quad- 
board exclusive feature allows parity to 
be switch disabled to avoid lock-up 
upon error detection. The dip switches 
olso allow it to be addressed starting 
on any 64K block so that it takes up only 
os much as it has memory installed. 
Memory access and cycle time naturally 
meet all IBM specifications. 


CLOCK/CALENDAR. 

Quadboard eliminates the hassie at 
manually inputting the date on system 
boot-up by providing tor the clock and 
all software routines necessary for 
inserting the oppropriote progroms on 
your diskettes. The internal computer 
clock is outomaticolly set for compati- 
bility with most software routines which 
utilize clock functions. On-board battery 
keeps the clock running when the 
computer is off. 


See our Ad on page 87 




with 64K 
Installed 


SOFTWARE TOO! 

With Quadboard you receive not only 
hardware but extensive software at no 
extra cost. Diagnostics, utilities, and 
Quad-RAM drive software for simulating 
a floppy drive in memory (a super-fast 
SOLID STATE DISK!) are all part of the 
Quadboard package. 


ALL ON ONE BOARD 

Now you can utilize all the PC's capacity 
with Quadram's extremely flexible con- 
figurations. And it's totally compatible 
with IBM hardware, operating systems, 
and high level languages. It's a full-size 
board that can be inserted into any free 
sysfem slot and it even includes a card 
edge guide for securely mounfing fhe 
card in place. I I . 











disk 


Microsoft’s RAMCord' with RAMDrive 
takes the whir, click and wait 
outof thelBMPC 


Solid State Disk. When you add the Microsoft™ 
RAMCard to your IBM® Personal Computer, you 
also add RAMDrive, which lets you use 
memory as you would normally use a 
disk. That gives you "disk access" 
that's typically 50X faster than 
disk. Without the whirring, 
clicking and waiting of mech- 
anical data access. 

Fast and easy. You simply 
designate a portion of 
memory as "disk." RAMDrive 
takes it from there, instructing 
the program to go to RAM rather 
than disk whenever data access Is 
needed. The result is faster, smoother, 
no-wait computing. 

64K to 256K. You can start small, but think big. 
Start with 64K and add Microsoft RAMChips™ 
in 64K blocks. Or, buy the full 256K now. Either way, 
you get both RAM and "disk" capabilities. All in a 
single slot. 

A complete subsystem. The RAMCard package 
comes complete with the memory board (64K, 

IBM IS a registered trademark ot International Business Machines Corp 
Microsoft, RAMChips. f^MCard. and RAMDrive. are trademarks of 
Microsoft Corporation. 


128K, 192K or 256K), documenta- 
tion, a diskette which adds 
RAMDrive and, a full one year 
warranty. 

More tools for IBM. Microsoft 
wrote PC-DOS, the standard operat- 
ing system for the IBM Personal 
Computer. And Microsoft is first in 
providing a full range of languages, 
applications programs and utilities 
for the IBM PC. The addition of RAMCard 
with RAMDrive is our way of saying that 
Microsoft will continue to offer more and 
better supported tools for the IBM PC. 

See for yourself. Ask your Microsoft or 
IBM PC dealer for a demonstration of both 
main memory and disk features of the Microsoft 
RAMCard with RAMDrive. It's solid state memory 
you can also use like a disk. And it takes the whir, 
click and wait out of the IBM PC. 

BETTER TOOLS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

MICROSOFT 

Micrcsoft Corporation 
10700 Northup Wsiy 
BeHevue. WA 98004 




Major credtl caroi 
ordars accepted t> 
by phone 


SHIP TO 


208 North Bctkshtnr Bloomfwid Hdb. Mic 
313/335 2255 Out»d» Michigan I 800^ 

oto^'mcroo r-vtmniv uiniihQu I 0(10 


‘^-Add I teats 
!p-Chan«e I teies 
C-Delete I teies 
!>-Ti»ansac t ions 
lE— Clear* Sales 


Add color to your business with Col^r 


introducing ColorBlZ " , the color software 
inventory program developed exclusively for the 
IBM Personal Computer”. Simple; because It works, 
reliable because all programs are designed with 
extensive error checking. Each software package 
includes color coded manual, program, data and 
backup diskettes.. .just in case. ColorBlZ" has been 
developed for businesses that expect performance 
and flexibility, and can be applied to satisfy even the 
most unique business concern. Standard features in 
the ColorBlZ" package include: 


• User definable soft keys for automatic input 

• Provides usage & margin analysis ' ; 
by month & year-to-date 

Defined reports include: 

On Order/Order 
Recommendation 
Master Parts Listing 
Inventory Analysis 
Physical Inventory 
Status 

directions 


: .*User's Manual color coded to business application 
'I* Browse feature for rapid & selective scanning 
DataBase retrieval capability 
r* Charts & graphs to illustrate performance 
Password security to restrict access to sensitive data 

* User selectable report generation 

* Single key response for improved operation 

* Reorder information automatically identified 

IBM Personal Computer " is a registered trademar1< of IBM Corp. 
ColorBlZ " IS a registered trademark of CotorCorp . 1982 
(""OfOLAi^ iatL6ai8teieaa9aeui9iKOLroioir^L& ' 


Available now 
or write lor 
brochure & 
dealer 

nearest you , 



top 

shelf 



Software for the IBM PC 
and the Apple ii 


With spoken instructions, 
our tested software doesn't try your patience. 

EASY Every Alpha software package contains spoken instructions on cassette 
to guide you through the program on the disk. You get professional software 
that a novice can use. 

PROVEN Our business sottware tor the IBM PC has been used since 1979 
on the Apple. Thousands ot people agree that our versatile Data Base Manager 
and Mailing List programs are effective time- and money-saving devices. 

INNOVATIVE Question Is a tun game based on artificial intelligence. It tries 
to guess what city, person or animal you're thinking ot. and gets smarter as you play. 
You can even teach it new topics. 

Type Faces lets your dot matrix printer generate 15 different kinds ot large lettering. 

With The Apple-IBM Connection, you'll be able to transfer tiles from the Apple II to the 
IBM and vice versa. Your VisiCalc work can be transterred without retyping or errors. 
Requires no technical knowledge. The sottware does all the work lor you. 

Alpha software products available at participating ComputerLands. 

Or call us for your nearest dealer: 617 229-2924 



6 New England Executive Park • Burlington. Massachusetts 01803 


Copyrighted material 





A 


• \ 


Alpha software products available at participating ComputerLands 
Or call us tor your nearest dealer: 617 229-2924 


• I I • I • 

6 New fitgland Executive Park • Burlington, Massachusetts 01803 


styles 

IBM PC and Apple ii 


With this laapWi your dot matrix printer 
can output d^large typefaces. 

Type Faces generates distinctive presentations, fancy lettering, 
invitations, easy to read output, and over 100 symbols. 
Reduced printout on a copier gives you letter quality text. . . 
an Inexpensive typesetter. 

Type Faces comtss with Its own simple text editor and Is 
compatible with most word processors. 


Actual dot matrix printout 

ABC abc 


ABC 

HBQ 

AtSCff 


abc 

cdx^ 

abr 

abr 


Reduced dot matrix printout 
gives you letter quality text 

ABC abc 


ABC abc 




j4^'€ a/c 


aea obr 


A®(£ abr 



— jnuit'i 








BASF QUALIMETRIC" 

INSURING ATOMORROW FOR TODAY’S INFORMATION. 


The BASF Qualimetric standard is a 
dramatic new international standard 
of quality in magnetic media. ..insur- 
ance that your most vital information 
will be secure for tomorrow when 
you enter it on BASF FlexyDisks'^ 
today. 

The Qualimetric standard reflects a 
continuing BASF commitment to per- 
fection. ..a process which begins with 
materials selection and inspection, 
and continues through coating, pol- 
ishing, lubricating, testing, and 100% 
error-free certification. Built into our 
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Enter tomorrow on base today 


'ConUtt BASF for wsrranty detaili O 1982, BASF Cotpoiation. Bedford. MA 



Letters To 


Say The Word 

I hnve just come in contact with your mag- 
azine anil wonder if in past issues you 
have done a comparative analysis of word 
processing software available for the IBM 
PC (including spelling checkers and mail 
mergers)? I would appreciate any direc- 
tion you could give me concerning the lo- 
cation of such an analysis, as I would like 
to make an educated choice and not a de- 
cision based on cost alone. 

Steven Hite 
Somerville. Massitchusetts 

U’e ore u step ahead of you. See PC. iVo- 
veniber 1982— Kd. 


Positive Improvement 

The new Kiis\ UTiter offered by IBM (ver- 
sion l.l) is a great improvement over the 
original, version 1.0. The no-cost update 
appears to be easier to use. has fewer bugs, 
operates faster, and comes with an instruc- 
tion book that is clearer and more de- 
tailed. 

There is still at least one error in the 
new instructions. Underlining, which was 
nearly impossible with version 1.0 is now 
feasible with version 1.1. but not if the 
instructions given on page 13-11 are fol- 
lowed. In.struction 5 states. ‘Type 
. SPACE 1.” The last dot is ambiguous and 
denotes the end of the sentence. It should 
not be programmed b\’ the user. Moreover, 
the important instruction. "Press the Enter 
key.” has been omitted after the "Type- 
.SPACEl” instruction. Finally, the existing 
Step 0 ("Insert a blank line (F3) under the 
-SPACEl command.") is not needed. 

Now you’ll be able to underline to your 
heart's content. 

Irwin Feerst 
Massapequa Park. New York 

Bytes and Bites 

P(J is the greatest. 1 picked up my first copy 
at COMDEX In [une at Atlantic City. To 
me it is a godsend. Fve had my PC since 


PC 


March 19. and am quite displeased with it. 
prol)ably liecause I'm spoiled by the mini- 
computer that 1 use at my office. My two 
major complaints are that It lacks a true 
ISAM "keyed" file access method and 
lacks a PC-DOS sort. 



1 am a proficient programmer/analyst, 
but I'm not into bits, bytes, and memory al- 
location and manipulation. 

(ohn K. Calichio 
Old Bridge. New |ersey 

Multiusers 

If the IBM PC is to penetrate the small- 
Imsiness market, multiu.ser capability (up 
to 5 or 8 users) is a must. Theories and ru- 
mors about how to achieve this are abun- 
dant: MPM-8(>. QUNIX. Xenix, Network, 
etc. Please do an article sorting this out. 

Your magazine is ver\- good. I’d like to 
see more software reviews and a poll of 
business users to find out what the\’ want 
from hardware and software. The techni- 
cians who build the software don't seem to 
bother asking, so the resulting software is 
often of limited use and salability. 

David Putnam 
Stowe. \'ermont 


Heart Strings 

1 would like to [>oint out an error in your 
article ‘Beginner's Guide to Strings” (PC. 
September 1982). Among the examples of 
"valid” string variable names are 
STRINGS and NAMES, which are not val- 
id, STRIN(»S is a reserved function and 
produces a .syntax error when used as a 
variable name. NAMES is incorrect be- 
cause it is a command, and it is illegal to 
add "$” to a command to get a string vari- 
able name. Note that the reverse is not 
true: MID. fore.xample. is a perfectly good 
variable name even though MIDS is a re- 
.served word. 

Eugene L. Preece’s letter. "Ep.son 
Heartache" (PC. September 1982). did not 
mention the fact that Epson MX-80 print- 
ers without Graftrax will print out the cal- 
endar program perfectly. IBM did not 
modify Ejxson printers: it simply supplies 
them without (Graftrax. 

Adam Barr 
Montreal. Quebec 
Canada 

The Cruftrax option changes some of the 
Epson special feature codes.— Ed. 

Fan Mail 

I have been following your magazine with 
great interest, it contains a wealth of 
knowledge in l)oth the articles and the ad- 
vertisements. It is the one magazine that I 
can turn to for information dealing com- 
pletely with the IBM PC. 

Brian Cameron 
Salem. Ontario 
Canada 

Smith-Corona Pitches In 

On the whole. I find PC very interesting, 
but you have to watch out for your facts. In 
purchasing a Smith-Corona TP-1. 1 relied 
in part on Frank Derfler’s review of it. but 
now I discover that SCM does not offer 
five fonts for the 12-pitch machine, as 
D«*rfler reported. SCM offers only three 
12-pitch fonts, all of which have short 


PC M A G Z I \ E 15 DECEMBER 1982 



exactly the kind of program 
my customers need for 
the IBM PC ” 

Mdiaei Madbon. Manager of C(XT)puterlan^ CttarrvMgn. IMnois. 


I Personal uaia Base may well 
be the most useful program 
to come along for the 
Personal Computer.” 


Ed Caudal, soflwara reviewer and vrrtter. 



...PERSONAL DATA BASE... 


Both dealers and users alike are finding 
SuperSoft’s Personal Data Base one of the 
most useful programming tools available for 
the IBM Personal Computer. 

With Personal Data Base you can create 


■ Mailing lists 

■ Customer lists 

■ Investment portfolios 

■ Inventory records 

■ Tax records 

■ Wedding lists 


Personnel records 
Family histories 
Household expense lists 
Business expense lists 
Client accounts 
Job reports 


In fact, Personal Data Base’s ability to keep 
track of things is limited only by your 
imagination. 


IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Mat^ine Corp. 


Personal Data base includes the following 
features: 

■ Creation of files and records 

■ Complete control over size and layout of all fields 

■ High/low or Low//high sorting on two different fields 

■ Searching on any field (up to three at a time) 

■ Creation of mailing labels 

■ Flexibility in the creation of both screen and printed 
reports 

■ Complete user's manual with numerous sample 
files 

■ Totalling or averaging of numeric columns on 
reports 

Write or call for more information on 
Personal Data Base. 

Available from fine dealers everywhere, or 
directly from SuperSoft. 

Japanese Distribution; ASR Corporation 
International. 3-23*6, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-Ku, 

Tokyo 105, Japan. Tel. (03)-4375371 . Telex. 0242-2723. 
Personal Data Base; $125.00 




Letters To PC 


chnracters and are. therefore, difficult to 
read. 

For anyone who v\ants good letter (jual- 
ityoutput. these fontsure inadequateand a 
major disappointmenU^lf S(-M does not 
offer a hotter variety off^nts. f will prob- 
ably sell my TP-1 and get iflprinter that has 
fonts that I like. I wonder if mi could help 
me give S(^M the message that they need 
more and better fonts. 

Krnest Ideberman 
New York. New York 

.\ spokesperson for Sm/lh-Corono states 
that the lO-piteh print ivhee/s can he use(/ 
on the ll'-pitch mochine. //ovvever, the 
characters iviil he slightly closer together 
than normal. Smith-Corona will he re- 
leasing more print u heels for both the 10- 
aml 12-pitch machines over the ne.xt few 
months. — L'd. 


Underlining TP-1 

1 read with interest your fine revitiw of the 
Smith-C<nona TP-1 printer I' Prodiicl Re- 
ports." P(>\ Augu.st 19821. 1 was so im- 
pressed that 1 purchas(Kl the printer. In all 
but om; respect 1 have been delighted with 
the choice. 

1 have (m(:ounl«;red some difficulty in 
acc»!ssing the underline function from 
U onlSfar. You mentioned in the review 
that the 'IT- 1 [lerformed all these func- 
tions flawlessly, but 1 suspect that you 
Wi?ri! using it with serial output. 1 have 
connected mine to the parallel printer 
card and find that 1 can underline only i>y 
placing a (dri C at the end of the line and 
llum manually rev(*r.sing the line feed. 1 
am writing to you in the hope that a solu- 
tion to (his problem could be |)ubli.shed in 
PC. 

^'our review did mention that Volks- 
u riter allows any specific AS(TI charac- 
ter to be keyed in through the use of the Alt 
key and the number pad. If U'ordStar 
could do this, it would solvj* my problem. 

In 1 ^ser-to-Cser of tin; same is.sue Dr. 
Ada F. Finifter described a .solution for the 


same problem with the NFT^ Spinwriter 
8530 printer and FusylVriO.*r. This option 
pile .nSKR function! is unfortunately not 
available through U'nniStar. 

1 do hope that a simple answer to my 
problmn is available. In the interim. I am 
plea.sed with the printer in all other re- 
spects. 'riiank you hir your review and any 
a.ssistance you might be able to giv«*. 

Daniel 1 1. Harco 
Durham. .North (Carolina 


rile /irohlem you liai e is (hat you mus( sr.*- 
Ie<.( (he hackspacing Teletype-like Print- 
er o;j(ion from the? WordStar Install /)ro- 
gram. ( nfortunafejK. (his option is for 
se?rial />rin(e-rs einly. To change? (he option 
sei (hat it u ill su/)/)ort a paralle?! printe.T. 
Ifiad h.\SIC. load Install, anel change (he? 
uord .serial in line (4-fO to parallel. \e?x(, 
t.hange* line 29(0 to "l).\T.\ 0." rhaCs i(. 
S.WK the* /ireigrum. and (hen run it (o 
re*in.stall your WordStar program. — Kd. 

A Heated Problem 

.\ lot of companie?s are making combo 
cards for the? P('. and this is .sujipose?d to 
.solve the? problem of the five?-slot (plug-inl 
iimitaliem. It see?ms to me that there may 
be anotheT limitation: the power supply. 
Do you know of anyone w ho has devel- 
oped power (or heat) problems as a result 
of thi.s? 

I.arry 

San (Carlos. (California 

( )ur PCs are stuffed full and ive have nev- 
er hud any such problems.— Kd. 

Sold on the PC 

While I was at a computer store .several 
months ago. I picked up a copy of PC. Your 
magazine has really sold us on tin? IBM P(^ 
since we now need to use more memory 
thiin our old micro can .sup|)ort. We now 
have a .subscription In P(J to help us pre- 
pare for the arrival of our new acquisition 


in |anuar\'. 

In reading your article "(^alc Wans" 
(P(.’. Augu.st 1982|. I was a hit confu.sed. 
'Fhe arllch? says that \'isiCulc does not 
have a manual recalculation ability. Fm 
not .sure about the PC version, hut on the 
A|)ple version pres.sing keys / CRM , will 
put you in the manual recalculation mode, 
'rin? description you gave of SuperCalc's 
manual recalculation modi? is identical to 
that of VisKmlc's. 

Does the P(' version vary from the Ap- 
ple version or were the names rever.sed? 
Plea.se clear up thi.s confu.sion .so I can de- 
termine which program to use rm mv new 
PC. 

K. Margaret Riley 
Rochester. New ^'ork 

Both /irograms su()porf manual recalcula- 
tion. The keystroki?s you mentioned an? 
also used hy fhe P(> \ (?rsion of V'isi- 
(mlc. — Kd. 

Product Guide Update 

Thanks for including Versa/'orm in your 
P(J Product (hiide (September 1982|. The 
Wrsal'orm program was ILsted under the 
accounting ami invenlorx’ section. While it 
is often used for thi.s ty|)e of ap{ilication. it 
comes closer to being a forms-processing 
data base program. The current recom- 
mended retail price is S3H9. which is quite 
a hit le.ss that the price in the guide (S4951. 

Hverett R. Kohiierger 
\'ice President. Marketing 
Applied Software Technologx’ 
Los (nilos. California 

A Colossal Achievement 

1 r«)und the S(?ptemher is.sue of P(> infor- 
mative and well organized— a colossal 
achievement. I've put tabs between the 
.sections for ea.sy ihumhing. 

As a new IBM Pf’ owner. I would like 
to comment on Lawrence [. Magids arti- 
cle. "PC on a Budget," from that i.ssm?. 'Phe 
author refers to 320K floppy di.sk drives 
(S3, ton j. .At first I thought (his was a simple 


CO: 


PC MACA/INK 77 D K C C M B C R 1982 



Letters To PC 


typing trnns|K)sitit)n since the price is cor- 
rectly stated twice later in the article 
|Sl.3no for two. SfiSO for one): however, it 
appears that he incorporated the mistake 
into the total— $3,100 for two disk drives: 
$000 for additional memory-. $150 for serial 
port, $300 for connect modem, $5,000 for 
printer = $9.-150. supposedly the $10,000 
amount referred to before software. 

In addition, I question his component 
buying method, particularly for the first- 
time user who will have a difficult enough 
task getting familiar with the unit without 
the added burden of tr\'ing to install chips 
and boards correctly and trv’ing to diag- 
nose equipment in the case of an installa- 
tion error. Undoubtedly, one can save on 
some of the costs by mail-order purchases, 
but at what price? 

The 16K system unit referenced here 
was not available at the Sears store where 
I purchased my configured PC. Indeed, if 
it had been. I would not have been inter- 
ested. The author doesn’t state it. but in 
purchasing the IBM equipment unconfi- 
gured. there is a hidden $335 cost over the 
price of buying a configured package from 
Sears or ComputerLand. My package 
price was $2,405; this included one dou- 
ble-sided disk drive: the additional drive 
would have cost $650. That is. $3,055 for 
the same configured IBM equipment that 
is listed separately under “Comparative 
Costs." Add the other components at the 
prices listed (monochrome display moni- 
tor. 80 cps dot matrix printer, printer ca- 
ble). and the author’s total package price 
for IBM equipment is $4,345 against Com- 
puterLand’s or Sears’ total package price 
of $4,010 for the combined, configured 
package. I’d say that the author needs to go 
back and check the marketplace. 

Chris Rockwell 
San Mateo. California 

/ said that $3,100 is the price of a "64K sys- 
tem u'ith monochrome displa\’ and two 
32(JK floppy disk drives.” Thai is the price 
of that entire system, not just the f/oppy 
drives. The $1.. 300 figure you refer to is the 


price of the disk drives alone. I can see 
hmv you may have misread that sentence, 
but the information is correct. 

7’he figures do add up to a little under 
SKt.OOO. I said that the buyer “can spend 
$10,000." and I a/so indicated that the 
/)rices were approximate /“about”/. Be- 
sides. by the time you add sales tax (in most 
stales/ $.9,450 comes very close to $10,000, 
plus or minus a few dollars. 

Vou mention that the 16K system was 
not available at Sears. When the article 
ivas written, it was easy to get 16K systems 
at most IBM Product Centers and Compu- 
terLand stores. IBM has apparently made 
it more difficult to obtain the bare bones 
system, though it is still available in some 
places, if > ou are disturbed /as I om/ about 
this. I suggest that you write Sears and 
IBM to complain about the scarcity of the 
16K system. 

'I’here is no “hidden $335 dollar cost in 
purchasing the IBM equipment unconfi- 
gured" os \’ou state. 7’he $2,405 system you 
speak of does not include a monochrome 
card or monochrome display. If you add 
my figures /leaving out the monochrome 
card and display/, you will see that they 
too add up to $2,405. 

You say that “the author needs to go 
hack and check the marketplace." I le did. 
and he stands by his facts. I do agree, how- 
ever. (hat it may not be worth the effort for 
many users to do their own assembly. Your 
points on this issue are well taken, but they 
loo are covered in the article.— i.owrence 
/. .Mugid. 


Mis-lnterpreters 

In the beautiful PC Product Guide (Sep- 
tember 1982) under Systems Software, you 
state that compilers such as FORTRAN 
convert programs (called source code) into 
machine instructions, which execute fas- 
ter than firograms run by interpreters. You 
are absolutely correct. 

FORTRAN has been the choice lan- 
guage of scientists and engineers since the 


early '60s. Unfortunately, and incredibly. 
IBM FORTRAN executes slower than the 
BASIC Interpreter, and it requires much 
more memoiy,'. IBM Systems Products Di- 
vision informs me that it commissioned 
Microsoft to make IBM FORTRAN as 
good as or better than Apple FORTRAN. 
That may be. But the result is still worth- 
less for scientific or engineering use. I am 
ver>' disappointed in IBM’s reaction to 
complaints about this deficient software. 

Frank O. Ellison 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

No Back Order 

I answered an ad from your magazine by 
placing an order for four books published 
i)y Holt. Rinehart & Winston (p. 193, PC, 
September 1982). I enclosed a check for 
$67.80 to cover the full cost of the books. I 
soon received one book and a .slip indicat- 
ing that the other books were not available; 
my order for these books had been cancel- 
led— not back ordered. 

I called Holt, Rinehart & Winston and 
requested that they hold my money and 
back order the books to save me the incon- 
venience of reordering. My request was 
refused. I then asked for an immediate re- 
fund of the excess balance of my prepay- 
ment. 

I have not received a refund. Instead. I 
received an invoice for $19.23, which in- 
cludes the advertised price plus $2.28 for 
tax and processing. 

David Lund 
St. Paul. Minnesota 

A spokesperson for I lolt, Rinehart fr Win- 
ston said it is illegal to hold your check for 
longer than 90 days, so it could not hack 
order your books. A tracer has been put on 
your missing refund, and some of the 
books you originolly ordered are now in 
stock.— Ed. 

Beilin By No Other Name 

You inadvertently made a mistake in your 


PC MAGAZINE 18 DECEMBER 1982 



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NAME 


DESCRIPTION 


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2 ATimi 

3 DATE 

4 DAYYEAR 

5 LEASElhT 

6 BREAKEVTH 

7 DEPRSL 

8 DEPRSY 

9 DEPRDB 
10 DEPRDDB 
M TAXDEP 

12 CHECK2 

13 CHECKBKl 

14 MORTGAGE/A 

15 MULTM(3IN 

16 SALVAGE 

17 RRVARIN 

18 RRCOfHST 

19 EFFECT 

20 FVAL 

21 PVAL 

22 LOANPAY 

23 REGWITH 

24 SIMPDISK 

25 DATEVAL 

26 ANNUDEF 

27 A\ARKUP 

28 SINKFUMD 

29 BONDVAL 

30 DEPLCTE 

31 Bb^CKSH 

32 STOCVALl 

33 WARVAL 

34 BONDVAL2 

35 EPSEST 

36 BETAALPH 

37 SHARPE 1 

38 OPTWRriE 

39 RTVAL 

40 EXPVAL 

41 BAYES 

42 VALPRINF 

43 VAUAOINF 

44 (JTILTTY 

45 SIMPLEX 
4b TRAMS 
47 EOQ 

46 QUEUE I 

49 CVP 

50 CONDPROF 

51 OPTLOSS 

52 F(SUOQ 

53 FQEOWSH 

54 FQECXaPB 

55 (^EUECB 

56 MCFAMAL 

57 PRORMD 

58 CAPl 


Interest Appordonrrtent by Rule of the 78's 

Annuity computdbon progrnm 

Time between dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Interest rate on lease 

Breakeven artalysis 

Straightline depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depireciation 

Cash flow vs depreciatir>n t^les 

Pnnts NEBS checks along with daily register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortiiation table 

Computes tirr>e needed for money to double, tnple. 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with variable irtflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave 0 over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent G nonequivalent dated values for obllg. 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a borvl 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

Value of a warrant 

Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection model i.e what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a right 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Derives utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 
Transportation method for linear programming 
Economic order quantity inventory rrKxJel 
Single server queueing (waiting lir>e) model 
Cost-volumeprofit analysis 
Conditional profit tables 
Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity rrxxJel 

As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity price breaks 

Cost benefit waiting line analysis 

Met cash flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a proved 

Cap Asset Pr Model analysis of project 


59 

WACC 

Weighted average cost of capital 

60 

COMPBAL 

True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 

DISCBAL 

True rate on discounted loan 

62 

MERGANAL 

Merger analysis computations 

63 

RNRAT 

Financial ratios for a firm 

64 

NPV 

Net present value of project 

65 

PRIMDLAS 

Laspeyres pnee index 

66 

PRIMDPA 

Paasche price index 

67 

SEASIND 

Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

66 

TIMETR 

Time series analysis linear trend 

69 

TIMEMOV 

Time series analysis nroving average trend 

70 

FUPRIMF 

Future price estimation with inflabon 

71 

MAILPAC 

Mailing list system 

72 

LETWr 

Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

73 

SORT3 

Sorts list of names 

74 

LABEL! 

Shipping label maker 

75 

LABEL2 

Name label maker 

76 

BGSBUD 

DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 

riMECLCK 

Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

78 

ACCTPAY 

In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 

INVOICE 

Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 

INVENT2 

In merriofy inventory control system 

81 

TELDIR 

Computerued telephone directory 

82 

TIMCISAM 

Tinre use analysis 

83 

ASSIGN 

Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

64 

ACCTREC 

In menwry accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 

TERMSPAY 

Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 

PAYNET 

Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 

SELLPR 

Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 

.ARBCOMP 

Arbitrage computations 

89 

DEPRSF 

Sinking fund depreciation 

90 

UPSZONE 

Rnds UPS zones from zip code 

91 

ENVELOPE 

Types envelope irKluding return address 

92 

AOTOEXP 

Automobile expense arwiysis 

93 

INSFILE 

Insurance policy Hie 

94 

PAYROLL2 

In memory payroll system 

95 

DILANAL 

Dilution analysis 

96 

LOANAFFD 

Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 

RENTPRCH 

Purchase price for rental property 

98 

SALELEAS 

Sale leaseback analysis 

99 

RRCONVBD 

Investor's rate of return on convertabte bond 

100 

PORTVAL9 

Stock rriarket portfolio storage-valuation program 


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Letters To PC 


listing of us. niimlwr 1104. in your PC 
Product Guide (September 1982). The 
"Belling" company you refer to is Beilin 
Computer Systems. Inc.. 

I would appreciate your making the 
readers of PC aware of this error. 

n. Beilin. Vice President 
Beilin Computer Systems. Inc. 

Flushing. New York 

The Curse of First 

One of the curses of being first is that you 
get experimented on. I had hardly taken 
deliverv’ of my IBM PC when the double- 
sided drive option became available. IBM 
wants more money to upgrade my single- 
sided drives than the price of new double- 
sided drives. As a secondary benefit. I 
would be left with two expensive boat an- 
chors. Is an U|)grade kit available for my 
single-sided Tandons. and what is in- 
volved in a do-it-yourself installation? 

Bill Vanderbok 
Woodland Hills. California 

As (I friend once said. "Those who ride the 
leading edge of technoiog>- will be sacri- 
ficed upon it." Unfortunately, no upgrade 
kit is available due to the high precision 
that u'ould be necessary. Perhaps you 
should purchase neiv drives and sell the 
"boat anchors" through a PC user 
group.— Kd. 


UCSD Shortcoming 

Regarding "The UCSD p-System” (PC. 
October 1982). I disagree with the conclu- 
sion that the [)-System is "a product we 
recommend to all PC owners." I have 
owned my PC for 10 months: I’ve 
had formal training in BASIC, FOR- 
TRAN. and COBOL: and I might add. with 
some degree of pride. I’m a veteran of Ka- 
sy Writer version 1.0. 

Since I'd like to develop software pro- 
fessionally. I purchased the p-System for 
its purported portability. Because the only 
authorized PC dealer in my stale is Com- 


puterLand (see "P-System." Letters to PC. 
October 1982) and because I'm tired of 
dealing with salespersons w ho don't know 
what they’re selling. I bought mine on the 
phone from Network Consulting. Inc. 
(NCI) in Vancouver. SofTech. the licenser, 
gave them a good rating, and for the price 
of a long-distance call 1 can talk with peo- 
ple who are friendly and knowledgeable. 
NCI has added a number of utilities that 
.some PC users may find helpful. 

However, when the four double-sided. 
doul)le-density disks arrived along with a 
hefty packet of manuals. I knew I was no 
Umger dealing with my nice IBM BASIC. 
There is much disk swapping and lots of 
di.sk burble. NCI says that if 1 had 128K in- 
steat! of fi4K. life would be belter, but 
that's $500 away. In my opinion, it's the 
manual support that's the serious short- 
coming. No cute little three-ring binders 
here. Instead, pounds of terse, jargony. 
Pascal example-oriented prose abound. 
The editing and filing style of the p-Sys- 
lem itself resembles that of DEC's Vax 
M/780 minicomputer that I use at the uni- 
versity. which is. to sa\’ [)olitely, not as 
user-friendly as what I have come to ap- 
preciate on the PC. 

I don't know yet if the p-System. which 
is expensive, will really do what I want. I 
do know it will take eveiy bit of knowl- 
edge I have now and will acquire in the 
next few years to master its complexities. 
Proceed with caution. 

A. ). Camp 
llatli(!sburg. Michigan 


IBM Instruments 

Many thanks for your comments concern- 
ing the IBM Instruments Computer Sys- 
tem |PC-Communiques. October 1982). 
Your article Impressed us with its incisive- 
ness. and you were completely accurate in 
your reporting of the specifications and 
price. Your observations that the system is 
definitely designed for laboratorv’ use and 
is highly modular are right on. 


Shipments are just beginning.and volumes 
are modest as production builds up. 

Cecil P. Webb 
President. IBM Instruments. Inc. 

Danbur>'. Connecticut 

Royalties Revisited 

We appreciate the mention of Alpha Soft- 
ware Corp. in "Trading Pens for PCs” |PC- 
Commun/ques. October 1982). However, 
there have been some recent changes in 
IBM's treatment of programmers that out- 
date information in the write-up. 

As you re[)orted. Alpha Software has 
published advertisements that offer at- 
tractive contracts, including generous ad- 
vancetl royalties, to free-lance jjrogram- 
mers whti helf) develop softw'are 
marketed exclusively to users of the IBM 
PC. At the time the specific advertisement 
you mentioned ran in a Boston-area |)ubli- 
cation, we were indeed paying "up to ten 
times more than IBM” in advanced royal- 
ties. 

Since that time, IBM has changed its 
contract terms, and we no longer run that 
[)articular advertisement. 

Richard Rabins 
George Lechter 
Alpha Software Corp. 

Burlington. Massachusetts 


Correction 

In Letters to PC (October 1982}, we incor- 
rectly listed Intertek as the manufacturer 
of a special interface for the NEC Spin- 
writer printer. 7’he product, called The 
Integrator, is actually manufactured by 
INTEK Manufacturing Company. 780 
Charcot Ave., San Jose, CA 95131. 


PC welcomes letter from readers. Write 
to; l.etters. PC. 1528 Irving St.. San Fran- 
cisco. CA 94122. Letters published may b(? 
edited. 


rc MAGAZINE 21 DECEMBER 19S2 





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ZERO BASE THINKING/IIM EDLIN 


Foolscap's Future 



S ooner or later ever\'one’s 
life is touched by the law. 

When personal comput- 
ers affect the practice of law. 
they affect us all. 

In an age of personal com- 
puters it is a sure bet that legal 
documents will be created on 
video screens and stored on 
disks instead of on the tradi- 
tional foolscap paper. This 
alone may have a noticeable 
impact on legal draftsmanship, 
fostering greater precision, cus- 
tomization. and originality. Be- 
yond this straightforward evo- 
lution lies the possibility of 
much more subtle, yet far- 
reaching. change. 

Legal documents of certain 
types have a surprising ele- 
ment of kinship with computer 
programs, As legal papers and 
the people who draft them be- 
come more intimately involved 
with personal computers, hy- 
brid creations incorporating 
tpjalitiesof both a program and 
a legal document may emerge. 

In essence, the average con- 
tract is already one long se- 
(pience of IF-THEN statements 
that spell out the consequences of alterna- 
tive events or actions. “IF you fail to make 
the payments... THEN we will...." 

Similarly, fora last will and testament: 
“IF my wife Agatha dies before me... 
THEN I bequeath the family jewels to my 
faithful secretary' Monique....” 

With traditional legal papers, the par- 
ties involved with a document are re- 
quired to perform their own evaluation to 
conclude which of various conditional 
provisions are satisfied at any given time 
and what results follow. In the future, 
however, the conditional provisions might 
be structured as a program on a disk, with 
the computer doing the evaluation work. 

Imagine that your rich uncle Montague 
has passed on to his final reward. You 
gather with the rest of the family at his 
attorney's office for the reading of the will, 


From his .s<jfe. Lawyer Wise produces an 
envelope sealed with ribbon and red wax. 
Breaking the seal, he pulls out. ..not a sheaf 
of foolscap, but a single floppy disk. In full 
view of all. he inserts it in the IBM Person- 
al Computer on his credenza and presses 
the auto-start keys. 

On the Pf^s screen in glowing green 
ap[)ear the words: “Last Will And Testa- 
ment of Montague Golbux— (press any 
key to proceed).” Wise touches the space 
bar. The screen changes to say. "First, 
some questions. What’s the current value 
of all my liquid assets?” Wise laps in a 
seven-figure sum. 

"Is my wife. Agatha, still alive?" asks 
the screen, adding parenthetically that the 
Y key can be used to answer yes and the N 
key to respond in the negative. Wise types 
Y. then Y again to the subsequent query. 


"And were we still married at 
the time of my death?" 

"What about my son. Casa- 
nova? Is he still alive? And did 
he graduate from college?" 
When Wise keys in a Y to the 
last question, a further query 
appears: "Indeed! That’s a sur- 
prise. What was his grade 
point?” Cautioning young Gol- 
bux that a transcript will be re- 
quired to verify his response. 
Wise types in the number the 
son tells him. 

“And which of these other 
peo[)le remain alive?" inquires 
the screen. |)roducing a list of 
other relations and friends. 
Wise laps in the responses; 
mostly Y’s. a few N's. 

The (juestion-and-answer 
session proceeds a bit longer 
with answers occasionally pro- 
ducing droll comments by old 
Golbux from beyond the grave. 
At last the screen flashes: "One 
moment please w’hile my will is 
prepared." The printer to the 
computer's left comes to life 
and begins to spew out a docu- 
ment reprising the heading that 
appeared on the screen at the 
session's beginning: "Last Will And Testa- 
ment of Montague Gotbux.” 

The emerging document is free of all 
contingent clauses. It makes no bequests to 
people who predeceased Gotbux. It neatly 
apportions bequests according to Golbux’s 
actual assets at the time of his death. The 
sliare going to young Casanova Gotbux is 
precisely calculated as a function of his 
grade point average at graduation (had he 
become a dropout, his share would have 
gone to endow a scholarship fund instead). 

This lmaginar\’ scene is somewhat 
tongue in cheek, but the underlying princi- 
[)les are very serious. Someone mak ng a 
will could easily construct it to be respon- 
sive to the conditions in effect at the lime 
of his death. Contracts governing complex 
transactions among businesses could be 
drafted to crunch all the complexities 


PC M A C; A Z I N E 25 DECEMBER 1982 


lllusiralion; Jack Desroscher 


Advertisement 


Software Breakthrough... 

NEW QUIKPRO + PLUS 
WRITES PROGRAMS FOR 

YOU IN MINUTES ON YOUR Micro 



Technical Review 
by Wayne Hepburn 


QUIKPRO + PLUS is a new breakthrough in 
software for microcomputers from ICR- 
FutureSoft. 

Until now. whenever you wanted a new 
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hours creating it (if you have the 
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through the computer, producing a cut- 
and-dried svnopsis of the provisions rel- 
evant to the exact conditions that apply at a 
given moment. By extension, a contract 
drafted in program fashion would let law- 
yers and clients do what-if analysis of the 
same type that financial managers do with 
spreadsheet programs. ("Suppose we 
waive our right to invoke the penalty 
clause and then later change our minds?") 

The process of drafting such program/ 
contracts might, as a secondary benefit, 
encourage more thorough analysis by their 
drafters. The disciplines of structured pro- 
gramming and "top-down” design might 
appear in law school curricula. 


H, 


YBRID 


creations 
incorporating 
qualities of both 
a program and a 
legal document may 
emerge. \ 


As the trend to integrated systems ad- j 
vances, each legal document with provi- | 
sions dependent on calendar dates might 
generate automatic tickler entries in an at- 
torney’s electronic datebook. (A lawyer 
comes into his office to find his PC screen 
noting: "If General Widget didn’t meet its 
first quarter quota by yesterday, you now 
have 10 days to advise the company which 
of the alternative remedies you wish to in- 
voke. Would you like to draft a letter?’’) 
One type of document particularly well 
suited to drafting in program form is the 
"living will." which attempts to state the 
wishes and directions of an incapacitated 
person regarding his affairs. In attempting 
to resolve such questions as whether life 
support machines should be turned off at 
some point, a living will may ask those 
acting on the subject’s behalf to resolve 
complex, interrelated matters in coming to 
a decision. Here, even more than else- 
where. the business of determining and | 
honoring a person's wishes may be made j 
to run smoothly by a document created for ' 
a disk instead of foolscap. /PC j 



INNOSYS 
AND IBM: 


* 


The money-management team 
that takes your budget-tracking and 
tax-reporting seriously. 


MONEY MAESTRO^” is a home banking system 
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Apple II IS a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. 


PC MAGAZINE 27 DECEMBER 1982 


Now the 

Hercules Graphics Card 
comes with software 



That’ll put a smile 
on your IBM monochrome 


Now each Hercules 
Graphics Card’" comes 
with software so you can 
write a BASIC program 
using the IBM® PC’s 
BASIC graphics state- 
ments. It's a snap to draw high resolution graphics 
on the IBM monochrome display with the Hercules 
Graphics Card. And if you'd like to program in lan- 
guages other than BASIC, there’s a package of as- 
sembly language graphics subroutines for only $50. 
The Hercules Graphics Card is compatible with 
software written for the 
IBM monochrome dis- 
play/printer adapter and 
it will not damage the 
IBM display. With a reso- 
lution of 720h X 348v, two 


graphics pages, a parallel printer interface, and the 
same character set and video attributes as the IBM 
monochrome board, the Hercules Graphics Card 

■ makes an excellent re- 

, r placement for the IBM 

monochrome display/ 

, Q printer adapter. And isn’t 

[ * graphics capability worth 

Paying a little extra for? 
The Hercules Graphics Card. Only $649 
including software. Call or write for the name of 
the dealer nearest you. or order direct from us. 

Hercules Computer 
Tbchnology 
160 Beechnut Drive 
Hercules, CA 94547 
(415) 799-9354 


Hercules Graphics Card is a trademark of Hercules Computer Ihchnology IBM is a registered 
trademark of International Business Machines. C 19S2 Hercules Computer Thchnology 









Stopping Computer Grime 

A n« v firm I.oTech Ltd. is <:r»Mling practit^.d prmlucts 

with .1 light loiii.h Ln'iech'^- first offering is Patch ('.otnputer Hug 
Spra\. iin .MTosfil spray for n*mo\ ing dirt, fingerprints, and other 
grime from computer tlisf)lay screens. 

Tlu.s l>ug spray, while {H?rfi*ctly useful, may signal the beginning 
I <if .1 \\el< '-r..* trend low.ird fun in computing /\t least some of the 
‘ spra\ -■ diitn.ttons seem promising: "May drown floating points 
under overflow conditions " "Not t»» he t.iken sericdly ‘ “If LISP 
deveh*p>v. .idiTunister artificial inlelligem.** immedialtdy.” "N'et wt. 

' Itt |unform.itted|." ('ontact Lo'l'e.-h LliL. P(). Hox San 
i'laiii.ixo (..•\M-no‘t 




Another 

Alliance for Intel 
and IBM 

The P(^s H08H microproces.sor 
represents one happy miirriage 
hetween Intel and IBM. and a 
new agn?emenl hetween thes«; 
two electronic giants looks like the 
beginning of another such 
alliance. In this latest arrange- 
ment. Intel will provide IBM with 
design <ind production infor- 
mation for a ()4K RAM chip, and 
IBM will he able to manufacture 
th<‘ chip for use in its computer 
miuiprnent. 

The chip in question is a 
SHCond-gem*ralion device from 
Intel, the 21H4A IBM probably 
will prtKluce (hest* chips at its 
Burlington. Viirmonl. facility, 
where other IBM 64K chips are 
manufactured. IBM has not 
reveahfd which of its priuiucts 
will utilize the 21H4A chip or 
whethiff it is being consUlered for 
the PC, 


Although this development 
has not been announced or 
confirmixl by IBM as P(>- 
(jommunkjues goes to press, our 
sources report that IBM has 
comphded work «>n a new word 
processing program for the P(.L 
This program is nqiuted to be an 
adaptation of the software tLsed in 
IBM's well-known Displaywriler 
wiird proces.sor. and it has b«>en 
configured to oiierale in P(Ls with 
04K of RAM. (This()4K operation, 
if true, is a noinhh? achiev«*ment 
l)«>cause such indept'iuienlly 
pnKlttC4Hl word processing 
programs as U'ordStur and 
V'olksu riter are severely limited 
in WK machines.] Our sotirces 
sugg(\sl th.il IBM v\ill market this 
new program lieginning early 
next yi*ar. ^ 








A compendium of facts, news, opinions, gossip, 
forecasts obout /BM Personal Computers. 


inside intelligence 


gj^^liii.pn, and 


Displaywriter 
Program for the 
PC? 


Computers in Congress 

If you write your congressional representative these days, your reply 
may come from a computer. In a service gaining |)opularily among 
memimrsof ('ongress.a computer time-sharing firm named Dialcom 
offers senators and represtinlatives a kind of super word processor 
that contains a library’ of boiler-plate paragraphs about the political 
topics and ipiestions that voters raise most often. A memlier of the 
congressper.son's staff can cominise a letter by calling up the 
appropriate paragraphs, adding a (MTSonal comment or two and the 
pertinent name and address, and having the letter printetl. 

Another useful part of this »!rvice is that the congressperson's 
electronic correspondence is then .stored in the Dialcom computer, 
and if a voter phones or visits the congressional office, staff members 
C4in liring up that voter's file on-screen to prepare their boss for an 
informed conversiition with the constituent. So far. though, nobody 
is suggesting that the computer (Kill all the voters' mail and tell the 
(Militicians how to vote. 


IH nt C t MB! R l<»H2 




Football, 
Lawsuits, and 
there 

Several legal actions have 
resulted from the complex 
situation surrounding the former 
Oakland Raiders' move to Los 
Angeles. Although recent court 
decisions have now cleared the 
way for the Raiders to play in Los 
Angeles (when the players aren't 
on strike, that is), the team had 
been trying to make the move for 2 
years before its legal path was 
cleared. 

One lawsuit still in litigation 
involves the 2 years the Raiders 
played in Oakland, and the Los 
Angeles Coliseum was empty on 
Sundays because the Rams had 
departed for an Orange County 
stadium and the Raiders had been 
blocked from moving south. The 
plaintiff in this civil suit is the Los 
Angeles Memorial Coliseum 
Commission (along with the 
Raiders) and the defendant is the 
National Football League. 

In what may well be its first 
legal entanglement (so to speak), 
the PC is helping to analyze data 
for one of the parties in this 
lawsuit. One of the lawyers rep- 
resenting the NFL. Patrick Lynch 
of the firm of O'Melveny and 
Myers, has hired experts at 
Arthur Andersen & Company, a 
major accounting firm, to provide 


computer analysis of the 
extensive financial data involved 
in the claims for damages in this 
case. Staff members of Arthur 
Andersen's Los Angeles office 
have used the PC and VisiCalc to 
provide "what if’ analysis for 
variables in some 40 categories of 
damage claims. 

The Coliseum and the Raiders 
are claiming that if the Raiders 
had played in Los Angeles during 
the 1980 and 1981 seasons, the 
Coliseum could have sold X 


number of seats for each home 
game, for a total of V dollars. The 
NFL may wish to challenge the 
Coliseum's assumptions about 
how many seats would have been 
sold for each game. Such a 
challenge would result in dif- 
ferent dollar totals. This is just the 
kind of calculation and 
recalculation job VisiCoic does 
handily, and the Andersen staff is 
providing the NFL's legal team 
with on-the-spot financial data for 


Publisher 
Plans 
Softbooks 

Howard W. Sams 
Company, publisher 
of conventional 
computer books, and 
Expert Systems. Inc., of 
I Redmond. Washington. 

have announced a senes 
' of "softbooks” that utilize 
software and printed pages. 

Each softbook will be igjninga disk with 

packaged in a looselca ' . ^ „ explanatory text 

the principal part of the The first three t.tles ... 

7092. Indianapolis. IN 46206, [ 

PC MAGAZINE 30 DECEMBER 1982 


On-Line 

Newsletters 

A new service called NewsNet 
offers anyone who has a com- 
puter. modem, and communi- 
cations software access to 100 or 
more newsletters. Subscribers 
pay fees from $24 to $120 per hour 
for each publication they read; 
NewsNel does not have an initial 
subscription fee, but the 
minimum monthly charge is $15. 

For PC users who need up-to- 
date information in specialized 
fields. NewsNet could be an 
advantage over conventional 
subscriptions to newsletters; PC 
users would not have to wait for 
the publication to arrive in the 
mail, and they could browse or 
search for specific items at a lower 
cost than by mail subscription 
rates. This service is available 
Monday through Friday from 8 
a.m. to 8 p.m. EST. 

The special interests and 
industries covered by NewsNet 
vary. Categories include adver- 
tising. aerospace, automotive, 
chemical, electronics and 
computers (nine newsletters), 
entertainment, environment, 
finance, government, real estate, 
research and development, 
taxation, and telecommunications 
(20 newsletters). Each category is 
covered by at least one newsletter 
and all are inside-the-industry 
publications not sold on 
I newsstands. 

For a subscription application 


any such variables that come into 
play in the courtroom. 

The PC will probably not 
' appear in court. Phone lines in the 
i courtroom will link legal staff 
I with experts in the Andersen 
I offices, where instant computer 
calculations can be made. Even if 
the PC doesn't "testify" in person, 
it looks as if the days of instant 
replays— computer style— have 
begun. 


and a complete list of available 
newsletters, contact NewsNet. 
945 Haverford Rd.. Br>’n Mawr. 
PA !9010. (800) 345-1301. (215) 
527*8030 in Pennsv’lvania. 


forms and can serve a 
functions, it can appeal to a 
thousand 

- 


Displaywriter 
Gets p-System 

IBM already distributes the 
UCSI) p-System. an operating 
s>’slem for the PC^ Now the firm 
will be offering the p-System for 
the Displaywriter as well. The 
Displaywriter is IBM's popular 
16-bil word processor, which was 
designed originally as a dedicated 
system that used only IBM 
software. The recent trend in 
office electronics has been to 
broaden the applications for such 
equipment, however, and IBM 
has joined this trend. 

Earlier this year. CP/M-88. the 
operating sy.stem from Digital 
Research, became available for 
the Displaywriter. and now the 
UCSD p-System offers another 
alternative. The p-System is 
available in two configurations: a 
run-time system for using 
applications software and a 
development system that supports 
several languages for developing 
software. Technical information 
and support for the p-System will 
be provided by SofTech 
Microsv’stems. 9494 Black 
Mountain Rd.. San Diego. CA 
92126. (714) 578-6105, 


program sweepstakes— or 
actually, all in 1-2-3. the name of 
this integrated package. Produced 
by Lotus Deveh)pment 
Corporation of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 1-2-3 is designed 
for speedy operation and easy 
learning: it includes an on-scre;en 
tutorial, utilizes the PC's function 
keys for cursor-control 


Ah-One, 

Ah-Two... 

The PC has become prime 
territory for a new generation of 
software— integrated programs. 
First there was Context's MBA. 
which sport.s spreadsheet, data 
base, graphics, word processing, 
and telecommunications func- 
tions in one package. Now there's 
a new entry in the all-in-one 


commanris. and bypasses some of 
the more confusing or tedious 
DOS commands. 

.^ccording to I.otus President 
Mitch Kapor. this integrated 
program features a large-capacity 
spreadsheet component (2048 
rows by 256 columns, with storage 
space of 500K). text editing, data 
base management, and 
impressive graphics. Kapor is the 


creator of VisiPiot and VisiTrenti, 
two graphics components that 
work with VisiCalc. Ilisnew 1-2-3 
[package can translate numerical 
Idata in the spreadsheet part of the 
program into bar graphs or pie 
chart.sor plot the locations of X. Y 
coordinates. The program 
operates with both color and 
monochrome monitors and 
supports color printers and 
plotters that are compatible with 
the PC. 

1-2-3 will be available in late 
january. The package will sell for 
$495 and requires a PC with 128K. 
two disk drives, and PC-DOS. 



Computer 

Insurance 

Doctors have it. lawvers have it, 
architects have it. and now 
programmers can have it. What is 
it? Malpractice insurance. At least 
one insurance company— 
the Chubb Group— now offers an 
errors and omissions policy to 
software developers. Hardware 
manufacturers are also adding 
similar coverage to their product 
liability' insurance, so their clients 
may be compensated for loss of 
income that results from 
hardware breakdown. 


Hardware and software 
creators aren't the only ones being 
aided by the new trend toward 
computer insurance, however. 
Various policies are also available 
to PC owners who use their 
computers for business and 
personal purposes. At least two of 
these policies protect both equip- 
ment and the data it manipulates 
and stores 

One of these new insurance 
programs is offered by the 
Kem(>er Group. Called the 
Business Electronic Eijuipment 
Policy (BEEP), this insurance 
covers loss or damage to the 


computer and peripherals and to 
"actK’e data processing media." 
This includes situations in which 
the equipment is in transit for 
servicing or transfer to another 
location, damage while being 
.serviced, damage from electrical 
disturbance or extremes in 
temperature, and protection from 
losses resulting from employee 
dishonesty. 

For people who use their PCs 
at home but not as part of a busi- 
ness. the Chubb Group offers 
supplementary coverage to a 
homeowner's or tenant's policy to 
protect personal records stored on 
computer media. 

This whole new arena of 
computer insurance is enjoying 
nearly as big a boom as computers 
themselves. One computer 
insurer. The Hartford, wrote 
iiiHUil 200 computer policies in 
1979. hut this year the firm expects 
to write 5.000 such policies. This 
new form of protection will result 
in an estimated $200 million in 
premiums per year. 

For information about these 
and other computer policies, 
contact your insurance agent, an 
independent agency that handles 
Kemper or Chubb insurance, or 
Ralston Eng. MPA Inst:rance 
Services. P.O. Box 5578. San 
Mateo. CA 94402. (415) 572-8591. 


PC MAGAZINE 31 DECEMBER 1982 




disk drlve.'the standard 
communications adapter, an 80- 
column display, a modem and 
cable, and PC-DOS. This software 
will be available for $140 at IBM 
Product Centers in January. 

The third communications 
software package is version 2.0 of 
the Asynchronous Communi- 
cations Support Program. This 
upgrade includes the following 
enhancements to version 1.0: 
menu-selectable options for The 
Source and Dow Jones News/ 
Retrieval, file transfer capability 
between a PC and most host 
systems, a utility program to 
convert files from ASCII to binary 
and vice versa, and options to 
print data being received or store 
it in a temporary file. The program 
is available now for $60. Although 
this product is an upgrade of the 
earlier version. PC users cannot 
exchange version 1.0 for credit 
toward version 2.0. A detailed 
listing of features for all of these 
new products is available from 
authorized PC dealers. 


PC- 

Communiques 

Pays 

Do you have news, gossip, or 
unusual computer tales for PC- 
Communiques? We will pay up to 
$50 for each submission used. You 
must include your name, address, 
and telephone number with the 
item. We will preserve your 
anonymity if you wish. All 
submissions become the property 
of PC and are subject to editing. 
Our User-to-l/ser section also 
publishes and pays for readers’ 
submissions: that section features 
tips, problem solutions, and short 
programs or routines. Please send 
submissions to the appropriate 
department— PC-Communiques 
or Dser-to-User— at PC. 1528 
Irving St.. San Francisco. CA 
94122. 


PC-Main£rame 

Connection 

IBM has announced three new 
software products for PC 
communications. Two of these 
packages are designed to link the 
PC with mainframe computers by | 
emulating popular IBM | 

terminals; the third is an upgrade | 
of the existing asynchronous | 
communications program. ■ 

The more comprehensive of 
the mainframe communications 
packages supports two modes; 
emulation of the widely used 
Systems Network Architecture 
(SNA) 3270 terminal or the SNA 
3770 Remote fob Entry (RJEl. In 
the SNA 3270 mode this software ^ 
provides user-definable 3270 I 
keys. EBCDIC line transmission | 
support, a local print key. and i 
status line messages. In the SNA ! 
3770 RJE mode, the software 
provides ASCII or EBCDIC line ; 
transmission support, logical unit j 
type 1. and outbound host | 

compression. These emulations 


both support transmission rates of 
up to 4800 baud. 

This software requires a PC 
with at least 128K of RAM. one 
single-sided disk drive, the new 
Synchronous Data Link Control 


Computer Charisma 

•ve ignored M.A.S.H. and Dallas, played hookey from class. 

-.all me -lunkie' -l know whal you mean, 
av addiction is worse than cocaine, booze, or grass. 

For I m hooked on a silly green screen. 

All mv library hooks lie unread, overdiie. 

And the laundry's turned mildewed and green. 

We've hail fast food lor dinner six nights in a row 
While 1 work Ihis hypnotic machine. 

You can say he's not human; I'll argue that fact 
From his sensual beeps late at night. 

He'll do graphs, amortize, play a tune, plot . . 

While I watch in astonished delight. 

He revi.ses. deletes, and aligns his display. 

1 le seduces with flashing green mien- 

Yes. I'm leaving my husband and running away 

To Brazil with this silly machine! 

—Bunny Hammersla 


(SDLC) communications adapter 
I l)oard from IBM. a special cable 
[ for the SDLC card, a modem, an 
I 80-coIumn display, and PC-DOS 
(1.0 or 1.10), The package will be 
available for $700 at IBM Product 
Centers in lanuary. The special 
SDLC communications board and 
cable will also be released at that 
time; the board will cost $300 and 
the cable will cost $75. 

The second PC-mainframe 
software package from IBM 
emulates the IBM 3101 terminal. 
This program is less sophisticated 
than the SNA package, but it 
provides user-specified line 
characteristics and keyboard 
mapping; sample specification 
files for commonly used con- 
figurations of the 3101 terminal; 
transmission of ASCII files to and 
from a host computer and local 
storage on disk; and conversion of 
ASCII files to and from binary 
format. 

Among the specification files 
provided are VM/370. 
MVS/TSO, IBM 7426 Terminal 
Interface for IBM 8100 series 
mainframes, and 3101 pass- 
through. This program requires a 
* PC with at least 64K of RAM. one 


PC MAGAZINE 32 DECEMBER 1982 


You’re 

26 minutes away 
from total, personal 
control of 
all your money. 

In 26 minutes— at a free, 
private demonstration— 
you'll see how 
MoneyTrack gives you 
a constant, detailed view 
of all your complex, 
multiple interests. 

Every transaction 
in every account. 

To the penny, to the minute; 
always at your fingertips. That's 
true personal control. It's what 
you need for timely 
tax / investment/business decisions. 

For meeting your accountant ready 
to talk strategy, not hunt records. 


MoneyTrack costs 
under SSOO. It’s essential for: 

• Investors 
• Small Business & 

Farm Owners 
• General Partners 
• Business Managers 
• Professionals 
(MD. LLB. DOS) 

» Accountants 
(for write-up) 

You must see how 
MoneyTrack works. We ll send 
documentation and arrange a tree, 
private demo No strings. And your name 
will not appear on any mailing lists. 

Write or phone now, 

-MONEY--TRACK= 

from 

iPAClFlC 

Data S>?»teins, Inc. 

(kWfl Scpiiheda Boulevard 
( uivcr ( ilv. ( .A 902.W 

(21.1) 559-871.1 



This is what the pros have said 
about Perfect Wnterf 


"Perfect Writer lives up to its name ... It would be my 
choice for a word processor in my home!' 

John Ford, Infoworld 

"The company is stamping a giant footprint in the 
market with an aggressive advertising campaign— and 
with a program that delivers what the ads promise . . . 
Perfect Writer will likely be the tool I use to construct 
future documents!' 

Dona Z. Meilach, Interface Age 

"It does things I've seen nowhere else!' 

James Fallows, Atlantic Monthly 

"Capabilities like those in Wangwriter and other 
sophisticated systems!' 

Softalk 


Perfect Software* 

The revolution in software. 



The Perfect Software team is available 
for; Apple with CPM, HP-125 and HP-87, 
Heath/Zenith, IBM PC, North Star, 
Osborne, Sharp, Superbrain, Televideo, 
TRS Model 2 and 16, Vector, Xerox 820 
and most 5 % and 8" CPM and MSDOS. 


MICROHOUSE HAS JUST BECOME 
A MAJOR PERFECT DEALER/DISTRIBUTOR. 


For the dealer nearest you call 

800 - 227-5488 

(in California 415-644-3001) 

1400 Shattuck Ave. 
Berkeley, CA 94709 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Perfect Writer, Perfect Speller, Perfect Filer, Perfect 
Calc and Perfect Software are trademarks of Perfect 
SoftsNare. Inc. 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 
MS IS a trademark of Micr^oft Corp 


*As of September 30. 1982. 
Scheduled release November, 1982. 





NOPROG 


lit magic? No, not magic, but an amazing software package that generates basic code for programs using 
jur IBM P.C.’“ computer. THE CREATOR™ by Software Technology for Computers will generate BASIC 
ograms in final form in a matter of minutes. No programming knowledge necessary. 

HE CREATORS” is easy for a beginner or expert to use. Even a novice can produce professional 
ograms. The programs you generate will be accomplished quickly, easily and error-free the first time and 
sry time. Under most conditions, the programs generated will be almost complete, leaving only a few 
titements at most to input yourself. 

IHIS PROGRAM IS FOR YOU. If you have put off writing your own program because you “can't 
Dderstand BASIC," or “don't have the time,” then THE CREATORS" is for you. Use THE CREATOR^** to 
we time in generating your own programs or as a method to merge new ideas into your existing programs. 

f I the functions you need are contained within THE CREATOR^**. It generates input and output routines, 
s structures, sort and search routines, dollar formats, totals and more by just answering simple English 
sestions. Sound amazing? Well, it certainly is! 

ilE CREATOR'''" comes with extensive documentation and a detailed tutorial to provide you with an 
qparalleled level of trouble-free, user-oriented performance. THE CREATOR''^" is available for only $300 
!.S.). If you buy any program this year, this one is a must. 

ir a personal demonstration of THE CREATOR'''", contact your local dealer. If your local dealer does not 
iTry THE CREATORS", ask him to give us a call. 


Software Technology for 
430 A Main Street 
Watertown, MA 02172 
(617) 923-4334 


Computers 


2”sions for other computer are under development, 
n is a trademark of International Business Machines. 


3 CREATOR^** is a trademark of SOFTVYARE TECHNOLOGY for COMPUTERS 


Computer Exchange — The Supply Center for the IBM PC 


SOFTWARE !S'm“ 7 c 

BUSINESS 


UHTOR UU deneN CP'WM 

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COIVUS Hard tPM SyiMt* See Cornn Sectwn tM Pa|a 
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756P RAM Cud n Pare, 
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Tecmar Inc. ‘“"““'“M;! 

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Quadbeard 64n aapandawe le 756* 4 luncboii board 
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PC Tutor 

The 8087 microprocessor, color and monochrome adopters, 
freeze-up in Debug. What to do? Here are some suggestions. 


The 8087 

Q: What is an 8087 and how can I use it in 
my PC? 

Marshall Levy 
Hollywood. California 

A: Because the 8088 has 16-bit registers 
internally, it is considered a 16-bit micro- 
processor. Likewise, the 8087 can be con- 
sidered an 80-bit microprocessor since it 
has 80-bit registers. 

Operating an 8087 with the 8088 is very 
simple. Plug the 8087 into the spare socket 
next to the 8088 on the PC’s main circuit 
board. The software reacts as if a number 
of new instructions had been added. 
These instructions let you manipulate the 
following data types: 


Byte Integer 

18 bits] 

Word Integer 

(16 bits] 

Short Integer 

(32 bits) 

Long Integer 

164 bits) 

Packed BCD 

(80 bilsj 

Short Real 

(24 bits) 

Long Real 

(64 bits) 

Temporary Real 

(80 bits) 


If you are not using the temporary real 
doto type, the 8087 will automatically con- 
vert your numbers to temporary real. This 
can eliminate round-off error in many 


circumstances. Note that you can instruct 
the 8087 to perform operations at other 
precisions for compatibility with different 
processors. 

The instruction repertoire of the 8087 
is comprehensive; it includes add. sub- 
tract. multiply, divide, square root, tan- 
gent. power, log. and various comparison 
functions. 

To give you an idea of how much time 



is saved by using an 8087, Table 1 com- 
pares times for an 8086/8087 pair with 
those for an 8086 alone performing the 
operations in software. The numbers in 
the table apply to double-precision real 
numbers. Time savings for integers, par- 
ticularly short ones, are less. 

Because of the 8-bit data path on the 
8088. the times for an 8088 should be much 
larger than the 8086 times in the table, 
while an 8088/8087 pair would be compa- 
rable to the 8086/8087 combination. 

You may be wondering about the 
switch referred to on page 11 of the system 
board schematic as N.P., for numeric pro- 
cessor (switch 3 of Si on the system board). 


The 8087 does not require that this switch 
be turned on. In fact, if you do turn it on. 
you will probably get a parity error mes- 
sage. 7’his switch connects the 8087's in- 
terrupt line to the nonmoskable interrupt 
INMl) line of the 8088. The 8087 will inter- 
rupt the processor when an overflow, such 
as divide by zero, occurs. This is not neces- 
sary. The memory parity error line also 
goes to the NMl, hence a possible parity 


error message. 

Some people recommend using 
matched 8086/8087 pairs, and Intel has 
supplied them as matched sets. Theoreti- 
cally. this should not be necessary. 

Bugged by Debug 

Q: My Debug program has a tendency to 
freeze up unpredictably. Why does this 
happen and how can I fix it? 

Phyllis Tawa 
North Kingston. Rhode Island 

A: The Debug program distributed with 
both PC-DOS and MS-DOS has a serious 
flaw. If at the same moment as a tick of the 
real-time clock occurs you issue the Trace 
command and press Return, Debug will 
attempt to trace the wrong instruction. 
You end up staring at a display of the first 
instruction in the timer routine (an STI 
instruction at location F000:FE6E)and at a 
totally defunct computer. The only fix is a 
power down/up sequence. This happens 
to me consistently. 

Monitor Matters 

Q: Why are the IBM color/graphics adapt- 
er and monochrome cards incompatible? 

Todd W. Hansen 
Orangepark, Florida 

A: All monitors and TVs work the same 
way: Many times a second an electron 
beam scans horizontolly across the screen. 
The beom pulses on or off (or changes col- 
ors), depending on changes in the strength 
of the video signal. The beam continues 
scanning across the screen, moving down 
each time it finishes a line, until it reaches 
the bottom— at which point the whole 
process repeals. 

The number of times a second that the 
beom moves across the screen is called the 
horizontal scanning frequency. The num- 
ber of times a second that the whole dis- 
play gets updated is called the vertical 
scanning frequency or, more commonly, 
the refresh rate. 


Table 1: Run-time comparison 


8086/8087 


multiplv 

27 microseconds 

2.100 microseconds 

comptire 

U 

1,300 

scjuare root 

3fi 

19.000 

tangent 

90 

13.000 


PC MAGAZINE 37 DECEMBER 1982 


ExpariyuurHIMPC 


_ — n Koto Worth $100-00. 

gnPTial Facton^ ^ Xandon 

nttpr expires soon - m 


Add-In Winchester Disk System 

(PC)2's Add-In Winchester Dtsk System is housed within the 
IBM chassis and is easy to install directly into the floppy slot, 
reducing desktop space. Also available in 12 and 16 M Bytes 
capacity. 



Memory Expansion Board 


$24900 


(PC)2’s Expansion Board otters 4 TIMES the amount ot memory 
ottered by IBM PC. Configurations can be set at 64K, 128K. 
192K and 256K Bytes. Board can be easily upgraded in 64K 
capacities. Upgradabiiity is the key! 


Asynchronous Communications 
Controller 


1 or 2 line capability on one card. 

Totally compatible with IBM software and diagnostics 



Combination Memory/Asynchronous 
Controller Board 


* 319 “ 


(PCp high capacity memones are combined on one board with 
single or double ported asynchronous communications 
controllers to create the (ft)* Combination Memory Expansion/ 
/^synchronous Controller Board, (PCH Combo Boards are fully 
upgradeable in 64K increments up to the 256K byte board 
capacity and are configured with support for one or two 
RS-232C Ports. 


Larger quantity pricing Is available. For further details call (PC)^ Today 

Phone or Write Now! (408) 749-9313 

(PC)2. 510 Lawrence Expressway No. 678 Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Postage and Handling included within continental U.S.A 
One year warranty on ail board products. 

MasterCard, Visa. Checks and C.O D. accepted. 


PLUG COMPATIBLES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



The co/or card is designed to work 
with a stuniiuni TV set. 7'V sets hav'e a 
horizonta/ frequency of 15.750 Hertz 
(scans fxir second/ and a refresh rate of 60 
times a second (50 if the monitor uses in- 
terlace. hut that’s another topic). A refresh 
rate of 50 or 60 Hertz meshes well with 
household power line frequency so that 
fiouresceni /ights anri pmver supply prob- 
lems do not cause visible lines, or interfer- 
ence bunds, on the screen. 

The monochrome card is designed to 
ivork u'ith the monochrome displaj’, 
u liich runs at entirely different frequen- 
cies from a TV'. The horizontal scanning 
frequency of (he monochrome display is 
18.-I51’ l/ertz. and the refresh rate is 50 
Hertz. To eliminate interference bands, 
(he monochrome display uses u long-per- 
sistence phosphor that causes the image to 
stay on the screen longer than it does with 
a color display. 

/\s u result of its higher scanning fre- 
quency and lower refresh rate, the mono- 
chrome displa>’ can show 350 lines, while 
color adapters are limited to about 240 
lines (15.750 scans per second divided by 
60 screens per second giv'es 262 scans per 
screen, but some time is needed for (he 
scan line (0 return (0 the (op of the dis- 
play). 

7’he registers of the 6845 displa\- chip 
on (he color card can be set to run at the 
right frequencies for monochrome (both 
curds use the same chip), but (he dots that 
form characters ivill be much longer, and 
only 546 dots (or 68 characters) will fit on a 
line. 7’he characters will look short and 
stubb\‘. 

Color 7’V's and R(»IJ hobbyist monitors 
are not able to translate a video signal into 
images us rapidh’ as similarly priced high- 
quality black and white displays can. This 
means (hat a good monochrome display 
can shou' more dots per line than a color 
monitor of similar quality. 

The monochrome display can show 
720 dots per horizontal scan line, while the 
color adapter is limited to 640. This is be- 
cause the monochrome card runs faster 
(16.257 MHz versus 14.3 MHz on the color 
card), taking advantage of (he better band- 
u’idth of (he monochrome display. 

IRM claims that (he power supply on 
(he monochrome displas’ will be damaged 
if you use it with (he color card. 

If you want to read more about (his. 
refer to (he Cheap Video Cookbook by 


PI mac; A/I NT 58 DECEMBER 1982 



Don I.oncosler /i/oivurd W. Sams fr Co. 
fnc.. /mimnopo/is. S7’..95| or the Motorola 
()845 Specifications Sheet. 

Disk to Disk 

Q: Why does it take so long to transfer 
many small files from disk to disk? 

Daniel Kindlon 
Wheaton. Illinois 

A; The fhM PC poiver supp/\- is too smo/i 
to poiver tivo drives at once. When you 
transfer u fi/e from one drive to the other, 
the operating system has to turn off the 
first drive and ivait for the second drive to 
II gel up to speed. When the transfer is com- 
jj piete. you have to waif for the first drive to 
get hack to sf)etid to read the next file, and 
i[ so on. 

When writing to a new drive, the of)er- 
ating system waifs second for start-up 
(see p. A-35 of the Technical Reference 
Manual). This delay means that transfer- 
ring 20 files takes at least W seconds, no 
matter what. 

RAM Disks 

Q: I have read a lot of advertisements and 
comments on something called RAM 
disks. What is a RAM disk, and why 
should I get one for my PC? 

Martin Taylor 
Boston. Massachusetts 

A; 7'he RAM disk (also called a memory' 
disk or speed disk) has to he one of the aii- 
lime great inventions. A RAM disk is a 
machine language progrom that fools the 
D( )S into lyelieving that a portion of RAM 


The RAM DISK 
has to be one of the all- 
time great inventions. 


is actuulh’ o disk drive. You can store pro- 
grams and files in a RAM disk e.vact/y as if 
it were a normal disk, but a RAM disk can 
read and write information much more 
quickly. Programs like WordStar that use 
the disk to store parts of themselves will 
run much faster when used with a RAM 
disk. 

The higg«;st disadvantage to a RAM 


IBM’ PC owners . . . 
have your cake 
and eat it too! 

Convertofiuffer 


IT’S A CONVERTER. The print screen functions of your IBM PC re- 
quire the use of the standard paraiiei printer adapter. However, the 
ietter quaiity printing desired for word proc- 
essing is primariiy avaiiable from printers 
with seriai interfaces. 

ConvertaBuffer enables you to use the print 
screen key with a serial printer by converting 
your PC’s printer output from its parallel for- 
mat to a serial format compatible with your 
Diablo, NEC, or Qume. 

IT’S A BUFFER. Letter quality printers are 
much slower than your PC. ConvertaBuffer 
accepts data as fast as your PC can send it — 

1,000 characters per second; stores up to 21 
minutes of data in its built-in memory buffer; 
and then sends it to the printer at the printer’s 
slower speed — 10 to 60 characters per 
second. This allows you to go on to other 
work without waiting for the printer to finish 
printing. 

Easy-to-install ConvertaBuffer comes with built-in cables which 
plug directly into your PC’s printer adapter and your printer’s serial 
Interface without removing the cover of the system unit. 

IF YOU WANT TO USE ALL OF YOUR PC, GET CONVERTABUFFER. 

IBM IS a trademark of Internahonal Business Machines Corp NEC is a trMemark of NEC Intormalion Systems. Inc 
Diablo Is a trademark ol Xerox Corp Oume is a trademark of Oume Corp 



(please print or type} 


Please send me: 

□ CB-8 (5 min./8K buffer) 

□ CB-16 (10 min./16K buffer) 

□ CB-32(21 min./32K buffer) 

□ Further Information 

Ct. residents add sales tax 

PLEASE ADD $5.00 per unit for shipping/handling 

TOTAL: 


® $229.00 
@ $269.00 
@ $299.00 


Quantity 


Total 


Name 

Street Address 

City State Zip 

InterBank# name on MasterCardTM Charge Card# 

□ Check/Money order enclosed □ MasterCard □ VISA 


Credit Card Signature 


Card Expires 


MAIL TO: von Lelvendyke Enterprises 
Silvermine Avenue 
Norwalk, Connecticut 06650 




(203)846-4973 




PC MAGAZINE 39 DECEMBER 1982 



A good word processor shouHi 
comfortable, and let you put your thoo 
down quickly, almost effortlessly. It s’.t 
have automatic everything, and im 
footnotes, merge, columns and matl] 
screen should be uncluttered and give 
honest view of your text without anna 

o 

WordPerfect does all thii 
has proven itself at pq 
like Harvard, RCA, State Fcurm 
Texaco. The software isi 
documented, is guaranteed, as 
available for immediate deliverin 
more information write oo 




SATELU 

SOFTWA 

INTERIMATIOM 


Aw«lt*bl« for IBM Poroonal Cemputor 


A wore 
proces! 
should oe an 
extension of 
your mind. 





Introducing 




Fixed/Removable GENIE Cartridge Drives 
B.M. • APPLE II • RADIO SHACK 


The Genie Cartridge Drive is a revolutionary new 10 Megabyte Hard Disk 
Drive that includes a 5 Megabyte removable cartridge. The cartridge 
Drive system simply plugs into your computer, and includes all 
necessary software and hardware. Genie drives are compat- 
i ■ V _ ibie with most popular software, 

and each cartridge replaces 
over 

floppy 


Removable Cartridge. Imagine, 5 Megabytes in 
the palm of your hand. These small cartridges are 
only .75 inches thick and 5.50 inches square. The 
disk Itself is completely sealed from the outside 
and all its hazards by a sliding door that opens 
only once the cartridge is firmly seated inside the 
drive. Long term availability of this cartridge is 
assured by its adoption by several well known 
manufacturers Including Dysan, the world leader 
in computer mass storage media. 


10 Megabytes of on-line storage. 

File sizes to 5 Megabytes. 

Power-on self-test. 

Easy back-ups in minutes. 

System expandable to eight drives. 

Built-in error detection and correction. 

No preventative maintenance required. 
Comes complete with all necessary software 
and hardware. 


MTBF 8000 Hours. 


Available at your local computer dealer 


Built-in fan. 

Operates 110/220 VAC 50-60 Hz. 
One year limited warranty. 


GEIliE’ 


COMPUTER CORPORATION 


*Mtnufaclur«r'8 price. Includes all required components. 

IBM Personal Computer is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation. 
Apple Is a register^ trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporeiion. 


31127 Via Colinas #802 
Westlake Village, CA 91362 
(213) 991-6210 







Transfers any file back and forth! 


Increase VisiCQlC and Wordstar power by transferring 
files from the Apple II to the IBM Personal Computer— with 
no retyping and no errors! 

CONNECT Apples to IBMs, Apples to Apples, or IBMs to 
IBMs. Transfer information from any file thousands of miles— 

In minutes. 


Turn on the computers and the software does all the work, 
asking you for the name of the file being transferred, the 
transfer speed, and the type of connection you are using. 

Less than one minute after powering up. the transfer starts. 
The software checks to make sure that no errors occur during 
transmission. 


UPGRADE your 64K Apple VisiCalc to 256K IBM VisiCalc 
power. Your worksheets can be larger. 


INCREASE your Apple Wordstar 130K floppy 
capacity to IBM DOS Wordstar 320K floppy 
capacity. Over twice the space on disk. 
CONTROL communication from either side in either 
direction with Master/Slave operation. 


COMMUNICATE with people using the Electronic 
Mall mode. The Apple-IBM Connection can be 
used to send messages to Apples or IBMs. 
Designed for the non-technical user, the Apple- 
IBM Connection comes with a disk for the Apple 
and a disk for the IBM. Connect the two computers 
with a cable or a telephone modem and insert 
the disks. 



Alpha Products for the IBM Personal Computer 
All Alpha products come with s poken instructions . 
Alpha Software— professional, innovative, 
and easy to use. 

Data Base Manager Type Faces 
Question Mailing List 

Call us for participating Computerlands and 
other dealers at (617)2^-2924. 


REQUIREMENTS 

Apple II— 1 Disk, 64K Memory. D.C. Hayes Micro- 
nriodem II or Mountain Hardware CPS Card. 
IBM RC.— 1 Disk, 96K (Compiled Version) or 
64K (BASIC Version). Any RS-232 Card. 


AVAILABLE 

TODAY! 


Aalpha 

■ software corp 


12 NEW ENGLAND EXECUTIVE PARK BURLINGTON. MASS. 01803 


$ 195.00 


Apple IS o itocTernark of Apple Compuler Componv IBM is o trodemark of Internolionol Busings Mochines Corp 
VtsiColc IS a trodemark of VisiCorp Wordslor is a irodemork of MicroPro Corp 






tiisk is ihul you must remember to copy the 
(iufu onto (j real disk before you turn off 
the machine. If the power to the computer 
fails, you will lose all the changes you have 
made since the data was last stored on 
disk. 

besides being faster, memon' disks 
ha\ e no /nechanicui problems. Using a 
memory disk should noticeably extend 
the life of your disk drives. 'I’he average 
time required b>' u normal flopp\- disk to 
seek to a ;)articular spot on a disk is about 
120 milliseconds; with a memor>' disk, the 
seek time is zero milliseconds. / use one 
constantly and ivould be lost without it. 

Vou will need lOOK of H/\M to simulate 


Consider this example: A = Ii/2. An 
interpreter cun determine whether b is an 
even intf?ger |in which case A ivill be an 
integer!, while the compiler must be told 
ivhat form the programmer expects A to 
take because the \'alue of b is unkfiown ut 
compilation time. 

One very nice feature of a well-writteti 
int(frpreter is that for debugging. \'(ju cu/i 
stop the program at unj* time, examine the 
\’alues of the variables, change them if \-ou 
wish, and then continue. Some interpret- 
ed languages, like API., even let \ou 
change the program while it is running. 

[fCSD Pascal foils into a gray urea. If 
does some of the translation ahead of 


time, pnjducing what is called pseudo- 
code; th«;n the pstJudocod<f is intc*rpreted 
during e.xeculion. /PC 

Murk Zachmun/i is a s\’stems analyst a/id 
electrical enginefer. He is u faculty mem- 
bcT at (Jeorgiu Institute of Technology. 
College of Management, and specializes 
in computer cotnmunicutions. 

I*C Tutfw ansv\'ers your qu«?stions and 
solves f)racficul t>roblems of gtintirnl inter- 
est. If you u’ould like to have your ijues- 
tions answered, drop a line to P(^ 'Fulor. 
P(^ 1.528 Irving St.. San Francisco. CA 
.‘M122. Vou ina\ also s<;nd your questions 
through 7'he Source; S'iVH-18. 




LOU WILL NEED 
160K of RAM to 


simulate a single- 
sided disk drive. 


u single-sided disk drive, so you should 
ha\’e at least 288K (ISOK for the memon' 
disk and I28K for the programs/ in your 
PC to us<? u memor\' disk. My PC has 578K; 
I use it to simulate a double-sided drive. 

Note that if \’ou hu\’(? a memory disk. 
the need for the «icond real disk drive 
e\ aporutes. If you are tight for cash, I sug- 
gest that >'ou bu\' more memor\'. rather 
than a second drive. 


Compilers vs. Interpreters 

Q: What is the tlifference between a C(»m- 

piler and an interpreter? 

Rol)ert Ferrlanti 
(>ald\vell. New jersey 


A; basicalh' a compiler fakes u text file 
/the program vou write/ and converts it 
into u machine language program. 'I’hat 
machine language program must be ex- 
ecuted later by th<? microprocessor. An in- 
terpreter is a translator that reads each 
source statement and iMJrforms the re- 
quired opcTution. Interpreters can be 
much more casual about variable t\'i>e 
definitions /integer, real, character, etc./ 
becaustf an interpreter can work in con- 
text. A cf)mpiler must trunslatf? everything 
out of context. 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 


The IBM Personal Computer 
is here 

KK EDI- RICK COMPU 1 ER PRODUCTS 


It il«)u>!ln Ih.M <'nlv lompiiicr* lof 

bi>: miiUMim-k. «hi\ m-w IH.M Pi fMiii.il ( oinpiiii-r ^mII 
I luii>;c iiiDMi 

li . .til .iImi k ilx' \uu >M>rk. 

plj>. Ii-.im. .UMiinpli'ih .iikI 
Alum' ( *iim- in f»Hi.n .m«l II 

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PC MAGAZINE « DECEMBER I P R 2 



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A little homeivork will prove useful ingettmg the right 
software package for your needs. 


How To Shop For 
Educational Software 


While compiilers will never replace hu- 
man teachers, the right software enables 
the PC to become an effective teaching 
tool. Good educational software can pre- 
sent lessons, drill and test students, tutor 
them in problem areas, simulate experi- 
ments. and keep teachers’ records, allow- 
ing teachers to concentrate their efforts 
where they are most needed. Poor or inap- 
propriate educational software, however, 
may be an expensive ticket to frustration. 

Although educational software has 
only recently become available for the PC, 
prospective buyers face a bewildering ar- 
ray of choices. The following questions 
and answers provide guidelines to help 
parents, teachers, and students decide 
which software packages make the grade. 

What is the main advantage of using 
educational software? 

Educational software provides the op- 
portunity for self-paced learning. The stu- 
dent controls the speed at which the lesson 
is presented, the lesson’s content, and the 
difficulty of the material. Software can be 
programmed to determine from students' 
answers whether they understand the 
concepts. If they don't, questions can be 
rephrased, explanations of the material 
can be presented differently, or the diffi- 
cult>’ of the whole lesson can be changed. 
The term interactive is used to describe 
this type of program. 

Studies on computer-aided instruction 
(CAI) conclude that students using CAI 
learn as fast as or faster than students 
taught by traditional methods. (For one 


such study, see G.P. Kersley's “Some Facts 
About CAI: Trends 1970-1976,” /ournai of 
Kducationai Data Processing. 1976.} 

What subjects can computers teach? 

Almost any subject that involves rep- 
etition. simulation, or memorization can 
be taught with educational software pro- 
grams. Software for microcomputers is 
available or is being developed to teach 
such subjects as math, science, simple 
English usage, touch-h'ping. languages, 
and speed reading. The most popular soft- 
ware packages leach computer literacy 
and programming skills. 


Interaction 

with the program 
through the keyboard 
provides more 
physical involvement 
than reading a book. 


What are the different types of 
educational software? 

Three broad categories can be distin- 
guished: drill and practice, tutorial, and 
simulation. Drill and practice programs 
work best for subjects that require repeti- 
tion and memorization, such as math and 
spelling. 'Putorial programs are good for 


subjects that require long, detailed expla- 
nations. such as language arts. These pro- 
grams give examples that illustrate a con- 
cept. They question the student on various 
aspects of the subject and offer explana- 
tions. 

Simulation software is used for sub- ! 
jects that require practical experience, 
such as pilot training. Computer Simula- r 
tion enables novices to practice proce- , 
dures that would otherwise be expensive 
or dangerous. Computerized chemistr>' | 
experiments, for example, safely simulate i 
explosions or the properties of rare or ex- ' 
pensive chemicals. 


Is educational software for kids? | 

Educational software is designed for j 
all age-groups. Adults can buy programs | 
as substitutes for more expensive and i 
time-consuming night school or corre- ! 
spondence courses. Some of the most ap- 
pealing software for children combines 
game elements with instruction. 

Educational software packages should 
indicate the age-group for which the prod- 
uct is designed. Although this information 
provides potential buyers with an idea of 
who would benefit most from the soft- 
ware. it is a good idea to investigate the 
product. Find out exactly what the pro- 
gram is leaching and make sure the in- 
tended users know enough so that they 
will not be lost from the beginning of the 
lesson. Software for young children 
should not make the student use the key- 
board extensively. Avoid a product that 


PC MAGA^tlNE 45 DECEMBER 1982 



teaches students something they already 
know. 

Educational software is obviously 
challenging for the whiz kid, but what 
about the slow learner? 

If lack of motivation is part of the learn- 
er's problem, computers should help, be- 
cause a good educational program is de- 
signed to be fun. Interaction with the 
program through the keyboard provides 
more physical involvement than reading a 
book, so the student's attention doesn't 
wander as quickly. 

The student needs to learn how to use 
the computer, so the patient assistance of a 
parent or teacher will be necessary' at first. 

How dependable is the material taught 
by educational software? 

Reputable software publishers realize 
that it is essential to present accurate, up- 
to-date information in their lessons. They 
go to great lengths to test, modify, and re- 
test their products. Most of the educational 
software available today is accurate, but 
buyers should follow up on software re- 
views. see product demonstrations, and 
pay attention to publishers' reputations. 

Can computers help keep teachers’ 
records? 

Many software packages use a concept 
known as computer-managed instruction 
(CMI) to assist teachers in monitoring stu- 
dents' work. Programs with CMI keep 
track of each student's test scores, which 
questions he or she answered correctly or 


Software 

for young children 
should not make the 
student use the 
keyboard extensively. 


incorrectly, the amount of time spent on 
the computer, and the lessons on which 
the student is working. The information 
stored on each student's disk may be used 
by teachers to help determine grades. 
Some educational software packages in- 
clude CMI and others give users the op- 


tion to purchase this feature in add-on 
software. Software that does nothing but 
CMI is also available. 

What are the system requirements of 
educational software for the PC? 

Most educational software on the mar- 
ket today takes advantage of the PC's cot- 
or/graphics capability and requires a col- 
or/graphics adapter and a color monitor. 
Three types of color monitors are avail- 
able for the PC: composite. RGB. or a TV 
with an RF modulator. TV sets have the 
poorest resolution but are the least expen- 
sive. Composites are sufficient for users 
who require medium resolution only and 
will settle for 40-column text (80-column 
text is usually illegible on a composite). 
Composites sell for about $300. Users who 
want an 80-column display and high reso- 
lution for charts and graphs will have to 
pay upwards of $600 for an RGB monitor. 

Memory requirements vary' among 
software products and should be printed 
on the package. The normal requirement 
of educational software for the PC is 64K. 

Some products require double-sided 
disk drives, but many are flexible enough 
to run on systems with either single- or 
double-sided drives. 


What are some things to look for when 
choosing educational software? 

Review the documentation carefully 
and ask fur a program demonstration 
whenever possible. Operating instruc- 
tions in both the documentation and the 
software should be clear and concise. 
Educational software users are often chil- 
dren. so make sure the operating instruc- 
tions are comprehensible to the child. 
Check the documentation for incorrect 
grammar: if the documentation is poorly 
written, chances are that the program it- 
self will use poor grammar. 

Software should always let users know 
w here they are in the program. If you want 
to test software for user-friendliness and a 
demo disk is available, try running a pro- 
gram without reading the documentation. 

A good educational software package 
should have concrete leaching objectives. 
Make sure the documentation details ex- 
actly what will be taught and that the level 
of proficiency the user will attain is stated 
in a measurable way. A goal of a certain 
number of words per minute would mea- 
sure proficiency in a typing course, but in a 


math course success might be defined in 
terms of a certain test score. 

Won’t children destroy disks or programs 
as soon as they use them? 

Because floppy disks are not invulner- 
able. children have to be taught to use 
them properly. Good programs, on the oth- 
er hand, do not allow the user to break the 
system simply by fooling around with the 
keyboard. Look for the phrase “user- 


(Computerized 

chemistry 
experiments safely 
simulate explosions. 

proofed " in the documentation. A user- 
proofed program does not allow the user 
to interrupt the flow of the program by 
hitting keys at random. In the industry, de- 
signers call user-proofing "the old elbow 
on the keyboard lest.” 

What if the disk won’t work or the 
program has a bug? 

The willingness of software publishers 
to respond to consumer complaints varies, 
so check the product's dociimenlation for 
warranty support. The documentation 
may list an address ora hot-line number. If 
not. return the product to the dealer who 
sold it to you. Before buying software, re- 
member to check the store's and the man- 
ufacturer's return policies. Tr\’ to buy 
prcKiiicts with warranties. 

What is the best way to keep track of the 
latest educational software 
developments for the PC? 

Look for advertisements and software 
reviews. Educational periodicals such as 
The /ournu/ and Electronic Eeorning are 
excellent references for new software 
products. Computer publications, though 
less specialized, frequently review new 
educational software. Checking with user 
groups is another good idea. /PC 

Douglas Q. Cobb is an educational analyst/ 
programmer for DesignWore. Inc., a 
courseware development company based 
in San Francisco. 


PC MAGAZINE 46 DECEMBER 1982 



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MARKETPLACE/DAVID SEARLS 


A young gameware company, an advertising agency, 
and a famous gambler discover new opportunities in 
the Land of the Personal Computer. 


innJ 




With your IBM PC you have the tool to 
exercise the creative genius of an Edison, 
a Ford, or a Bricklin/Frankston, the inven- 
tors of VisiColc. But unlike traditional in- 
ventors, you don't need to hire white- 
robed assistants, order chemicals, or build 
a factory. All you need is a software con- 
cept, a PC, and the right components to 
plug into it. 

Nothing sparks creation like recrea- 
tion. The urge to show people a good time 
leads many computer pioneers into the 
barely charted wilderness of computer 
games. Back in the early days of personal 
computing— in the late '70s and very early 
'80s— marketing software was simple. En- 
trepreneurial programmers just put their 
disks into a baggie and sold them through 
the mail. Or they sold them to distributors 
and waited for royalties. 


But that's changing. Gameware cre- 
ators will have to get sharp with their mar- 
keting or sell to developers who already 
have marketing savvy. With a good prod- 
uct, either choice may make a fortune. The 
difference is mostly in the risk. 




lOUAND YOUR 
agency need to learn 
fast and act faster. 


If you want to go it alone and minimize 
risk, you should have a good advertising 
agency. What makes an agency good is not 
necessarily what its people already know 


about your field, but their ability to learn 
your field quickly and apply their creativ- 
ity and experience to the marketing of your 
product. In March of this year I knew next 
to nothing about computer games— mini- 
computers. medical systems, and multi- 
plexers. yes, but hardly a byte about 
games. In an industry as new as microcom- 
puters. last year's rookie is this year’s 
coach. You and your agency need to learn 
fast and act faster. Remember: Nobody in 
the wild frontier of personal computers in- 
herited the business from daddy. 

One Case History 

In early 1982. David Handel. M.D., a 
young father of two. was in the middle of 
his year of residency in radiology at a big 
medical center in North Carolina, the Sili- 
con Hills of the Southeast. Handel, who 


PC MAGAZINE 52 DECEMBER 1982 





owned an Atari 800, had been the recent 
victim of the blackjack tables in Atlantic 
City. Having seen top blackjack ace Ken 
Uston beat a Las Vegas casino on CBS’s 
"Sixty Minutes," Handel put 2 and 2 to- 
gether and saw that it added up to more 
than 4. "Why not,” he wondered, "get Ken 
Uston to develop a perfect blackjack com- 
puter game that would also teach his win- 
ning methods?" Nobody could think of a 
good reason not to. so Handel set to the 
task immediately. 

Hoping to avoid the mail-a-baggie 
route. Handel created a company. Intelli- 
gent Statements. Inc. (Chapel Hill. North 
Carolina), and engaged the assistance of 
the advertising agency in which I’m a part- 
ner. By March the programmer, whom 
Handel had hired for a percentage of the 
royalties, was approaching completion of 
the program's first version, which was de- 
signed to be compatible with Apple II. 

Meanwhile, both Handel and the agen- 
cy were dazzled by the prospect of new 
markets opened up by the introduction of 
the IBM PC. They agreed to target the new 
Ken Uston blackjack game for PC-Land 
rather than the orchard across the road, 
especially since blackjack programs to 
spare were hanging from the apple trees 
already there. 


The programmer obliged this decision 
by failing to deliver on the Apple version, 
forcing back all deadlines. It was already 
April, so despite their postponement, the 
deadlines loomed. It seemed imperative 
to publish and publicize the program by 


Much 

territory remains 
uncharted. 


September for the PC + 1 Convention, a 
first for the IBM PC. Appropriately, the 
gathering was to be held in an Atlantic 
City casino. 

Handel hired a new program designer, 
who immediately started developing a 
fresh program specifically for the IBM PC. 
His company planned to translate it later 
for the Apple. CP/M, and other systems. 
The new deadline was july 1. 

Under this pressure Handel, a capable 
program designer in his own right, stepped 
in to collaborate with Uston on the docu- 
mentation. Their text instilled it with a 
comprehensive, sophisticated, generally 


grown-up quality. "Grown-up” described 
the feel of the new product perfect- 
ly— thus the new company’s slogan. 
"Grown-up Gameware." The slogan did ' 
what slogans should do. It capsulized the 
characteristics of the company's product 
line and positioned the company in the 
marketplace. 

Growing Up Fast 

As good concepts tend to do, the pro- 
gram grew in complexity as it grew in val- 
ue. It had to include nearly all the black- 
jack rules and variations in Nevada and 
Atlantic City casinos. And because it was 
the namesake of the world’s most promi- 
nent blackjack expert, it had to include 
each of four different card-counting skill 
levels covered by Ken Uston 's computer- 
optimized teaching system. Then there 
was the problem of stuffing into 48K of 
RAM what most programmers would have 
had a hard time keeping in 64K. The proj- 
ect was a constant challenge and a con- 
tinuing revelation. More ways to make the ^ 
program fun to learn and play evolved i 
through the creation process. i 

All this took time. Simultaneously, the 
agency had to educate itself and create ad- 
vertising and other marketing materials. 
To position the new product in the market- , 


PC MAGAZINE 53 DECEMBER 1982 


place, we decided that we needed a two- 
page. full-color magazine spread rather 
than the more typical single-page ad used 
by other game advertisers. The obvious 
reason for going to two pages— making a 
big splash— wasn't the only one. VVe need- 
ed the extra coverage just to explain th(i 
features of the program. 

Getting a photograph of Ken Uston 
proveil to be an interesting task because 
he is such a difficult man to track down. 
Uston sleeps odd hours, wears what he 
pleases, and at any given moment might 
be writing a book, playing jazz piano, in- 
dulging his passion for video games— or 
doing one or more of these things in one of 
a thousand places on the globe. We finally 
rendezvoused with Uston in |uly in handy 
proximity to the COMDEX show in Atlan- 
tic City. There was barely lime to pose him 
in front of a camera and drop his photo 
into the face of a playing card in the al- 
ready composed ad before the magazine 
deadline arrived. We made it just in time. 

By the lime August came snapping at 
our heels, the program was still in devel- 
opment. Iml now for the Apple as well, 
since a commitment still existed for the 
Apple market. Ever\'lhing else remained 
in stages of expectant incomplelion. The 
documentation, literally a book about 
blackjack, needed touching up. Then 
there were the operating instructions, 
which differed for the IBM and the Apple 
versions. The agency had to coordinate a 
direct-mail effort to line up merchandis- 
ers. It also had to design the program pack- 
aging. which we hoped would look and 
work better than other game packaging. 
Convention display materials, including 
ad reprints, a custom-built blackjack table, 
and corporate image stationeiy. were all 
required to conform to fire codesasvvell as 
marketing guidelines. 

Nobody thought of Intelligent State- 
ments as a one-product com[)any. BJuck- 
iock was its first product but not its only 
one. The game had to do more than make a 
success for itself: it had to provide coattails 
for a whole line of new games. Intelligent 
Statements would need new |)roducls. We 
had to inform programmers that we were 
interested in their software. To helj) attract 
game designers and explain procedures 
and recpiirements, we developed a bro- 
chure for distribution at the convention. 

Advertising agencies think of them- 
selves as crisis management concerns. Or- 
dinal^’ jobs turn into rush jobs. This means 


they cost more, involve more mistakes, 
and require more lime-consuming admin- 
istration, often on nights and weekends. In 
this frenzied atmosphere, one develops an 
intimate familiarity with many of Mur- 
phy's Laws. es[)ecially the First Law: ‘'Ev- 
erything that can go wrong will g») wrong." 

The primar>- duty of an advertising 
agency is to anticipate Murphy's Laws and 
prevent their worst effects. Fortunately, in 
this case we met all the deadlines. Nobody 
suffered permanent damage to the impor- 
tant organs of their bodies. But notuHly in- 
volved in the entire process was likely to 
recommend it. If you want to market on 
the frontier without a guide, you can ex- 
pect to cross a similar uncharted land- 
scape sooner or later. 


of the 

biggest problems 
in the gameware 
business is the rate 
at which opportunity 
grows. 

It's too early t«i gauge the success of our 
ad cani[)aign for the IBM v»;rslon of the 
blackjack game. The one-page ad for the 
Ap[)le version has s(» far shown good re- 
.sults. so we aren’t loo worried about the 
game's primar>' |1BM) market. If we did 
our job right. Ken Uston's Frofessionu/ 
Bluck/dck should be a familiar item on 
.store shelves and In com[)Utertradeadver- 
tising. What's more, new proposals should 
be moving through the development proc- 
ess. David I fandel. M.D.. should be enjoy- 
ing bis new success as an entrepreneur as 
mucb as he enjoys his radiology- career. 
And our agency should be at work market- 
ing an assortment of |)roducts for his com- 
pany. As for the rest of tiui .software fron- 
tier. it's hard to say. Much territoiy 
remains uncharted. 


A Guide to the Frontier 

One of the biggest problems in the 
ganu'ware business is the rate at which 
opportunity grows. This morning's news is 
tonight's hLstory. Future shock Lsn’t a haz- 


aril on the frontier. The present is shock- 
ing enough. If your impulse is to run for 
cover, forget it. But if you're the sporting 
type, you need to make like a fullback in 
football— run for daylight. 

There’s room for everybody and ever\’- 
thing. room for b(?tler versions of existing 
products anil products nobody has ever 
seen before. 

The piKssIbililies for gameware are as 
unlimited as the imaginations that explore 
it. But development of the possibilities 
may reipiire what amounts to mililar>’ sup- 
|)(»rt from the marketing cavalr\' of an ad- 
vertising agency or its equivalent. Not to 
mention ammunition in dollars that can 
easily run Into t>-digil sums. When you 
don’t know precisely where you're going 
land worse, when you don’t know w^hal 
you’re doing), things never cost less than 
you planned. They can cost a lot more. The 
olde.st gambling axiom. "Don’t bet more 
than \ tm can lose." was never more appro- 
priate than here on the frontier. 


Get the Help You Need 

If you’re developing the perfect game 
to change the world and you want to lay 
claim to the [)arls of the world your game 
will change, it may be advisable to take 
your game to a software supplier who has 
the goods to do the job. Find a company 
that offers generous compensaton,' agree- 
ments and ex))i;rt a.ssi.stance in program 
developimmt. 

You may need the a.ssi.slance. Ever\’ 
buj>lnes.s. like ever>- person, tends to take 
is.sues and crises personally, to suffer from 
wba! advertising people call the ''Interior 
point <if view. " If the business is also a 
.single |»erson. the problem can get veiy 
personal, (^specially when the develop- 
ment of that jierson’s [)roduct involves 
tidking for months to a «:reen through a 
keyboard. You need a disinterested out- 
sider to bel|) you understand that ever\- 
thing looks bigger anil weighs more when 
it’s silling on your shoulders. Today’s crisis 
is toiiKjrrow's memor>'. |iist as a good ad 
agency u.sually knows more about market- 
ing than a software company, a good soft- 
ware compain knows more about game- 
ware ilevelopment than you do. 

.An important issue for the gameware 
creator is: Who can you tru.sl'^ One prob- 
lem with our industry at this point is that 
some dls|>ul«js are being settled in courts, 
rhis assures lh»i wealtb of lawyers and 


I 


P C M A c; A / 1 N t; 5-t DEC I-: M B 1-; R 1982 



limits the willingness of software publish- 
ers to promise anything to authors in their 
literature. Publishers view promises as 
hjopholes thrf)ugh which lawyers can 
slither, so the smart ones are reluctant to 
make them. At some point you have to fall 


R 


UBLISHERS 


view promises as 
loopholes through 
which lawyers can 
slither. 


back on your [)ioneering instincts am! trust 
somebody. This means that you look for 
the best deal for yourself and try to find an 
outfit th<it backs its products with first- 
class marketing. This doesn’t mean you 
have to give away your share of the pie. A 
go(Hl software company is one that is com- 
mitted to its authors. 


Breaking the Rules 

There are a number of rules, from Mur- 
|)hy and other sources, that are worth po.st- 
ing on your wall. CJne comes fn»m adver- 
tising: “Newborn Ideas are like newborn 
babies— the\’ all look cute for about 3 
days." Another says. “You don't train your 
horses during the race.” The problem here 
is that there usually Isn’t time for training, 
.so you’d belter get somever>’ fast-learning 
horses or hook up with a team that already 
has a full stable. 

That gloomy oracle. Mr. Murphy, main- 
tained that "Anything you tr>’ to fix will 
cost more ami lake longer than you 
thought.” He also claimed that “Every- 
body has a scheme forgetting rich that will 
not work." (.)ne may find encouragement. 
ho\ve\’er. in the wortls of advertising cre- 
ator Ed Mcf^abe. "I don’t believe in rules.” 
he says. "They only rule out the [mssibilily 
of brilliant exceptions." /PC 


Dov/d Sfiurls is Creofive Director ut 
I fodskins. Simone fr Seur/s Ad\’erfising in 
Hcikdgh. North Carolina. His firms;>e(;ia]- 
izes in high-fechnoiogy marketing. 


r 





MC/N 
Prafessiona/im 

^icrocomnPi 'p 

OPf y 'ndustry 

incentiveTT'°'^'*^^‘ 

Premiums. ’ 

'ape/ p/ns, tie 


Poopon'or?‘’^<=°P'P/et 

money 


MC/ N. Inc. 


COMPUTER JEWELRY 


Simms Center/ Box 9393 
San Rafael, CA 94912 


415/ 453-7033 


Please send the tollowiog pieces of computer 


jewelry: 

Gold- 

Silver- 


$12. ea. 

$10. ea. 

Amount 



$ 



Sub Total 


* 



2.00 

CA residents add 



TOTAL AMOUNT 
ENCLOSED 


...s 



□ Send info re: Custom 14K or 18K Gold — 
with or without Diamonds or Rubies 

□ Send info re: Corporate Volume Discounts 

□ Dealer inquiry 

Mlow 2-3 Weeks for Dettvery 

NAME/CO. 

ADDRESS: 

CITY: 

STATE/ZIP: / 

TELEPHONE: / 


PC M A c: A Z 1 N E SS DECEMBER 1 •» S 2 



Information, please. 

Oi; how the IBM PersiMial Computer can bri ng you the world. 


Modem shown not siftpited by IBM. 


There’s a world of information just 
waiting for you. But to use it, study it, enjoy 
it and profit from it, you first have to get at it. 

\fet the facts can literally be right at 
your fingertips — with your own telephone,a 
modem and the IBM Personal Computer. 

Phig into the network. 

The modem that plugs into your 
phone takes the codes your IBM Personal 
Computer understands and turns them into 
signals that can be transmitted over phone 
lines. (For specifications, look under 
“Communications” in the box at right.) 

On the other end of the phone lines 
are independent information services* ready 
for you to access from your home, school, 
lab or office. So, in minutes, you can tap 
the resources of over a thousand data bases 
and plug into a world of possibilities. 

Something for everyone. 

At home, for example, you can 
shop through an electronic catalog. 
Access mortgage amortization 
and tax depreciation schedules. 
Study the wines of France, the 
foods of Italy. Find property to 
sell, rent, swap or share. And 
play hundreds of games. 

At school, you can bring news 
into the classroom— as it happens, 
■fou can teach and learn with facts 
about everything from phrase 
origins to plane geometry. "Vbu can 
also tap instructional courses and 
learn how to program the very 
IBM Personal Computer you’re using. 
In the lab, you can call up a wealth 
of mathematical and statistical programs 



or retrieve scientific and technological data. 

In the office, you can plug into the 
commodities market. Read abstracts of 
leading publications. Even get census 
figures to see who’s in your major market. 
And when you’re planning a business trip, 
your IBM Personal Computer can provide 
airline schedules and car rental information, 
as well as tell you what the weather is and 
where the best restaurants are. 

Calling all computers. 

And these outside data bases aren’t 
your only information link, either. 


IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 

EHsplay Screen 

High-resolutlon* 

80 charaaers x 25 lines 
Upper and kmer case 
Green phaq>hor .sc reen • 

Op eratin g Systems 
DOS, UCSD p-Sysiem, 

CP/NW6t 


User Memory 

16K-512K bytes* 
Mlcroproccasor 
l6-bil,80H8* 
AinjUary Memory 
2 optional Internal 
ULSkette drives, 5V4", 


Permanent Memory 
(ROM) 40K bytes* 
Color/Graphics 


160K bytes or 320K 
bytes per diskMte 
Keyboard 
83 keys, 6 ft. cord 
attaches to 
system unit * 

10 mnaionkeys* 
10-key numeric ^ 
Tactile feecfoack^ 
Diagnostics 
ftsver-on self testing* 
ftirity checking* 


languages 

BASIC. Rascal. FORTRAN. 
.MACRO Assembler. 
COBOL 
Printer 
Bidlnrctkinal* 

80 charaaers/second 
12 dtaraaer styles, up to 
132 charaaers/line* 
9x9 charaaer matrix * 


16 colors* 

256 dtaraaers and 
symbols in ROM* 
Gn^ibics mode. 

4<x)lor resolution: 
320hx200p* 

Bl^ & white resotutkwi: 
640hx200v* 
Simultaneous gnmhics & 
(ext capability* 
Comimuilcations 
RS-232-Cinietfiice 
Asynchnmous (start/aop) 
protocol 

Up to 9600 bits per second 


*ADVANCED FEATURES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 


With assigned passwords, you can also 
have access to data that’s stored in your 
company’s IBM minicomputer or mainframe 
via your IBM Personal Computer. 

\bu can even exchange a sales forecast 
with a manager two floors down or two 
thousand miles away — one IBM Personal 
Computer to another. 

So the IBM Personal Computer really 
can let you call the world. But there’s one 
call to make first. For more information 
on where to buy the IBM Personal 
Computer, call 800-447-4700. In Illinois, 
800-322-4400. In Alaska or Hawaii, 
800-447-0890. 


The IBM Personal Computer 
A tool for modern times 


* Infornucton services arc avulabJr by subachpeion at additional cost, and are not supplied by IBM. 

tUCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the Uni/enity of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 


FileClerk" 

The $5G Data Base Mans^ement System 
limited Only By Your Disk Space! 

FileClerk™ is our menu-driven data base manager with fully formatted saeen input and 
a capacity of 1250 characters per record in fully user defined records. 

Your data can be created and edited on screen and filed by user-defined indexes. Data 
retrieval is fast and simple and you can generate printouts with your own titles and headings 
on reports, forms and labels. 

Fil^lerk'" also gives you computation ability on selected fields with accuracy to 15 digits. 

This complete dbms written in IBM PC BASIC is only $50! 

Call toU-free to order. 


Get More From Your IBM PC With These New 
Products Offered By Software Laboratories! 

TARGET PlannerCalc" '*tt 

Does any personal or business planning that can be put into a matrbc or a grid-sheet format. 

Uses English and conventional mathematical logic. 

Call toll-free to order! $85 


Mathemagicttt 

Conquer math problems without programming. Applica- 
tions for business, science, education and engineering, turns 
your IBM PC into a problem-solving tool. 

Call toll-free to order! $75 

Both i 

tFilcClerk. tITARGCT PlannerCalc. tttMathemagic and tt10raphmai>k- are 
trademarks of Software Laboratories. Inc.. Corashare Target .Software, and Inter- 
national .Software Marketing respectively. IBM is regisleted trademark of IBM Corp. 


Graphmagicttt 

Make important decisions with your data displayed in visual 
graphs. No programming required. Uses your input or 
“C^c” files generated by outside programs. 

Call toll-free to order! $65 
$125 

• Require 64k. PC DOS (1.0 or 1.1). and single or double sided disk drive. 
FikClerk allows multiple data diskettes for each data base. 

Mailicmagic requires 64k (unaxnpiled). PC DOS (1.0 w 1.1). and one disk drive. 
Both Malhemagic and Graphmagic (compiN) require 96k. PC IX)S (1.0 or 
U). one disk drive, and IBM BASRUN. 



ORDER TOlIrfREE 800/531-1309 

FREE CATALOG AVAILABLE. 

In Ohio, or for technical informalion or program support, call 
614/889-5083. CompuServe 71535,1670. 

SCFTUJflEE ineCfldTOfllES. inc. 


6924 Riverside Drive 
Dublin, Ohio 43017 


more man just storage... 
Solutions! 



20 or 00 Megahytes intnriii 
to 018 FG-not an add-on Dox. 

Runs CRfltrandCiVM OS' 
programs undorrc-DOS. 

Among the many software programs available are: Account- 
ing Plus' Integrated Accounting System, Micronetics' Client 
Write-up General Ledger, SuperCalc Financial Modeling 
Tool, Legal Tender Legal Time Billing System, Medical Billing 
Software, TM III Data Base Management Systems, Project 
Management, and more. 


need we reaiiv say mere? 


Professioncd 
Micro Systems 


1422 Industrial Way, 
Gardnerville, Nevada 89410 
(702) 782-8105 

c 1982. Professional Micro Systems, Gardnerville. NV (6/15/82) 
Note: CP/M and CP/M 86 are trademarks of Digital Research, Inc. 



' 71 0 ' 




V 


J { fj ir 


Jsta 576K 


Offr 


er 


o ^ 92JC 


the 








,,,,,„ .J7 (tBlfy©? 






' 5 :'c:i;r|.| :i 




'^mh 


•> 







SYSTEM FEATURES 


PATIENT RECORDS 
Patient Master 

• Instant Access for Inquiry or Correction 

• 8 Digit Alpha or Numeric ID Number 

• Full Patient Data Including 

* Employer 

* Occupation 

* Referred By 

* Insurance Data 

* Receivables Ageing 
Patient Activity 

• FuH History Maintained 

■ Accident Records Includes 

* Date of Accident 

* Date off Work 

* Date Returned to Work 

* Where Accident Happened 

* How Accident Happened 

• Treatment Record Includes 

* Date of Visit 

* Diagnosis 

* Treatment 

* Charges 

* Condition Text 

* Comments Text 

- Payment Records Include 

* Date 

* Amount 

* Source of Payment 

* Cwments Text 

* Special Adjustments 


ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Automatic Insurance Form Printing 

- Medical 

- Medicare 

• General Insurance 

• Workmans Comp 
Patient Statements 

- Window Addressing 

- Full History or Open Item Detail 

- Past Due Text (Redefinable) 
Management Reports 

• 30/60/90 Aged Trial Balance 

• Insurance Backlog Report 

- Overdoes Telephone List 
Office Access 

- Instant Status Inquiry 

- Flexible Account Adjustments 

- Daily Log Audit Trial 

• Interactive Error Correction 

• Patient Record Printout on Demand 

- Alpha and/or Numeric Patient List 


PRODUCT LINE 

INFORET 

$ 35.00 

DATAENTR 200 

$ 80.00 

ISAM 100 

$ 90.00 

ISAM 200 

$ 140.00 

ISAM 300 

$ 190.00 

MEDICAL REC SYST 

$2000.00 


SEND FOR FREE CATALOG — DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 


PRACTICE INFORMATION 

Centralized Customization of Practice Information 
Up to 999 Treatment Descriptions & Prices 
Up to 999 Insurance Co. Naime & Address 
Up to 999 DiagrK>8is Codes 
Screen Prompting of Diagnosis Codes 
Interactive In^iry/Correction/or Addition 
Printed Documentation of AH Practice Information 
Monthly Practice Analysis 



OHHSOH 
SSOCIATES 
OFT WARE 


(916) 221-0740 P O BOX 3069 

REDDING. CA 96049 


AT LAST . . . FOR THE IBM PC* 

EASY TO USE DATABASE MANAGEMENT FOR FIRST-TIME USERS 


Info-GEN 


Info-GEN is not just another database manager, but is a com- 
plete "Application Generator." In only a few minutes, you can 
easily build a complete, customized, menu-driven application 
as simple as a mailing list or as complex as a raw materials in- 
ventory. And you need no programming knowledge. 

Gone are the days of needing a programmer. Gone are the days 
of learning complex command-driven database systems. 
Info-GEN assists the user in defining a complete application 
including data base files, entry and update screens, 
calculations, record selection criteria, and inquiry, report, and 
label formats. 

Info-GEN allows the definition of up to 50 data fields per re 
cord including 10 primary keys. Eight different data types pro- 
vide for flexible and efficient storage of information. Minimum 
and maximum field values and required entry are automatically 
edited. Records are accessed in less than 2 seconds through a 
sophisticated Assembler level Btree index structure transpar- 
ent to the user. No file reorganization or sorting is nec- 
essary. There is even an "unerase" function to put back data 
erased in error. 

Info-GEN will either generate a data entry screen 
automatically or, if selected, provide a flexibile function for 
"painting" a custom screen. The user can specify the field loca- 
tion, edit criteria, calculation formula, default value, and other 
attributes for each field. The descriptive name of the screen is 
then placed on the application menu for easy future 
processing. 

Inquiry reports and special forms, including labels, can be 
quickly and easily generated through Info-GEN’s query defini 
tion function. Up to eight logical selection criteria can be speci- 
fied per report. Data fields can be positioned where desired 
and totals taken. Reports can be output to the screen, line 
printer, or to a file for editing or even transmission via telecom 
munications. Once again, the user's menu is automatically up- 
dated with the report’s name. Price $195. Demo $25. 

As your information needs increase, upgrade by adding 

Info-REPORTER. 

Info-REPORTER is a flexible, easy to use report writer which 
uses existing data files to produce comprehensive, cosmetical- 


ly pleasing reports and forms. A report image is shown on the 
display screen which allows the user to position each field and 
define its contents exactly as required. Multiple input files can 
be referenced for complex reports. 

Info-REPORTER not only accesses data in existing record se- 
quence. but also sorts data at the incredible rate of 1,000 
records per 10 seconds. Records can be sorted on 1-9 keys in- 
dependently, ascending or descending. 

Management and accounting reports and forms ranging from 
simple to complex, may be defined quickly using the interact- ' 
ive report definition function. Report definition provides a full i 
range of features including multiple headings, footings, detail ' 
lines, calculation and subtotals. 

The output report may be directed to the screen, printer or 
disk(ette) data file for transmission via telecommunications. 
Info-REPORTER adds your report request to the Info-GEN ap- 
plication menu for easy selection. Price $125. Demo $25. 

And, if you prefer to do your own programming, Info-Pros, 

Inc. offers Info-SORT, a sort/ select utility. 

Info-SORT is a fast, high performance sort/ select program de- 
signed to be used as a stand-alone utility or to be interfaced 
with existing applications. Info-SORT uses the fastest sort 
technique known and is written in Assembly language. In fact, 
it can read and sort 1000 records (64 bytes) on a 6 byte string 
key and create an index file in less than 10 seconds. 

Info-SORT Features 

— Sort on 1-9 keys independently, ascending or descending. 

— Keys can be character string, integer, single or double 
precision fields. 

— Process up to 65,535 records with a maximum record 
length of 1024. 

— Select (include or omit) records based on up to 8 logical 
conditions. 

— Parameters may be easily modified and saved on diskette 
for future use. 

— Full record-out sort, index-out (tag) sort, or address-out 
(relative record number) sort, depending upon your 
requirements. 

— Dynamically configures work files on diskette, if required. 

Price $95. Demo $25. 


*IBM PC With MKR nwmoty. monochreine or compatibk 80 x 25 momtor. Z disk dn\« BASIC. DOS Vem<Hi 1 10 


Please send me: 

copies of Info-GEN 6’ $195 

copies of Info-REPORTER $125 

copies or Info-SORT @ $95 ea. 

manual and demo for S’ $25 ea. 

send more information 

California residents add 6% sales tax. Please add $3 for 
postage and handling. Deduct 10% for orders of 2 or more items. 


1 

Name I 

Address j 

City State Zip j 

Send check, money order, or COD request to: j 

Info-Pros, Inc. I 

2102 Business Center Dr. Dealer inquiries invited I 

Irvine, Calif. 92715 (714) 851-8975 \ 





NEC^ new letter-quality printer 




The Spinwriter"*35S0 lets the IBM PC 
get down to business. 

NEC’s new Spinwriter letter-quality 
printer is the only one plug-compatible 
with the IBM Personal Computer. So you 
get the business applications you’ve been 
wishing for. Letter-quality output for 
word and data processing. Multi-language, 
scientific, and technical printing. Simple 
forms handling. Quiet operation. And the 
reliability of the industry’s most popular 
printer line. 

NEC designed the new Spinwriter espe- 
cially for the IBM PC. It comes complete 
with documentation and training materials 
to fit your PC user’s handbook. Just plug 
the Spinwriter in and your PC instantly 
becomes more versatile and flexible. 

More than 8 forms handlers and 
50 print thimbles boost PC versatility. 
NEC designed the Spinwriter’s 8 modular 
forms handlers to accommodate a wide 
range of paper and document sizes and 
types. The easily mounted handlers let 
your computer print out the forms you 


need for data processing, word processing, 
graphics, accounting or other business 
applications. 

The Spinwriter’s 50 print thimbles 
can more than triple your PC’s usefulness. 
They come in both constant pitch and 
proportional-spaced fonts, plus in foreign 
language, technical and scientific versions. 
They snap in and out in seconds, and let 
you print up to 203 columns on 16-inch 
paper. They each last for more than 30 
million impressions. 

This printer’s special features make 
everything look better on paper. 

The Spinwriter’s software-invoked 
features include automatic proportional 
spacing; bidirectional, bold and shadow 
printing; justification; centering; under- 
scoring; and sub/super scripting, all at 
speeds up to 350 words per minute. 

That big extra, Spinwriter reliability. 
Spinwriters have the industry’s best 
mean-time-between-failure rating, in ex- 
cess of 3,000 hours. In terms of average 
persona] computer usage, that’s more 
than five years. 


The Spinwriter 3550 is available at 
Computerland stores. Sears Business 
Systems Centers and IBM Product 
Centers nationwide. 


NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

5 Militia Drive, Lexington, MA 02173 
Send me more information on the 
Spinwriter 3550. 


Name 


T itic Telephone 


Company 


Address 


I ('ity State Zip | 

I 


NEC 

NEC Information SYStems.lnc. 

Spmwriler is a trademark of Nippon Electric Co . Ud 





IBM end I8M-PC are trademarks o( Interna- 
uonal Business Machines Corporation Conv 
puteriarvl is a trademark o> Computenand 
Corporation Colby Computer, Cdby PC- 1. 
and PC-Stik are trademarks of Colby 
Research Industries, Inc 


'Price includes 9* high-resokjtior display, 
power supply. I5*x tr* 8’/?' case with han- 
dle and interlace boards Does not include 
Items translerred from the IBM-PC (disk 
drive, system board, plug-in boards, key- 
board) Dealer inqumes welcomed CCopy- 
nghl 1982 Colby Computer/A Division of 
Colby Research Industnes. Inc 


HOWTO 
CARRYYOUR 
BM-PC FOR 



Introducing the Colby PC-1 " Con- 
version Kit— for IBH-PC 
performance in a portable 
package, start with a standard 
IBM-PC, Add 
the Colby PC- 1 
—a compact. 
26-pound 
portable 
unit that houses 
its own 9-inch dis- 
play and power 
■ Mil supply. Transfer the system board. 

lUlll disk drive and PC boards from your 

I ( IBM-PC (they fit neatly inside the 

Colby), With the help of the standard 
IBM-PC keyboard (it's plug-compatible). . .the Colby PC-1 is 
ready to go (and perform). 

Portability is only minutes away. The Coiby pc-i conversion Kit 
includes everything you need to "portable-ize" the IBM-PC— in 
less than an hour and with only a screwdriver. (If you prefer, you 
can have the job done by your local participating Computer- 
land. ■” ) And since the Colby has its own display and power sup- 
ply, you only have to make the conversion once. 

It’s almost like getting a portable computer for 

free. We can supply a new "system" mother • 
board for your IBM-PC— to replace the one 
transferred to the Colby PC-1 . So instead of 
having to buy an expansion chassis, your 
IBM-PC chassis steps in to do the job. Add an 
interconnect cable between the IBM-PC 
chassis and the Colby PC-1 and you have a total 
of twice the plug-in slots of either unit alone. 

Another extra — just plug your IBM-PC display into the Colby 
, and enjoy the use of both displays simultaneously. 

Convenience plus, with the 

IBM-PC and the Colby PC- 
1 . you get an unbeatable 
combination of sophistica- 
tion and portability. 

That's convenience. 

And since both sys- 
tems use the same 
hardware, software, and 
keyboard . you only have to 
learn to operate one system. 

That s convenience plus. 

At $899,* tbe price of tbe Colby PC-1 is especially “plug-compat- 
ible." Think about it. If you own an IBM-PC, you can add the 
portability of the Colby PC-1 for much less 
than the cost of a separate, comparable 
system (we're not even sure that a compar- 
able system exists). If you're looking for 
your first computer, the Colby PC- 1 — cou- 
pled with the power of the IBM-PC — could 
offer the extra mileage you've been waiting | 
for. . . at a cost that won't leave you short. 

Tbere's more to come from Colby Computer. 

Watch for the Colby PC-2— complete with its own snap-on key- 
board and dual 5-inch disk drive capability (these items will 
also be sold separately to enable you to upgrade your Colby 
PC-1 ) . . . two new PC SO k joysticks ... a PC plug-in 300-baud 
auto-dial modem . . . plus other IBM-PC compatible prod- 
ucts ... all available soon. 

RSVP. Please write to us for data sheets and ordering information 
(prices are introductory offers, subject to change without no- 
tice). If you missed seeing the Colby PC-1 in action at Comdex 
'82. visit us at the Eighth West Coast Computer Faire (San Fran- 
cisco, March 1983). 


WITHOUT 
MOVING IT 
AN INCH. 





coLB'Y * Division of 
COMPUTER Colby Researcb Industrios, Inc. 

’ Number Two Palo Alto Square 
Palo Alto, California 94304 
(415)493-7788 


Imagine 


Now 

imagine 


...a disk to tape 
subsystem with a 
transfer capability 
of 10 megabytes in 
under 2 minutes. 

... this same disk 
subsystem being 
shared by up to 
4 IBM PC’S. 


Realize it ...for under 


Purchasing additional storage capacity with a hard disk 
subsystem is only addressing part of your needs. Expanded 
data files are useless if you can’t get to the information 
when you need it and risky if they are not duplicated in 
backup form. 

But now, Sysgen "" has coasidered the total picture with 
a subsystem that incorporates one of the fastest tape 
streaming backups to secure your data and an expansion 
capability designed to allow up to four PC’s to share 
stored files. 

For the full story on the security and flexibility the 
Sysgen I can bring to your business, we invite you to send 
in the attached card. 

Dealer inquiries invited. Contact: 

Mr. Joe Barnas, V.P. Marketing (3121 291-1235. 

pnsm 

■ computer products, inc. 



*S«tE«sted retail pricr fnr Kan) subs>>lrm S5.4V5.00. 
Addtiioflal controller cards will be ret)uired for a mulliple user capabilit>. 
Pri/in Products. Inc.. K the esdusisr Martu-linf> Agml for Ssskch Products. Inc. 


702 Landwehr Rd., Northbrook, 11.60062(312) 291-1235 



THE BEST PRICED 
256K RAM CARD 
OHLY HAS 64K. 




card is fully warranted for f 
1 year. Add Apparat's 
COMBO card to the RAM 
card and get three 
additional functions; 
parallel printer, RS232 
async communications and 
clock calendar for only $199. 

Apiiarat's 64K RAM ceird 
gives you memory and 
economy. Tb order yours, 
write Apptarat Inc., 4401 
5. Thmeirac Parkway, Denver; 
Colorado 80237, 
303/741-1778. Or to sp>eed up 
your order; call us toll free at 

800/525-7674 

IBM PC is a trademark of IBM 


BUT YOU CAM GET 
ATiOTHER 192K 
AnYTIME. 


Apprarat's RAM card, 
priced at $149, is the most 
economical way to add 
memory to your IBM PC today. 
And have the ability to add-on 
tomorrow. 

The RAM card, with 
sockets for up to 256K bytes 
of RAM, and parity, gives you 
an additional 64K of RAM for 
your IBM for a total of 128K. 
As the price of RAM chips 


comes down 
further or your 
needs go up, 
you can add to it easily. 
Additional RAM is available 
today at $79 F>er 64K 
Increments if you need it now. 
If not wait and buy it in the 
future. Either way, your RAM 


Apparot,lnc. 


PC/FORTH 

Why you should try FORTH on your IBM® Personal Computer . . . 

• FORTH is interactive and conversational like BASIC 

• FORTH's performance is far superior to ordinary interpreted languages, and when 
carefully tuned can approach the speed of equivalent assembly language programs 

• FORTH's compiler includes constructs that support modular, structured programming 

• FORTH is largely written in itself and is highly portable (can you imagine a BASIC 
interpreter written in BASIC?) 

• FORTH includes a user-controlled virtual memory facility for program text and data 

• FORTH permits easy user definition of new data types and control structures. 

The PC/FORTH package includes the FORTH interpreter/compiler with virtual memory management, a full screen 
(visual) editor optomized for the PC graphic display capabilities, a true 8086 assembler with local lobels, a 
reverse translator, debugging aids, utilities, and a 1 50 page manual. FORTH "screens" are stored in standard 
random access disk files and may coexist with other program and data files. The FORTH vocabulary has been 
extended to give full access to all operating system facilities including file and record management. Optional 
extension packages for data base management, floating point math, and advanced color graphics are also 
available. 

Software developers; our version of the Nautilus FORTH Cross-Compiler allows you to create dedicated disk or 
ROM-based applications written in FORTH. "Headerless" programs may be generated which are extremely 
compact, efficient, and are nearly impossible to disassemble. 

Current prices for PC/FORTH and extensions are given below. Shipping by UPS or first class mail within USA or 
Canada included. California residents add appropriate sales tax. Purchase orders accepted at our discretion. No 


credit card orders. 

PC/FORTH (Specify CP/M-86® or PC/DOS) $100.00 

Software floating point extensions $100.00 

Intel 8087 floating point extensions $100.00 

Advanced color graphics extensions $100.00 

Data base management extensions $200.00 

Nautilus Cross Compiler (PC/FORTH also required) $300.00 


Laboratory Microsystems 

4147 Beethoven Street 
Los Angeles, CA 90066 

( 213 ) 306-7412 

CP/M IS o regtslered trademork of Digital fteseorch. Inc 

IBM IS a registered trademark of Internationol Business Machines Corp 


THERE ARE TWO 
WAYS TO MANAGE 
YOUR FILES 


one takes forever to learn. . . 



Choosing the right software to 
manage your business tries is not 
easy. 

There's one program for text edit- 
ing. Another program for mailing 
lists. Another for expense reports. 
And still another for label 
generation. 

It's a bewildering experience 
for the people who have to learn 
and use all these programs. But, 
now there's TEXIPLUS. . .the first fully- 
integrated file management 
program for your IBM PC. 

TEXTPLUS . . . the word processor 

In addition to providing you with 
all the full-screen text manipula- 
tion features you're likely to rreed, 
TEXTPLUS displays it all In a uniquely 
friendly format. Because, along 
with your text, TEXTPLUS provides 
constant visual verification of 
status, current function key mean- 
ings, plus tab and margin settings. 

And it's simple to change type- 
styles, right margin justification, or 
any other of TEXTPLUS' vast array of 
text options. You can even merge 
spread sheet files with yourtextwith 
total compatibility. 


the other 
doesn't! 


TEXTPLUS. . . for mailing lists 

Need a list of all your customers 
in Rorido? Count on TEXTPLUS to 
sort any list you need, quickly 
and easily. It con sort by name, 
zip code, dollar volume, or any 
other identifier you choose. And 
you can merge text with your mail- 
ing list for convenient, error-free 
form letters. Plus, it will generate 3-, 
4-, or 5-llne mailing labels. 

TEXTPLUS ... for expense reports 

The perfect tool for the salesman 
who needs a fast, efficient system 
far keeping track of expenses. 
TEXTPLUS makes it easier than ever. 

Soy for instance, you need a list 
of cash expenditures. TEXTPLUS will 
search your expense report. Ignore 
all credit cdrd and business check 
purchases, and generate a list 
of cash purchases. 



TEXTPLUS vs. the learning curve 

You could actually buy up to a 
dozen programs to handle the 
chores TEXTPLUS was designed to 
handle. But, let's face It. It can fake 
weeks for the salesman, secretary 
or executive to learn how to 
operate them. And there's no 
assurance that they'll be compat- 
ible with each other. 

TEXTPLUS includes a remarkably 
understandable tutorial disk and 
a comprehensive "pfain-English" 
manual that will have TEXTPLUS up 
and running In minutes. It's the 
kind of effortless operation that lets 
you optimize your time Instead of 
wasting if. And If there's sf/// some- 
thing you don't understand about 
TEXTPLUS after buying It. feel free 
to call our "hot-line" for complete 
technical assistance. 

So. when you consider which 
file management software to 
purchase for your IBM PC. there's 
really only two choices: 

TEXTPLUS. And everything else. 


See TEXTPLUS at your IBM software 
dealer or write to: 


SOFTWARE 

CORPORATION 



Owl Software 
6927 Atoll 

North Hollywood, CA 91605 


For orders or intormotion calf 
(213) 982-6243 

TEXTPLUS is available on SVa” diskette 
in two versions; 64KB basic version 
($200) or foster 128KB compiled 
version ($240) 


IBM Is a registered troderrark ol Interrtotional 
Busirtess Mochmes Cotp 
WORDSTAR and MAILMERGE ore traderr>arks of 
MicroPro international. 

T.I.M. Is a trademark of Innovative Software. Inc. 





Tvro MIUION PEOPlf COULD 
USE YOUR SOFTWARE 

TOO DAD THEfVE NEVER 
HEARD OF YOU. 


At last count, more than a 
couple of million Americans 
owned personal computers. And 
that number is expected to triple 
by 1985. 

That’s a fertile environ- 
ment for software sales. But a 
lot of personal computer soft- 
ware organizations are discover- 
ing it’s not as easy as they might 
have thought. 

The problems boil down 
to these: 

Lack of awareness on the 
part of personal computer buy- 
ers. Lack of understanding __ 
on the part of personal I ><■ 
computer salespeople. 

Lack of unlimited dollars to | 
advertise in the myriad 
magazines that reach this 
sm3l segment or that 
small segment of the 
total market. 

If any of this sounds 
like a familiar frustration 
to you, we’ve got good 
news. LIST is here. And 
its advent heralds a new 
era in cost-effective soft- 
ware marketing. 

LIST isn’t another 
guide. It’s not another 
directory. It’s an informa- 


tive new publication that puts 
software first. And puts you in 
touch — directly, inexpensively 
— with the fastest growing seg- 
ments of the personal computer 
market. 

WithZJSTi you’ll be able to 
reach business and professional 
people at a critical point in the 
purchase cycle — before they’ve 
bought their hardware. 

At the same time, you’ll be 
able to impact another significant 
market sement — those people 
who already own personal com- 


puters, and are eager to learn 
how they can do more with 
them. 

To find out how UST can 
expand the awareness of your 
software for less than $200, 
send us this coupon. (Hurry! We 
go to press December 15.) 

Or don’t. And go on being 
less well known than you 
deserve to be. 

LIST is published l^Redgate 
Publishing Co., an affiliate of 
EF Hutton & Co. 

1 800 327-1300 

In Florida call; 1 305 231-6904 


WANT TO MAKE MORE PEOPLE AWARE OF MY SOFTWARE: 



□ Please send me literature that explains how UST can help. 

□ I don't want to wait on the mails. Call me right away. 

Send to UST, Redgate Publishing Co., 3407 Ocean Drive, 
Vero Beach, FL 32960. Or phone 1 800 327-1300. 

In Florida caU: 1 305 231-6904 


LIST 

,The Software Resource Book _ _ J 
for ffersOTial Computer Users 


© 1982 Redjtate PublishinK Company 



10 reasons wliy you 
should call DataSouroe" 
£sr software... 


1 . 

2 


Free Systems Analysis We hove developed 
a variety of sell-administered analysis tools 
to help you identity those products best 
suited to meet your needs. 


Competitive Prices Our volume enables us 
to otter you prices which are consistently 
• competitive. Compare for yourself, then call 
us toll-free 800-328-2260. 



Express Service: 7 days per week, 24 hours 
per day You can place orders any day ol the 
week at any hour of the day or night. Ybur 
order will be processed and shipped within 
24 hours for all products in stock. 


4 . 

5 . 


Discount Structures We otter significant 
discounts to any individual, organization or 
user's group purchasing in quantity. 

Key Account Program For corporations 
and institutions, we otter a comprehensive 
program: volume discounts, complete 
maintenance packages vrith an on-site 
option, specially staffed technical support, 
tailored training programs and creative 
financing options. 


I Unconditional Money-Back Guarantee 
I We stand behind ever^hing we sell. If you 
F* are not completely satisfied with your 

purchase, return the item within 60 days and 
receive a lull refund. 


Toll-Free Technical Support We service 
# what we sell. Our customers hove direct 
access to our technical staff on a toll-free 
basis. 800-328-2260. 



National Maintenance Network We offer a 
variety of maintenance agreements for both 
software and hardware products. Call for 
more information. 

Flexible Pc^ment Options We accept all 
major credit cards, checks and money 
orders, as well as purchase orders from 
corporate accounts. 



Stote-ol-the-Art Software and Hardware 
We carry a broad range of what we believe 
to be the best in software plus carefully 
selected hardware products and 
accessories. 


Here!s a small sampling ol products available now from DotaSource.* 
(If you doni see what you need, just call us at the number below.) 


DBMS 

dBase II - Ashton-Tote 

S495 

Condor II - Condor 

$450 

Selector V - Mlcro-AP 

S395 

Data Star - MicroPro 

$225 

Super Sort I - MicroPro 

SI 70 

Spreadsheets 

Super Calc - Sorcim 

SI99 

Calc Star - MicroPro 

S185 

Vlslcalc - VlsiCorp 

S159 

Vlslcolc256K - VlsiCorp 

S195 

Word Processing 
Wordstar - MicroPro 

S289 

Wordstor/Mailmerge - MicroPro 
Mince - Mark of Unicom 

S385 

S148 

The Final Word - Mark of Unicom 

S250 

Spelling 


Spellguard - Sorcfm 
Spellstar - MicroPro 
The Word - Oasis 

$225 

S165 

S 70 

Communications 
Cross Talk - Micro Stul 

$145 

EmuUnk - Micro Link Corporation 
Move It - Woolf Soltware Systems 

$995 

SllO 


MiscSoflwaie 

Mothemagic - Inti Software Marketing S 75 

NWAStotpok - Northwest Analytical S395 

Optimizer - Supersoft SI 45 


Hardware 

Smith-Corona TP- 1 
C ltohF- 10 Star Writer - 40 CPS 
C.ItohF-10Printmoster - 55 CPS 
C.Itoh Pro Writer 
C ltoh Pro Writer-Serial 
Hayes Smart Modem 300 
Hayes Smart Modem 300/ 1 200 
Signalman MK I Modem 


S689 
SI, 475 
Call lor price 
S515 
S650 
S230 
Call tor price 
S 99 


NEW! Only from DataSource® 
EMULINKlor the IBM PC. 


On-Line Binarysynchronous link to the 
big IBM host Full 3270 emulation lor 
the IBM Personal Computer. Com- 
plete documentation included 
with diskette and A/n/nc nn 

board. 5W5.UU 


Please include 3% tor shipping and handling. Minnesota residents, add 5% sales tax. Prices subject to change without notice. 


American Express 

MasterCard 

Visa 


FOB MOBE INFOBMATION CALL TOLL-FBEE 


1-800-328-2260 

IN MINNESOTA CALL 612-544-3615 


Your source lor micro software and hardware 


DataSource Systems* Corporation, Dept. CD, 1660 So. Highway 100. Minneapolis. MN 55416 









Game connoisseurs rejoice! New 
games for the PC are pouring into the 
marketplace. The proof is in the chart 
accompanying these reviews. It has vi- 
tal statistics on every PC game we 
could track down by press time. Test- 
ing every computer game listed in the 
chart was not possible, but those re- 
viewed in detail represent the range of 
available PC games. 

You'll find sophisticated strate- 
gy games that require clever detective 
work and shoot-‘em-up arcade games 


for players who are quick on the joys- 
tick. Students who crave painless 
ways of learning a subject and black- 
jack fans hoping to hone their betting 
skills will find instructional and gam- 
bling games. Simulation software al- 
lows you to strike it rich on the stock 
market or win a drag race, depending 
on your inclination. .And if you hclieve 
that variety is the spice of life, check 
out the anthology packages. 

Each review offers a candid, in- 
dependent assessment of a game's en- 
tertainment value, ease of use. docu- 


mentation, accuracy, error handling, 
and warranty support. After careful 
reading, you’ll be able to find just the 
right game to test your skills or seek 
your vicarious fortune. 

The chart provides enough in- 
formation to point you in the right di- 
rection. but when making a purchase, 
be sure to inquire about additional 
hardware requirements and details 
about individual games. And don’t for- 
get to check future issues of PC for 
new game reviews. 



A K 1 I iDCD I DDnr»t rrT K.I A \.<r r^D a i>i4ir'C/cr»iiMn tvdc r»i: r:A \ac iidcaacn 


MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE of’ game' 

"^REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Acorn Software 
634 North Carolina Ave. 
SE 

Washington. D.C. 20003 

EVEREST EXPLORER 

B/W 

Strategy’ 

46K. one disk drive 
$19.95 

LOST COLONY" 

B/W 

Strategy 

48K. one disk drive 
$39.95 

Aeon Concepts 
Computer Products 
Division 
1657 Red Mill 
Piltsburjih. PA 15241 
|412| 831-5352 

MICROCOSM" 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter. 40- or 
80-column monitor 
$39.95 

Alcazar Associates 
2638 S. Lynn St. 
Arlington, VA 22202 
(703) 684-8053 

STELLAR 

DEFENDER'* 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

32K. one disk drive 
$14.95 

Alpha Software Corp. 
12 New England 
Executive Park 
Burlington. MA 01803 
|617| 229-2924 

QUESTION 

B/W 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive 
$45 

Alphanetics 
P.O. Box 597 
Forestville. CA 95436 
(707) 887-7237 

U.S. MOTORS 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K, one disk drive, 
coior/graphics adapter 
$39.95 each 

GAMES PAC 1 & II 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

ATLANTIC CITY 

Color & B/W 

Gambling 

PROSTHESIS 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

WORD WHIZ 

Color & B/W 

Instructional 

STATES 'N CAPS 

Color A B/W 

Instructional 

Anthony A. Schultz 
310 153rd St. 

Calumet City. IL 60409 

MAN IN THE .MOON 

B/W 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive 
$14.95 

.Armonk Corporation 
610 Newport Center Dr. 
Newport Beach. CA 92660 
(714) 760-3955 

EXECUTIVE SUITE 

B/W 

Strategy 

64K, one disk drive 
$39.95 

Avalon Hill Game 

Company 

4517 Harford Rd. 

Baltimore. MD 21214 

(301)254-5300 

MIDWAY 

CAMPAIGN" 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

48K, one disk drive 
$21 

COMPUTER STOCKS 
& BONDS" 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive 
$25 

VOYAGER GALAXY 

Color 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$25 

COMPUTER DRAW 
POKER 

Color & B/W 

Gambling 

48K. one disk drive, color/ 
graphics adapter 
$21 

GALAXY" 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

48K. one disk drive 
$25 

Bella Software 
500 Citizens Bank Center 
Richardson, TX 75080 
(214)238-5436 

BUG-OFF 

Color 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 

Brauer Computer Support 

P.O. Box 86634 

San Diego. CA 92138 

METEOR MATH" 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Instructional 

64 K. one disk drive, 
coior/graphics adapter 
$39.95 


PC MAGAZINE 72 DECEMBER 1982 



MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Blue Chip Software 

19824 \'enlura Blvd. Jfl25 
Woodland Hills. CA 91364 
(2131 881-8288 

MILLIONAIRE** 

Color & B/W 

Simulation 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter. 40- or 
80-column monitor 
$99.95 

C&C Software 
54 Sonoma Ave. 
Goleta. CA 93117 
(8051 885-8802 

BACKGAMMON 

Color & B/W 

StrategN- 

64K. one disk drive, color/ 
graphics adapter. 40- or 80- 
column monitor 
$29.95 

C&C Softw’are, Inc. 

West Bearden Office Plaza 
316 Nancy Lynn Ln. JJ26-B 
Knoxville. TN 37919 
(615) 584-9774 

FOOTBALL 
PREDICTOR '83** 

Color 

Statistics 

B4K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$39.95 

DUNGEON DUAL 

Color 

Sound 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 

SPACE PIR.ATES 

Color 

Sound 

Slraleg\ 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 

Codex 
P.O. Box 75 
Bedmin.<?ter. PA 18910 

CH/\MELE()N 

Not .^vaihihle 

StrategN- 

80-column monitor 
$19.95 

Computer Sports System 
22458 Ventura Blvd. 

Ste. E 

Woodland Hills. CA 91364 
|213| 992-0514 

PRO FOOTBALL 

Color & B/ W 

Stali.stics 

64K. one disk drive 
$195 

Compulerenergy 

Corporation 

P.O. Box 6267 
Denver. CO 80206 

FOtJTBALL GAME 

Color B/W 

Stra!eg\ 

64K. one disk drive 
$15 

Computrickx. Inc. 

533 Fifth St, 

Santa Rosa. CA 95401 
1707) 544-8363 

BRIDGE TUTOR** 

Color 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$60 

Davell Custom Software 
P.O, Box 4162 
Cleveland, TN 37311 
|615| 336-3055 

MILKY WAY 
MERCHANT 

B.'W 

Strategv’ 

48K. one disk drive 
$29 

SPELLING 

VOCABULARY 

BUILDER 

B/W 

Instructional 

48K. two disk drives 
$50 

Digital Marketing 

2670 Cherpt' Ln. 

Walnut Creek. CA 94596 
(4151 938-2880 
Telex: 17-1852 

ASTRO-DODGE 

Color & B W 

.Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter. 40- or 
80-coIumn monitor 
$39.95 

Direct, entertainment 
695-C S. Broadwav 
Boulder. CO 80303 

GROUND-UP!** 

Color 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive, 
color /graphics adapter 
$29.95 

DP Computer Services 
Company 

5019 N. Washington Blvd. 
Arlington. VA 22205 
(703) 276-1333 

PODLASERIUM** 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

.Arcade 

6*^K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 


PC MAGAZINE 73 DECEMBER 1982 



MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAFHICS/SOUND 

^TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Ensign Software 
2312 N. Cole Rd. Ste. E 
Boise. ID 83704 
|208| 378-8086 

TREASURE HUNT** 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$19.95 

CHOMP 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive. 40- or 80- 

column monitor 

$29.95 

ASTRO ATTACKER 

Color S B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

FUN 10 

Color & B/W 

Anlhologv’ 

48K. one disk drive 
$29.95 

EPYX 

1043 Kiel Ct. 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 
14081 754-0700 

TEMPLE OF 
APSHAI** 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$39.95 

UPPER REACHES OF 
APSHAI** 

Color & B/W 

Slrateg>‘ 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$19.95 

Funtastic, Inc. 

5-12 Wilde Ave. 
Drexel Hill. PA 19026 
(2151 622-5716 

SNACK APTACK 

Color 

Sounti 

Arcade 

04K. one disk drive, color/ 
graphics adapter 
$38.95 

Gross National Products, 
Inc. 

174 Central St. 

North Reading. MA 01864 
(6171 664-3815 

CASHMAN 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive 
$39.95 

IBM Corporation 
Systems Products Division 
Pb. Box 1328 
Boca Raton. FL 33432 
(8001 447-4700 
[800| 322-4400 Illinois 
(800) 447*0890 Alaska. 
Hawaii 

FACT TRACK" 

Color 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$90 

ADVENTURE** 

Color & B/W 

StrategN* 

32K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$30 

ARITHMETIC 
GAMES SETS 1 & 2 

Color 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$60 each 

Infocom, Inc. 

55 Wheeler St. 
Cambridge, MA 02138 
(617) 492-1031 

DEADLINE** 

B/W 

Strategy 

48K, one disk drive 
$39.95 each 

ZORK I** 

B/W 

strategy 

ZORK II** 

B/W 

Strategv’ 

Info-Pros. Inc. 

2102 Business Center Dr. 
#132 

Irvine. CA 92715 
|714| 851-8975 

GALAXY MASTER** 

Color 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive 
$29.95 

Ivy Research, Inc. 

88 Yale Station 
New Haven. CT 06520 
(2031 432-3004 

SLYNX** 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive 
$34.95 

VIPER** 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive 
$29.95 

DUNGEONEER 

Color & B/W 

Strategv’ 

64K. one disk drive 
$39.95 

MEDUSA 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

04K. one disk drive 
$34.95 


PC MAGAZINE 74 DECEMBER 1982 


MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Kejon E-Ware 
5105 Liles Rd. 
Raleigh. NC 27606 

STARCRIIISER 

COMMANDER 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Strategy’ 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29 

FAMILY GAMES I & II 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Anthology' 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
GAME 1 $29: GAME II $24 

BATREK. GOPPA/ 
GOP. CHASE 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter, 80- 
column monitor for color 
graphics 
$34 

KK Games 
251-D Qiiinby Rd. 
Rochester. NY 14623 
(716) 424-1676 

PROIECTILE 

B/V\' 

Sound 

Strategy’ 

48K. one disk drive 
$20 

Linear Aesthetic Systems 
P.O. Box 23 

West Cornwall. CT 06796 
1203) 672-6360 

POLYCUBE** 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$26.95 

Med Systems Software 
RO. Box 358 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
|80n| 334-5470 
19191 933-1990 

ASYLUM** 

B/W 

Strategy' 

48K. one disk drive 
$39.95 

Intelligent Statements. Inc. 

The CourUard »21 
P.O. Box 2602 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
(919) 942-0008 

KEN USTON'S 

PROFESSIONAL 

BLACKIACK** 

Color & B/W 

Gambling 

48K. one disk drive 
$89.95 

Michael Cordon, DPI 
DPSCPAC PH. Box 9 
Pearl Harbor. HI 96860 

MAZE** 

Color 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive 

Not for sales: program in this 

issue 

Microad Associates, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1759 
Kingston. NY 12401 
(914) 338-3360 

WHIRLEE** 

Color 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$35 

Microbase Software, Inc. 

P.O. Box 40353 
Indianapolis. IN 46240 
(317) 877-4304 

ARCADE I 

B/W 

Anthology’ 

64K. one disk drive 
$15.95 

Micro-G 
P.O. Box 102 
Duluth. GA 30136 
(404) 476-5779 

PAINTER & II** 
PALETTE*. SAUCER** 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Anthology’ 

48K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

Micro Masters Software 

P.O. Box 513 

Edmonton. Alberta T5| 2K1 

Canada 

(403) 922-3088 

MASTER 

BREAKDOWN 

Not available 

Arcade 

32K, one disk drive 
$50 (Canadian) 

Micro Productions, Inc. 

P.O. Box 147 
Georgetown. TX 78626 
(512) 863-3079 

GAMES VOLUME I 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Anthology* 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

GALACTIC 

ENCOUNTERS 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
coior/graphics adapter 
$34.95 


PC MAGAZINE 75 DECEMBER 1982 


5 




MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Microsoft Corporation 
10700 Northup Way 
Bellevue. WA 98004 
(206) 828-8080 

DECATHLON** 

Color 

Sound 

SlrategN' 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$35 

Mirror Images Software 

1223 Peoples Ave. 

Troy. NY 12180 
(5181 274-2335 

TACHYON 

Color 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$39.95 each 

SPYDER 

Color 

Arcade 

HEXTASY 

Color 

Strategy 

BATTLESHIP 

Color 

SiralegN 

$29.95 

New Ventures Systems 

P.O. Box 2141 
Chesapeake, VA 23320 
|804| 482-1889 

HI-ROLLERS 

Color 

Gambling 

48K, one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$47 

POKER PARLAY 

Color 

Gambling 

48K, one disk drive, color/ 

graphics adapter 

$37 

STICKFIGS 

Color 

Anthology 

48K. one disk drive, color/ 

graphics adapter 

$22 

N.F. Systems 
P.O. Box 76363 
Atlanta. GA 30358 
(4041 252-3302 
Source: TCK071 

GALAXY TREK** 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

96K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

Norell Data Systems 
3400 Wilshire Blvd. 
P.O. Box 70127 
Los Angeles. CA 90010 
(2131 257-2026 

THE ORIGINAL 
ADVENTURE 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive, 
coior/graphics adapter 
$24.95 

Norfolk Systems 

8 North Folk Rd. 

Laurel Springs. N) 08021 

WORD-SCORE** 

Color 

Instnictional 

H4K. one disk drive, 
coior/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

Omric Corporation 
1268 Main St. #207 
Newington. CT 06111 
(203| 666-4240 

SPACE GUARDIAN** 

Color & B/W 

Strateg> 

(>4K, one dusk drive 
$29.95 

CHAMPION/ 

DRAUGHTS 

Color & B/W 

Instructional 

64K, one disk drive 
$34.95 

BLINGSPLATZ 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive 
$34.95 

Optimal Computer 
Solutions. Inc. 

P.O. Box 585 
Bound Brook. N) 08805 
(2011 356-0892 

MAZE 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive 
$10 each 

$30 for all seven games 

BOMBER 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Arcade 

FOUR 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Strategv' 

PONG 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Arcade 

SIMON 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

StrategN' 

HANGMAN 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Instructional 

Orion Software 
P.O. Box 2488 
Auburn. AL 36830 

PC MAN 

Color 

Arcade 

48K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 


PC MAGAZINE 76 DECEMBER 1982 


MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

PCsoftware 

4155 Cleveland Ave. 

San Diego, CA 92103 

CHAMPIONSHIP 

BLACKIACK** 

Color & BAV 

Gambling 

64K. one disk drive 
$34.95 

PCFOOTBALL 

B/W 

Strateg\' 

64K. one disk drive 
$34.95 

CONCENTRATE 

Color 

Strategy' 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 

Personal Computer 
Products 

1400 Coleman Ave. «C-18 
Santa Clara. CA 95050 
(408) 988-0164 

OMEGABUG" 

Color tf[ BAV 
Sound 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

Quala 

1014 Griswold Ave. 

San Fernando. CA 91340 
12131365-9526 

LAS VEGAS 
BLACKI-ACK** 

Color & BAV 
Sound 

Gambling 

64K. one disk drive 
$39.95 

see Games 
9025 Andromeda Dr. 
Burke. VA 22015 
1703)455-2379 

FLIPPINGAME 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

64K, one disk drive 
$19.95 

Science Research 
Associates, Inc. 

155 N. Wacker Dr. 
Chicago. IL 60606 
(800) 621-0476 
(213)621-0664 

FREE ENTERPRISE 

Not available 

Strategy 

64K, one disk drive (printer, 
recommended) 

$60 

Science Research 
Associates 

19402 S. Gunlock Ave. 
Carson. CA 90746 
(213)979-0569 

CROSS CLUES** 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

Sierra On-Line, Inc. 

36575 Miidge Ranch Rd. 
Coarsegold, CA 93614 
1209)683-6858 

ULYSSES & THE 
GOLDEN FLEECE 

Color & B/W 

Strategy 

48K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$39.95 

SoftSpot Micro Systems 
P.O. Box 415 
North Canton. CT 06059 
(203) 379-7047 

AQUA RUN 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive. 
co)or/graphics adapter 
$39.95 

Spinnaker Software 
215 1st St. 

Cambridge. MA 02141 
(617) 868-4700 

m 

SNOOPER TROOPS 
SERIES 

Color 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

RHYMES AND 
RIDDLES 

Color 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 

FACE MAKER 

Color 

Sound 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 

STORY MACHINE 

Color 

Sound 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, color/ 
graphics adapter 
$34.95 


CHRISTMAS 

SAMPLER 

Color 

Sound 

Anthology 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$29.95 


PC MAGAZINE 77 DECEMBER 1982 



MANUFACTURER 

PRODUCT NAME 

GRAPHICS/SOUND 

TYPE OF GAME 

REQUIREMENTS, PRICE 

Software Laboratories, 
Inc. 

6924 Riverside Dr. 
Dublin. OH 43107 
(8001531-1309 
(614) 889-5083 

STOCK MARKET 

B/W 

Simulation 

48K one disk drive 

$10 each; $20 for all three 

games 

DRAG RACE 

B/W 

Simulation 

PLANET 

B/W 

Simulation 

Strategic Simulations, Inc. 

465 Fairchild Dr. #108 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415)964-1353 

THE WARP FACTOR 

Color & B/W 

StralegN’ 

48K. one disk drive 
Price not available 

Starware 

2000 K St. NW 
Washington. DC 20006 
(202) 466-7351 

MATH DRILL I 

Color & B/W 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive 
$25 

Stoneware Inc. 

50 Belvedere St. 

San Rafael. CA 94901 
(415) 454-6500 

COMPIICUBE 

Color 

Instructional 

48K. 

Price not available 

SuperSoft, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1628 
Champaign. IL 61820 
|217| 359-2691 
Telex: 270-365 

NEMESIS 

Not available 

Strategy' 

64K. one disk drive 

$45 

DUNGEON MASTER 

Not Available 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive 
$40 

Survey Systems, Inc. 
7507 Princeton Ave. 
College Park. MD 20704 

CASINO BI.ACKIACK 

Color & B/W 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$24.95 

TexaSoft 

1028 N. Madison Ave. 
Dallas. TX 75208 
|214| 495-5052 

TRILOGY 

B/W 

Strategy 

64K. one disk drive. BASICA 
$35 

SET THE HOSTAGES 
FREE 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive 
$35 

QUEEN OF HEARTS 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K. one disk drive 
$35 

SQUIRM 

Color & B/W 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive 
$35 

United Systems 
Corporation 
1074 E. Sandpiper Dr. 
Tempe. AZ 85283 

TUNNEL ATTACK 

Color 

Sound 

Arcade 

64K, one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$39.95 each 

ULTRA LIGHT 
COMMAND 

Color 

Sound 

Arcade 

Westwood Software 

1670 N.W. Emperor Dr. 
Dept, pen 
Corvallis. OR 97330 
(503) 745-5500 

MICRO-FOOTBALL 

Color 

Strategy 

64K, one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
Price not available 

Windmill Software, Inc. 

1058 loan Dr. 

Burlington. Ontario 
L7T 3H2 Canada 
(416) 632-6279 

VIDEOTREK 88 

Color & B/W 
Sound 

Simulation 

64K. one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
$34.95 each 

FLOPPY FRENZY 

Color 

Sound 

Arcade 

Word Associates 

55 Sutter St. #361 
San Francisco, CA 94104 
(800) 227-3800 ext. 1138 
(800) 792-0990 ext. 1138 
California 

)OTTO 

Color & B/W 

Instructional 

64K. one disk drive. 40- or 80- 

column monitor 

$29.95 


PC MAGAZINE 78 DECEMBER 1982 



IBM memory 
at realistic 

prices: 


256K 


WITH AN RS-232C 
INTERFACE 


512K 


WITH AN RS-232C 
INTERFACE 


!349 

$529 WITH SUPERCALC 



$749 WITH SUPERCALC 


Both ot these fully-populated memory 
boards Include parity checking and 
a standard RS-232C interlace They 
are compatible with all IBM software. 

You can expect these boards to 
meet the highest standards ot 
design and manutacturing quality 
available — at any price. We are 
proud to guarantee them fully for 
a period of two years. 



IPUTER 

PRODUCTS 

31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 


To order or for 

inforrnationcall 


InNewYjrk; 

(212)509-1923 


In Los Angeles: 

(2l3)706-( 


•<« 


In Dallas! 

(2I4)744M251 


By Modem: 
(213)883-8976 


We guarantee everything we sell lor 30 (lays — no returns after 30 days Oelectrve software will 
be repia^d free. Out aii other software returns are subfect to 15% restxking lee and must be 
accomoaned by RMA slip No returns on game software, unless deleawe 
We accept VISA and MasterCard on all orders: COD orders, up to $300 
Shipping charges S3 for all prepaid orders, actual shipping charges tor non-prepaids $3 lor 
COO orders under 25lbs ($6 for over) plus a $4 surcharge add 15% lor foreign. FPO and APO 
orders CaM add 6% sales tax. L A County add SVt% 

Prices quoted are for stock on hand and are subfect to change without notice 



Intfodttcing Sncx^r Troops' 
detectiw series. 

Educational games that turn ordinary 
homes mto Sherlock homes. 




Where can you find educational 
games that your kids will really enjoy 
playing? 

Elementary, my dear Watson. From 
Spinnaker. 

Our Snooper Troops detective games 
are fun, exciting and challenging. And 
best of all, they have real educational 
value. So while your kids are having 
fun, they're learning. 

As a Snooper Trooper, your child 
will have a great time solving the 
mysteries. But it will take some 
daring detective work. They'll 
have to question suspects, talk to 
mysterious agents, and even search 
dark houses to uncover clues. 

The Snooper Troops programs are 
compatible with 


Apple,® IBM® 

computers 
provide your kids with 
need: a SnoopMobile, a wrist 
SnoopITet computer, a camera for taking 
Snoopshots and even a notebook for 
keeping track of information. 

Snooper Troops detective games help 
your children learn to take notes, draw 
maps, organize and classify information 
and they help develop vocabulary and 
reasoning skills. All while your kids are 
having a good time. 

So if you want to find educational 
games that are really fun, here's 
a clue; Snooper Troops games are 
available at your local software 
store, or by writing to; Spinnaker 
Software, 21S First Street Cam- 
bridge, MA 02142. 


V 


C Spinnaker ^oftwere Corp 1962 



Spilifiakeils early learning 
games will help make yonr ehildren 
as smart as yon tell everyone they are 




After all, they're your Kids. 

Spinnaker can help make them even 
smarter. With a line of educational software 
that kids love to play. 

Spinnaker games make the computer 
screen come to life with full color graphics 
and sound. And they're fun. Lots of fun. But 
they also have real educational value. 

Some of our games help exercise your 
child's creativity. Others improve memory 
and concentration. While others help to 
Improve your child's writing, vocabulary, 
and spelling skills. 

And every Spinnaker game provides 
familiarity with the computer and helps your 
children feel friendly with the computer. 
Even If they've never used a comput- 
er before. 

And Spinnaker games are compati- 
ble with the most popular computers: 
Applef Atari* and IBM* 

Our newest game, hlnderComp™ 

(Ages 3-8) is a collection of learn- ^ 

Ing exercises presented In a fun 
and exciting manner. 


Rhymes and Riddles'" 
(Ages 4-9) is a letter guess- 
ing game featuring kids' 
favorite riddles, famous say- 
ings and nursery rhymes. 
Story Machine™ (Ages 
5-9) lets children write their 
own stories and see them 
come to life on the screen 
And FACEMARER™ lets your 
children create their own funny 
faces and make them wink, smile, 

' ■ — wiggle ears (not your kids' ears, 
the ears on the screen), etc. 

And we're Intro- 
ducing new games 
all the time. 

So look for Spinnaker 
games at your local 
software retailer, or b'y 
writing to: Spinnaker 
Software, 215 First St, 

Cambridge, MA 02142. 

And show your kids 
how smart their par- 
ents really are. 


RACEMAKER 










spmnaifea 

VJe make learning tun. 


lyipie. lBMandAtan«reregetercd traocmirto of Apple Comoutef. me. mtemauna Busmen nacnmesCorp eod Atan. me. reapecoweiv 


GAMES/GREG ESTES 


Adventure Is The Game 

Here’s your chance to be a starship captain, Charles Darwin, or 
a maze-bound mouse. 


MICROCOSM 

Aeon Concepts 

1657 Red Mill 

RO. Box 12595 

Pittsburgh. PA 15241 

1412) 831-5352 

List Price: $39.95 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive 

Age-group: 12 to adult 

Number of Players: One or two 



What VisiCaic did for spreadsheets, Mi- 
crocosm does for the game of Life. But 
Microcosm revolves around the concepts 
of evolution and natural selection. 

At last the ultimate use for the IBM 
happy face character has been found. 
When playing alone, the player starts by 
placing smiling faces on the playing grid 
(adjacent rows of dots). Once satisfied 
with the population distribution, the play- 
er hits the Esc key and waits to see which 
smiling faces make it to the next genera- 
tion. based on the predetermined Laws of 
Survival. With each generation comes a 
realistic depiction of the growth and de- 
mise of the masses: faces come and faces 
go. But this is where the 10-year-old game 
of Life stops and Microcosm takes off. 

Many computer games lack the vari- 
ations that give Microcosm its depth and 
make it interesting enough to play repeat- 
edly. Microcosm allows players to in- 
crease their populations or to create visu- 
ally pleasing patterns. Two players can 
create conflicting populations of faces on 
the same grid, or they can compete inde- 
pendently on separate grids. It is refresh- 
ing to escape from the "you lose. I win" 
concept of so many games. Other options 
allow the user to plug in to 50 standard 


colony patterns and watch them change 
through the years. A Mutation feature 
completely overhauls the Laws of Surviv- 
al. altering the familiar patterns of colony 
migration. A microbe virus can even be 
injected into either player's population 
and its effects observed. 

Ease of Use 

Microcosm is well thought out and has 


figure I; Maze program listing 

You are about to play a gane of aaze. 
To win a round, you «ust have the best 
tile (least!). Haze nuabers are froi 
0 (zero) to 32000. Difficulty is 1-10 
with 5 being assuied. 

Difficulty? (I-IO) [ 5 ] 

? 7 

If you pick 6,9, or 10 the naze night 
not have a solution. Hit the space bar 
to lake a new one. But the clock runs 
on, so think quickly! 

Enter the laze sequence nuiber 1-32000 
or return to use: [ 1 ] 

? 1 

Break in 230 
Ok 


been thoroughly tested. The user can play 
with the sound on or off and can alter al- 
most every feature of the game. The only 
|X)ssible improvement would be the ability 
to display the succeeding generations 
more quickly, but even this would not di- 
minish the anxiety in competitive play. 

Documentation and Use 
of Graphics 

Microcosm comes with a complete tu- 
torial program and a manual that fully ex- 
plains all variations of the game and its 
special function keys. There is even a 
troubleshooting guide in case the disk 
does not work. Once the user has trans- 
ferred DOS and BASICA with Microcosm 
to a playing disk, the 35-page manual is no 
longer needed. The game also does a good 
job with the PC's monochrome graphics: 
the progress of each "culture" is clear and 
easy to follow. 

General Appeal 

This is definitely not a shoot-em-up 
game. Microcosm is as enjoyable for those 
who have never played Life as it is for 
veteran players who are looking for a 
mantle piece edition. 


PC MAGAZINE S2 DECEMBER 1982 


icuracy and Error Handling 
Mjcrocos/n is a professional product. 


The program meticulously follows the 
Laws of Evolution described in the docu> 
mentation. It also makes good use of the 
function keys. The Fl key displays the 


'L. GAME 
rejects erroneous 
keystrokes with a 
sad little tune. 


functions of the other function keys. The 
game rejects erroneous keystrokes with a 
sad little tune. 

Aeon Concepts disclaims all responsi- 
bility for the software. It does, however, 
guarantee the disk for 90 days after pur- 
chase. 


GALAXY TREK 

N.F. Systems 
RO. Box 76363 
Atlanta, CA 30358 
(404) 252-3302 
List Price: $29.95 

Requires: 96K, 80-column display. 

one disk drive 
Age-group: 9 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


Galaxy Trek is a new version of the popu- 
lar Star Trek game. In this game there is 
no Mister Spock to solve the problems, 
and the starship is called the Columbia. 
Once signed on as starship captain, the 
player is given a mission with the whole 


galax>' at his or her disposal. 

There are 64 sectors of space in which 
to travel, some of them known and others 
awaiting the Columbia’s arrival to reveal 
their splendor or megaton-armored en- 
emies. The player normally sees only his 
or her own secto*" of space represented by 
a few stars, an (S) for the starship, and 
+ M+ for the invaders. The only move- 
ment occurs when one jumps to different 
coordinates; otherwise it's very much like 
a chess game. 


^^NCE SIGNED 
on as starship captain, 
the player is given a 
mission with the 
whole galaxy at his or 
her disposal. 


The player travels from star base to star 
base to keep torpedoes and force shields 
replenished; then the Columbia sallies 
forth again in search of the unknown 
megaton invaders. It’s the captain's duty to 
set navigation coordinates and warp 
speed, and even to talk to the computer in 
standard Star Trek tradition. 

Full documentation is provided in a 
hard-cover folder. The game requires 96K 


NEED HELP BUYING 
A COMPUTER 
OR PERIPHERAL? 

GET ¥HE 
GUIDE! 



BUYER’S GUIDE TO 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS, 
PERIPHERALS AND 
ELECTRONIC GAMES 

Features include: 

■ Which computer is for you 

■ Evaluations of personal computers 

■ Tips on buying peripherals 

■ Peripheral product reviews 

■ Music synthesizers 

■ Comprehensive evaluation of 
joysticks, paddles and game port 
extenders 

■ Video game systems and software 

■ Roundup of electronic toys and 
games 

■ Electronic and computerized 
learning aids 

■ Video products for computer users 

■ Selected microprocessor-based 
consumer electronics products 

ORDER YOUR COPY OF THIS 
COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TODAYI 


HERE’S HOW 
TO ORDER 

Send your name, address and 
$5.00 ($3,95* plus $1.05 postage 
and handling) to: 

Buyer’s Guide to 
Personal Computers 

P.O. Box 640, Holmes. PA 19043 

Please make check payable to: 

Buyer’s Guide to 
Personal Computers 

*NJ residents add 5% sales tax. 

Price outside U.S.A. $6.00. 


PC MAGAZINE 83 DECEMBER 1982 



of memorv’. which is more than many play- 
ers have. 

General Appeal 

Galaxy Trek is fun to play, just as Star 
Trek has always been. It is. however, too 
close to the game of Star Trek to make the 
player feel like captain of anything but the 
Enterprise. It is visually like a board game, 
although it uses some flashy graphics 
when the Columbia is destroyed. IBM BA- 
SIC offers even the novice programmer 
numerous screen drawing commands. 


Minimal color and none of the function 
keys are used, but some sound effects are 
provided. Galaxy Trek appears to be a 
generalized BASIC version of Star Trek, 
perhaps written for another computer and 
translated for use with the PC. 

The player is asked to guess a number 
at the beginning of the game. If the player 
responds with a large number, the pro- 
gram slops dead. If he or she issues an 
incorrect command, a "Redo from start" 
error message appears. These bugs are mi- 
nor. especially when compared to those of 


Q * Houj did the IBOTl* PC 
• become o test ond 
meosurement controller? 



UJith Q Ziotech ZT 1400 
interfoce, of course! 


THE ZT 1488 INCLUDES ALL THIS ON ONE I/O BOARD: 


• GPIB control of 15 devices on one cable. 


• Clock/calendar with battery for initiating and pacing 
measurements as well as recording events. 



'MUUTiMOOULE sm MULTIBUS are trademaiiis of Che iniel CorporeU)' 


3433 Roberto Court 

San Luis Qbispo. California 93401 

(805) 541-0488 


• MULTIMODULEt socket for optional I/O capability 
of your choice. 

• BASIC software for ease of programming 


Ziatech also manufactures GPIB 
interfaces for MULTIBUSt and STD bus 


'IBM 19 a trademark of Inumacionai Bukinees Machines 


the home versions of Star Trek that bomb 
out ever>' 3 minutes or so from searching 
for long-forgotten line numbers and RE- 
TURNS without GOSUBS, and the manu- 
facturer says they are being corrected. 

Defective disks will be replaced free of 
charge by the manufacturer, with no time 



limit from date of purchase. 

For those who want a debugged version 
of Star 'I’rek without the familiar voices of 
Mister Spock and Scottv’, Galaxy Trek is 
an excellent choice. This game is not for an 
experienced Captain Kirk seeking a vastly 
improved Enterprise command, but those 
who have never played Star Trek and 
have never relished the feeling of arriving 
on the battle screen with shields on full 
and phasers locked on target should go out 
and buy a copy today. 


MAZE 

Michael Gordon DPI 
DPSCPAC PH Box 9 
Pearl Harbor, HI 96860 
List Price: Not for sale, program 
included |see Figure 11 
I Requires; 48K. one disk drive 
; Age-group: 8 to adult 
' Number of Players: One 


j Maze is exactly what the name implies— a 
I game that fills the display with a randomly 
I generated maze and challenges the player 
to race from one side of the screen to the 
other before time runs out. Agile use of the 
arrow keys maneuvers the player from 
one twisting corridor to the next, leaving 
behind a colored trail. This trail comes in 
handy when the player inadvertently 
winds up in a cul-de-sac with nowhere to 
go but back. 

Only one player is allowed to compete 


PC MAGAZINE 84 DECEMBER 1982 


Slip us in... 
Ibll free. 


Prosthesis 


|s< try and enter this adult adventure gatnel Based in a clinical setting In 
^tic City, you’ll soon realize what a sure prescription we have lor stimulating. 
lYted tun. If you play your cards (as 'well as the slot machines) right, 

rself You'll be 

ygg c3Tt keep it 
lun atfeartles! 

iished to you In a plain tfkwn wTappSr ^ou must state in writing thatwou' 

'e over 21 years of age. 

IK. One Drive. PC-OOS 95 


Doughflo 


Word Whiz 


An versaiil* multi- 

purpose fmenciei planning ana 
cash How analysis system of 
several mterecting menu>dnven 
program* The result ii e 
collection of reports generated 
with a minimum of mental airam 
and input keystroxu that greatly 
Simplify preparation, budget 

planning income and expense 
analysts 

64K. One Drive Pc-OOS |7e.e« 


li you v« ever winted an 
educational program to be fun, 
your desire is now fulfilled A 
program designed to increase 
your fust through sixth grader's 
spelling proficiency while keeping 
him or her interested Word Whiz 
>e adaptable to your child's skill 
level, offering e reel challenge and 
reinforcing new concepts. 

Lessons tor each grad* ar* 
divided into three learning 
caiegories. grade f&2. 3&e 5 end 


up 


Contraband 


Garnet Pacl 


yi^eo Etch 


Mailing List 


64K One Drive, PC-OOS 


^ a emuggter traveOng acres* 
Mumty tw prtvat* plana. 

(img In ifte^i drug* and 
■riband. Prom L.A. to Maidco 
f, $m Ffoncttco to Now York, 
laewnblalbr UVi boot doofa 
NKtn out form# bordir 
tnd tha Podo. booouaa 
loot oa aeon r 

•kyjtflOOifddfTCyour 
femgmb er j 

cut. or you 
Gripping, adventure pecked 
'ne. you'll play for hours )us( to 
ke that one big see 

C-OOS t21.«S 



U.S. Motors 


raise the 
failing 

empire's slocks'’ 

company oul 
Japanese imports 
corispue 

yiou wb>)i 16 rms pf 
subetdiee must be 
midared DecisioMfOioiad^ 
^ wiob^M mef^lM 

bftwoen luboM .KM - 
ItoO. A reKiifiC arid ttmibly 
nutation or a eorporata iirMnclof 
Bronmoni 

K. One Driva. PC-OOS $HM 


A fantastic anthology of ibjnoou* 
driven gomoe. tnciud»r>g;; y - 
A-MA2E-TNQ. Guide youroetf 
through e random maze a 'at 

couldn't solve' 

CASDCOUPLETS 
»#r«on Of.iil WmPitlHI liTl car^ 

) gam e_ 

DUJJfc^Aii lUriiiiture inspired by 
Frank Herbert's best selling 
Science Fiction novels 
WWII BOMB ER Yqj 
cor^rg^hales#^f^^ber Can 
deliver your deadly payload'’ 
HOWITZER A Real Time Hi- 
Res graphics enhanced bunker- 
to-bunker artillery challenge Blow 
your best friend into sludge’ 

DICE Turn your S5000 00 
computer into a pair of dice 
NUMBER GUESS Outsmart 
your dumb computer 
SCRAMATRtX Scrambles yO‘>r 
brems as w ell as wurda 
TiC-TAC-lUb Tfe you agairrst 
tRb computer. 

HAMMARAB4 . .Rule ybur Ahctenl 
UMdom wlaaty. but wetert out for 
revolting psesantst 
S4K. One DHv«. PC-D08 


Imagina a graphics oditor which 
•nows you to aasHy create and 
' Uve on diskone hhr«eofution 
color graphics i<ne ' 

AMO iilUjlllilBMIiW^nTI TTTi liiiill I 
t Tn yngf pnntir 
the Ea son MX-8(nBM Printer with 
'draiirax option) lorframmg or 
herd copy storage You ve iust 
tmagmed Video Etcr 

I program m 
^■chimes circles boxes. color, 
painting fill, hue control, lu 
length insert text save afl i<» 
previously drawn work 
ol the options available thre^ _ 
quick, efficient and friendly single 
keystroke commands Video Eich 
has applications tn engineering 
drafting! Wuceuon. graphic 
design as well as creative 
enterlainment' Chwsstho version 
fhaj best euTtsyou . _ 

Video f tcfi ■ The seme remirksbfy 
full leatured version as described 

Video Etch NP-Has aii the 
features of Video Etch except your 
etchings cannot be output to the 
printer. Perfect tor uM's without a 
compsTibie printer. $M.M 


With quick and easy data entry, 

Our mailing list manager wii sort , 
and store over lOOO na MOS and 

ngle-Sided _ _ - 
'BiskotteMjfihmeeoHe by 2ip 
. WeUe Of uTi^bet ere lightning 
Quick Prints single or double 
width labels on the Ep son. 

Of IBM pr^i 


"States ’n Caps 


T4K One Drive PC-OOS S29.9S 


jto Dialed 


hone 

at interfaces with youf Mayes 

bmartmodem to\auto*dial Vbur 
phon^ Siohng up 10 1000 names 
and numbers on diskel'c 
instant r^-iti) yoLi’ii never nave to 
search through your personal 
phone book again! 


A graphi^Sserning program 
designed tolKaist children (or 
adults) to quiriR^earn America s 

. asewYT^o capiiofliMigh 

resolution graphicsHpund. and 
exceiien i deta il enhan^the 
ieerwtng'Experieoce.^hill^ an 
w^^ueeprojTemjnbg leah^ng 
Capdl^ 

jr sfst« ACepiTOfS are oHered \ 
- wrOvuIes scores and elapsed time, 
white prompting with correct 
answers Lots of lun for all agesl — 


I iii^'jjuliiiiif jffnni 

K-Gtephica Board 


Requires MaysWFanmodem 
MK.OneOrive PC-DOS S29 »S 


Educational 
Programs Pac I 


Personal 
Programs Pac I 


Including numerous word games 
and malh practices, a homework 
planner spelling quiz and more 
Alt menu driven 


Card 

Concentration 


Atlantic City 


all the thfiiM of gambling tt 
City wllhoiit any o< the 
P^Bivi daks. Walk right up to 
pSIot Machines. pt*y some 
i&lhen move up to the Wheel 
n^oftune. or the Roulette. Crep*. 
Id Bteckjeck Tables Ail 
smbting is menu driven end 
ekes full use of realistic casino 
Hinds Version 1 utilizes high-res 
'tphics (for IBM's with 
>lor/graphics board only), while 
ersion 2 is for monochrome 
splay* 


That tsmifiSY ofd card guoasing 
gems with high reelouHon-type 
graphics without uoing a 
color/graphics monitor board' A 
fantastic memory-improving game 
that may eventually lead you to 
smash your monitor and play 
52.000 pick-up with glass slivers 


Mmi-Eich • Locks tha circle and 
box drawing fsstures of Video 
Etch NP. also tha taxt miariion. 
painting and filling ItaiLres. but 
nos a largor drawing area They 
say that oomttimis The simpiast 
are the most fun f t29.98 

84K One Drive. PC-OOS. 

Requires Color/Qraphic* Board 


Consisting of 10 menu-driven 
personal utility progrerns. <i 
includes. Names and addresses 
with an elphebeticel sort e 
checkbook balancer, (pen 
payment record massage board. 
Engiiah/Metric conversiona 
perpetual calendar a graphic 
biorhythm plotter longevity 
prediction test shopping list and 
a days between dates utility 


64K One Drive PC-DOS S29.9J 


Diskettes 


Certified, double density single 
Sided diskettes with reinfcrced 
cenlerhole Unlimited quantity 


With purchase of any program 
box of 10 t3S.0t 


64K One Drive. PC-OOS S29 95 


Without purchase of program per 
box of 10 U3-01 


64K One Drive PC-DOS 129.95 


Business 
Programs Pac I 


Micro Minder 


ersion 1 - Reqires cdlor board 
ersion 2 - Works with any 
IM-PC 


«K. One Drive. PC-OOS 129.9$ 


Ever forget a loved one's 
birthday? Or maybe missed e 
crucial meeting because you 
misplaced your appointment 
book? Never again because Micro 
Minder will be your 
personal/calendar 
organiz er- llA OUIO report footure 
you (o ke«p on time and 
~ on soheduie 

MK.OneOrfva.R^-DOS S29.95 


With a wide assortment of 
programs designed to handle 
many day-to-day business 
problems, ihis pec consists of 15 
menu-driven progrerns including 
Term of a loan Rule of 76's. Asset 
and Depreciation Grov>tI^^|^'* 
and Projecti^r^wooMiOw 

OecJ^on Maker, Return 
oh an fnvistrhsrtt. Stock Anaiysf*. 
Loan Status. Leoso/Buy. 
Apportiohmanl by Ratio. Program 
Evaluation and Reviaw Techmqua 
(PERT) 


64K. One Drive. PC-DOS S29.9S 


Poet Offica Box 339 
Foraatvilla. Ca 95436 

(dphonoUcs 

24-hour Information (707) 887-7237 (707)538*801 

We unconditionally guarantee our 
aoMwert or your money bock (less 
S3 00 shipping) if relumed within 
10 days of receipt We accept 
MasterCard end Visa mail or phone 

orders if left with expiration da 
Add $4 00 tor COD orders FreeFi 
Class or UPS shipping in t 
continental United States Caiiforr 
residents must add 6S sales tax 

CALL US COLLECT (707) 887-7237 


Micro Synergy 

ANNOUNCES 

Immediate Availability 
Of 64K Bytes To 512K Bytes Of Memory 
With Optional Error Correction. 



Micro Synergy has taken a systems approach to the add- 
on requirements of the IBM Personal Computer. The 
result ... a well-designed, easy-to-use memory board 
that offers maximum RAM capacity and excellent 
performance. 


Mcudinmn Capacity 

• 64K bytes to 512K bytes using 64K bit DRAMs 

• 64K bytes to 1 Mega byte using 64K and 256K bit DRAMs 

• All youi memory needs in one expansion slot 


Excellent Perionnance 

• Full-speed operation — no wait states required 

• Full parity error detection standard 

• Hooks for optional EDC/ ASYNC/PRINTER board — provides 
SINGLE BIT ERROR CORRECTION, DOUBLE BIT ERROR 
DETECTION, IBM compatible ASYNC Port, and an IBM 
compatible Printer Port (available 1Q83) 

• Multi-layer board — reduced noise and increased reliability 

• Gold-plated edge cormectors for long, trouble-free life 

• Extensive bum-in for assured reliability 


Easy To Use 

e 5-minute user installation 

• Socketed memory array to facUitate memory expansion 

• Plugs into any unused slot 

• Documentation of upgrade procedures and board operation 
supplied 

Price 

64K-$350 128K-$460 192K-$570 256K-$680 

320K-$780 384K-$880 448K-$980 512K-$1080 

Semi Bare Board (hilly socketed — no soldering required) S200 

Also Available 

6-Function Combo Board • Floppy Disk Drives 
Winchester Disk Drives • SASI Host Adapter 


Micro Synergy 

1327 Whitacre Drive # Clearwater, FL 33516 

(813) 535-6655 


at a time. The complexity of the mazes is 
determined by the difficulty level chosen 
from a scale of 1 to 10. In each game the 
player is asked for a random number seed 
to vary each succeeding series of mazes. 
Levels 9 and 10 are mazes with no possible 
solutions: the only option is to hit the space 
bar to create a new maze that may have a 
way out. The clock keeps ticking through- 
out the whole process. 

General Appeal 

Maze is very easy to play and requires 
minimal explanation. The five-page docu- 
mentation describes the game wittily and 
includes a BASIC listing for the complete 
three-page program. 

The mazes are well drawn, and the 
movement around the pathways is fast 
and easy. For games with a great deal of 
variety or depth, there are belter choices 
than Maze. The game is fun to play initial- 
ly. but interest may wane, after one has 
played it for a while. 

Maze, on the other hand, offers three 
pages of straightforward BASIC code that 
would be a good tutorial for those experi- 
menting with programming. The player 
can var>^ the size, shape, and complexity of 
the mazes or make enhancements with a 
judicious use of the BASIC manual and 
imagination. 


The MAZES 

are well drawn, and 
the movement around 
the pathways is fast 
and easy. 


Maze should be considered as a simple 
program that performs its one function 
adequately. It is not a professional-quality, 
fully protected program by any means. Al- 
though Maze lacks variety, it is good for 
people who want to understand BASIC by 
taking apart a pretested game and chang- 
ing it to their own specifications. 

/PC 


PC MAGAZINE 86 DECEMBER 1982 


Greg Estes is a progrommer/anafyst for 
Professional Software in Eugene. Oregon. 



MEMORY 

THE FIRST AND ONLY 
BOARD YOUR IBM 
PC MAY EVER 
NEED... 

AND MORE 


FOR A LIMITED TIME. BUY A 256K 
QUADBOARD AND RECEIVE A 64K MEMORY BOARD FREE 
OF CHARGE, ORA 192KMEIMORY BOARD FOR ONLY S44.* 


In order to receive a free 64K memoiy txwrd or a I92K 
memory board for S44,^u must purchase a Quadboard 
with 256K installed by Quadram from an authorized 
Quadram dealer between December 1. 1982 and 
February 15, 1983. 

To receive your memory board, send: 

( I ) The original sales invoice showing dealer name, 
address, date purchased, and purchase price. 

(2| Coupon from newspaper or magazine (or rebate 
form available from dealer) com^etely filled in. 

(3) Proof of purchase (256K label from Quadboard 
box). 

(4) Warranty card, showing warranty number and all 
information filled in. 

(5) All receipts, coupons, and proof of purchase forms 
must be mailed together in order to qualify for a 
memory board. Must be postmarked no later than 
March 1. 1983. arxl received by Quadram by March 
15, 1983. Void where prohibited or taxed. 

* Quadram suggested retail prices: 

256K Quadboard— S995 

64K MerTKiry Board socketed for up to 192K— S350 

I92K Memory Board— $595 















C iry Sratp Tip 




Ptease mciude shipping and handling charge 

S5.00 



□ 64K Memory Board 

FREE 



□ 192K Memory Board 

S44.00 




TtTTAI * 



□ Check Enclosed □ VISA □ MasterCard 




Offer void where prohibited or taxed by law Expires February IS. 1983. 



Allow 8-10 weeks for delivery 




QUADBAM 

CO(2PORATION 



4357 Park Drive/ Norcross. Ga. 30093/(404) 923-6666 






Kiss the 5^4" floppydisk 


Amdek has revolutionized data storage for personal 
computers with the new AMDISK-3 Micro-Floppydisk 
drive system. The system consists of 2 drives and a 
power supply, fully compatible with S'A" floppy disk 
drives. The 3" disk is encased in hard plastic, pro- 
tected from dust and fingerprints, and it's easy to mail. 

Just write, or call to receive our data sheet on the new 
AMDISK-3 Micro-Floppydisk Cartridge system. 


1 Megabyte (unformatted) storage capacity. 

Track-to-track compatible with S’A" floppy- 
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3 " shirt-pocket sized disk cartridge. 

Drive has built-in power supply. 


2201 Lively Blvd • Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 
(312)364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 


CORR 


Amdek. . . your guide to innovative computing! 


Copyngh;-:- 1 


GAMES/MARTIN OAKES 


Games People Play 

A i-t ^ i _ _ I i I • _ I * m 


After battling alien 
invaders and fighting off 
takeovers on Wall Street, 
relax with a sophisticated 
crossword puzzle unlike 
any you've seen. 



Hi 


STELLAR DEFENDER 

Alcazar Associates 
2638 S. Lynn St. 

Arlington. VA 22202 
(703) 684-8053 
List Price: $14.95 

Requires: 32K. 80-column display, one 
disk drive 

Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One (but fun 
for groups) 

Stellar Defender is a straightforward ar- 
cade-style game that tests a player's skill 
against the computer's. The player com- 
mands a fleet of five spaceships called 
Stellar Rangers by moving an arrow cur- 
sor left or right with keys 4 and 6 on the 
keypad. The game begins when one of the 
Rangers appears at the bottom of the 
screen: at the top of the screen, waves of 
alien ships appear, blinking as they 
change position. As they descend to the 
bottom of the screen, the aliensdrop dead- 
ly projectiles. If a Stellar Ranger is located 
directly below an alien when it discharges 


its lethal cargo, the Ranger is annihilated. 
There is no escape from this situation. 

The object of the game is to shoot the 
aliens out of the galactic sky. To do this a 
player moves the cursor upward. A suc- 
cessful hit eliminates an alien ship in a 
flash of light. But the aliens come in waves 
of five ships, and they are intent upon one 
thing— overwhelming a player’s defenses. 
If one alien ship is successful, all five re- 
turn to the top of the screen to prepare for 
another battle. However, if several are 
close to the bottom of the screen, a player 
can make an interesting sacrifice. Allow 
one Stellar Ranger to be hit. and only the 
aliens remaining on the screen return to 
the top. 

Four types of ships comprise an alien 
squadron: Scouts, worth 10 points; Dra- 
conians. 25; Cruisers. 50; and Dread- 
noughts. 150. A different graphic symbol is 
used for each one. A player’s ships resem- 
ble small tear drops. Scouts. Draconians. 
and Cruisers can be blasted into oblivion 
with a single shot, but a Dreadnought is 
less vulnerable and requires no fewer 
than two hits to be destroyed. A Dread- 


nought also possesses the maddening abil- 
ity to vanish to a new location in hyper- 
space. leaving no evidence that it has been 
hit and depriving players of the satisfac- 
tion of chasing an injured alien. After each 
hit. a picture of the next attacker, its name, 
and its point value appear in the middle of 
the screen. Although each type of alien 
exhibits a unique motion, none is any 
more difficult to hit than another. 

Every time a Stellar Ranger is hit. a 
player's fleet count is reduced by one. To 
help keep track of losses, the current count 
appears on the right of the screen. Rein- 
forcements arrive individually after the 
player successfully fends off a squadron of 
aliens. The game ends after the player 
loses all five Stellar Rangers or destroys 
all the aliens, a theoretical possibility at 
best for beginning players. 

Ease of Use 

Steiiar Defender requires that players 
position the first, second, and third fingers 
of one hand on the left, upper, and right 
cursor keys. Most players (except perhaps 
pianists) will have trouble keeping the 
third finger from slipping onto key 9. Also, 
it would have made more sense to desig- 
nate the space bar as the firing button, giv- 
en its position on the keypad. 

Documentation 

Steiiar Defender is written in BASIC 
and arrived on an unformatted disk with- 
out a write-protect tab. A half-page of 
instructions describes how to add DOS 
and how to copy the game to a formatted 
disk. Documentation consists of a single 


PC MAGAZINE 89 DECEMBER 1982 



Fox & Geller's family of programs will double the value of your 
dBASE II database management system. 


dBASE II PLUS 


PIUSi: 

QUICKCODE 

The dBASE II Program Generator. 

Generate a customer database in 5 
minutes with QUICKCODE, the dBASE II 
program generator. It's that simple. 

QUICKCODE writes concise programs 
to set up and maintain any type of 
database. Run them as is. or customize 
them in seconds. You still have all the 
power of dBASE II, and there is no 
programming required. All you have to 
do is draw your data entry form on the 
screen and you're in business. 

What about the programs themselves? 
There are programs to add, edit, delete 
and print records. And there are programs 
to print forms (up to 96 lines by 132 
columns for wide printers), print mailing 
labels, or transfer data to WordStar^“/ 
MailMerge™. Want more? How about 
programs to do three kinds of data 
validation, search for records using 
database keys, and generate customized 
menus? 

On top of all that, there are programs 
to work with portions of your database 
using your own selection criteria and 
there are four new data types which are 
not found in dBASE II itself. 

Absolutely the most powerful program 
generator you've ever seen. And the 
easiest to use. 

QUICKCODE: $295.00 


Plus 2: 
dGRAPH 

The dBASE II Graphics System 

Now you can combine database and 
graphics. With dGRAPH. by far the 
easiest to use graphics package in 
existence. Just press one key and you've 
got your graph. 

And what graphsi Sales by month. 
Expense budget by division. This year 
versus last year. And each one can be a 
pie chart, bar graph, or line graph. It's up 
to you. 

Advanced features make dGRAPH as 
powerful as it is easy. Features like 
autoGRAPH™, which will automatically 
load dBASE II data, compute scales, draw 
grid lines, and label charts. Then there's 
automatic shading and overlay graphs. 
And more. 

dGRAPH brings your database to life. 
dGRAPH draws graphs on Epson, 
Okidata, and a growing list of other 
popular printers. 

dGRAPH: $295.00 


Plus 3: 
dUTIL 

The dBASE II Utility Program 

dUTIL is Fox & Geller's utility progran 
dBASE II. dUTIL decreases the runni 
time of dBASE II command files. dUT 
combines your command files 
automatically to produce a faster runr 
time. 

When using dBASE II, you may oft 
find yourself writing the same instruct 
over and over again. With dUTIL, you 
put these instructions into a standard 
file using your favorite text editor or w 
processor, and automatically use then 
as many dBASE II command files as 
wish. 

When debugging a dBASE II comr 
file with dUTIL, you can have all your 
IF/END IF and DO/ENDDO sequence 
automatically indented and aligned so 
they are readable. dUTIL will also 
highlight all dBASE II reserved words 
setting them to upper case. 

dUTIL: $99.00 


dBASE 


II IS a irademark o> Ashton-Tale 
QUICKCODE dGRAPH 


WordStar and MailMerge are registered trademarks ol MicroPro international 
dUTtL dSCAN AutoGRAPH are trademarks lor fo* & Geller 



Teaneck, NJ 076i 
201 837-0142 



sheet of paper outlining the game, slrategv’. 
control keys, and key variables. Regard- 
less of how a player chooses to approach 
the game, playing instructions are clear 
and adequate. Instructions outlining mon- 
itor and memorv' requirements are not in- 
cluded in the documentation. They are 
provided by separate notes in an advertis- 
ing flyer in which the manufacturer rec- 
ommends a monochrome display. If play- 


Stellar 

Defender provides a 
good introduction to 
computer games. 


ers use a TV as a monitor, they should be 
sure to set the width to 80. since this is what 
the programmer apparently intends. 

General Appeal 

Even if a player accepts the limitations 
of BASIC and a monochrome display, the 
graphics are reasonably good. The game 
incorporates sound without making it ob- 
trusive. Still, it would be nice to have the 
option of turning the sound off. especially 
at night 

Stel/ur Defender provides a good intro- 
duction to computer games. It would also 
go well at parties because it is competitive, 
easy to learn, and doesn’t take long to play. 
It appears to have no problem keej)ing 
score accurately. Throughout the game 
full concentration is required. Left and 
right movement of a player's ship is pain- 
fully slow, which contrasts with the rapid 
fall of bombs and rise of projectiles. After 
firing once, a player must move the ship 
left or right before firing another shot. 

Error handling needs improvement. 
Holding the left/right cursor keys down 
allows sequential movement of any ship. 
However, holding down the firing button 
freezes the game and may result in a fatal 
mistake: “Illegal Function Call 390.” Play- 
ers who commit this grievous error must 
start the game over. 

Players can copy Stellar Defender for 
backup purposes. This may obviate the 
need for additional warranty protection. 
The manufacturer, however, agrees to re- 


place defective disks. The game is priced 
low enough to compensate for its deficien- 
cies. all of which are minor. Most users 
would probably play for 30 to 40 minutes. 


STOCKS AND BONDS 

Avalon Hill Game Company 
4517 Hartford Rd. 

Baltimore. MD 21214 
(800] 638-9292 
List Price: $25 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 14 to adult 
Number of Players: One to six 

Stocks and Bonds is the computer version 
of Avalon Hill’s board game of the same 
name. Each of up to six players maintains 
a portfolio and tries to make as much mon- 
ey as possible from buying and selling in 
the stock market. The object of the game is 
to be the wealthiest investor after ten trad- 
ing periods, each of which represents one 
year. 

Players start with $5,000. Each trading 
period begins with a general description 


of the market, which is either going up 
(Bull| or down (Bearf A descrij)tion of spe- 
cial circum.stances that have affected one 
or more individual stocks follows. 

The monitor displays the Price Change 
Board, which shows the old price, net 
change, and new price of ten corporations. 
It also displays stock splits and bankrupt- 
cies. When players have thoroughly exam- 
ined the Price Change Board, each in turn 
has the opportunity to buy and sell. After 
the first turn, total worth determines order 
of play with the wealthiest player going 
first. 

Players view their current portfolios at 
the beginning of their turns. The monitor 
displays each stock with its current price, 
the number of shares owned, dividends (if 
anyl. and the total value of the player's 
holding in each corporation. A short menu 
allows the player to buy or sell stock, read 
a short description of a particular com- 
pany. and review the price history’ of a se- 
curity. just as in the real stock market, it’s 
not clear from the history’ of a commodity 
what its future performance will be. 


[BM-PC goes to WALL ST, 

with 

STOCKCHARTir 


ITM 


A SOFTWARE PACKAGE WHICH GENERATES ON- 
BALANCE-VOLUME' GRAPHS. PRICE-CHARTS. MOVING 
AVERAGES. AND MORE. . . 

INCLUDING COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE FOR RETRIEV- 
ING STOCK QUOTES FROM THE DOW JONES NEWS 
RETRIEVAL" SYSTEM AND COMPUSERVE. 


MICRO-INVESTMENT SOFTWARE 
9621 BOWIE WAY 
STOCKTON, CA 95209 


STOCKCHART II IS a trademark o< Micro Investment SoUware 
IBM IS a registered trademark ot International Business Macnmes Corporation 
* ON-BALANCE VOLUME is a trademark of Granville's Market Letter 
' • Trademark of DOW JONES & CO . INC 


1 1 am very 

1 Company 

interested in STOCKCHART ll. 

1 


1 


1 Citv 



1 


Pt MAGAZINi; I> KC !■ M hi: R 1982 




Ease of Use 

Three pages of instructions are avail- 
able at the beginning of the game. They 
are clear and complete and may be re- 
called during any player’s turn. With these 
and the various prompts that occur during 
play, no one should have trouble playing 
this game. 

As is typical with Avalon Hill's prod- 
ucts, the letter-size box is attractive and 
eye catching. The three-page rule booklet 
gives a good description of the game along 
with load instructions for the PC. The 
booklet also provides a short blurb about 
each stock. 

The graphics are not remarkable. Stan- 
dard-size text characters appear as black 
on yellow. The Bull and Bear announce- 
ments appear in bold, blue characters, but 
are not well formed. Each type of market is 
accompanied by its own tune, “We’re In 
the Money.” for Bulls and Chopin’s “Fu- 
neral March” for Bears. 

General Appeal 

Players who like money games or who 


are interested in the stock market will en- 
joy Stocks and Bonds. It does a good job of 
presenting the basic ups and downs of 
Wall Street. The game is rather slow mov- 
ing. however, which detracts from its gen- 
eral appeal. 

Stocks and Bonds is meticulous in its 
record keeping and price calculations. It 
does not accept invalid responses, but this 
can be annoying. For example, when buy- 
ing or selling a stock, players must enter 
the first two letters of that stock’s name. 
The first character must be capitalized, 
while the second character must not. Any 
deviation from this overly punctilious re- 
quirement constitutes an invalid response. 

Avalon Hill will replace defective 
disks free up to 90 days after purchase. 
After this time, there is a service charge of 
$5 for replacements. 

The transition from board game to 
computer game is fraught with peril. The 
computer version must rely on visual and 
audio effects to compensate for tactile 
pleasures like the rustle of paper money 
and the roll of dice. It must move fast 


enough to occupy players between turns, 
but not so fast as to confuse them. Stocks 
and Bonds hasn’t quite made the transi- 
tion; it's an enjoyable enough game but 
probably lacks long-term appeal. 

CROSS CLUES 

Science Research Associates 
19402 S. Gunlock Ave. 

Carson, CA 90746 
(213) 979-0569 
List Price; $30 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 9 to adult 
Number of Players; Two 

Cross Clues is a cousin to the crossword 
puzzle. The PC monitor displays the puz- 
zle, seven squares by seven, on the left 
side of the screen. Two players compete by 
guessing words and letters. Their scores 
appear to the right of the puzzle. 

The program comes with 50 stored puz- 
zles. The computer rapidly draws in the 
grid in bold, blue lines and places a single 
starter vowel somewhere within the puz- 
zle, Players begin by using arrow cursors 
to indicate the row or column in the puzzle 
where they wish to begin play. With no 
clues except word length and possibly the 
single vowel (if a player chooses to begin at 


J, LAYERS 
get points when 
they complete a 
correct word. 

the site of the vowel], the first player guess- 
es a word. 

There’s only a remote chance that the 
word is correct, but there is a reasonable 
chance that it contains one or more cor- 
rectly placed letters. When this happens, 
the incorrect letters disappear and the cor- 
rect one(s) remains in place. If it is a conso- 
nant. it transfers from a box below the puz- 
zle (containing all 21 consonants) to every 
square in which it occurs in the puzzle. 
The player receives a pjoint for every con- 
sonant distributed and gets another guess. 
Then there are more clues for both play- 
ers. Players also get points when they com- 
plete a correct word. 


lEM 7C Xxoansm fro^Mcts 


JLDJVv i c rromcts 

^ I?f7T7mWIA 

f/year<{(fc(my)anj.jrn)(f^ ^ iivfustruJ^ 
^n^fiksjor neytfQtr 'Ta^strcC cwt^ters. 


2Amon/ 'ModuQs 

^izK mtH 2 Async $1^90 

256K: with z^jnc jBUs 

792K with zA^nc #7-95 coMfomf 

2^6K tnCttvy^ *■ components stUentCm 

256«:Byres menwry $729 
i92Kc^tcs memoni ^^79 


I Torjurt/ter it^rmatum CaCC tjoi) 0576 - 0900 . 

I hitcracdia iTitem >060/ S. 'DeAnza'B^., Ct^xrtino, Ca 99019. 


PC MAGAZINE 92 DECEMBER 1982 







pur me idm-pu cxvfusivBiy 


Lifetree Software 

VOLKSWRITER 

a high performance word processor 
with tutorial on diskette and fuH reference manual 

$139.00 

through January 15th 


PC SPECIALS 

VISICORP 

buy any 3 VIsiCorp programs 
get the lowest priced one free 
through December 31st 


SYMTEC LIGHT PEN 

with touch ring 

connects to cokx/graphics card 
with free diskette of experimental programs 
$119.00 

through January 15th 


SOFTWARE 


—Word Processing — 

CompSotl WORO'PC 49 00 

Oatwnosi Wrm-On 97 00 

UfclTM VoHuwrilef 147 00 

P*rt«cl Sottwwc Pertecl Wnw 233 00 

(US EMyWrtler R 2S9 00 

SorcMi Sup»>Write« 277 00 

BMman Pon«r Powerteit 37S 00 

— Data Base— 

PCwnwar* CPEATAeASEfPooriWwi'tOtfRSMM 49 90 

ViaiCorp V«tO«i rsMsp*c«aPov*; 1S900 

vwFito raM apaoal 229 00 

Condor Condor S«n«a 20-1 227 00 

Condor S«nos 20-2 427 00 

Condor S«nM 20-3 667 00 

Aipna Softwva Oait Baa* Managor 245 00 

lUS EaayF4ar 299 00 

Mcro Lab Data Fadory 374 00 

AahtonTala dBaaaH(DOSorCP'M-86) 478 00 

— Spread Sheet— 

Comahara Target PlanrtarCalc 69 95 

lUS EasyPtvmer 141 00 

VlaiCorp ViaiCatc2S6K(teeipec<arabovej 16900 

SorcMi SuperCaic 209 00 

—Educational— 

Aipna Sottwara Oueation (turnout peopia. cnas. arwnasy 45 00 

Oavidaon The Speed Raadar 55 00 

FriendySod FnendlyWvara iMAa -a graM trali/aj 49 05 

SpnnaAer fdi/caMnar gamea tor young computor uaars 

Sr>oo6erTroopal ragaa lOtoaduffi 44 95 

Snooper Troope II rapM >0 to aduffl 44 95 

FaeemaMr (agee 4-6J 34 95 

Story Macnneragea 9-91 34 95 

Comprenensive PCTUTOeftortoairimauaera) 5500 

—Other— 

Alpha Software MoAng Lrat 95 00 

Type Facaa 95 00 

The Apple— IBM Connection 17500 

ApTec Epaon to Pnsm 

maAes Priam PrMer loo* Me Epson 49 95 

CSl The Real Estate Conauttant 19500 

Conteiental Home Accountant PKia 1 1 2 00 

Fret ClMS MM 64 00 

iSM QrapnmaoK: (compded) 67 00 

Mathemaoic (compiledl 75 00 

(US EesySpeHer 135 00 

indioo Data Cotor lt cotorscreendumptorpnsmprinfer 4995 

Pnnl-ll screen dump tor Epaon or IBM ptoiler 44 95 
Micro Lab TaxMarwger 167 00 

Microetul Croastak 1 39 00 

Traneporter 227 00 

PCaoftware PCcrayon 44 95 

Rickerdata Sofispooiseneiorparaitoipnnrapooier 49 95 

Keyawap innatofrrm PC Aeyboard 
mio fyperrrlter style Aeyboard 69 95 

$orcni(ISA) Spelouard (NEW PRCEl 14100 

Solubon Software PCModem 1 3 tor Smartmodem 300 49 95 

PCModem 1 4 torSmsrtmodem t200 79 95 

StarsKte Fnaze cotoracreendumptorpnampnnrer 55 00 

TexaSoli Varaatext 1 25 00 

VieiCorp Deahlop'PLANfaeespecisiabovei 229 00 

VraiTrend/Piotiaeeapeciaiabovej 229 00 

VistSchedule (see apecra(abo»«| 229 00 


GAMES 


Automated SimMalions Temple otApahai 29 00 

Upper Reaches ot Apetiai 1 5 00 

CureeofRa 1500 

Slue Grant Hoaer (sweaty palms guerenteedl 25 00 

Oetamost PtgPen(powerp«s| 23 00 

Space &nks(eseAingAii«s<on game! 27 00 

Funtaetlc SrwckAnacklt(*eyboartfor/oyatic*l 2900 

ISM Pnem — AStory«Mk(wiin 3 Aeys worm tSO.OOOJ l900 

Intocom Zorltl 26 00 

ZodtH 29 00 

ZorhItI 29 00 

Starcroea 29 00 

Deadbrte (our besi seseri 39 00 

Omhc Space Ouardan 23 00 

PCaottware Cnampionsnip Btackiecii (team to be a winner') 34 95 

Smua Cal to Arms (Conowesf) 23 00 

TexaSott Chieenot Keans Ooysbc* or keyboard maze) 29 00 

Zeta Slartrah 27 00 


HARDWARE 


-Memory- 

lubcroeott RAMCwd (wnh AAWOnve 6 Umyl 

64K (upgradabtei 257 00 

AST Research ComboPiua Card with NEW SuperOnve 

sen« wid parallel pom. and ciocA'caMndar 
64K lupgradabiei 397 00 

Ouedram Quedboerd with OuedRAM-DRiVE 

saner and paraeai pom, and ctocA' c alen e er 

64K (upgradable) 41600 

64K upgrade crepe tor any ol above (9 ctspei 76 00 

—Printers— 

Epaon MX 80 F/T with GRAFTRAX-Plua 497 00 

MX- 1 00 FIT with ORAFTRAX-Plue 697 00 

Snath Corona TP- 1 letter quaMy 644 00 

IDS Pntm60witnM4opliona 129700 

Pnem 1 32 with a> 4 opbona 157800 

CompuCable Cable tor any of above to IBM -PC 32 00 

—Monitors— 

Etectrohome 1302-2 ROBHiReaMonilor Ca* 

Cable tor above (16 cotor) to I6M-PC 46 OO 

Amdeh Color II ROB Hi Res Momtor with caora 697 00 

—Other— 

Amdeli Amdisk 3 * Microlloppy 697 00 

Amptot Digital XY Plofler 727 00 

Curtis PCPedesitftorlBMOiapisy 77 00 

Extaneion Cables tor IBM Display 44 00 

Keyboard ExterwonCaOie 1310 96 I 36 00 

FTaOalB UghtPen 13965 

Oemo'OameeDiokenalorljghtPan 29 95 

Hayes Smartmodam300 227 00 

Smartmodem 1200 557 00 

PCModem Software 13 tor Smartmodem 300 49 95 

PCModemSottware t.4torSmartmodem 1200 79 95 

Smarmodem-td-PC Cable 30 00 

Kraft Joysbck Si 00 

Paddto 37 00 

Computar-Mate Computer -Male Desk 4 n 346 00 

Computer-MaleDeakStt 42100 

Symiec Light Pen witn demo disAetre 126 00 

TO Joysbck St 00 

"V" Cable tor 2 Joytecka 39 00 

T«v)on TM100-25%‘Onve<C>S.OOl CM 


FOR MORE INFORMATION 
1 - 603 - 446-3383 

Monday through Friday 9;00 to 5:30 
or write 

PC Connection. 6 Mill Street, Marlow, NH 03456 

TO PLACE ORDERS 
1 - 800 - 243-8088 

No aurcmarge added on ShSA and Maatarcard 

No adational charge lor insurance we futy msure al sn«menta 

No sales tax 

ASow 1 week to deer persorW ar\d company checka 


SHIPPING 

Umled Stales 

For morxiora pnntert. and timlure. add 2S to M orders For M other items 
sdd 52 per order tor UPS arxiace. S3 per order lor UPS Blue Label 

Canada and Mexico 

We add freight charges to credit card purchases For prapeymeni mduda 
3H tor monitors, printers, and furrMure For M other Hams, add 54 per order 
lor ahippir>g chargee 

Outside The US Canada, and Maxico 

We add tratgM charges to credM card purchases H you would kke to prepay 
cM 1 -eOS'SeB-SdBS. or wnte tor stxppmg mtormetion 

Al Items subject to svaMbMy Prices subieci to change wiinoul notice 
’ IBM « s raftered Irademark of Iniernslional Buamess Machmee 



Ease of Use 

Players preset time limits (from 1 to 5 
minutes) according to their skill levels. 
One might allow a child more time than an 
adult. A shrinking bar ticking away below 
the score indicates the time remaining for 
each turn. The game finishes when a play* 
er receives a score of 21 points. 

Play is simple with friendly prompts. 
The only moderately difficult part is posi- 
tioning the two cursor arrows to point to 
the first letter of the word. A colored cur- 
sor that moves over the whole puzzle 
would be preferable. 


The disk comes in a glossy folder with a 
brief description. Detailed instructions ex- 
plain how to transfer the operating system 
and load the game. No playing instruc- 
tions are provided and none are needed. 
After some entertaining introductory 
graphics depicting Sherlock Holmes's hat, 
Cross Clues asks the players whether they 
need instructions. A "yes” is followed by a 
5-minute tutorial in which the computer 
teaches the game. At each step the player 
becomes more involved until he or she is 
comfortably competing against the com- 
puter. This is some of the most effective 


documentation available for any game 
program. 

Cross Clues’s graphics are good, with 
broad lines and large characters. Even 
with an old color TV the program presents 
sharp images and is pleasant to watch. 
Players have the option of turning off the 
sound, but this shouldn’t be necessary as 
the audio effects are not bothersome. 
When a player makes a successful guess, 
the monitor offers congratulations accom- 
panied by cheerful notes. 

General Appeal 

Cross Clues will appeal to every mem- 
ber of the family. It has a useful “Pause” 
feature that allows players to rest. If the 
game is allowed to sit for a while, it reverts 
to an engaging demonstration mode that 
asks. "Would you like to learn to play?" It 
also asks players their names and once 
these are keyed in. greets them personally. 

The spelling is accurate and the score- 
keeping is flawless. This is a highly profes- 
sional program. It does not allow errone- 


^Zross clues 

is worth adding to any 
game library. 

ous entries; it even ignores incorrect key 
presses. To reduce the possibility of errors, 
the program disables control keys. 

There is an elaborate license agree- 
ment in the Cross Clues package. The 
manufacturer. SRA, is a subsidiary of 
IBM. It will replace a defective disk free 
of charge within 90 days and for a prorated 
fee thereafter. The 50 puzzles last a long 
time, but it would be nice if one could add 
custom-made puzzles after playing all the 
preprogrammed ones. 

Interestingly. Cross Clues is subtitled 
"Set 1.” suggesting that more is to come. 
This is one of the best games on the mar- 
ket. Not just another ho-hum program 
with standard text characters. Cross Clues 
is worth adding to any game library. /PC 

An avid game player, Martin Oakes works 
for a Fortune 500 company as an engineer 
and programmer. He uses the IBM PC to 
calculate weekly and monthly production 
budgets, to forecast equipment require- 
ments, and to determine manufacturing 
capabilities. 


OVERFLOWING 


iti-coapATim MEioir ioaids: 

IRM-64C 64K Complete Memory Board 169 

IRM-64 X 64K Expandable ID 256K Memory Board 199 

IRM-128X 126K Expandable to256K Memory Board 299 

IRM-192X 192K Expandable lo 2S6K Memory Board 399 

IRM-2S6C 2S6K Compieie Memory Board 449 

IRM-256X 2S6K Expandable ( 0 51 2K Memory Board 499 

IRM-S12C S12K Complete Memory Board 799 

illldt/VICTAI-COMPATIILE ■EMOAT lOAAAS; 

SVM-128X 128KExparx)able to 384 K Memory Board 450 

SVM-2S6X 256KExpartdabieio3e4KMemoryBoard 650 -• 

SVM-384C 384K Complete Memory Board 900 

ll■•C0■PAT1llE IRTEIIAL FISPPT OISK SYSTEMS: o'* 

IIF05-640 640K Two Drives 575. 

IIFDS-SDO BOOK Two Drives * 595 v 

IIPD5-1280 1280K Two Drives 775 0 

IIFDS-1600 1600K Two Drives * 795 ^ 

IIH-COMPATIILE EHEIIAl FLOPPY OISK SYSTEMS: 

IEF05-640 640K Two Drives 975. 

lEFOS'SOO BOOK Two Drives * 995 

1EF05-1280 1 280 K Two Drives 1275 

IEFD5-1600 1 600 K Two Drives • 1295®' 

IIM-COMPATIOLE S'n INTERNAL HARO OISK SYSTEMS: 
IIHDS-6M 6MB One Drive 1595 , 

1IH05'12M 12MB One Drive 1995 

tiH05-18M 18M6 One Drive 2395 

lOM-COMPATIOLE S'/i EHEINAL HARD DISK 
SYSTEMS: 

IEH05-6M 6MB One Drive 1895 

IEHD5-12M 12MB One Drive 2295 

IEH0S-18M 18MB One Drive 2695 

IEHD5-40M 40M6 One Drive 3695 

IRM-COMPATIOLE 0 TNINLINE EXTERNAL RISK SYSTEM: 
ITE06-24MB 24MB Two Drives 1595 

lOM-SOMPATIOLE 5% AND I 
CONTROLLER ROARS M/CAOLE: 

IC5/8C UsabieforBottiS^’ andS ' DiskSysiems 175 


lOM-COMPATIOLE MHLThFUNCTtON OOAROS: 
lMF-ARGC-0 Async Printer Port Game Adapter. 

Clock Calendar 

1MF-APGC-64 Above functions with 64K Memory 
lMF-APGC-256 Above luncbons with 256K Memory 



Cti ADD-ONS 
INCREASE YOUR 
IBM-PC CAPACITY 


495 

750 


95 

125 


Ctl 


lOM-COMPATIOLE SERIAL COMMHNICATIOIS OOAROS; 

ISCSA Serial Board. Single Lme Async 

ISCDA Senal Board. Double Lme Async 

Prices subiect lo change 


'Includes software lo give 10 sections per track support 
Also has Ram Disk and Printer Spooling Facility 


Computer Technology Innovations 
Div. of Univation. Inc. 

1037 N, Fair Oaks Ave.. Sunnyvale. CA 94086 
(408) 745-0180 TWX: 910-379-0029 
TLX; 171627 


i 


PC MAGAZINE 94 DECEMBER 1982 



Howtomake 
the most of your IBM 

for the least 

amount of money: 


DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21.95 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 Tracks, 
with Hub-ring Sox oflO Guaranteed one year 

SCOTCH 3M 

S s o. DEN 40 TRK 23 50 

OS ODEN 40 TRK 36 50 

VERBATIM DATALIFE 
MD 525-Ot 00/SS SOFT SECTOR . 26 50 
MD 550-01 OD/SS SOFT SECTOR 44 50 

DISKETTE STORAGE 

5% ' PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER w/ Inserts . 9 95 

5% ' FLIPSORT (50 Oisk Capacity) 21.95 

5V<" DISK BANK (10 Oisk Capacity) 5.95 
5% ' PfWTECTOR (50 Disk Capacity) 16 00 

DISK DRIVES 

Alpha Byte's add-on drive kits lor ihe IBM-PC — 
each kit includes installation instructions, 
t Tandon TMiOO-1 SS / 40 Irk / 00 195 00 
t Tandon TMlOO-2 OS / 40 trk / DO . 269 00 
1 Tandon TMIOO-3 SS / 80 trk / 00 250 00 
1 Tandon TM tOO-4 OS / 80 trk / DD 369 00 
Buy 2 and take off 5%' 

IBM HARDWARE 

Alpha Byte's riew 256K / 512K memory upgrade 
(wards lor the IBM-PC — our board includes an 
RS-232C ser>al port You can't beat this price 
anywhere' 

256K MEMORY BOARD 349 00 

512K MEMORY BOARD . 579 00 

256K MEMORY BOARD W/ SUPERCALC529 00 
5t2K MEMORY BOARD W/ SUPERCALC749 00 

SEATTLE 64K RAM + 370 00 

OUADRAM 64K 464 00 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE 80 00 

PRINTERS & 

ACCESSORIES 

EPSON 

EPSON MX-80 CALL 


EPSON MX-80 F/T. CALL 

EPSON MX-100 CALL 

MX-80 RIBBONS 12 00 

MX-100 RIBBONS 24 00 

MX-80 PRINTHEAD 40 00 

MX-100 PRINTHEAD 49 00 

MX-80 TECH MANUAL 30 00 

MX-100 TECH MANUAL 30 00 

GRAFTRAX-f UPGRADE .60 00 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS 

MICROBUFFER MBS-8K SERIAL 159 00 


MICROBUFFER M6P-16K PARALLEL ...159 00 
MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 32K SERIAL 299 00 
MICPOBUFFER IN-LINE 32K PARALLEL 299 00 
MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 64K SERIAL .. .349 00 
MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 64K PARALLEL 349 00 


IN-LINE 64K MEMORY UPGRADE .179 00 

MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTICS MODEM 135.00 
NOVATION O-CAT DIRECT CONNECT . ..156 00 

NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANS 219 00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT (300 Baud) 310 00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT (t200 Baud) 605 00 

UOS 212 LP (1200 Baud) 429 00 

UOS 103 JLP AUTO ANS 209 00 

HAVES MICROMODEM 269 00 

HAVES 100 MODEM (S-100) 325 00 

HAYES SMART MODEM (300 BAUD) 227 00 

HAVES SMART MODEM (1200 BAUD) 540 00 
HAYES CHRONOGRAPH .. 199 00 

LEXICON LEX-lt MODEM 119 00 

SIGNALMAN MODEM W /RS-232C 85 00 


OISK DOCTOR 105 00 

DIAGNOSTICS II 105 00 

EASY SPELLER 149 00 

EASY FILE 285 00 

THE TAX MANAGER 188 00 

VISICALC / 256K 189 00 

VISITREN / VISIPLOT 235 00 

VISIOEX 192 00 

VISIFILE 249 00 

FORTH LEVEL 2 BY FORTH INC. . 250 00 

VERSA WRITER GRAPHICS TABLETS 270 00 
CONCURRENT CP/M 86 .. .315.00 

Call for additional IBM software prices 

IBM GAME SOFTWARE 

20RK I OR ZORK II. 28 00 

DEADLINE 35 00 


lb Older or for 

information call 

InNewVbfk; 

( 212 ) 509-1923 
In Lx)s Angeles: 

( 213 ) 706-0333 
In Dallas: 

( 214 ) 744^251 
By Modem: 
( 213 ) 883-8976 


IBM SOFTWARE 


VOLKSWRITER 

.145 00 

WRITE ON 

90.00 

EASYWRITER II 

247 00 

HOME ACCOUNTANT -4- 

10500 

SUPERCALC 

189 00 

WORDSTAR 

235 00 

MAILMERGE 

79 00 

DATASTAR 

220 00 

SPELLSTAR 

ISO 00 

SUPERSORT 

160 00 

d BASE II . 

429 00 

SPELLGUARO 

230 00 

CALCSTAR 

199 00 

THE WORD PLUS 

117 00 






LOST COLONY 

23 36 

CONQUEST 




APPLE PANIC 

23 61 



CROSSFIRE 

24 95 

FROGGER . 

-27 26 


GRAPHICS HARD COPY SYSTEM 19 50 
II you don't see the software you want, call Our 
software stock is constantly expanding 


SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABLES 

1.000 y/i X 15/16. 8 49 

3.000 i'/i X 15/16 14 95 

5.000 3'/} X 15/t6 19 95 

FAN FOLD PAPER 

(Pricet P.O.B. S.P) 

9'/} X n I8lb WHITE 3.000 Ci .29 00 

14 7/8 X II 181b WHITE 3,000 Ct 39 00 


CALL OUR MODEM LINE 
FOR WEEKLY SPECIALS. 



. . IPUTER 

PRODUCTS 


31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 


We guarantee everything we seukv 30 days — no returns alter 30 days Detective sohware vnii oe replaced tree but an other software returns a*e subiect to t5% restocking lee and must be accomparxed by RMA skp No 
reiums on game software wriess oelective We accept VISA and MasterCard on au orders COD orders up to S300 Shipping charges S3 lor an prepaw orders actual shipping charges for non- prepaws S3 lor COD orders 
under 25ibs (S6 tor over) pius a $4 surcharge ado i5*/« lor loreign FPO arxi APO orders Caki add 6% sales tax. in L A County aod 6’/r% Prces quoted are lor stock on hand and are subiect to change without notce 

CP/M 6 a reg tradema.'k of Digital Research ’Requires Z-80 Softcard TReg trademark oi Micro Pro imemaixinai Corp tTrademark of Practical f^r^ais. inc 


UNTIL NOW 

MICRO-COMMUNICAnONS 
WAS BARELY MORE 
SOPHISTICATED 
THAN THIS. 



MICROCOM™ is about to change the way 
the world looks at micro-communications. With 
the first modem device that will do a lot more than 
just get your data from one point to another or 
remember a few phone numbers. 



In fact it does so much more than a modem, we 
call it the Professional Communications System. 
For starters, MICROCOM’s PCS will receive, send 


MnOjQM 

The Micro-Communications Company 


or wait for data whether your personal computer or 
terminal is on or off. Or even if you’re busy using 
the computer for some other task. And it will 
correct transmission errors automatically. 

The PCS will also store received messages until 
you want them or send them directly to a printer. 
Plus other things no other modem will do like pro- 
vide a user-configurable printer/buffer, password pro- 
tected remote access to its memory, simultaneous 
printing, and an LCD time-of-day clock. And of 
course it performs all other intelligent modem func- 
tions and its Bell compatible 212A or upgradable 
103 modem lets you store up to five phone numbers. 

We could go on but why not visit your personal 
computer dealer and see everything our Professional 
Communications System can do. Now how you 
communicate can be as sophisticated as what you 
communicate. 

1400A Providence Highway, 
Norwood, MA 02062 

MICROCOM is a trademark of MICROCOM, Inc. 






Introducing 

The Pi»el Sharpener 

aXDRPUIS 


The High Resolution 
Color Graphics Adapter 

for your IBM Personal Computer 


Now! More color, greater clarity and 
80-character display capability— without 
sacrificing software compatibility! 

Explore The Performance 
Potential Of OOLOBPIIIS 


Send For Your FREE 
Demonstration Diskette! 


Important: Quantities are limited. Requests will be filled 
in the order received. This coupon must be completeiy 
filled out and mailed to the address below. Telephone 
requests will be responded to with literature only. 

Mall to: 

PLANTRONICS 

Frederick ElectnDnics 

Attn: PO Products 

7630 Hayward Road. P.O. Box 502. Frederick. MD 21701 
Telephone (301)662-5927 Telex 893438 




I’m Interested In increasing the capabilities of my IBM Personal 
Computer. 


I have plan to buy a 

computer equipped with 


_K memory. 


personal 

. disk drive(s). 


a monitor. I want the best to meet my needs. 

Please send your FREE Pixel Sharpener demonstration diskette' to: 


(signature) 


Ms/Mr. 


(street address) 


(City) 


(state) 


(zip code) 


*Standard quality BASF 5'/*' floppy diskette or equivalent 


Pixel Sharpener, PCf and Colorplus are trademarks of Frederick Electronics Corporation 




The most successhil computer ever 

The most comprehensive catalog to dote 

And now. . . PC CAT, the place to call for all your IBM 

Personal Computer needs 


A1 PC CAT we concentrate on what 
we do best: Making available to you 
all the products related to the IBM 
Personal Computer. Just look at the 
many products listed In the September 
issue of PC magazine. From memory 
boards to educottonal software, from 
color monitors to carrying cases, from 
general ledger to daisywheel printers 
...we can get it for you. Quickly, effi- 
ciently, conveniently— and at very at- 
tractive prices. 

To keep you ahead in the industry, 
PC CAT will include a complimentary 


subscription (or renewal) to PC maga- 
zine as part of your first order. Should 
you have any special requirements, 
just ask lor "What's New PC CAT?" 

If you are a domestic or an inter- 
national dealer, PC CAT will help you 
take advantage of the opportunities in 
this booming marketplace. Call or 
write today for our complete dealer 
package 

Like IBM's Personal Computer, we 
purrr.,.form, 

® PC CAT Corp., 1982 


PC CAT Corp. 

1900 Powell St., Suite 345 
Emeryville. California 94608 

Fbone: (415) 425-9414 
Telex: 337261 PCCAT EUVL 


IBM w ■ UMemark ol inMmMional Buevm* 

M«cNnOT Corporailon 

PC IS a trademark ol Soltware Commun)caiions.lnc 
The Purrr-fect Comlxnalioo and What s New PC 
CAT’’ " are trademarks of PC CAT Corp 
PC CAT IS an independent business, not asso- 
ciated with IBM. Software Communtcationa. or 
the publishers of PC magatme 





GAMES/RICHARD COOK 


From Fantasy 
To Video Game Reality 

Imagine yourself a bold explorer, a brilliant detective, 
or the leader of a newly colonized pdanet. Now your 
fantasies are challenging video game realities. 


ZORKI 

Infttcom 
55 Wheeler Si. 

Cambridge. MA 02138 
IH171 -192-1031 
List Price: $39.95 
Requires: 48K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 14 lo ndidt 
Number of Players: One 


Zork is a clever. com[)lex program recom- 
mended for teenagers or adults, though 
some children may outperform older Zork 
I players. 

Zork / pits the individual against the 
terrors "The Great Underground Em- 
pire." Although Zork / is usually played by 
one person, sideline players often l)ecome 
involved, offering useful advice. 

Zork / is basically a treasure hunt. The 
player must thoroughly explore a vast un- 
derground world, eons old and inhabiteil 
by mysterious forctts. to locate the trea- 
sures and secure them in a stife place. Var- 
ious objects, including deadly weapons, 
must also be located by the player to aid in 
the (juest. Becoming a Zork master is no 
easy task: Zork / recpiires real brain power 
t«) overcome obstacles and gather all 20 
treasures. 

Ease of Use 

The Zork ! program gives descriptions 
of places and things and asks for instruc- 
tions. The player types in directions and 
suggests answers, 'rhere's no clock to race. 


so the player can thoroughly consider each 
nu>ve. 'rhe interaction between user and 
computer is more [)ersonal than in video 
arcade-type games that leave the player 
with damp armpits and bleeding hands. 
Zork / is a combination of Lord of the 
Bings and a grand master chess tourna- 
ment— lots of action, mysteiy, adventure, 
and a constant intellectual challenge. 

Zork / is fun to come back lo again and 
again. The best straleg\‘ is to play until 


T.S PLACES 
and creatures in Zork I 
are right out of your 
dreams and 
nightmares. 

completely baffled, and then retire for a 
few minutes, hours, or days. This strateg>’ 
allows fresh ideas and solutions to germi- 
nate. 

A ()layer who is unable lo solve certain 
problems may want to buy /nvisic/ues, 
produced by the Zork Users Group, /nvisi- 
c/uesisa booklet of questions about getting 
somewhere or fwercoming obstacles while 


exploring Zork land. The answers are 
written in invisible ink and are made to 
apptiar by being rubbed with a special 
felt-tip pen. (The pen is included with the 
booklet.) The idea is to giv'e only as much 
htdp as is needed. Each answer is more 
revealing than the previous one. The com- 
[)lele answer is given last. 

inv/sidues is almost as much fun as 
Zork. but a player shoukl refrain from 
reaching for an invisiclue until help is des- 
[)erately needed— the fun in Zork lies in 
using one’s own powers of logic and rea- 
son to solve |)roblems. /nvis/dues is sold at 
computer stores or can be ordered by 
sending $9.95 plus $2 [)oslage and han- 
dling lo Zork Users Group. Dept. Zfl. P.O. 
Box 20923. Milwaukee. WI 53220-0923 
(Wisconsin residents add 5 percent sales 
tax). 

Software and documentation for Zork 
/ are sold in a sealed packet that contains 
an instruction booklet, disk. IBM PC Inter- 
logic Reference card, and warranty card. 
Read the Zork I manual before playing. It 
is short and easy to understand and in- 
cludes instructions for using the programs 
that are not revealed during play. The 
instructions include numerous examples, 
suggestions, troubleshooting tips, and a list 
of commands and abbreviations. The 
game is a genuine challenge and is played 
exactly as ex[>lalned in the manual. 


rt MAGAZlNi: 99 l>HCRMBFR 198 2 


FOR TRS-80 MODEL I OR III 
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FORThCOM communications package providas RS-232 
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THE DATAHANDLER a vary last dalabasa managamant 
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FORTHWRITE Iasi, powarlui word processor w/aasy kay 
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61 Lake Shore Road. Natick. MA 01760 
(617) 653-6136 


Use of Graphics 

Th« pictures inside the players head 
are what’s important in Zork I. The de- 
signers have wisely refrained from includ- 
ing any gra|)hics. leaving each player free 
tu imagine horrible adversaries and ap- 
pealing rewards. 

The program responds as it should, but 
not always the way one would prefer. Zork 
I has the advantage of allowing multiple 
commands per turn to be entered with 
periods or the word then between individ- 
ual instructions. 

Error Handling 

Whenever Zork 1 doesn't understand 
or can’t use an instruction in a specific 
context, it lets the player know in a variety’ 
of ways. The instruction booklet lists many 
of these responses, but not for bizarre 
commands such as “Walk through the 
wall'' or “Eat the door." Sometimes a 
weird command will produce an unex- 
pected, helpful result. If not, Zork I s reply 
is usualK' good for a laugh. 

Warranty Support 

The warranty is very' limited. The disk 
is the only item covered, and replacement 
is guaranteed to only the original owner 
and disk, only if the warranty card was 
sent in. only after Infocom, Inc. deter- 
mines the disk was not tampered with or 
misused, and only for 90 days from the 
date of purchase. Program errors are not 
covered. 'I'he warranty states. “The entire 
risk as 1(j the quality and performance of 
the com|)Uter software program is as- 
sumed by the user." 

General Appeal 

Zork / is appealing on many levels. It is 
imaginative— the places and creatures in 
Zork i are right out of your favorite dreams 
or worst nightmares. It is addicting— Zork 
/ grabs your attention and runs away with 
it. And it is challenging— tougher than the 
i\'evv York Times crossword puzzle and 
more baffling than Rubik's Cube. 

Perhaps Zork's greatest appeal is the 
excitement of exploring the unknown and 
the thrill of discovery', particularly for peo- 
ple who grew up reading science fiction, 
fantasy, and adventure stories. 

As one of the new genre of “Sword and 
Sorcery " computer games. Zork / is a must 
for anyone's software collection. It is sur- 


prising. impressive, and entertaining. If 
you divide the purchase price by the num- 
ber of hours spent enjoying it. it is also a 
great value. 


LOST COLONY 

Acorn Software Products 
fi34 N. Carolina Ave. SE 
Washington. UC 20003 
(202) 550-9788 
List Price: $29.95 
Requires: 48K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 10 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


What do competitive business managers 
and power-hungry politicians do for fun? 
If they're smart and lough enough, they 
switch on their IBM PCsand plug into Lost 
Colony, one of the most intellectually 
challenging computer games around. 

If ever a game demanded planning, pa- 
tience. and persistence, this is it. Lost 
Colony is not another kiddie game. To a 
mountain climber it would be Everest: to a 
tennis player it would be Wimbledon; to 
the average computer hobbyist it may be 


J. LAYING IN 
constant fear of failure 
and with no tangible 
rewards can be 
depressing. 


loo much. If you're bored with battle 
games and fed up with fantasy adventures, 
/.osf Coion\’ could be the challenge you 
seek. 

The premise is exciting: The player is a 
member of a colonizing expedition on 
Warren's World, a distant planet. War has 
broken out on earth, and 1,700 colonists 
are com[)lelely cut off from help. One per- 
son has been elected the sole decision 
maker, with wide-ranging economic pow- 
ers. That person alone must decide who 
will work in what indust^y^ how much 
each will l)e paid, how much and where 
exploration will lake place, how scarce re- 
sources will be allocated, and what the tax 
rate will be. 


PC MACAZINK 100 DHCKMBER 1982 



g HI* 


THE LIGHT PEN 

For Your IBM Personal Computer 



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Professional Quality and Durable 
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I Fully Supported with Color/Graphics 
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Displays and TV’s. (Not For Use with 
IBM Monochrome Display). 

I Demo/Games Diskette Available Now. 
Additional Software Under Develop- 
ment. 

Call, use coupon, or see your participa- 
ting IBM® dealer. 



FTC3) 

( DATA SYSTEMS 

10801 DALE STREET, SUITE M-2 
P.O. BOX 615-C 

STANTON. CALIFORNIA 906B0 
(714) 995-3900 


Mail To: 


Name. 
Street. 
City 


FTG Data Systems 
10801 Dale Street, Suite M-2 
P.O. Box 615-C 
Stanton, California 90680 


.State. 


.Zip. 


Telephone 

□Visa OM/C 

Exp. Date 

Signature 


Quantity Description 


Total 


FT-156 Light Pens @ $159.95 

Demo/Games Discs @ $39.95 

Shipping (ffi $5.(X) per order* 

California - add 6% sales tax 

Total 

Old prices honored until September 15. 1982. 

Check, Money Order, COD, or Visa - M/C Accepted. 
‘No Shipping Charges if paid by Check or Money 
Order. Allow 2 weeks for personal checks. 


ms: 



Along with ull this power goes respon- 
sibility. Poor decisions will cause unem- 
ployment. strikes, and starvation. One 
poor decision is often all it takes to get the 
■’manager” (playerj kicked out of office 
and onto a farm to work the fields. And in 
host Colony poor decisions are veiy diffi- 
cult to avoid. 

Ease of Use 

Play begins with a chart of figures for 
population, the number of unemployed, 
consumer goods, cash, living standards, 
and the number of areas colonized. Below 
the chart is a list showing the page num- 
bers for the regional summaiy and status 
reports on agriculture, mining. energ\’. 
manufacturing, and transportation, each 
accessible on the IBM PC by function keys 
1 through 6 respectively. Pressing F3. for 
example, calls up the mining report, 
which shows a chart listing the amount of 
labor, number of robots, living standard, 
production sites, production, and stock 
available. 

The manager s first job is to decide how 


much labor to distribute to each of the five 
industries. Next comes a decision on dis- 
tributing robots. Further decisions include 
how many consumer goods, robots, manu- 
facturing plants, and transports to build, 
limited by the amount of raw materials on 
hand. Finally the manager passes out con- 


Xjost colony 

is not another 
kiddie game. 

sumer goods: stockpiles supplies; sets the 
lax rale: and explores and settles new ter- 
ritories. One round is then completed and 
the year-end report is displayed. The cy- 
cle repeals itself for each successive year, 
assuming that the manager has not run out 
of resources or cash, misallocated labor or 
robots, been faced with a poor harvest, 
overtaxed the captains of industry, or 


caused a high rate of depreciation. 

The key to l^eing a successful manager 
involves keeping a running count on a 
large number of interrelated factors. It is 
imperative to know what these factors 
mean, what affects them, and what they, in 
turn, affect. Adjustments in one area mean 
depletions in another or in several others. 

I.osI Co/on\- is a game of numbers and 
statistics. A player who attempts to play 
the game without thoroughly examining 
the instruction manual will have absolute- 
ly no idea what tr) do. 

After mastering the basics, a player 
may want to progress to a higher plateau. 
J.osf Coion\‘ has ten skill levels. On level 
l(t a novice player will be kicked out of 
office almost before the first year com- 
mences. 

Use of Graphics 

The manager in /.ost Co/on\‘ keeps 
track of people, robots, and resources 
through charts. Appealing cartoons of 
|)eople or things do not appear on the 
screen: only the numbers and symbols that 
represent the statistical categories are dis- 
|)layed. Lost Colony makes good use of the 
PC's graphics symbols to make maps and 
tables readable. 

Documentation 

In an apparent attempt to streamline 
the instruction booklet, the author has 
made it less complete than this complex 
[)rogram merits. Too much effort is wasted 
in tiying to understand what is going on in 
the game. A player cannot intelligently de- 
termine how many of which item to pro- 
duce without consulting a chart that shows 
what is required to produce certain goods. 
It would be helpful if such a chart were 
included in the booklet or if a player had 
direct access to a chart page in the pro- 
gram. 

Although the manual is stuffed with in- 
formation. vital facts are buried in long 
paragraphs of seemingly trivial text. Out- 
lines would have been more useful than 
narrative explanations. The manual 
should be clear and concise, because a 
player must constantly refer to the instruc- 
tions during the game. 

Error Handling 

Lost Colony does not become confused 
when a player enters unusual responses to 
the prompts. The use of the arrow keys to 
move the cursor around and excessively 


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PC MAGA/INin 102 DECEMBER 198 2 




You've got your IBM. 
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You can't run a marathon in 
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VISICALC 



INTERACTIVE ELECTRONIC 
WORKSHEET 


YES 


ON LINE REFERENCE GUIDE 


NO 


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OR AREAS 


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INDIVIDUAL COLUMN 
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MULTIPLE. LINKED 
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SORTING CAPABILITY 


NO 


VisiCalc was a swell idea 
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The next generation. First generation electronic 
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management tools that could eliminate a lot of hours 
with a spreadsheet, calculator, pencil and eraser Enter 
Multiplan, the next generation electronic worksheet 
that's as easy to use as it is useful 
Make comparisons. Compare Multiplan to any of 
the earlier electronic worksheets. We've given you some 
"prompts" above. 

Compare learning time. Multiplan's tutorial book brings 
you up to speed. Fast. But Multiplan doesn't stop there. 
Multiplan's On-line Reference Guide gives you instant 
help if you have questions. It knows where you are in 
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right on the screen. 

Compare ease of use. All Multiplan prompts are 
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"naming." the ability to assign a plain English name to any 

*Ba&ed on features tn reteases VC 202BO AP2 <irtd VC f56YO IBM 
ot VisiCaic on the Apple II arxl IBM PC respecivelv 


cell or area. "Gross Profit = Sales— Cost" rather than 
"AA44=AZ23— BK154." Which means you can work 
more intuitively. And faster. 

Compare utility. Multiplan lets you link related work- 
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Compare reports. Not just the work you can do, but the 
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sold and conveniently rank by sales performance The 


MULI PLAN 



Multiplanis 

for 

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MS"-DOS. XENIX." or CP/M 80“ operating systems. 
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Compare the source. Microsoft was the world s first 
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maintained at the state of the art. 

Compare for yourself. Drop into your computer store. 
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MICROSOFT 


Microsoft IS « regis 
tftriK) tradefnark arid 
Muttiplan. XENIX, and 
MS are trademarks o< 
MicTosoh Corporation 


VisiCalc IS a registered 
trademark o* VisiCorp 


CP/M 00 IS a registered trade- 
mark of Digital Research Inc 


Apple IS a registered trademark of 
Apple Computer. Inc 








.alifjrma f»»hid«mts ;uld b 


, ^ Exctu^iiM for the IBM-1 

Requires color/graphics adapic 
Only $29.95 

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• 9748 Cozycrofi Ave . Chatsworth. CA91 1 


/You re stationed on an asteroid as a welcoming committee for a new race 
oof aliens But you find out the hard way they believe the only good 
BEarthman is a dead one! You and your IBM-PC controlled lasers are the 
oonly defense between them and the inner planets and Earth itself. The 
iffighting is fierce, the odds tremendous, but if you fight the alien battalions 
dhard enough and long enough you can at least delay their advance. 

Space Strike has all the excitement, firepower and competitiveness 
Dthat first made computer games such smash hits. 

So help save the Earth while you enjoy the most absorbing 
and fascinating game available for your IBM-PC. 


iFNentny aliens PFOpget it! 





lengthy entries are permitted, but these 
features can result in leftover characters 
staying on the screen temporarily. 

Warranty Support 

Acorn Software Products. Inc. offers a 
sound, but limited, warranty' policy. Any 
defective disk will be replaced free of 
charge for the first 90 days or for $6 there- 
after. 

General Appeal 

/.ost Colony’ is a negative incentive 
game. Assign too few people to work the 
fields, and starvation and unemployment 
result. Fail to locate mining or energy’ re- 
sources. and all production stops: distrib- 
ute too few consumer goods, and workers 
threaten strikes. Th(jre are no visceral re- 
wards such as killing a troll or finding a 
treasure, and not even congratulations or 
thanks for guiding the colony through an- 
other year. 

Playing in constant fear of failure and 
with no tangible rewards can be depress- 
ing. It would be interesting to have some 
perks built in. such as a slush fund or se- 
cret bank account that could be incre- 
mentally increased each successful year. 
The money could be used to buy off strike 
leaders, to buy votes of confidence when 
the populace wants the manager kicked 
out of office, or to purchase a charming 
country home for retirement. 

For now. graft and corru|)tion aren’t 
part of the game. Satisfaction has to come 
from knowing you have done your best or 
proving you can whip this program. 


Xjost colony 

is a negative 
incentive game. 

Overall. J,ost Colony is a unique, chal- 
lenging game. The game provides a 
glimpse of the vicissitudes of power and 
authority. After successfully guiding the 
colony past the first fewyears, a player can 
get a feeling of pride and accomplishment. 
As the author says in the manual. “Once 
you master this game perhaps you will 
want to apply to the President’s Council of 
Economic Advisors.” Maybe not— it 


wouldn’t be much of a challenge after 
playing Lost Colony. 


PODLASERIUM 

CP Computer Services 
5019 N. Washington Blvd. 

Arlington. VA 22205 
(7031 276-1333 
List Price: S34.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

Zap-and-dodge games such as Space Jn- 
\’aders must still be popular, because there 
is a new one out called Podloserium. 

A shooter slides left or right along a 
horizontal line at the bottom of the screen, 
representing Earth, and fires straight up at 
nasty alien attackers. The player begins 
with 25 units of fuel and 25 units of ammu- 
nition. Each shot consumes one unit of 
ammo: fuel is consumed whether Earth’s 
defenders move or not. A fresh supply of 
fuel is awarded for each 1.000 points and 
additional ammo is awarded for each 
2.000 points. 

Enemy aliens drop four fiendish types 
of “pods” into the sky above Earth. Once 
in place, these pods do not move and can 
be picked off at leisure. The pods occa- 
sionally fire missiles that destroy large 
amounts of the defender's fuel and ammo, 
but the attacks are sporadic and can easily 
be avoided. If the aliens amass a large 
force of un{lestroyed pods, “shields” of 
horizontal and diagonal dashed lines ap- 
pear. The player can blast these shields at 
the expense of precious ammo. As a bonus, 
a “pod bomb" appears during the later 
stages of each round. If it is detonated, all 
pods on the screen vanish. 

The game is over when the player runs 
out of either fuel or ammo. A counter then 
sweeps the sk\’ and deducts points for any 
aliens not destroyed. The object of Pod/a- 
s«?rium is to vaporize pods and score 
enough points to continue play. Simple, 
right? Yes and no. 

Blasting pods is easy— just line up the 
shooter with immobile targets— but it soon 
becomes clear that zapping all the pcxls is 
dangerous. Only certain pods should be 
zapped, and as soon as possible before 
they hide behind other pods or shields. 
Meanwhile fuel and ammo constantly dis- 
appear. One useful feature is the graphic 
indicators that show how much fuel t>r 


ammo remains. The pod bombs are also a 
good idea: it’s fun to nail one. but watch 
the indicators or it will cost too much 
ammo to drill through the shields that sur- 
round each bomb. 

Ease of Use 

Podloserium is quite easy to play. Press 
F9 to move left. FlO to move right, and F7 
to fire a laser blast. Should interplanetary 
warfare make a player thirsW. the F4 ke>- 
freezes the action to allow a short break. 

This version of the game is the new 1.1 
program, which replaces the 1.0 program. 


IRdlaserium 

is another version of 
the zap- and dodge- 
game. 


David Peterson of DP Computer Services 
reports that copies of the 1.1 program were 
sent to all who had purchased the original 
1.0 program. This is a most welcome ex- 
change because the original version re- 
quired buyers to sign a user contract w’ith 
strict infringement penalties. The 1.0 ver- 
sion was also written in Advanced BASIC 
and plays much slower than the 1.1 ver- 
sion. which is written In machine lan- 
guage. 

The updated version has greatly im- 
proved the original version, but it still 
needs further refinements. The few minor 
quirks are not loo distracting. Even so. this 
latest edition of Podiaserium suffers in 
comparison with other motor-coordina- 
tion programs. 

Three photocopied pages of instruc- 
tions are supplied with the software, but 
they are hardly necessary' since each new 
game re;quires the user to go through the 
entire instruction procedure. At least the 
program demonstration is optional. This 
repetition is a major nuisance and should 
be corrected immediately. 

Use of Graphics 

Podiaserium shows up clearly on the 
monochrome monitor. The instructions in- 
dicate that resolution is slightly less defi- 
nite for color screens. 


PC MACiAZlNE 107 DECEMBER 1982 


«p 















,4M'" 

^ ^O'^K O' 
n\\* 



MICRORAD ASSOCIATES, INC. 

PO BOX1759KINGST0N, NY12401 


PACMAN’ TM Miclwov 


Error Handling 

The gnme Hoes a fair job of preventing 
errors. The keyboard is locked out during 
piny except for the function keys used in 
the game and the keystrokes those func- 
tions represent. 

Warranty Support 

DP Compiiter Services will replace a 
defective disk within 45 diiys of purchase. 
The man«ifacturer also says that it will 
work out solutions to problems that occur 
after the warrant)’ period. 

Podiaserium can be mastered after a 
few rounds. The game has potential as a 
children's game, but adults will quickly 
become bored. On the evolulionaiy scale. 
Pnd/osen'um is somewhere between Pong 
and Spoce invoders. It is difficult to imag- 
ine any improvements making the game 
more interesting. Pod/oserium may be 
destined to join the multitude of games 
that have become innocuous toys for 
youngsters to cut their computer teeth on. 


FCXDTBALL PREDiaOR '83 

C ii( C Software. Inc. 

West Bearden Office Plaza 
31f) Nancy Lynn Cr. #2BB 
Knoxville. TN 37919 
(6151 584-9774 
List Price: S39.95 
Requires: DOS 1.1(1 
Age-group: 14 to adult 
Number of Players; One 

Many people love football. Some revel in 
the crunch and thud of bodies slamming 
into the turf: others prefer the crowds, 
noise, and beer. Some are closet mathema- 
ticians who see football as a .source of .stat- 
istics. and .some use those statistics to help 
them place a friendly wager or two. It is 
these last two groups of users that Football 
Predictor '83 aims to please. 

Football Predictor ’S3 is more like a 
bookkeeping program than a game. The 
program enables the user to compare one 
football team with another. Vital statistics 
.such as per game yards passing/riKshing. 
offensive first downs per game, intercep- 
tions/fiimbles per game, and even key in- 
juries are entered into the program, which 
then factors the variables and projects a 
score for the next game between the two 
teams. 

Football Predictor '83 offers three lev- 
els of evaluation: The first looks at offen- 


sive and defensive records; the second 
and third levels provide more complete 
analyses and naturally require more de- 
tailed information. 

After each team’s .stats for a particular 
level have been logged in. the program 
gives a predicted score and asks whether 
the user would like to proceed to the next 


J. UMBLE JUST 
one digit, and you 
start all over again. 

level or compare two other teams. When 
the third level comparison is complete, the 
predicted final score is given, and four in- 
terim evaluation scores are displayed that 
compare each of the two teams with the 
rest of the league. 

Ease of Use 

Football Predictor '83 should not be 
tough to u.se. but it is. No bookkeeper 
would dream of filling in a balance sheet 
without having a large eraser nearby, but 
the program demands perfection from (he 
tiser each time an entry' is made. Fumble 
just one digit and you start all over again, 
even if \ou've run almost all the way 
through level three. This can be annoying 
if you're a clumsy h'pist or lost in thought 
computing figures. What’s worse, the same 
thing happens if "No” is keyed in to cer- 
tain prompts. Instead of offering a chance 
to continue play without losing the infor- 
mation and re.siilts already recorded, the 
program simply ends. 

Ideally, this program .should include a 
V'isiCalc or SuperCalc ability that would 
enable the u.ser to switch around variables 
and entire team .stats to make more effi- 
cient comparison;*. The user could then 
add each week's stats into the totals accu- 
mulated from previous games and have 
updated figures at hand. It would aI.so be 
|M)ssible to eliminate the endless comput- 
ing of .statLstical averages. This innovation 
would transform Football Predictor '83 
from a 97-pound weakling into a 300- 
pound offensive tackle. 

Documentation 

Three photocopied pages of instnic- 


r C M A c; A / 1 N F. 108 D i: C E M B r R 1 9 S 2 


I ions accom pa ny the d isk. Th(? inslrnct ions 
are the hare minimum: the manufacturer 
had to be called just to get the entr\’ code 
for the IBM PC. (The manufacturer s<iys 
that this sh(mld he Included on any recent- 
ly [)iirchased Foothuil Predictor ’83 pro- 
gram instructions.) Most proldems are mi- 
norand can he figured out. hut it shouldn't 
be necessan.’ to do that. For example, un- 
der key injuries, the prompt asks. "What 
type of injuiA’’?" when it should l)e asking 
which player is injured. Could a coach do 
a good job without a decent playhook? 
These instructions should he benched un- 
til they can demonstrate the basics of Foot- 
Ixj// J’redictfir ’83. 

The us<!r must do much of the paper- 
work. A statistical organizer, which lists 
variables included in the evaluations at 
each level, is included with the instruc- 
tions. 'I'he l)esl strategy’ is to compute all 
tlu* av(*ragesand record tlu*m in the .statis- 
tical organiz(!r hefor»’ jmnching them into 
the program. All the program really pro- 
vides are the formulas for weighing the 
factors. 

Accuracy 

Foolh(j/l Predictor '83 seems to operate 
well within its limit.s. Without knowing the 
formulas involved In the calculation.s. 
verifying the program'saccuracy would he 
as tough as kicking a t)()-yard field goal. 
\Vhi*n uhmtical stats are «*ntered for both 
teams, the program gives the home team 
the edge. Stats that noticeal)ly favor one 
team repeatedly predict that team th(* vic- 
tor. At least (»n a primitive level, which is 
the level at which [irograms of this type 


¥. 


ERIFYING 


the program's 
accuracy would be as 
tough as kicking a 
90-yard field goal. 


operate. Foothuil Predictor '83 appears 
consi.stenl. What the program dotf.sn't 
show are numerous other variables that 
affect athletic competition: weather, mi- 
nor injurie.s. playing surface, mental and 
emotional condition of the athletes, im- 


portance of the game, and accuracy of the 
referees. ’Phe manufacturer warns users 
that Foothuil Predictor '83 is for enlertain- 


Warranly Support 

A spokesman at C C S(»ftware s<ild 
that if iheilisk is defective it .should he sent 


rnent only. 

Error handling is where Foothuil Pre- 
dictor ’83 is thrown fora lo.ss. 'Phe program 
is ver\’ unforgiving of errors. If the wrong 
number is entered, the user will be sacked. 
A conservative game plan is in order. 

For an otherwise diy and straightfor- 
ward program. Foothuil Predictor '83 has 
at lea.st one humorous response to a ridicu- 
lous entry: When too many key injuries are 
entered. It replies. 'That's a lot of injuries. 
Better .stay away from that game." 


back, and a replacement will be mailed. 
'Phe manufacturer is also willing to an.swer 
(pieslions over the phone. 

General Appeal 

Whether Foothuil Predictor ‘83 is a suc- 
ce.ss can l>e judged by .sending it into the 
field, If it can prove itself on the gridiron 
Idfms anyone call it that anymore?), then it 
will be certain to win a [dace in the hearts 
anil wallets of gamblers and "stats rats” 
eveiywhere. 



DEMAND A COMPARISON! 


• FASTER— Native 8088 Code. 

• EASIER— Menu oriented with plain 
English commands. 

• MOST FUNCTIONAL— Designed to fill 
the needs of the high production office. 


• MOST FEATURES— Has features to 
satisfy even the most discriminating 


FEATURES: Full utilization of the PC 

• Horizontal Scroll • Business Graphics 

• Math • Footnotes • Keyboard Phrase 
Library • Sophisticated Boilerplate As- 
sembly with Auto Variable Fill-in • Col- 
umn Manipulation • Hyphenation Scan 

• plus much more . 







Call or Write 
Metasoft Corporation 
711 E Cottonwood. 
Suite E. Casa Grande. 
Arizona 85222. Tele- 



phone (602)836-6160, 


I* t M A c; A z I N I i09 DECEMBER I R 2 



systemics 


EASY TO USE SOFTWARE for your 
IBM PC 64K, Monochromo. Two Drives 


PRO-PICK 

• Pro football predictions! 

• Fast entry-minutes per week 

• Customize your predictions using 

your own ideas on home vs. 
away, etc. 

• 1982 schedule & data on 

separate disk 

• Examine pointspreads, over/under 

scores. 

• Use year after year 

• Excellent gift for fans 


EZLabel + 

• Now in fast compiled BASIC 

• Single-key auto-entry 

• Fast search & sort 

• Prints 1 or 2 up labels 

• 1000 addresses per diskette 

• Sort by zip code or last name 

• Sort by user defined codes 


EZMemo -i- 

• Now in fast compiled BASIC 

• Custom form letters using 

addresses from EZLabel files 

• Easy-to-use word processing 

• Create, save & recall memos 

• Centering, justification 

• Print in any IBM PC type style 

• Line by tine editing 


At your dealer, by mail below or call: 

313 851-2504 


I ■systemics 

1 3050 Spring Street 
West Bloomfield, Michigan 48033 

I Name 

I Address 

I City, State. Zip 

■ □ PROPICK 575.00 

” □ EZLabel -f $49.95 

I □ EZMemo-i- $49.95 

I (Michigan rasidants add 4% sales la*) 

m Total amount enclosed S 

! or charge my □ VISA □ MasterCard 

I Card # 

I Exp. Date Interbank # 

I Signature 


DEADLINE 

Infocom 
55 Wheeler St. 

Cambridge, MA 02138 
(617) 492-1031 
List Price: $49.95 
Requires; 48K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 14 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

The dead man in Deadline is the million- 
aire philanthropist Marshall Robner, 
killed by an overdose of ebullion, a pow- 
erful antidepressant. Suicide is suspected, 
but there are some unanswered questions. 
It is the Inspector’s job to conduct an in- 
vestigation and to determine whether 
Robner’s death was an accident, a suicide, 
or the result of a heinous murder. 

The investigation begins at the Robner 
estate at 8 a.m. The Inspector (player) has 
only 12 hours in which to interview the 
people who live and work there, search for 
clues overlooked by the piolice, and uncov- 
er evidence leading to a possible suspect. 

A dossier labeled “Documentary Evi- 
dence” contains the particulars of the 
case: a letter from the deceased’s attorney, 
the coroner’s report, a lab report, a photo- 
graph of the location at which Robner’s 
body was found, tablets found near the 
body, some official memos, and transcripts 
of interviews with Robner’s wife, son, sec- 
retary. business partner, and housekeeper. 
The dossier also includes the Inspector's 
Casebook (also known as the instruction 
manual), an IBM Interlogic Reference 
card, a warranty card. and. of course, one 
floppy disk. Information contained in the 
casebook is vital to the success of the in- 
vestigation. 


Pa 


players’ imaginations with verbal descrip- 
tions and the enigma of a Sherlock Holmes 
mystery. 

Error Handling 

Deadline is not without its limitations. 
A player will find it difficult to question 
the characters involved unless the ques- 
tions are carefully and politely worded. 
Deadline will not accept peculiar input. 
Commands must be phrased carefully or 
the program will respond. “Come again?” 
or “I’m sorry. I don't understand that.” 
The Inspector deals with people who 


J. LAYERS HAVE 
been known to do 
without food or sleep 
until the case has been 
solved. 

Use of Graphics 

just as a good mystery story needs no 
illustrations. Deadline neither has nor 
needs graphics. The program stimulates 


Tn 


J.HE PLAYER 
has only 12 hours 
in which to solve 
the murder. 

are undergoing great stress. Some may be 
reluctant to talk to the police, and one of 
them may be a murderer. Failure to pro- 
ceed swiftly in a logical and orderly man- 
ner may result in the loss of valuable clues 
or in the death of another person— even 
the Inspector. 

Warranty Support 

Deadline will quickly reveal one thing: 
It is a program of the highest quality. The 
program is thoroughly researched and 
tested, and it is virtually flawless. Info- 
com. Inc. provides a limited warranty that 
covers the performance of the disk for a 
period not to exceed 90 days from the date 
of purchase. 

Deadline is an interesting, sophisticat- 
ed program with a wide range of responses 
that guarantee that each play of the game 
will be fascinating and unique. The plea- 
sures of discovering clues, building a case, 
and outwitting a fiendishly clever murder- 
er should provide entertainment and chal- 
lenge enough for any detective. Players 
have been known to do without food or 
sleep until the case has been solved. Ru- 
mor has it that Infocom, Inc. has even 
more difficult riddles of detection coming 
in the near future /PC 

Richard Cook is a free-lance writer based 
in San Francisco. 


PC MAGAZINE 110 DECEMBER 1982 


GAMES/LES COWAN 


A Sideshow Of Horrors 
And Delights 

Play your way down this bright midway of gambling, 
treasure hunts, and battles. 


KEN USTON'S 

PROFESSIONAL BLACKJACK 

Intelligent Statements 
The Courtyard »21 
RO. Box 2602 
Chapel Hill. NC 27514 
(919) 942-0008 
List Price: $89.95 

Requires: 48K. one disk drive. 80-column 
monitor 

Age-group: 13 to adult 
Number of Players: One to seven 

Gambling afficionados may be familiar 
with Ken Uston's systems for beating the 
odds at blackjack. Those systems can now 
be used on the PC in the form of Ken L/s- 
ton’s Professional Blackjack. It promises to 
hone players' skills, give advice and spe- 
cial tips based on Uston's theories, and 
simulate the action of the real game. 

Professional Blackjack is only one of 
many tools players can use in their unend- 
ing quest to beat the dealer. Of course, this 
game does not cover everything: Players 
must still find some way to avoid detection 
by the management, since casinos hire 
burly men with no necks to escort system 
blackjack players to the door. 

The program operates in two modes: 
drill and play. In either mode the gamblers 
must decide where to play: the Vegas strip, 
downtown Vegas. Tahoe/Reno, or Atlan- 
tic City. Once these high-rollers hit town, 
they may choose the exact casino. In Ta- 



hoe/Reno. for example, they are given a 
menu showing a few dozen establish- 
ments. such as Barney's. Harrahs, and the 
Sahara. 


R 


BLACKJACK 
rules vary 
considerably from 
town to town and 
casino to casino. 


Players can also invent a mythical casi- 
no and customize the game according to 
their own rules. Blackjack rules vary con- 
siderably from town to town and casino to 
casino. Some casinos use one deck and cut 
it after half is dealt. At others, three or 
more decks are used, and they are cut 80 
percent of the way through. These vari- 
ations can either stack or whittle the odds 
for a player, depending on that mysterious 
recipe of skill, instinct, and plain old luck. 

Professional Blackjack is a complex 


program; the following description simpli- 
fies some points. Once the location and 
corresponding rules of play are estab- 
lished. the player chooses either drill or 
play mode. 

There are two kinds of drill: card 
counting and practice hands. In card 
counting the computer displays cards one 
at a time at a speed chosen by the player. 
The player must remember which cards 
have been dealt, paying special attention 
to the number of aces. Players can check 
their memories at any time by pressing a 
key that will display a count of which 
cards have been dealt. 

Practice drill, on the other hand, is 
what its name suggests: Practice makes 
perfect— and maybe a little money. Play- 
ers are allowed to see the dealer’s up card 
and two dealt cards, and may then choose 
a play: split, double down. hit. or stand. If 
they choose the wrong play, the computer 
beeps and the players can call up a color- 
coded display that tells them the correct 
move. 

When players switch from drill to play 
mode, they can elect to play head to head 
with the dealer, or with up to six other 
gamblers at the table. The computer can 
act as the dealer, or it can assume the roles 
of any or all the olher gamblers. Each play- 
er can also choose to play one or more of 
the gamblers' hands. The game proceeds 
exactly as it does at the specified casino. 
Players bet. make their moves, and win or 
lose. Cards are turned over or discarded 


PC MAGAZINE 111 DECEMBER 1982 



IHEMASMSTilS 


At the rate we’re going, 
we’ll have these pages 
filled by 2083. And by 
2084, people will be 
clamoring for the next 
Infocom creation. 

We hate to disappoint our 
public. So we keep you waiting. 
Because while the software facto- 
ries are cranking out arcade game 
after arcade game, pulpy adven- 
ture after trite fantasy, we’re 
writing and rewriting, honing and 
perfecting. Before a single person 
enters one of Infocom’s worlds, 
it must be crafted into a living, 
riveting, definitive experience. 


WE CAN! 

Judging from the public’s reac- 
tion, it’s worth the wait. For 
instance. Creative Computing 
welcomed DEADLINE as 
“thorougWy engrossing and real- 
istic,” while a Softalk readers’ 
poll recently voted ZORK'" I and 
ZORK II the most popular adven- 
tures of 1981. 

And now, for the moment, your 
wait is over. ZORK III, your final 


step in the underground 
trilogy, and STARCROSS,"' 
an exploration of a new 
dimension in science fiction, 
are ready for you. 

Look at them up there, 
the little worlds of Infocom. As 
our universe expands, compan- 
ions will come to help fill that vast 
expanse of white space. Till 
then, they’ll continue to stand 
alone as the best of all possible 
worlds. 

NlFOCOm 

55 Wheeler Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 


Infocom’s worlds are available for Applef Atarif IBM, TRS-80f Commodore, NEC, Osborne, CP/Mf and DEC." 

Apple is 1 registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari. Inc. TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Ikndy Corporalioa 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. DEC is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. 


KEY TRONIC 



KEY' TRONIC RESPONDS WITH THE CAPABILITIES, PRODUCTS, 
.AND PEOPLE TH.AT HAVE MADE US THE WORLD’S 
LEADING KEY’BO.ARD MANUFACTURER. 

C.ALL US FOR YOUR KEV’BO.ARD NEEDS TODAY. 


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THE RESPONSIVE KEYBOARD COMPANY 


P.O. BOX 14687 — SPOKANE. WASHINGTON 99214 U.S.A. • PHONE (509) 928-8000 — TWX 510 773-1885 


.1 m?.' 



unseen h( virtunlly the s<ime speed iisin an 
actual game. Both computer and players 
follow one of the four llston systems, 
which vaiy in difficulty only. 

Ease of Use 

Considering the program’s complexity, 
the game is quite eas\- to play. Getting 
through the whole game— choosing drill 
or play, a location and a casino, which Us* 
ton system to play, the number of players 
and size of their stakes— requires several 
levels of programming structure, which 
means several different menus. Forlu- 


Xrofessional 

Blackjack's carefully 
designed training 
program allows a 
player to practice 
crucial skills. 

nately, the hierarchy of menus is present- 
ed logically. The program may be used 
without reading the documentation, but a 
player would then miss a chance to appre- 
ciate Brofessionui B/ack/ack’s unique ca- 
pabilities. 

Documentation and Packaging 

Brofessionoi B/ock/ock comes in a hef- 
ty plastic case that is appropriate for book- 
shelves. The case even opens as a book 
and contains an extruded plastic compart- 
ment for the disk and documentation. 

The documentation consists of two pro- 
fe.ssionally prepared manuals. One is an 
eight-page booklet of operating instruc- 
tions for transferring DOS to the game 
disk. The instructions are complete and 
accurate, as are the descriptions of menus 
and playing options. However, the pages 
are not numbered, an oversight the manu- 
facturer plans to correct. The other man- 
ual is 47 pages of text and color-coded 
charts that tutor the user in all four Uston 
systems. Although the writing style is clear 
and concise, information-packed pages 
are printed in small type, which can be a 
strain on the eyes. Charts are straightfor- 
ward and use a code consisting of four col- 
ors that correspond to tactical options dur- 
ing play. 


Incidentally, the operations manual 
mentions a newsletter, 7’he Experts, for 
true blackjack devotees. The new.sletter 
keeps readers informed about the rule 
changes frequently made by casinos. 

Use of Graphics 

The graphics in Professional Blackjack 
are simple and functional. Drill cards are 
large and take up about one-sixth of the 
screen. Face and number cards are 
marked with only the suit emblem and the 
number, making them easv* to read. The 
playing table is a green field; white rectan- 
gles r(*present the players. Each rectangle 
contains the size of the stake, or “wallet” 
as it is referred to in this program, the size 
of a betting unit, the amount of the current 
bet. and the player's name. Cards dealt to 
the players and to the dealer are like the 
cards in drills, only smaller, and they*can 
be read easily. Clarity of design is especial- 
ly important when the program is used to 
train a player to count cards. 

General Appeal 

Professional Blackjack’s carefully de- 
signed training program allows a player to 
practice crucial skills. A player can work 
on remembering cards as they appear, one 
by rme. and then perfect card counting in a 
simulated game while cards go by in the 
serpience and at the speed they would in a 
casino. 

Professional Blackjack is a realistic 
game for players to enjoy in their own 
home.s. While the thrill of winning may 
not match that of Vegas, the armchair gam- 
bler can lo.se with impunity: another for- 
tune is available at the push of a button. 

Accuracy 

Prof(!Ssional Blackjack meets high 
standards for accuracy. The bets and wal- 
lets of up to .seven players are monitored 
flawle.ssly. and the program neither for- 
gets a card that has gone by nor thinks one 
has gone by when it hasn’t. This reviewer 
detected only one flaw: Despite a menu 
o[)tion to turn off the .sound effects, the 
program refused to operate silently. 

Error Handling 

In general, the error handling is excel- 
lent. When a |)layer presses the wrong key. 
the cursor remains in place, the computer 
bee|)s. and the program waits for the cor- 
rect key response. It would be better, how- 
(»ver. if a message described the error. 

.'\ more serious problem occurs during 


the drill mode of the program, in the part 
that a I lows a player to practice on random- 
ly dealt hands. Hitting the E.sc keyat this 
time calls up a small table that contains 
stati.stics on previoii.sly dealt cards and in- 
formation on the Uston system in use. 
Strangely, when a player employs this 
memon,’ check and the table appears, 
some confusion may result. The screen 
.scrolls in such a way that the last hand, 
.still on the screen, moves up. The follow- 
ing hand fails to cover it completely, leav- 
ing the edge of two cards cluttering the 
screen. This is an unfortunate program- 
ming mistake in an otherwi.se professional 
piece of work. 

Warranty Support 

The warrant)’ on Professional Black- 
jack is a .standard but skimpy one. and is 
printed inconspicuously inside the front 
cover of the operations manual. The word- 
ing is concerned exclusively with denying 
liability for a number of eventualities: 
there is scant resemblance to a buyer pro- 
tection warranty. However, the manufac- 
turer does .say that a damaged di.sk will be 
replaced within 90 days of purchase. F.ven 
after 90 days it will replace any di.sk for 20 
percent (»f the current retail price. 

Despite two or three flaws. Profession- 
al Blaf.’kjack is a sOperior product. The in- 
telligent design strikes a good balance be- 
tween practiceand play: practice drillsare 
detailed and useful, while play is realistic 
and exciting. The program deals hands, 
dispo.ses of bets, and picks up cards exact- 
ly like a live dealer. Only the chatter and 
free cigarettes are mis.sing. 

MIDWAY CAMPAIGN 

,Avalon-Hill (iame Company 
4517 Harford Rd, 

Baltimore. MD 2121.4 
|80(t| 0.78-9292 
List Price: $21 

Requires: 48K. one di.sk drive 
Age-group: 14 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

Alidivay Ca/Ufiaign is a video game re- 
creation of the epic naval battles of World 
War 1 1. The object of the game is to sink the 
japane.se task forces before they can re- 
turn the favor. The field of battle consists 
of on ly one d isplay throughout the game: a 
12x12 grid of dots. Within this less than 
realistic depiction of the South Pacific is 


PC MAGAZINE 115 DECEMBER 198 2 


Cc - • 




personal computer 


UCSD 

p-System^“IV-1 


A superior Implementation of the UCSD 
p'SYSTEM is available NOW for your 
IBM Personal Computer. 

Network Consulting has added many 
features which the professional program- 
mer will find useful. These features are 
not available from any other sources. 
•Hard disk support for Corvus. Tall Grass 
Technology and others 
•25% more floppy storage, without add- 
ing or modifying hardware, retaining 
compatibility with standard IBM disk- 
ettes 

• Double sided/doubie tracking/fast 
stepping floppy disk drive support 
•RAM disk support (uses up to 51 2k RAM) 
•Adaptable system support for adding 
custom I/O drivers 
•Remote Terminal support 
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the letter M. the American airbase on 
Midway Island. To one side of the grid are 
the numbers 7 and 6. representing the 
American task forces of three aircraft car- 
riers: the Yorktown, the Hornet, and the 
Enterprise. 

As enemy ships appear, they too are 
represented by numbers. Each carrier has 
three types of aircraft that can be moved 
between the flight decks and storage bays, 
armed, tind then launched. Once aloft, 
they are assigned to air patrol or face har- 
rowing dogfights with formidable [apa- 
nese pilots. 

The game is strictly player versus com- 
puter. Tactical decisions include when to 
bring planesiip to the flight deck, in which 
direction to sail the two task forces, how 
many of each kind of plane to launch in an 
attack, and how many planes to keep on 
patrol. 

When the Midway airfield is bombed 
into a smoldering wasteland, the Hornet is 
sunk. And when its returning, now home- 
less. fighter squadron splashes down, 
players will wish they had gotten a 4-F. 

Ease of Use 

Luckily. Midiva)’ Campaign is easy to 
use even without reading the documenta- 
tion. as this reviewer discovered upon 
finding that none came with the sample 
copy. It required about 45 minutes of trial 
and error, and not a little deductive rea- 
soning. to get it under way. Even then the 
wily enemy scored victory after victory, 
but a rematch should yield a different 
ending. 

Documentation and Packaging 

Midway Campaign comes in the stan- 
dard Avalon-Hill package— a plastic tray 
within a cardboard box. The box bears an 
eye-catching artist's rendering of a World 
War II attack aircraft flying over a burning 
battleship. Like most computer game 
packages, this one is an exercise in decep- 
tive hyperbole. The actual game display is 
far more abstract than the picture on the 
box. On the positive side. Avalon-Hill 
game disks can be copied, and the user is 
encouraged to make backup copies. 

Use of Graphics 

The game makes no use of graphics 
other than the grid of dots and the letters 
and numbers mentioned previously. Adja- 
cent to the grid are status charts showing 
the number of aircraft on each carrier and 


on Midway, the headings of each task 
force, their distances from Midway, and so 
on. As players spot the attackers, informa- 
tion about them as well as the date and 
time of day are displayed. The latter is es- 
pecially important because after nightfall 
attacks cannot be launched, but both sides 
can maneuver their ships. 

General Appeal 

This gripping game creates tension but 
leaves the player ready for more. One seri- 
ous problem occurs, however, during at- 


J. LAYERS NEVER 
know when the 
whine of an incoming 
shell will signal an 
unexpected attack. 

tacks on the enemy. The results of those 
allacks— number of hits on enemy carri- 
ers. number of aircraft destroyed, secon- 
dar\' explosions, carriers sunk— flash by sr» 
quickly that they are unreadable, thus de- 
priving combatants of vital information. 
Another puzzle is that the enemy some- 
times sustains hits and damage when no 
attackers are aloft. 

Accuracy 

The basis for scoring in Midway Cam- 
paign is a mystery. Even after playing two 
long games, it was not apparent how the 
score squared with the action. Were too 
many planes sent out? Too few? The 
wrong kind? The damage inflicted on the 
enemy also bore no discernible relation- 
ship to battle strategies, leading this re- 
viewer to suspect overuse of Program- 
mer’s Temptation, the old random gen- 
erator. This is cowardly sneak-scoring, 
which will live in infamy! 

Error Handling 

This program cannot be broken by any- 
thing a player enters. Even a kamikaze el- 
bow to the keyboard failed to elicit more 
than a polite beep— no air raid siren, no 
angr\' searchlights, just a beep. 

Warranty Support 

After calling Avalon-Hill with a ficti- 
tious complaint about a copy of Midway 


PC MAGAZINE 776 DECEMBER 1982 




4-1 55 Cleveland Avenue, San Diego, California S21 03 


BUJTimjISE 

CREATABASE^*^ turns your IBM PC info the powerful personal and business 
machine you expected. It can create and maintain almost any file you 
want. Use it for mailing labels, inventories, schedules, expenses or any 
other list of items you keep. Some of the features include: 


■ Menu-driven processing — complete, easy-to-use 
documentation 

■ 16 fields per record — 62 characters per field 
(14 for numbers) 

■ DATE and COPY functions when adding records 

■ Full field editing capabilities 

■ Work with records that meet any selection 
criteria you choose 

■ Design input or output layouts, with text, 

any way you like 

■ Print lists, forms and mailing labels (ten output 
formats per file) 

■ Up to three lines of your own headings on the 
printouts 

■ A KEY field for quick access 


Verify — individually "OK” selected records to 
output 

Sort records on any fields: merge any 
two "like" files 

Assembly language sort routine for fast 
(1000 records in 2 sec.) sorts 
Convert one file to another quickly and 
easily (This allows you to add, change or delete 
fields from existing files) 


Just *59” 









PCcravon Only *44’ 


PCcrciyor»'“ is an easy-to-use system which 
puts a graphic artist inside your computer and 
turns it into a multi-use visual display. Even if 
you have no artistic ability at all, you will be 
able to quickly and easily create detailed 
pictures, charts, graphs and displays, either of 
your own design or by making use of the many 
graphic and vector designs and letterings 
already included in the system. You can 
include motion, or even store the actual 
creation process of your drawings. 

Simple, single-keystroke commands allow you 
to change colors, rotate or change the size of 
your symbols or move them from one position 
to another. With the ease of an Etch-a-Sketch 
you control a sophisticated artist's palette. 

Even young children can quickly learn to use 


PCcrayon, but there is no more sophisticated 
graphics tool available for the IBM Personal 
Computer. 

PCcrayon can be used for a multitude of 
personal, business or educational purposes. 
Use it to add "pizazz" to your programs by 
making colorful, detailed graphics; or create 
slideshow presentations with the added 
dimension of motion. Learn about graphics on 
the IBM PC by making use of the available 
source code. You can even use PCcrayon to 
create tutorials for employees or children. 
PCcrayon's Z-PRINT command allows you to 
make printouts of your graphics for use in 
reports and presentations. And when your 
"official" work is done, use it simply to relax 
and have fun. 


m 


PCsoft;ware 


For orders or information, write or call (714) 279-2482 • VISA/MC Accepted 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: CREATABASE: IBM PC, 64K, IBM DOS. IBM BASIC. 2 disk drives, 80 col. display. 
PCcrayon: IBM PC, 64K, IBM DOS. IBM BASICA. I or 2 drives, color graphics board and display. 


The Spelling Bee Is Over 


Listen. We're going to let you in on an 
industry secret: It’s not hard to make a good 
spelling checker. 

You see, although spelling checking is new 
for microcomputers, it's been around on big 
computers for yean. And when you get past all 
the talk, most spelling checkers work the same 
way. They compare what you’ve written with a 
dictionaty-and report the errors. 

So is there any difference.’ You bet; the 
dictionary, and the price. 

Who Checks The Checker? 

The hardest part of a spelling checker to 
make is the dictionary. It’s hard to pick the right 
words-and spell every one of them perfectly. 
That’s why some popular spelling checkers don’t 
even contain real dictionaries. They use formulas 
crilled “hash tables. ’’ Which make a hash 
out of your spelling some of 
the time. 

Other spelling 
checkers ’’borrow” 
their words fiom 
printed dictionaries 
-or copy them 
from old word 
lists. Or give 
a programmer 
who can’t spell 
“programmer" 
a chance to write his 
first dictionary. And 
as though ail this 
wasn’t bad enough, 
a lot of these 


companies want to charge you $ 100, or $200 or 
even $300! 

Random House to the Rescue 

The Random House ProofReader is based 
on the famous Random House Dictionary. It is the 
result of decades of careful work. And it was 
adapted for computer spelling checking by 
professional editors, linguists and scholars. So you 
can depend on it. 

Of course, our program is dam good, too. 
It’s fest. It doesn’t take up too much disk space. It 
shows you the error and the sentence it’s in. It lets 
you correct the mistake without reediting. And if 
you don’t know how to spell a word, it suggests 
the spelling. It even corrects 
your correction. 
The Random House ProofReader 
comes in sizes to fit all systems: 
20,000 words (55K), 32,000 
words (74K), 50,000 words 
(108K) and 80,000 words 
( 180K). You can add your 
own words with a single 
keystroke. And it 
works with all CP/M®, 
IBM Personal 
Computer®, and 
TRS-80® Model I/III 
word processors.* 
How much does the 
Random House 
ProofReader cost? 

Only $50.00. 
Why do we sell it 
for $50 when the 
others want 
up to $300? 
Don’t ask us. Ask them. 



The Random House 
ProofReader ^50 


For orders or information, caJl 505*281*l634. VISA, MasterCard accepted. Or write Random House ProofReader, Box339-M, Tijeras, New 
Mexico 87039. Please enclose S30 and specify your computer model, disk size and memory. 

Dealer inquiries invited. Call our business office 212-564-0746 


Rafldom House and tht House deaign ate rejtutetedcraclemarlu of Randotn House Inc. CP/M itaregmered ctadematkofDigiuJ Reaearcb, Inc. TR^80isa(tadematkofTandyCorponiion. IBMand IBMPenonal 
Computet are leguteredtrademaricsof International Busities Machines Corp. Dictionary copyright Q 1982 Random House, Inc. Ptogram and advertisement copyright® 1982 Aspen Software, Inc. The TRS^ 
venioos do not suggest correct spellings. 





Campaign that would not run, this review- 
er was assured that if the disk were faulty 
or damaged, it would be replaced free of 
charge. Usually the exchange takes 2 to 3 
weeks by mail. 

Midway Campaign is enjoyable, par- 
ticularly for those with a bias for text 
games. The lack of graphics might put 


A PLAYER 

need only make 
the first move 
to get hooked. 


some players off. but the game is sus- 
penseful enough to slay interesting. .After 
all. players never know when the whine of 
an incoming shell will signal an unexpect- 
ed attack, and they can never be sure how 
many friendly planes will return. 


TREASURE HUNT 

Ensign Software 
2312 N. Cole Rd.. Ste. E 
Boise. ID 83704 
(208| 378-8086 
List Price: $19.95 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive. 80-column 
monitor and graphics adapter 
Age-group: 10 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


The idea behind Treasure Hunt, a game of 
memoiy and spatial relationships, is sim- 
ple. but playing the game is anything but 
.simple. 

A player is represented as a medium- 
resolution humanoid standing inside a 
labyrinth whose red and green walls ex- 
tend in perfect perspective to the horizon, 
which is actually another wall. Down a 
central corridor other passages branch out 
on either side, some leading only to dead 
ends. Although the labyrinth is completely 
enclosed, the point of moving through it is 
not to escape, but to find ten gold cubes. 
These treasures” contain other valuables 
and are placed along the labyrinth's hall- 
ways. visible only at close range. 

The player's challenge is to navigate 
the passageways and discover all ten trea- 
sures— gold. diamonds, muskets, and 
necklaces— in the shortest time, as mea- 


sured by a digital clock in a corner of the 
screen. Simple enough; perhaps too easy? 
A game that can soon become tiresome? 
On the contrary. A player need only make 
the first move to get hooked. 

The addiction begins simply: keep 
beating the fastest time through the maze. 
But then it deepens because the dead ends 
are ubiquitous: a red wall at the end of two 
long, green walls that are themselves the 
end of a myriad of other, unseen walls. 
The confusion intensifies and the dead 
ends become alarmingly familiar: the inti- 


mate and dreadful knowledge that comes 
from wandering in circles. 

Ease of Use 

Treasure i lunt isself-booting and is ex- 
ceedingly simple to play. The player deter- 
mines all direction and motion by using 
five of the keys on the number keypad. 
With single strokes of other keys a player 
can end the game, start a game with a new. 
random floor plan and resecreted trea- 
sures. rehide the treasures and reset the 
clock but keep the same floor plan, or dis- 


Don’t Do It! 


Don’t order anything until you read the ad on 
page 58! 

Always Betto Software from 



6924 Riverside Drive 
Dublin, Ohio 43017 
614/889-5083 
CompuServe 71535.1670 


PC MAGAZINE 119 DECEMBER 19S2 





HUE IHM JUnXMOIIfR PRETTY HUX. 


Says who? Says ANSI. 

Specifically, subcommittee X3B8 of the American 
National Standards Institute (ANSI) says so. The fact 
is all Elephant™ floppies meet or exceed the specs 
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But just who is "subcommittee X3B8" to issue such 
pronouncements? 

They're a group of people representing a large, 
well-balanced cross section of disciplines— from 
academia, government agencies, and the computer 
industry. People from places like IBM, Hewlett-Packard, 
3M, Lawrence Livermore Labs, The U.S. Department 
of Defense, Honeywell and The Association of Com- 
puter Programmers and Analysts. In short, it’s a bunch 
of high-caliber nitpickers whose mission, it seems, in 
order to make better disks for consumers, is also to 


make life miserable for everyone in the disk-making 
business. 

How? By gathering together periodically (often, 
one suspects, under the full moon) to concoct more 
and more rules to increase the quality af flexible 
disks. Their most recent rule book runs over 20 single- 
spaced pages— listing, and insisting upon— hundreds 
upon hundreds of standards a disk must meet in 
order to be blessed by ANSI. (And thereby be taken 
seriously by people who take disks seriously.) 

In fact, if you'd like a copy of this formidable docu- 
ment, for free, just let us know and we'll send you 
one. Because once you know what it takes to make 
an Elephant for ANSI . . . 

We think you'll want us ta make same Elephants 
for you. 


ETfflUlllHEItfY DUTY DISKS. 

For a free poster-size portrait of our powerful pachyderm, please write us. 

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THE PRO'S. 

[ ; Prowriters: business printers— and more. The "more" is a dot-matrix process with more dots. It gives you denser. 
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Parallel or serial interface. 


PROWRfTB?2 



THE STAR. 


The Starwriter F-10. In short (or more precisely, in a sleek 6' high. 30-pound unitl. it gives you more 
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THE MASTER. 

TThe Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps. the Master does it faster. 



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COMPREHENSIVE SOFTWARE 


IGOTWHATI 


Who can blame him? He knows that, with P.C. 

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'This product is in no way related to PC Magazine, nor the column "PC Tutor." 


.n'*" 




plii\‘ ii model of the floor plan as seen from 
above. The latter is an aid to those with a 
muddled sense of direction. It comes in 
three versions: a birds-eye view of the im- 
mediate area only, the entire floor plan, or 
a trail of green dots showing those parts of 
the maze already covered. In each case, a 
player s location and direction are marked 
by a small red arrowhead. (This reviewer 


^^ONFUSION 
intensifies and dead 
ends become 
alarmingly familiar. 


played the game on an RGB monitor; col- 
ors on a television may var\’ from these.) 

Documentation and Packaging 

The package is a simple, fold-over 
cardboaril envelope with a pocket for the 
disk. The brief instructions are printed on 
the outside of the envelope, as are the 
hardware retjuirements. which note that 
■ graphics " are required. The novice play- 
er may not realize the implication, namely 
that this game will not be visible on a 
monochrome display, a fact that should be 
spelled out explicitly. 

Use of Graphics 

As the foregoing discussion infers, 
'I'reusure / f unt is all graphics, and they are 
ver>' go(xl. The perspective of the walls 
creates a convincing sense of depth and is 
quite realistic. As a player moves, the 
walls go by on either side; movement is as 
fast as it can be on a microcomputer. Be- 
tween moves, however, the screen must be 
withdrawn because the player has moved. 
Although fast by micro standards, the re- 
quired wait is irfitating. 

The drawing sequences are curious. 
The labyrinth, defined entirely by a data 
base, is actually a section of that data base 
drawn in a logical order. As a result, part 
of the maze that lies behind a wall often 
appears before the intervening wall is 
drawn over it. A player can often catch a 
fleeting glimpse of a corridor that should 
be invisible and may sometimes even spot 
a treasure before the foreground is drawn 
in to obliterate the view. Whenever the 


game begins, the program draws the 
.screen (this can take as lung as 2 seconds), 
handicapping a player s time before he or 
she can make a first move. Finally, the red 
aiTowhfjad. which serves as a player’s di- 
rection finder, is visible even during a 
move, while the floor plan itself distip- 
jjears. The arrowhead is a memor\’ aid that 
ought to stay invisible until summoned. 
There is one more flaw; The tunes that 
accompany the iliscover>' of treasures can- 
not be turned off. These should also disap- 
pear on c<»mmand. 

General Appeal 

'i’reusure Hunt achieves the highest 
goal of a computer game— to evoke real 
emotions. The excitement of a quest and 
the thrill of iliscover\’ are pal[>able. At first 
glance, 'freusure Hun! looks as though it 
could lap.se quickly into tedium, but its 
looks are deceptive. This reviewer’s in- 
volvement grew steadily, heightened by 
each succe.ssive game. 

Accuracy 

Treusure Hunt does what it promise.s. 
exactly as it says it will. The only "moving” 
part, the clock, keeps correct time, and all 
the keys function as intended. However, 
the distribution of the treasures is so ran- 
dom that five of the ten were once within a 
few steps of each other. Another minor 
flaw is that some mazes seem much easier 
than others, although in most mazes the 
first three or four treasures are easy to dis- 
cover. 

Error Handling 

Although an attempt to cause errors 
w as unsuccessful, two minor points should 
be made: The NumLock key does not tog- 
gle the keypad between useasa numerical 
input and use as directional input via the 
arrow keys. The programmer ha.s di.sahled 
this function of the NumLock key. If a 
player does hit the NumLock key. the next 
key hit will be ignored and will have to be 
hit twice. In addition, the zero key stops 
the game In progress in order to start a new 
one. It is catastrophic to hit the zero key 
unintentionally, and good programming 
technique dictates that catastrophic key- 
strokes be made difficult. The program 
might have required, for example, that a 
player hit the Ctrl and zero keys simulta- 
neously to abort the game. This would 
make accidents much less likely. 


Warranty Support 

■/'reusure Hunt offers a standard war- 
ranty; if the disk is defective. It will be 
replaced, but otherwise you're on your 
own. In fact, the replacement guarantee Is 
not spelled out on the warranty notice 
printed on the packaging. Ensign Software 
assured this reviewer over the phone that 
the replacement offer is detailed in the 
retailing package sent to dealers. 

'I'reasure f/un! is a terrific game be- 
cause of its uncanny ability to create ex- 
citement and tension. It may be a com- 
puter simulation of a hunt for electronic 
jewels, but the real treasure is the emo- 
tional response, which is easy to find. 


LAS VEGAS BLACKJACK 

Quala 

1014 Griswold Ave. 

San Fernando. CA 91340 
(213) 365-9526 
List Price: S39.95 
Requires: One disk drive 
Age-group: 13 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

f^us Vegus B/uck/uck isa computer simula- 
tion of the famous card game. It is de- 
signed for IBM PC owners, ostensibly so 
they can sharpen their betting, card count- 
ing. and other blackjack skills to become 
good enough to beat the house. The slick 
bjioklet that comes with the game says 
brashly that ' if you can win against the 
computer, you should be able to win at the 
tables on the strip.” 

Had P.T Harnum lived to own a com- 
|)uler. he might have used it to calculate 
the mean average ratio of suckers born per 
chronological live birth. The answer is still 
one a minute. In short. Los Vegas Biock- 
juck is the descendant of a long and illus- 
trious line of snake oils. 

To 1)0 fair, howovor. iho^ume doos (>loy 
blackjack. It will also keep truck of play- 
ers’ bank rolls, the amount of their bets, 
and their winnings and losses. It will deal 
two hands: one to a player and one to the 
dealer. Unfortunately, a more realistic Las 
\'egas-slyle game with several players is 
not possible with the software used. 

Ease of Use 

Blackjack is a .simple game. A player 
bets, the hands are dealt, and the winner is 
the player whose cards add up to the high- 
est number, as long as it is not over 21. Las 


PC MAGAZINE 123 DECEMBER 1982 





now 

SOliDMON 

Accounting Software is available 
for your IBM Personal Computer® 


Solomon offers the most 
sophisticated accounting 
software system for 
microcomputers. 

Easily set up, the remarkable 
Solomon software package 
operates from a single 
database managed by the 
MDBS™ database 
management system utilizing 
the industry standard 
operating system— CP/MT 

Solomon is faster, more 
powerful, more flexible, 
easier to install and easier to 
use than other systems. 


The Solomon I System 
handles general ledger, 
payroll, accounts payable 
and receivable, invoicing, 
fixed assets, cash receipts 
and disbursements and 
address list maintenance. 

The Solomon II System 
includes all these functions 
plus a job management 
package that can be used by 
engineers, architects, 
consultants, contractors and 
other service businesses. 

Now you can have instant 
information for wise business 
decisions— with Solomon 
Series Software by TLB— 
from Computech. 


Hardware requirements: 

• 64K RAM 

• Baby Blue* CPU Card 

• 132 Column Printer 

• Hard Disk Recommended 

IBM Personal Computer is a registered 
trademark of IBM. 

MDBS Is a registered trademark of 
Micro Data Base Systems, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of 
Digital Research. 

Baby Blue is a registered trademark 
of Xedex. 


For your nearest authorized 
dealer write or call. 



CoMPUTBCH Group 
INCORPORATED 

Main Line Industrial Park 
Lee Boulevard 
Frazer, PA 19355 
215-644-3344 


PC M A G A Z I N K 124 D l; C i: M B t R I 9 S 2 





Vt?g(js liluckiuck. however, is difficuh to 
phiy l)ectiiise it has more hugs than Pana- 
ma in the rainy season, and at least one of 
those Inigs is a killer. In one respect, this 
game is easier to use without the docu- 
mentation because the instructions for 
running the game result in failure. Over- 
all. however, reading the documentation 
before [)laying makes things easier. 

Documentation and Packaging 

The packaging consists of the disk and 
the booklet in a zi[)-lock ()lastic bag. The 
disk was protected by two squares of cor- 
rugated cardboard. This may just be mail- 
ortler ()ackaging. or it may be a sign of a 
product rushed to market woefully untest- 
ed and unfinished. 

The booklet's cover shows a full-cokir 
drawing of two women in gowns with 
[)lunging necklines. One of them is an en- 
tertainer: the occupation of the other can 
only be surmised. A smug young man with 
a fi.slful of greenbacks sits behind a pile of 
chips. A PC is in front of him. and behind 
him is what the viewer must believe is a 
blackjack hand: a queen, a jack, and an 
ace. These are the first real clues to the 
value of this game because only a rube 
would hold such a hand. Anyone even 
slightly familiarwith blackjack knowslhat 
an ace and a face card is a pat winner, and 
two face cards are the next best thing. 
Players don't need a computer to tell them 
not to draw a third card in either of those 
.situation.s. 

The manual is dear and concise, ex- 
cept h)r the warranty and "licensing 
agreement." a full page crammed with 
small print and legalisms. The booklet is 
over 30 pages long, but its layout makes it 
easy on the eyes, it includes the rules of 
l)lackjack and some tips on playing. Its two 
ap|)endixes. corrected by an enclosed er- 
rata sh(?et. give instructions on transfer- 
ring PC-I30S and BASICA to the game 
ilisk. 

Use of Graphics 

/.us V'(?gus Biuck/uck uses low-resolu- 
lion ^‘raphicsam! al|)hanumerics from the 
charucler set as counters. Chips are repre- 
sented by the tiny faces included in the PC 
character set. A player's bankroll is a stack 
of rectangles that increases or decreases 
depending upon the outcome of each 
hand. 

Mild visual interest is added by having 
the chif)s at stake move from player to 
dealeror vice versa. Ifa player optstoturn 


on the sound effects, a loss prompts a dirge 
and a win produces a fanfare. Numbers 
are displayed on the screen so that a play- 
er need not depend on graphics to keep 
track of chips, which would be impossible 
in any case because the graphics are only 
meant as window-dressing representa- 
tions. 

The cards themselves are well-drawn, 
high-resolution figures that show numbers 
and suit emblems: diamonds, spades, 
hearts, and clubs: but there are no pictures 
on the face cards. 

Current versions of the game. 1.05 and 
higher, support full-color graphics with a 
color monitor and a color adapter. 

General Appeal 

The game scores highK in this category: 
it has the appeal of the real thing, especial- 
ly for the gambling enthusia.sl. In one 
game this reviewer built SlO.ono into 
Sqo.OOO before quitting. The following 
game saw SIO.OOO jump to S3C.(KKI when 
the dealer figuratively died (see Error 
Hamllingl. Nevada has seldom seen win- 


ning like that! 

Accuracy 

ll[) l(j a point bus Vegus lilackjuck is 
credible, particularly if players want to 
pretend they're belting a hand in a desert- 
ed casino. But in Las Vegas [)layers are 
seldom alone at a table. Other players are 
dealt their share of the cards, some of 
which are up, some of which aren't, and 
this has a significant impact on betting 
slrateg>. In /.us V'egus Blackjack only the 
cominiter and the player square off. In the 
same vein, if players in Vegas have a pal. 
w inning hand, a blackjack, or an immedi- 
ate loser (a sum over 21). the game is over: 
the dealer takes the money and deals the 
next hand. In this game, however, the 
"dealer" shows players what it’s holding 
and. increilibly. when a player goes bust, 
the dealer continues to give itself cards. 

Ihogramming irregularities aside, the 
game keeps track accurately enough. The 
computer doesn't palm any chips, nor is 
lipping necessary. This is refreshing, but 


it s nut Las Vegas. 


DESTROY ALIEN PODS 

BE A COMBATANT IN THE PODLASERIUM.„! 

SUPER SOUNDS LASER, MISSLES, BOMBS, & SHIELDS 


Color Monitors have multi-colored Pods, Shields. & Bombs 

N/ght falls as you enter the war zone where AUENs were last seen oeposiung PODs You are 
alone, one comhatani against the many, seeking lame, fortune, and a high score Suddenly, a 
bright flash of light above you rams home the reality of the ALIEN threat as a POD is formed. 
Carefully using your retro rockets to get m position for the kilt, you aim the laser while thinking of 
the pleasant music played when PODs are destroyed Before firing you scan the horizon check- 
ing tor more menacing PODs worth more points. Seeing a guided missle being launched from a 
newly formed POD you achvale the laser and move quickly from the path of the misste DIRECT 
HIT on the POD and the masses bring forth melody You don't wait around tor the tune to end as 
more PODs are forming and the fuel reserve is getting low. Only two hundred more points worth 
of dead PODs and both fuel and ammo will be replenished Can you make it till then, avoiding 
bombs, shields, and missies'^ Will your name be added to the permanent list of Top Ten Com- 
batants? The universe must be saved 

IBM PC DOS. 1 Drive, flO Col Display 
Color Graphics Monitor Adapter Interface Not Required 

SOUND 0N/0^f■ and GAMt PRfcEZf Commands — heature Demonstration 


SEND TO; DP Computer Services Company 

5019 N. Washin){tun Blvd. • Arlinjitun, Virjiinia 22205 
Please send me diskettes i:ontainin{{ POULASERIUM 

□ I have enclosed a check or money order for $ 

diskelte(s) at $34.95 each. 

□ Please send shipment C.O.D. 

L! Charge my Mastercard/Visa (circle) MC VISA 

(Order must be signed below) Exp. Date 

Name Address 

City 


(703) 276-1333 


. for . 


. State_ 


Zip_ 


Phone_ 


Signalure_ 



PODLASERIUM is a trademark of DP Computer Services Company. 






1’ C M A C A Z l N I-; 125 DECEMBER 1982 



Error Handling 

Error handling is Ihe worst aspect of 
i.us Vegus Blackjack. Without getting into 
programming jargon, the method for ac* 
cepting input is the easiest hut sloppiest of 
those available in BASICA. As a result, 
invalid input causes an error message on 
the line below the cursor. 'I'he user may 
input again, but then everything is two 
lines lower. With enough errors, the entire 
display could scroll off the screen. Even 
worse, the error messages are not erased; 
they may accumulate and clutter up the 
screen. This unforgivably sloppy program- 


ming can leave Ihe player in limbo, with 
no directions on how to proceed. What's 
more, at least one error is fatal. When this 
reviewer bet a bankroll of $36,000. an 
overflow error appeared and the program 
aborted. Come to think of it. maybe this 
was a belated attempt at realism. In Vegas 
the pit buss usually throws out a customer 
who threatens to break the bank. 

Warranty Support 

Qua la’s warrant)’ is similar to most soft- 
ware warranties— limited. If a defective 
disk is returned within 90 days, it will be 


re[)laced. [)rovided the sales receipt is 
used us proof of purchase. No sales receipt 
— lough luck. 

Los V'egus BJuckjuck allows a player to 
choose the number of decks used and the 
frequency with which they are shuffled, 
simulating the tactics used by casinos to 
thwart plas ers who employ card counting 
and other devious means of tr\'ing to turn 
the odds in their favor. A player can't beat 
the house, even with the chart of favorable 
odds on the back of the slick instruction 
booklet. But none of this matters, because 
the directions for transferring BASICA to 
the game disk do not work. The only way 
to play this game is to bool BASIC sepa- 
rately and then run the program file, listed 
in the director)' as "blackjack." 


GALAXY 

Avalon-Hill Game Company 
■1517 Harford Rd. 

Baltimore. MD 21214 
|800) 638-9292 
List Price: $25 

Requires; 48K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 14 to adult 
Number of Players: One to 20 

Gu/u.\\’s package cover has a dramatic 
picloro of starships flying in formation 
across the crater-pitted surfaces of two 
mysterious planets. Unfortunately, the 
picture is the most exciting thing about the 
game. 

Avalon-Hill. a prolific manufacturer of 
board games. de.signed Guioxy much like 
Ihe game Risk: the only difference being 
that games like (Juiuxy are played solely 
against a computer. At the start of play, 
each of u[) to 20 players owns one of a 
possible 40 worlds. Each world provides a 
player with a number of spaceships that 
can be sent to capture other worlds, there- 
by gaining more spaceships with which to 
capture still more worlds. 

The game has two basic playing strate- 
gies. One consists of striking a balance be- 
tween the number of spaceships sent out 
and the number kept home to defend 
worlds that the player already owns. The 
other strateg)’ is a matter of concentrating 
offensive and defensive forces. When two 
f(jrces clash, the computer provides a ran- 
dom "gunner)" factor, which is meant to 
simulate shooting accuracy. In practice, 
the number of ships brought to bear far 
outweighs the gunneiy factor and. despite 


You Won’t Find Lower Prices 
Anywhere in This Magazine 

(or we’ll pay the difference) 


Maxwell 5-1/4” SS/OD Diskette- 

LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

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Hard Disk Drive Davong DSI-501- 

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-Software Visi-Calc- 


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Expandable Memory Board — 

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— Covers for IBM Keyboard, — 
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LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

. *9 *4 


These Remarkable Prices 
-Are One-Time Specials - 


Our catalogue lists many more discount name brand pro- 
ducts all backed by manufacturers’ warranty. If you can 
find lower prices on our featured items anywhere in 
this magazine, send along their ad with your order 
and we’ll match the price. 


Hardware and Software for the 
IBM Personal Computer 

Data Link 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

3326 Oregon St. 

Racine, Wl 53405 


WRITE OR CALL TODAY! VISA AND MASTER CARD ACCEPTED. (414) 878-1845 


r’C MAGAZINt 176 DECEMBER 1982 


Managing Projects 

for^iPaiCand Profit Using 

Project Scheduler 



! =^5 'S T H ^al ", 'll i •«! ‘3 "i ^ 


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p SCITOR 


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As a manager, you know the key to a successful project 
is good planning. Whether you are involved with 
engineering, R & D, Manufacturing, Construction or even 
Computers, you can't afford to overlook critical costs and 
deadlines. 

PROJECT SCHEDULER™ is a project management 
program designed to help management meet deadlines 
and beat cost targets through fast and easy project 
forecasting, scheduling, control and tracking of project 
status. The nienu prompts permit easy data entry for 
modification or u{^te to large, complex projea plans. 
The highly interactive design and visual display reduces 
project planning time by providing sophisticated 
"what if' analysis capabilities. 


Features include: 

■ Critical Path is calculated and 

a Gantt chart is displayed after 
each add, change or delete. 

■ Interactive "WHAT IF" 
analysis. 

■ Display your data/ plots using 
the monochromatic or color 
Kreen. 

■ Schedule projects by days, 
weeks, months or day 
displayed by week. 

■ Labor & Other cost data can 
be input to VISICALC* and 
SuperCalc* spreadsheet 
packages. 

■ Allocate tasks byi 
— Start Sc duration 
— Early start 
—Late sun 


■ Create standard company 
Labor Grades, Other Direct 
Costs and Holidays; 

—24 Labor Grades 
— 24 Other Direct Costs 
— 50 Holidays (multi-year) 

■ Oeate detailed & summary 
reports: 

— Projea Schedule 
—Labor & Cost 

• by time period 

• by individual job 

■ Ability to "complete" jobs for 
performance tracking. 

■ Milestone annotation to 
identify special events in the 
project. 

■ Requires: 

— IbM DOS (I60k Memory) 
— 1 disk 

— Monochromatic and/or 
Color display 
— Printer (recommended) 


SCITOR CORPORATION 710 Lakeway, Suite 290 • Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408)730-0400 




Words are not enoush 



xpen^fHc bcyoixi \nxmjs. ^X^ K-Iicv^- aJxrmuri s sh' 
too. Asylum is rhc first advrnturc game f<'»r the IBM Ptrst 
CromputCT to feature 3-D graphics. Hallways recede im 


screen as though you are actually there. Dixvs open and < I- 
Beds, desks, and other inmates are drawn on the screen. In 
tarKously! And unbelievably, NO GRAPHICS BOARD IS 
QUIRED’ 


\X'hat is Asylum.’ Asylum is a real-time Mmulation that takes place 
building with 1500 locations. It is inhabited by crazed inmates, sadi 
guards, and evil dtKtors. Your goal.’ ESCAPE! 


Asylum understands complete sentences, not just choppy 
and two wsM-d comman».lv- St‘mcrKe> like '“Drop esrrvthing 
the desk except the matches” are interpreted and acted 
instantly Further, the « ommand “ VtX^Al 
LARY” will show yiHi the entire lexKal 
tKxiary, eliminating the need to sec-' 
guess program designers you have nt 


Asylum suppons printer output. If specif 
all input and messages will be printed with 
skiw’ing down the game. Among other things, = 
allows you to print the dictiimary and/or y 
im\'nti»rv at .-inv time. A panic button alhms th 
vixi plaving on the jd' to emergency aKwt, 
later restore, a game in progrev^ (our aj»logic 
>xxir supcTiiirs). SAV^ GAME alK>w'- up to 
games to be sa\rd on WKir disk. Since Asyl 
requires rrKinths of work to xjlwe, saving alk 
vtHi tt» rc-iiow a prrvi«»uslv adjourni'd gan 


Asylum is brought to you in stunning r 
chine language speed by \k*d Systems and C- 
puicT ApplKratiivns Unlimited. The authtvrs w 
you luck! 


.U ium IS tn a iKvtnm tinyi alhn*m u 

vomplrte doLKmcnCdnon. .\< /X iS or BASK 
quired, unor Arv/ion is nwicfimr language. .M 
nucm requirements are 4HK, one disk dme. and 
monadiTome adapter and dupkrv 


ASYLUM IBM DISKETTE $39. 


Please add $2.00 for Bret class posta 
$4.00 or overseas air mail. 



MED SYSms/lS SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 3558, CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 
TO ORDER, CALL 1-800-334-5470 


Or see your dealer 



Four times faster than any 300 
bps modem, to be precise. With Hayes 
Smartmodem 1200. any computer with 
an RS-232C connection — such as the IBM 
Personal Computec TRS-80 " or Apple " 1 1 1 
— can communicate over telephone lines 
with other computer terminals or printers. 
Smartmodem 1200 connects dircxtly to 
any standard telephone jack in the USA. 
Dialing can be Touch-Tone!" pulse or 
both. It can even operate over multiline 
phone systems (PBX) to dial numlK-rs. re 
ceiveand transmit data, and disconnect 
automatically. An internal .speaker lets 
you hear thecall Ixung made and monitor 
its progress. That way you'll know imme 
diately if the line's busy or you reach a 


wrong number. And indicator lights keep your branch offices, or exchange programs 
you posted on the cunent operating sta- with other computer users. In fact, it per- 
tus; modem ready, terminal ready, carrier forms just about any communication 
detect, auto answer and high speed. function you can imagine, and can be 
Smartmodem 1200 is two modems in program controlled using any language, 
one. Like theoriginal Hayes Smartmodem. Smartmodem 1200. Another procTuct 

it can communicate with other Bell 103 in the Hayes Stack'” series that stands 
type modems at up to 300 bps. ^ fot quality and dependability. And all 

Plus it's a 1200 bps modem for _ _ you need for com 

communicating with the faster I A I municating . fast! 

Bell 212A type modems. Unlike I Available at 

many 1200 bps modems. Smart computer swres 

modem 1200 lets you selcKt full or half nationwide. For the name of your near 
duplex, for compatibility with time est dealer write: Hayes Microcomputer 


sharing services or any other system you 
choose. Smartmodem 1200 allows you to 
access The Source! " communicate with 


Products. Inc . 3833 R'achtree Corners 
F,ast. Norcross. Georgia 30092: or call 
(409)449 8791. 


Smartmodem 1200. 
Gets you moving fast! 





IBM PC* requirements: 
48K RAM. disk drive. PC CXDS.* 
80<haraaer dispUy. Color 
and monochrome versions 
supplied with each package. 


APPLE ir* requirementv 
(CXX13) 
48K RAM. disk drive. 40 
character display. 


Display shown is actual 
photograph of IBM PC color 
versHjn. Other versions vary 
with hardware limiiMions. 


Versions for CP/M**. Atari** 
and TRS*80** should be avail- 
able before Christmas. 


PLAY THE SYSTEM THAT MADE KEN USTON mE 
VYORLCS VYINNINGEST BLAO(JACK PLAYER. 


Ken Uston, familiar to 
millions^ the blackjack 
expert featured on CBS’s “60 
Minutes!' has won a reputation 
as the world’s foremost black- 
jack player. Now Intelligent 
Statements brings Ken Uston ’s 
casino-proven blackjack system to 
your home computer. 


PLAYS LIKE THE 
REAL THING 


Ken Uston’s Professional 
Blackjack'^ ' is the nx>st complete 
and realistic blackjack game you can 
buy. You'll nneet the same playing 
opportunities that you'd face at a real 
blackjack table — at your choice of 
over 70 Nevada and Atlantic City casinos, 
each with its own set of rules and 
variations. Or you can create your 
own casino, manipulating sixteen 
different gan>e parameters to produce 
39,8/3, ITOdifferent playing 
environments. You can select the 
number of decks In the shoe, vary 
the dealing speed, choose and name 
competing players, set their wallet 
sizes and much more. And all your 
data is accurately displayed, so you 
can play the strategy you like and 
get the feedback you need to win. 


lead you through each skill level. At any 
point you can choose to see accurate 
running counts, continuous 
statistical evaluations, discard 
deck totals and instructional 
prompts, complete with sound 
effects. So you develop and 
refine the skills you need 
to win big. 


DONT LOSE OUT. 
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Scan winning ac blackjack. 
Send $89.95 (plus $2.00 
for shipping and handling) ca 


Ken Uston's 
Professional Blackjack 

DEPT. PT 10 

Intelligent Statements, Inc. 
Box 600, Holmes. PA 19043. 


(North Carolina residents 
add 4% sales tax). 
Make checks payable to 
Intelligent Statements. Inc. 
Major credit cards accepted 
over 24-hour toll-free lines at 
1-800-345-8112 (PA residents call 
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WINS LIKE THE 
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Ken Uston’s Professional 


Blackjack is the most thorough and 


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can buy. Now you can learn all of 


Ken Uston’s computer-optimized card- 


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active practice drills — augmented 
by superb documentation — 




^copyright 1962 by Intelligent Statements, loc. All rights reserved. 

‘IBMKwidPCOOS irecrjdemvisoflBti **Apple.CP/K Auf>4ndTltS-e04rcir«k(nirk$o(Ap(it«Cofflf>u(er.lAc Auri,lrK , wdlmdyCor^.iMpwitwly 











a disclaimer in Ihe instructions, the de- 
fender. who alw^ays shoots first, enjoys a 
considerable advantage. 

The only excitement in Galaxy comes 
in watching an evenly matched battle; all 
others will be won by the player with the 
most ships. But even this limited excite- 
ment is diluted by the slowness of combat, 
unless the sound effects are turned off. 
The action is then speeded up. but only the 
battle noises are*silent. not those that ac- 
company the rest of the game. 

Ease of Use 

Galaxy can be [)layed on either a color 
or monochrome monitor. The program 
calls fora color .monitor, but the color con- 
tributes little, if any. to the game. Booting 
the program is simple but immediately 
produces a “device not available” error. 
The computer refuses to play unless a line 
printer is plugged in. Some creative pro- 
gramming can bypass the problem, but a 
bug like this in a product designed for gar- 
den variety consumers is unacceptable. 
Otherwise, the game is easy to play, even 
with a cursor,' review of the instructions. 

Documentation and Packaging 

Gaiu.xy's packaging is professional and 
attractive. The four pages of instructions 
are clear, although they are not written for 
the IBM PC. The instructions would have 
been sufficient except for the lack of docu- 
mentation about the aforementioned bug. 

A more serious problem is that the 
instructions are not detailed enough. The 
rate at which new spaceships are manu- 
factured over time is not given in the 
instructions. Asa result, the display show- 
ing the number of ships available in a giv- 
en year is sometimes surprising. Having 80 
ships and expecting 30 is fine, but having 
30 and expecting 80 sends ever\’ player 
scurry ing to the instructions for help. Alas, 
such a search is in vain. 

Use of Graphics 

Graphics consist solely of two displays: 
a “star map” that consists of a grid of dots 
interspersed with letters representing the 
various worlds, and two boxes represent- 
ing two worlds in battle, each giving infor- 
mation concerning the status of forces. Not 
exactly moving pictures. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

The game tallies the score accurately. 
Incorrect entries are greeted with rude 
beeps, a common, unimaginative error 


handling technique. If the player wants to 
have a quiet game, the speaker plug can be 
removed, but that would leave no error 
handling at all. 

Warranty Support 

After calling Avalon-Hill in Baltimore 
and complaining about the program bug. 
this reviewer was told not only that they 
were unaware of the bug but also what to 
do about it: One must change the program- 
ming listing, something the average user 
should not be required to do. According to 
the manufacturer, versions of the game 
now on the market have had the bug re- 
moved. I By the way. Avalon-Hill has a toll- 
free number for placing orders only. The 
number for customer service is not listed, 
and the operator at the office cannot trans- 
fer a call to that department, which would 
ordinarily mean two long-distance calls to 


Some say that successful video games are 
exciting because they evoke fundamental 
psychological situations. Omegabug is a 
game that proves that even our fears of 
being swarmed by creepy, crawling crit- 
ters can be fun. 


get assistance. Reviewer to the rescue: The 
customer service number is 1301) 592- 
fi016.) 

General Appeal 

The game could be engrossing if f)layed 
by enough people with enough imagina- 
tion to gang up on each other, or to form 
provisional alliances to vary the balance 
of j)ovver. The only thing resembling sus- 
pense in (Joloxy is an occasional battle 
that stays in doubt until the last salvo. 
Watching two numbers diminish while 
rooting for one to reach zero before the 
other is considerably less than a light 
year’s worth of entertainment. Goiuxy 
lacks excitement and it is relatively un- 
imaginative. Even reruns of Stor 7Ve/i 
have more compelling sequences. Chalk 
up this failed version as going to the popu- 
lar galactic well once too often. /PC 


Omeguhug is the name of the villain, a 
sort of electronic cockroach shaped like 
the Greek letter omega. It blips horizontal- 
ly across the top of the screen, descending 
one line with ever\’ pass. The player is rep- 
resented by a symbol called a Weapon (it 


GAMES/LINDSY VAN GELDER 

Superplayers Run 
The Gauntlet 

If battling cockroachlike Omegabugs, getting blasted 
by the Galaxy Master, or dodging crazed ax murderers 
in Asylum sound like your idea of a good time, these 
three games may he 


OMEGABUG 

Personal Computer Products 
1400 Coleman Ave. #Cl8 
Santa Clara. CA 95050 
(408) 988-0164 
List Price: $29.95 
Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One 



PC MAGAZINE 131 DECEMBER 1982 



Vi i I vs y MCI m m 


TK ENG. introduces a quality IBM* compatible RAM + SERIAL I/O + GAME I/O board, at thes 
aggressive price of $326.00 with 64K RAM. Expansion capabilities to 256K RAM can be installed att, 
additional 64K RAM. r i T i I 


256KRAM 
A 64K to 256K 
parity checking 
RAM is fully 
socketed for easy 
memory expan.sion. 
The memory 
address is switch 
selectible, using up 
only the required 
memory .space. 


GAME I/O 

Interface consisting 
of two joy-sticks 
and four switch 
inputs are IBM 
BASIC compatible. 
Astandard GAME 1/ O 
DB15 connector 
provides connection 
to the rear plate of 
the IBM computer. 


GOLD IBM 
INTERFACE 

Gold connectors as 
well as glass epoxy 
PCB will provide 
years of reliable 
service, with all 
hardware interface 
meeting the IBM 
specification. 


ASYNCHRONOUS f 
COMMUNICATION 

A RS232 and 20Ma 
(TTY) interface 
supports software 
programable baud 
rates, parity, stop 
bits, and character. 

Modem and serial 
printer are fully 
supported by the 
IBM communica- 
tion software. A 
standard DB25 
connector allows 
for the easy 
connection to serial 
devices. 


KIT BUILDERS — You can save even more with the bare PCB at only $79.95. 

COMPARE QUALITY, FEATURES AND PRICE — THEN CALL TK ENG. 









P.O. Box 1936 
Corona, CA 91720 
(714) 552-8946 







Dealer Programs Available. 

Please include $4.00 for shipping & handling. California residents must include 6% sales tax. 
Visa and Mastercharge accepted. 


ii I KiaUDUli 8f IgM F81B81IH8D 



l(xiks more like two ospirin) that slays on 
the l)oltom line of the screen. The player 
can move to the left or rij^hl with the arrow 
cursor keys on the PC's numeric keypad 
and can fire with the lo|)most arrow key. 
The object of the game is to keep the bug 
from touching the Weapon while racking 
up as many points as possible. 

Like the best arcade games. Oniegubug 
has several stages. In stage one bugs skitter 
across the screen and the player literally 
tries to knock their socks off (those little 
feet at the bottom of an omegal. As the 
Omegabugs keel over, they are replaced 
by new ones. Meanwhile the corpses that 
litter the screen keep piling up until the 
game begins to resemble a New York City 
kitchen the day after the exterminator. 

As the game moves along, still more 
gunk piles up on the screen: Live bugs 
mourn their dead relatives by sticking to 
them ami big blobs of garbage appear out 
of nowht?re. The garbage barriers can be 
dispersed w ith two shots. In stage three the 
Blockers appear: these are big green cur- 
sor-monsters that can't be penetrated. If 
the player hits a Blocker, it multiplies and 
scatters all over the screen. 

In the game's final stage the Droppers 
enter the picture. These are Omegabugs 
that plummet vertically, smashing ever\- 
Ihing in their path. At this stage, players 
ar<» also terrorized by super-crafty Drop- 
pers that zigzag on the way down, forcing 
the Weapon to race back and forth like a 
crazed tennis player covering the net. 

The previous description is actually a 
bit oversimplified and doesn't do justice to 


EYEING 

swarmed by creepy, 
crawling critters 
can be fun. 

Oniegobugs helter-skelter feeling. Live 
Omegabugs that hit Blockers turn into 
Bl(»ckers: moving Omegabugs become sta- 
tionan' when statiomir\' bugs are zapped. 
Had enough? Oiiiegubug is so busy that 
most [)layers are overwhelmed by all the 
debris during their first few games. Ulti- 
mately. howttver. this prolific garbage is a 
part of (bnegobug's strange charm: the 


game moves with astonishing speed, and 
the wreckage be damned. 

Ease of Use and General Appeal 

Oniegubug loads automatically once 
the player has created certain DOS files 
and entered them onto the disk. The user 
manual gives clear directions for accom- 
plishing this one-time-only task. 

If action/reflex games are the order of 
theday. Omegubug should draw players as 
a flame draws moths. Unfortunately, the 
nature of such games makes them good 
candidates for an incandescent lifespan; 
players burn through the game's appeal 
ver\' (juickly. 

Documentation 

Omegubug’s documentation isn't as 
slick as that of some games, but it gets the 
job done. Rules and operating procedures 
are clear and complete, and some strateg\’ 
tips are offered in the 12-page user man- 
ual. The manufacturer reports that the 
documentation and packaging are being 
improved. 

Use of Graphics 

Omegubug takes full advantage of the 
PCr.s color/graphics capabilities. Omega- 
bugs. Barriers, and Blockers are brightly 
colored in proportion to the attention they 
deserve from the player. 'Lhe Omegabug. 
for instance, is an eye-catching yellow. 
The game also uses the PC's sound capa- 
bilities to good effect: The Weapon click- 
ety-clops across its turf (it sounds like a 
letter tpiality printer). Droppers whistle 
like bomb.s. and Blockers and Barriers 
burst onto (he screen to the tune of upbeat 
ditties |a la Pucinun) that accentuate the 
(|uick f)ace of the game. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

The manufacturer has done a profes- 
sional job with (Omegubug. It does what 
the documentation says it will do. the bugs 
move the way they are supposed to, and 
the score is tabulated correctly. Error han- 
dling is goo<l. The program will ignore 
false entries, and a player can return to the 
.system by hitting the Esc key. 

Warranty Support 

One final but considerate touch: Some 
companies seem bent on avoiding all con- 
tact with the user, but Personal Computer 
Products invites customers to call "if they 


have any suggestions, encounter any prob- 
lems. or just want to talk to us," according 
to a spokesperson. The company will also 
replace a defecliv'e Omegubug disk free of 
charge within 1 year of purcha.se. 

GALAXY MASTER 

Info-Pros Incorporated 
2102 Business Center Dr. 

Irvine. CA 92715 
(714) 851-8975 
List Price: $29.95 

Requires: 04K. 80-column monitor, one 
di.sk drive 

Age-group: 9 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

(iuiuxy Muster is your basic interplan- 
etary shoot-out. The player’s spacecraft 
has 2 minutes to score a minimum of 800 
points by firing at the Galaxy Master’s ship 
and at a host of meteors and other assorted 
space hazards. In the meantime, the Gal- 
axy Master fires back at the player, who 
loses points according to the number of 
direct hits taken. The game ends either 
when the player's 2 minutes run out or 
w hen he or she gets zapped by the Galaxy 
Master- 

Ease of Use 

The four cursor arrow keys control the 
movement of the [)layer's spacecraft. A 
player can fire lasers (which don’t go veiy 
far but move quickly) or photon torpedoes. 
The |)holons go verv’ slowly and the player 
can't fire a laser while a photon is snailing 
its way into the skies. Photon hits, howev- 
er. yield a higher score than laser hits. A 
player controls the lasers with the Fl key 
and the photons with the F2 key. The FlO 
key activates a .self-destruct option. 

The keyboard controls for (ju/uxy Mus- 
ter make it necessary for the player to 
have hi.s or her left hand draped over the 
function keys in various double-jointed 
arrangements while his or her right hand 
is hunched, bug-like, over the numeric 
keypad, Concert pianists should love this 
game, but the pinkies of this reviewer got 
tired waving in the air. 

To start iq) Gu/ux\' Muster a player 
mu.st load DOS. call up the BASICA pro- 
gram on the DOS disk, and then run either 
of two versions of the game (one with 
.sound and one without). Except for the 
loading instructions, which are printed on 
the package, the rules of the game are on 


rt MAOA/INE 133 DECEMBER 1 S 8 2 


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Call or write for 
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the disk. (“’Earthling, do you know the 
rules of battle? "1 Once play has begun, an 
information line on the bottom of the 
screen keeps track of the score, the 
elapsed time, and whether the player is 
free to fire. At the end of the game Galaxy 
Master rates players according to their 
worthiness as opponents. 


Is THERE 

such a word as user- 
unfriendly? 


Documentation and Packaging 

Galaxy Master’s documentation con- 
sists of a one-page description on the back 
of a four-color card. Loading instructions 
are minimal. One word about the pack- 
aging-flimsy. The game comes in a zip- 
lock plastic bag. Enough said. 


General Appeal 

Goluxy Muster is the type of game this 
reviewer would have been enchanted 
with 6 months ago when there was a scar- 
city of challenging gameware available for 
the PC, But compared to recent entries 
such as Omegabug. Galaxy Master seems 
a bit cheesey. The spacecraft is represent- 
ed by dinky ty|K)graphical symbols that 
lurch up and down, grid-style. The colors 
are good, but even on the loneliest of lone- 
ly nights, the appeal of little blips going 
across the screen wanes quickly. 

The game gives no real sense of action 
or mobility, nor is there any way to speed it 
up or advance to more challenging stages. 
Perhaps this reviewer's seniliK’ is arriving 
ahead of schedule, but beating Galaxy 
Master proved to be extremely difficult. 

Warranty Support 

The message on Galaxy Master's pack- 
age reads. "IMTORTANT: This product is 
not warrantied. No guarantee is expres.sed 
or implied.” 1 assume that this warning 


means that if your disk arrives with a hole 
punched through it, tough floppies. Is 
there such a word as user-unfriendly? 


ASYLUM 

Med Systems Software 
P.O. Box 358 
Chapel Hill. NC 27514 
(800) 334-5470 
List Price: $39.95 
Requires: 48K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 12 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


When Microsoft’s Adventure was the hot- 
test game on the market for the PC. this 
reviewer’s tireless assistants. 8-year-old 
Miranda and 11-year-old Sadie, couldn’t 
be pried off the keyboard. Now they have 
a new challenge. Asylum, a similar adven- 
ture game in which the players' goal is to 
escape from a mental hospital. Using 
typed commands and the PC arrow keys to 
move about, players must dodge every- 



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thing irom guards to crazed ax murderers 
to make good their escape. 

.Asylum has a beat-lhe-clock element 
that adds thrills to what is essentially a 
game of memorizing the proper com- 
mands in order to overcome the various 
obstacles. Ostensibly, players have from 
9:30 p.m. to 5:30 a.m. to escape from the 
asylum before the day shift returns. A digi- 
tal clock on the screen marks time; each 
minute is equal to about 30 seconds of real 
time (in other words, the game lasts 4 
hours). 

Use of Graphics 

As\'lum’s use of graphics is one of the 
features that makes it more exciting than 
Adventure. Although the game's human 
forms are somewhat slick-figured, they 
are nonetheless serviceable and a wel- 
come addition. The game s best graphic 
effect is triggered w hen a player curses the 
game three times. After expletives of the 
player's choice, the screen dissolves into a 
shimmering wall of ■■!@#S'>v*’s.” 

The graphics lend themselves to some 
funny error messages. When players 
throw a grenade at a door that they're sup- 
posed to unlock with a hidden key. the 
room flickers, flashes, and then explodes. 

Ease of Use 

.Ass’lum uses an above-average vocabu- 
lar\’. It can comprehend commands such 
as "give cigarettes to inmate" that would 
have left Adventure muttering "I don’t un- 
derstand." Best of all. players need only 
press the F2 key to get a complete list of 
words understood by the program. (Play- 
ers can also get a print-out of the vocabu- 
lary.) 

Asylum loads automatically and has an 
elaborate. Cecil B. DeMille-style opening 
sequence, complete with credits for the 
programmers. 

The game also has a Suspend Game 
feature "added for those who will be tr>’- 
ing to escape from Asylum during work 
hours ■ Players press F9 when the boss 
walks in. and the screen temporarily 
clears. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

To this reviewer, the as\'Ium looked 
more like a haunted house, but who’s to 
say what your top-of-lhe-line video looney 
bin looks like anyway. The program does a 
good job of telling players when it doesn't 
understand something. If "get the ciga- 



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PC MAGAZINE 137 DECEMBER 1982 



INUUMb lAX UbhlUby: 

MULTIPLY YOUR OUTPUT. 




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Five years of successful use 
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TAXPRO IS INTELLIGENT. It analyzes 
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relte” is an unprogrammeci command, the 
program responds. "I don’t understand." 

General Appeal 

Although Sadie found thegame "cool.” 
this reviewer had a few reservations. One 
problem with Asylum is that it can't be 
copied, although the manufacturer does 
provide one backup disk for $3. Defective 
disks are replaced at no cost within 30 days 
of purchase; however, the address of the 
company does not appear on the disk or in 
the explanatory booklet. Odds are that if a 
player needed a replacement disk, he or 
she would have to go through a consider- 
able hassle to find out where to send the 
old one. 

One last nontechnical criticism; If the 


reader knows anyone who has spent lime 
in a mental hospital. Asylum’s snakepit 
view of psychiatric illness and treatment 
might appear somewhat less than enlight- 
ened. not to mention in poor taste. When 
compared to the nuke-the-world mental- 
ity of many arcade games, however, this 
objection might seem trivial. /PC 

fj'ndsy van Gelcier is u K’mv York-bosed 
free-lance writer whose work has ap- 
peared in numerous neivspapers and 
magazines including New York. Rolling 
Slone, and Red book. For a look at the cre- 
ation of game programsand Omegabug in 
particular, see "Modus Operand/: I low to 
U'rite a Computer Game” in this issue. 


GAMES/DOUGLAS GOBB 


Running, 
Reptiles, and 

'Rithmetic 

An athlete and educator 
reviews games that develop agile 
fingers and agile tninds: Decathlon, 

Slynx/ Viper, and Fact Track. 


DECATHLON 

Microsoft Corporation 
10700 Norihup Way 
Bellevue. WA 98004 
(206) 828-8080 
List Price: S35 

Requires: 64K. color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 6 to adult 
Number of Players: One to six 

Decathlon, designed by Microsoft and 
marketed by IBM. simulates the actual 
ten-event competition that is supposed to 
determine the world's greatest track ath- 
lete. Competitors master all ten events, in- 
cluding the pole vault, shot put. 100-meter 



dash, and 1,500-meter 

run. One to six competi- 

tors can gather around the PC to contend 
for the gold medal, scoring points based 
on the current world record in each event. 

After the tenth event, competition con- 
cludes and the computer displays the play- 
ers' final standing.s. Throughout play, each 
competitor's scores are compared to actual 
scores of lop United Stales decathlete 
Bruce |enner and to those of a Swedish 


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07 PASCAL. 87 FORTRAN. 87 COBOL and 
MicroWare are trademarks of MicroWare. Inc 


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PC MAGAZINi: 139 DECEMBER 1982 






YOUR BEST SOFTWARE BUY: 

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decalhlele. If a players score surpasses 
Jenner's <»r the Swede's best overall mark. 
»hal player has the option of taking the 
■‘write protect" tal) off the game disk and 
recording his or her t)wn point totals for 
each event. Those totals are then dis- 
|)layed the next lime the game is |)layed, 
giving all competitors a new goal. 

Ease of Use 

Decathlon is simple to operate. Only 
making a backup copy of the disk reqtiire 
reading the manual. The software is user- 
friendly and self-ex|)lanator\-. 

The game is packaged in a hardbound 
folder with a pocket for the disk. Docu- 
mentation is helpful and accurate: with 
the aid of diagrams users can easily learn 
bow to play Decathlon. Accurate key- 
board operation instructions and clear ex- 
planations of each event are given. The 
game matches the documentation well. 
The .scoring tabh;s in Decathlon are simi- 
lar to th(jse used in actual competition. 

Each event played on the PC visually 
simulates the real-life running, jumping, 
or throwing of that event. The program in- 
troduction and conclusion are equally 
well produced. The accompanying sound 
effects augment the lifelike graphics. 


Each player's 

goal is to win the gold 
medal and stand 
under the flag on the 
victory platform. 


General Appeal 

Microsoft’s approach keeps the game 
interesting. First players are allowed prac- 
tice sessions to brush up on the events: 
then up to six players compete against the 
recorded scores of others. Each player's 
goal is to win the gold medal and stand 
under the flag on thevictorv’ platform. The 
program actually depicts the moment of 
glop.-. 


c«*ptable keypresses are ignored when the 
program is anticipating a particular re- 
sponse. If the prompt is "Press the escape 
key to continue." for example, only the es- 
cap«‘ and control break keys are activated. 

One error is mishandled by the pro- 
gram. however. If the game disk is re- 
moved from the tlisk drive during play, the 
disk drive tries to reaccess the program, 
'rhe prr)gram does not catch this error, so 
the disk drive keeps spinning until the 
computer is turned off or tlm disk Is rein- 
serted. The diskdrivecould be damaged if 
left in that state for long. 


Warranty Support 

Deculhion is guaranteed to be free of 
program errors. It is sold and stipported by 
IMM P(> (hmlers. who are obligated to re- 
place the program disk if defects in work- 
manshif)or materials are discovered with- 
in tMt days of the date of purchase. 

A Gold Medal Game 

.After competing in the decathlon at the 
natif)nal level for 4 \(;ars. I was eager to 
evaluate Microsoft's Decathlon. Personal 
knowledge oftlecalhlon training and strat- 
egy- make a critic particularly aware of the 


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Error Handling 

When an unacceptable entry is made, 
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product s content. This impressive, realis* 
tic >iiirne brings back vivid memories and 
provides exciting entertainment through 
all ten events. The jumping and Ihrovving 
events are particularly authentic, applying 
thet>ries used in actual competition. Strat- 
egi(*s combining speed, timing, and direc- 
tion are authentic enough to help an 
Olympic hf»peful train on the basic princi- 
ples behind the individual events. De- 
ajth/on can be played for months and still 
be exciting. 


SLYNX and VIPER 

Ivy Research. Inc. 

P.O. Box 88 Yale Station 
New Haven. CT 06520 
1 203 1 432-3004 

List Price: Slvnx $34.95: Viper $29.95 
Requires: 64K. 80-column monitor, one 
di.sk drive 

Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


Slynx and V'qMjr are arcade-type games 
for the P(^ Although the games are played 
differently, their overall formal, packag- 
ing. and instructions are similar. 

Slynx 

The game's namesake and primary vil- 
lain is a rapacious snake— the slynx— 
whose head and tail switch places with 
mythological ease. The exchange can oc- 
cur when a [dayer presses the arrow key 
opposite the direction the slynx is heading. 
The head and tail can also flip-flop when 
the slynx's head bounces off an object 
such as a wall or even off itself. This star- 
tling power of mutation makes Slynx a 
game of skill and strategx’ that can be 
played at several levels of difficulty, de- 
pending on the player's proficiency. The 
speed of the slynx. for example, is chosen 
by the player. 

The object of the game is to score iis 
many |)oints as piissible. To do so. players 
must direct the slynx to numerically val- 
ued parcels of food randomly placed on 


the playing field. After the slynx eats the 
food, points are awarded, based on a mul- 
tiplication factor determined l)y the play- 
er's skill level and by the value of the food. 

Players can also score points by direct- 
ing the .slynx to eat musical notes in a kind 
of voracious opera in reverse. The notes, 
also randomly placed on the screen, ap- 
pear at fixed intervals. The longer the 
notes are on the screen, the faster their 
values decrease until they finally disap- 
pear. If the slynx can get to the notes in 
time, a player receives bonus points equal 
to the sum of the value of notes consumed. 

The highlight of the game is the grow- 
ing length of the slynx's body ever\' time it 
catches food. The more food it eats, the 
more the screen brims with crisscrossing 
colls of slynx. The irony of this mad gorg- 
ing is that t(» get more food, players must 
maneuver the leviathan snake through a 
maze of its own l)ody. 

Players can alter the action of the game 
by selecting o[)tions from a menu dis- 
played before the game begins. The slynx 
can bounce off of walls, itself, or nothing 
at all- The latter option is especially chal- 
lenging because of the risk; if the slynx 
bumps into an object, and the game ends. 

There are three versions of Slynx: 
Demo. Solo, and Duo. Demo stands for 
demonstration, a version of the game 
played only by the computer, showing 
players the basics of the game. Solo, as the 
name implies, is played by one user. Duo 
pits the phn er against the computer. Duo 
has the added attraction of two slynx 
snakes simultaneously competing for the 
food: one slynx is controlled by the com- 
puter. and the other is controlled by the 
player. With the no-bounce option, all the 
games end at the request of the user or 
with the death of the slynx. 

Viper 

I Inlike Slyn.x. V'iper is a game in which 
one player tries to capture gold points 
while being chased by the deadly viper. 
.Although points are accumulated the 
same wa\’ as in Slynx and both use arrow- 
keys. V'i'per players can control the game 
with a jfiystick. V'iper is actually two 
games in one: Progressive Viper and Race 
V'iper. 

In Progressive Viper the player tries to 
avoid the snake while scoring as many 
gold points as [)ossible. Gold points appear 
randomly on the playing field, as does a 



The Bug That 
Ate Boca Raton 

David Wdlonick's Data- Writer, a unique 
information processing system for monog- 
I textual and numeric data, provides the 
user with a full set of functions for using data 
bases, including the ability to change their 
structures. 

For expense reporting, client billing, producing and 
mailing form letters, and performing a host of other 
information processing tasks, no data 
manager for the FC is easier to use or ^ 
more functional than Data-Writer. 

Dota-Writer is available from 
Software Options. 19 Rector Street, New York, 

NY 10006, (212) 785-8285. Toll-free order 
( 800 ) 221 - 1624 . Its price is S225 (plus $3 for 
shipping and handling). New York State residents 
add sales tax. Visa / Mastercard / American 
Express accepted. 

For d limited time, you'll receive a tree 
"Bug That Ate Boca Raton" bright 
yellow f-shlrt w/hen you purchase 
Doto-Writer for the IBM PC, 

Specify size (S-M-L-XL). T-shirts 
ore available separately at 
S9.95 each, postpaid. Offer 
expires 2-28-83. 


software 

N 

OPTIONSINC 



PC MAGAZINE 142 DECEMBER 1982 


il 

li 



Check The Chart 
Before You Choose 
Your New 16-Bit 
Computer System. 


tt. 




Columbia Data Products’ 

New Multi-Personal® Computer, 
Featuring IBM-PC® Compatibility, 
Excels In Professional, Business 
And Industrial Applications. 
Check it out. 


Columbia Data Products' MULTI-PERSONAL* COMPUTER 
can use software end hardware orig nally intended for 
the IBM* Personal Computer . . . while enjoying the 
flexibility and expandability of all Columbia Data's conh 
puter systems. 

Available operating system software includes single- 
user MS-DOS* or CP/M 86* or multi-user, multi-tasking 
MP/M 86« or OASIS-16*, with XENIX* available soon, 
providing users with a host of compatible software pack- 
ages for personal and professional business and indus- 
trial applications. A large selection of higher level languages 
are also available, including BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, 
PASCAL and MACRO Assembler. 

Our standard 16-Bit 8088 hardware configuration pro- 
vides 128K RAM with parity, two RS-232 serial ports, 
Centronics parallel printer port, interrupt and DMA con- 
trollers, dual floppy disks with 640K storage, Winchester 
disk and keyboard interfaces, and eight IBM-PC compat- 
ible expansion slots . . . and lists for only $2995. Winches- 
ter hard disk configurations, featuring cache buffer 
controllers for enhanced disk access performance are 
also available, starting at $4995. 

So, when you need to grow, why gamble and hassle 
with independent third party hardware and operating 
system vendors which may or may not be compatible . . . 
not to mention the hidden expense and frustration of 
implementing peripheral drivers in the different operat- 
ing systems and upgrades? Who needs the finger-pointing 
when things don't work out? 

Afteryou review our chart, you will agree . . . for overall 
16-Bit microprocessor superiority, expandability, flexi- 
bility, compatibility and real economy, Columbia Data is 
your total source. 

Our Multi-Personal Computer . . the 16-Bit system 
born to grow! 

Get yours now. 


iy. : 




MAIN FEATURES 

CDP-MPC 

IBM-PC* OTHERS 

Mictoorocessof 

16-Bfie088 

B-BitZ-60l0ptl 

16-Bit E068 ? 

USERMemoiv 

128K-1 Mbytes 

16K-2S6 Kbytes ? 

IBM-PC Corn^iUe 
Expan^ons Slots Beyond 
Professional Conhouratlon' 

esiots 

0 

? 

Residoit Floppy Disk 
Storage 

0ual320K(std} 

OualieOKfOpti ? 
Dual 320K lOpii 

Residem Cache Buffer 
Hard Disk Storaoe 

5M/10M 


? 

OPTIONAL OPERATING SYSTEMS ISuncM bv Conaml > 

MS-DOS iPC-DOSi 

Yes 

Yes ? 

CP/M 86 

Yes 

Yes ? 

MP/M 86 

Yes 

- 

? 

OASIS-16 

Yes 


? 

XENIX 

Soon 

— 

? 

OPTIONAL HAROWARE EXPANSION BOARD ISMntaA l» Cminnl 

RS-232 Comnumications 

Yes 

Yes ? 

B/W and Color Display 
Controller 

Yes 

Yes ? 

Expansion Memory 

Yes 

Ye; 

? ? 

Z-80CP/M-60 Board 

Yes 

_ 

? 

Cache Buffer Hard UA 

Yes 

- 

? 

Time/Calendar Bo^ 

Yes 

— 

? 

IEEE Bus Controlltf 

Yes 

- 

? 

8" Floppy Disk System 

Yes 

— 

? 

8” Hard Disk System 

Up to 40 Mbytes 

- 

? 

Tape CaruKtoe System 

Yes 

- 

? 


' For compartson purposM. typical professional coMiguivlions con- 
sisi of i6-8it 80B8 Processor. 12SK RAM with Panty, Dual 320K Snoch 
Floppies. DMA and Interrupt Controller. Dual RS-232 Serial Ports. 
Centronica Parallel Port and Dumb Computer Terminal or Equivaleni. 
'‘Columbia Data Products also supports CP/M 80* with an optionally 
avaitable Z-60 CP/M Expansion Board. 

'As advertised m BYTE Magazine. August 1082. 


COLUMBIA 


DATA PRODUCTS, INC. 


West Coast: 

3901 MacArthur Bh/d. 
Suite 211 

Newport Beach. CA 92663 
Telephone 714-752-524S 
Telex 277778 


Home Office: 

8990 Route 108 
Columbia. MO 21045 
Telephone 301-092-3400 
TWX 710-862-1891 

Telex 852452 

IBM Is the trademark of Iniematlonai Business Machiries. CP/M and MP/M are trademarks of Digital Research. OASIS la the trademark of Phase One. MSOOS and XENIX are 
trademarks of M CROSOFT. 


Europe: 

P.O. 60x1118 ' 

450 Moenchengladbach 1 ' 
West Germany 
Telephone 02161-33159 
T«lax852<459 





You’re not alone, you know. 

We’ve all been through that same excru- 
ciating moment when we realized that we were 
going to have to learn a lot more than we wanted 
to know about programming, in self-defense. 

But most of us survived. 

Many of us with a little bit of help called 
dBASE II, the relational database management 
system (DBMS) for micros. 

The best defense is a strong offense. 

Don’t get seduced by BASIC, because 
basically BASIC is weak. And to make it do 
anything useful can take 10 times as much 
programming (and time) as with dBASE II. 

dBASE II is much easier because it’s a 
relational DBMS, and you control your informa- 
tion with powerful, English-like commands. 

With a word or two, you CREATE data- 
bases, APPEND new data, UPDATE, MODIFY 
and REPLACE fields, records and entire data- 
bases. DISPLAY some or all of your data for 
any conditions you want to apply. Organize 
months worth of data in minutes with REPORT. 

You can prepare your forms and formats 
precisely the way you want them. Do calcula- 
tions on fields, records and entire databases 
with 10-place accuracy. 

And do even more with dozens of other 
commands. 

Here's the catch. 

With any language, you’ll need to under- 
stand relational operators ("less than” "greater 
thanl”'equals”) and a bit of logic ("or” "and” "not”). 

With dBASE II, you’ll also get an easy 
way to make choices (IF. .THEN.. ELSE) and a 
powerful way to perform repetitive tasks 
(DO WHILE..). 





With these tools, you’re ready to tackle 
your accounting and time billing, project man- 
agement, and any other data handling and record 
keeping. You can work interactively and get your 
answers right now. Or save your instructions and 
repeat everything with two words: DO Man- 
hours, DO ProjectX, DO whatever has to be done. 

Use dBASE II to help make your choice. 

If you’ve got a 48k CP/M micro with a 
disk drive (96k IBM PC), send us $700 ($400 
for a 56k Apple). We’ll send you a copy of 
dBASE II to use free for 30 days. 



the best of 
t micro. 



Instead of just poring over a manual, run 
it and make certain that dBASE II does what you 
need done. 

Then if you find it isn’t right for you, 
send it back and we’ll return your money, no 
questions asked. 

But we know that you’ll probably keep it. 

Because having dBASE II is like having 
a black belt in micros. 

Call (213) 204-5570 today or drop by your 
local computer store for the rest of the story. 

Ashton-Tate, 9929 Jefferson Blvd., Culver 
City, CA 90230. 


Ashton-Tate 


<©1982 Ashlon-Tate 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 



Increase comfort, add space with the PC Sheir^. Harxtsome, durable 
acrylic. Extends outward for convenience and cradles the keyboard in a 
secure, comfortable position. Custom-formed for the IBM Personal 
Computer. 


For rapid delivery, send check or money order for $48.50, plus $2.50 postage 
and handling, to; HT Inc.. 100 Hayes Drive, Cleveland. OH 44131. (Ohio 
residents add $2.67 sales tax.) 






City 

St«e 

Zip 


[)Bssa>>eway leading to a sanctuary where 
they can be stored. The stored points are 
then added to a player s running total. The 
viper is a Iso allowed to make its own insid- 
ious progress. The more points a player 
garners, the more skillful the viper be- 
comes. making it increasingly difficult to 
capture additional gold points. 

Race Viper is a race against time. Play- 
ers tiy to accumulate 100 gold points as fast 
as possible. When point 100 is captured, 
the passageway to the sanctuary opens; the 
clock stops when a player enters. Players 
compete for the best time. 

Each Viper game features five phases 
individually designed to challenge the 
skills of the player. The method by which 
points are awarded and the size or shape 
of the playing field will change according 
to the level the player chooses. 

In Siynx and Viper players can keep 
track of their performances by using Save 
Score, a device that records and displays 
the ten highest scores. 


LAS VEGAS 



s 






Be A Winner. Amaze Your 
Friends. Become a Pro-Class 
Blackjack Player, if you can beat 
this game, you can win at the tables. A 
faithful reproduction of Las Vegas 
**Strip” Blackjack including multi- 
deck play (1 to 10 decks). Splits, 

Double Down, and Insurance bets. 
Teaches card counting with any card 
weight and keeps a running count. 

The illustrated 35 page instruction 
manual is itself a comprehensive 
primer on how to play winning 
blackjack. 

Lots of sounds and graphics for 
realism, including movement of cards 
and chips. Requires IBM* Personal 
Computer, 64K memory, IBM DOS, 
BASICA, and a green screen or color 
80 column display. Order your Las 
Vegas Blackjack, today! Only $39.95 
including postage. (CA residents add 
6% tax.) 

Available at 
COMPGTERLAMD* 
and other fine 
computer retailers. 

*IBM U s Usd»msrk of (h« IntomaltonMl Business 
Machines Corporstion 





Puala~ 

1014 Griswold Ave. Dept. 
San Fernando. CA 91340 
(213) 365-9526 


Ease of Use 

Users are required to read the docu- 
mentation before playing Siynx or Viper. 
Players must boot PC-DOS and type in the 
name of the program. Without documenta- 
tion. users must list the directory of the 
disk to find out program names. The 
games' menus are self-explanatory. Once 
a program is running, additional playing 
instructions are provided. 

A major problem with these games is 
that the user has to add DOS to make them 
what the manual describes as “self-boot- 
ing." If a player simply adds DOS and 
boots the disks, a “Bad Command File" 
error will appear. To make the file work, a 
COMMAND.COM must be added, a pro- 
cedure not mentioned in either of the in- 
struction manuals. Although the manufac- 
turer describes SJynx and Viper as self- 
booting. they clearly are not. They would 
be much easier to use If they were. 

Documentation and Packaging 

Each S/ynx and Viper package consists 
of an instruction manual, one disk, and a 
survey form. The packages come in plain 
plastic wrappers, and the manuals look as 
though they were published on a petty 
cash budget (the pages appear to be photo- 
copies). 

Although the manual's appearance is 
on the sunny side of cheap, the instruc- 


PC MAGAZINE 146 DECEMBER 1982 





We Made VisiCalc™ Smarter! 


World's Rr^ VisiCalc Real Estate Templates 

AUTOMATIC VISICALC TEMPLATE PROPERTY/INVESTMENT ANALYSIS 

GENERATOR TEMPLATES 


The BUSINESS PLANNING TOOL is the most significant de- 
velopment in software since VisiCalc. Now, even the first-time 
user can generate sophisticated spreadsheets for planning and 
analysis of Profit/Loss, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow State- 
ments. The process takes just minutes instead of hours. 
Seasonal trends and sophisticated interrelations are handled 
with ease through user-friendly manipulation of screen graphics. 

The PEACHTREE CONNECTION allows direct extraction from 
Peachtree Data files to a VisiCalc model. General Ledger data 
files are read automatically to instantly create a series of com- 
plex, interactive VisiCalc models complete with Key Financial 
Ratios. 

IfVe take the Work out 
of Working with VisiCaic. 


o 


Sofstar 


13935 U S 1. Juno Square. 
Juno Beach. Florida 33408 
(305) 627-5511 


A versatile problem solving package for business executives, 
developers, brokers, accountants, attorneys, and real estate 
analysts of all kinds. It combines the power and flexibility of 
VisiCalc with the simplicity of a menu driven program. 

■ Amortization System 

■ Income Property Investment Analysis 

■ Internal Rate of Return 

■ A.C.R.S. Depreciation 

■ Comparative Depreciation 

■ Mortgage Loan Analysis 

■ Personal Financial Statement 

"I am very pleased that the response to your 
VisiCalc Real Estate Templates has been so 
positive. We have reviewed your product 
internally and do think it is quite a good product." 

— Richard Melmon, 

DIRECTOR OF PRODUCT MARKETING 
PERSONAL SOFTWARE. INC 

At ComputerLand and other stores. Ask for a demonstration. 

VisiCalc Real Estate Templates $120.00 

Business Planning Tool: $150.00 

Peachtree Connection: $ 75.00 

Requirements: IBM Personal Computer with 64K RAM, one disk 
drive (single or double sided), 80 column display, printer, 
VisiCalc program. 


Sofstar IS a trademark of Sofstar. <nc 


VrsiCaic is a trademark of VisiCorp 



lions are clear, concise, and ihormigh. The 
only deficiency of ihe manual is the ah* 
S(?nce of diajirams to show novices how to 
operate the PC. 

Use of Graphics 

The j*ames do not incorporate color 
j^raphics: the standard character set is 
us(k 1 instead. The lack of visual pizazz is 
disappointing because color graphics can 
do so much to heighten the appearance . 

General Appeal 

At first neither Sfyn.x nor Viper is very 
interesting, hut continuous play sharpens 
skills and prompts a more careful exami- 
nation of the games' finer points. Because 
of this perseverance and the various skill- 
testing o|)tions on the menus, diligent 
plavers can expect their interest to be 
held. 

Accuracy 

Overall, the games are accurate and 
seem to match all the documented specifi- 
cations. Other than a few bugs in the menu 
displays and the problems encountered 
with adding DOS. there are no discrepan- 
cies between the doctimentation and the 
programs. 

Error Handling 

These games are very forgiving of oper- 
ator error. If the player strikes the wrong 
key. the program beeps and continues on 
its slinky way. The errors that matter are 
game errors— the player is not forgiven for 
getting caught by the Viper. 

Warranty Support 

Ivy Research prints its mailing address 
and telephone number throughout the 
manual, and a customer survey/question- 
naire is included, which makes it appear 
as though the manufacturer really cares 
about its products. When I called Ivy Re- 
search's hot-line number about the prob- 
lem with PC-DOS insertion, however, the 
call was taken by an answering machine, 
it seems that initial confidence in the war- 
ranty may have been unfounded— the call 
was never returned. 

Unless the arcade addict persona lurks 
within a player. Slynx and Viper warrant 
only lukewarm reactions. Lack of color 
and poor use of graphics severely handi- 
cap the appeal of both. Ivy Research could 
have enhanced each game with a self- 


booting program, richer game selection 
menus, and more complete instruction 
manuals. The overall concept of the games 
is good and the ideas supporting them are 
clever. Habitual arcade game players 
should find them challenging and interest- 
ing. 


FACT TRACK 

Science R<?search Associates 
IBM PC Sales and Service 
P.O. Box 1328-C 
Boca Raton. FL 33432 

List Price: $90 

Requires: fi4K. color/graphics adapter. 

one disk drive 
Age-group: 6 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

Fact 7’rock can be used to teach addition 
and .subtraction to first-graders or multi- 
plication and division to their older sib- 
lings. Even Mom and Dad have fun chal- 
lenging each other's math skills. 

Fact Truck knows the answers to 390 
arithmetic equations. The program can 
drill a student on one operation, .such as 
addition, or on combinations of addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, and division. 
It randomly chooses problems for each op- 
eration. As the student sets shorter time 


T. 


E PC CAN 


flash problems more 
quickly than any 
teacher, even one who 
used to be a dealer 
in Vegas. 


goals, the problems flash progressively 
faster. 

Success can he measured in correct an- 
swers and speed of performance. After a 
student gives an answer. Fact Trock dis- 
plays the correct solution and provides a 
rundown on the student’s score. Once 
players have mastered the mysteries of 
multiplication and are able to answer 
problems correctly, they can compete 
against their own best times or against 
their friends' limes. They can also race 


against a lime goal represented by a rocket 
bla.sting across the screen. 

Fact Truck also offers an automated 
version of ol<i-fa.shioned flash cards. The 
PC can fla.sh |)mblems more quickly than 
any teacher, even one who used to be a 
dealer in Vega.s. Rather than show the cor- 
rect answer and score after each problem, 
this approach displays a series of equa- 
tions while the student writes the answers 
on paper. Equations can flash at about one 
persecond. a rate that keeps pencils flying. 
When the exercise is complete, all the 
equations and their solutions are dis- 
|)layed. 

More difficult problems, such as 20 -f 
30 instead of 2 + 3. are in a section entitled 
"Extensions." Even in "Extensions" the 
figures are never more than two digits, but 
play can be kept challenging by being 
sped up. The student who has ma.stered 
Fact Truck can remember the right an- 
swers to all 390 equations almost instanta- 
nefni.sly. 

Ease of Use 

An experienced user will probably 
have to help initialize the program disk 
with IBM DOS. unless the .student is quite 
familiar with the PC. The documentation 
clearly describes this process, although it 
lacks any diagrams that might aid the nov- 
ice with initialization, booting, and disk 
manipulation. 

A problem could occur if the PC has 
both a monochrome display and a color 
monitor. The program cannot switch from 
monochrome to color during the booting 
process. The monochrome display and 
board must be manually removed for the 
program to be run properly. Other pro- 
grams can switch from one display to an- 
other. and Fact Track's inabillt\’ to do so 
could be a drawback. 

The documentation shows that a series 
of exercise menus is displayed in the pro- 
gram. leading one to believe that they ap- 
pear on different .screen displays. All 
menus appear on the siime screen, howev- 
er. which might cause a little initial confu- 
sion. Once that is imderstootl. the exer- 
cises in the program are eas\’ to operate. 

If the student chooses to return to the 
beginning of the program at the conclu- 
sion of an exercise, the introductory 
graphics are rerun. This may be a little 
tedious, however. 

Fact Track is handsomely packaged in 


PC MAGAZINE 148 DECEMBER 1982 




a hnrdhmind folder with a pocket for the 
disk. The doniimentation is easy to follow. 


TO SIX 
competitors can 
gather around the PC 
to contend for the 
gold medal. 

Accuracy 

Fact Track follows Its specifications to 
the letter. There are no flaws in the equa- 
tions. the program flow, the student timing 
system, or the recording of correct and in- 
correct answers. This is one educational 
product that won't confuse users. 

This program is an example of perfect 
error handling. There is no way In crash 
the SN Stem. It simply ignores inappropriate 


answers to a [)rompt. 

General Appeal 

The program's graphics are well ex- 
ecuted. Each problem is displayed in large 
block letters in the center of the screen. 
When the student .solves the problem. 
“(lOOn" or ’ WRONO " is displayed be- 
low the answer. 

The program Is cleverly designed and 
is Interesting to operate, While it’s most 
helpful for beginners, advanced students 
can also bru.sh up on some skills. 

Warranty Support 

Fact Track is sold and supported 
through IBM PC dealers, who are obligat- 
ed to replace the program disks if any de- 
fects in workmanship or materials are 
found within 90 days of purchase. The 
documentation does not list a hot-line 
phone number however, so a quick solu- 
tion to an immediate problem would have 
to come from the PC^ dealer, whose support 
in this area is not necessarily guaranteed. 


At Home or in School 

The program is highly useful for drill- 
ing students in basic arithmetic while 
keeping their attention and interest. The 
student has the option at the beginning of 
the program to turn the .sound on or off. 
This could be helpful in a cla.ssroom. 


Even mom 

and Dad have fun 
challenging each 
other's math skills. 


where unnecessaiy noise could be dis- 
turbing. /PC 

Douglas Q. Cobb is an educational analyst/ 
programmer for DesignWore, Inc., a 
coursetvare development company l)ased 
in San Francisco. 


MEET THE [PiOiiAlMMEii 



If you can’t find a business software package that 
does everything you need, or if you want to custom 
design specially programs for your business 
MEET THE PROGRAMMER 

THE PROGRAMMER is a BASIC-lanquage program 
generator which is powerful and nighly-versalile. 
yet easy to use 

It does everything but actually create program ideas 
those come from you But THE PROGRAMMER 
can implement your ideas by writing the appropri- 
ate lines of BASIC 

You control THE PROGRAMMER by choosing var- 
ious functions from a series of "menus" When 
you've finished a program, save it on another disk 
lor future use, and begin creating again. 

THE PROGRAMMER comes with a complete instruc- 
tion book which clearly explains how to create pro- 
grams for almost any application 
If you're tired of buying software that just can't do 
the job meet THE PROGRAMMER. The solution 
to all of your business software problems. 

Get your IBM PC* version of THE PROGRAMMER 


now at a special low price from Sams 

Ask for No 26077 $199.95 

For the manual only, ask for No 26085 . , $29 95 


Call 800-428-3696 toll-free or 317-298-5566 to 
order direct or to get the name of your local Sams 
retailer 

HOWARD W. SAMS & CO., INC. 

43CX) W«st 62nd Street. P.O. Bok 7092. Indtanepohs. IN 46206 
rM( HK)oi)AMVf * br opvMAi) ibm *»ncA«i 

Oe««9<yi<linUWnn)v«ni>->pMM4'K>/81 M C«n*d4 conMCT U>nbrr»k IndutIMt ITO 
VMbomgqfi Onum A027’ 



PC MAGAZINE 149 DECEMBER 1982 


GAMES/DAVIS FOULGER 


From Stock Portfolios 
To Art 
Portfolios 

Be a millionaire, an artist, 
or a treasure-seeker with 
these exciting games of fantasy. 


MILLIONAIRE 

! Blue Chip Software 
p 19824 Ventura Blvd. #125 
Woodland Hills, CA 91364 
j |213) 881-8288 
List Price: $99.95 
Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
j Age-group: 16 to adult 
I Number of Players: One (but keeps 
I records for 14) 

Ver\’ few computer games teach some- 
thing useful to players. Reaction-time 
games such as Microsoft’s Decath/on and 
PacMan are great for developing hand- 
eye coordination, but they have no real 
, content. Adventure games are fun and 
I full of interesting content, but they are 
built on fantasy themes that have little 
: relevance to real life. At best, one's mem- 
I or\’ skills and mapmaking abilities im- 
, prove. An exception to this pattern in 
: computer games is Millionaire, which is 
a fun. complex game and a real educa- 
tion in the art of playing the slock market. 

The object of the game is to become a 
millionaire in the stock market. At first 
! this is done solely through investments. 

! but as the player’s fortune builds, options 
' expand. After showing a minimal profit 
of $2,000. the player is allowed to buy on 
margin. Even more flexibility comes lat- 
er in the game. 

A game of Millionaire, which lakes 
about 2 hours, is played a "week” at a 
time over the course of 77 weeks. During 



each week, the player can choose to buy 
or sell from among 15 stocks or to do 
nothing. Buy and sell decisions need not 
be made blindly: plent\^of information is 
provided to help investors make in- 
formed decisions. 

This is the same kind of information 
used by real-life investors: charts of 
overall market acliviW over an extended 
period of lime: charts of the performance 
of selected industry segments; tables 
showing highs, lows, and the most recent 
price for each stock: and the news. Dur- 
ing each game’s first week of trading, 
overall market trends for the preceding 
14 weeks are displayed. A single-indus- 
tiy segment is evaluated, and a summary 
of relevant news is offered along with the 
price of each slock. 

This information is updated for each 
subsequent week as the computer moves 


through the stock market scenario it has 
created. It also keeps track of the player's | 
holdings and performance, raising status 
when certain income goals are achieved. ' 
It takes the computer about 6 minutes 
(the program claims 5) to work out the 91 
weeks charted in each game. Records 
can be kept for up to 14 different players, 
although only one can play at a time. 

Ease of Use 

Although MiiJionaire is an easy game 
to play, it could be easier. The game does 
its own calculations, but it takes no advan- 
tage of the IBM PC's function keys and 
seems to ask for information in the wrong 
order. None of this seems necessary. The ■ 
Fl key is just as good a way to start a buy 
transaction as writing out buy (or ''bu.” the , 
minimal command specification)— it's ^ 
also easier. i 


PC MAGAZINE 150 DECEMBER \9H2 



CHART-MASTER’^ 

Business Graphics Software 



Professional-Quality Graphics 
from Personal Computers 

CHART-MASTER works with Apple® II, Apple® III 
and IBM personal computers to create full-color 
business graphics on Hewlett-Packard plotters, 
including the new low-cost H-P 7470A. 

POWERFUL 

CHART-MASTER produces bar charts, line charts, scatter diagrams and pie 
charts, as well as text pages and signs, on paper or acetate (transparencies). 
Data can be entered manually or automatically from Visicalc® and other 
programs. Charts can be edited, stored and retrieved. 

FLEXIBLE 

CHART-MASTER allows you to select from a broad range of options to create 
the chart that best communicates your data. Options include producing up to 
nine charts per page, footnote and framing capabilities, left and right y-axes, 
a variety of hatching and line types, exploded pie segments, linear regression 
and curve-fittings, logarithmic axes and much more. 


EASY TO USE 

CHART-MASTER is an interactive, menu- 
driven program that allows users, whether 
managers or secretaries, to produce 
presentation-quality charts immediately with 
little or no training. It is easy for you to enter 
data, choose options, select a chart format . . . 
and let CHART-MASTER do the rest. 


COST-EFFECTIVE QUALITY 

To get the same high quality that CHART-MASTER delivers, you would have 
to use expensive time-sharing services, commissioned graphic artists 
or costly dedicated graphics systems. Thus, CHART-MASTER, especially when 
teamed with the new Hewlett-Packard 7470A plotter, represents a pric^ 
performance breakthrough. Users of these more costly methods will find that a 
CHART-MASTER /Hev/\ett-Packard combination pays for itself in just a few 
months. And, because CHART-MASTER also offers convenience, speed, user 
control and versatility, you will find that you will increase your use of business 
graphics at no marginal cost. 

CHART-MASTER is available through your local computer dealer for $375. 

A complete graphics plotting package, consisting of CHART-MASTER, H-P 
7470A plotter and interface for your Apple or IBM personal computer, costs as 
little as $2000. For further information and the name of your nearest dealer, 
call or write: 

Decision Resources Professional software tools 

PO Box 309, Westport CT 06880, 203/222-1974 



Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Visicalc is a trademark of Personal Software. Inc. 






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The way in which the game orders in- 
formation requests during transactions is 
frustrating. It seems logical to enter the 
name of the company to be bought or sold 
immediately after initiating a buy or sell 
action. The game demands, however, that 
the type of buy or sell transaction be speci- 
fied before the company name is given. It's 
an unnatural order that takes some ad)iist- 
ment on the part of the user. 

The MiJJionoire program could do 
more: its simple charts and graphs, for ex- 
ample. are the extent of Us graphics, but 
they are well done. All in all. the pro- 
gram's limitations aren't really all that im- 
portant. The game is eas>’ to play, and al- 
though reading the manual is certainly 
useful, it isn't really necessarv'. Most users 
should be able to start up Miilionaire and 
play it without ever looking at the manual. 
It seems to contain most of the information 
it should, even though it isn’t well written. 
(According to the manufacturers, howev- 
er. the manual has been revised and the 
packaging improved.] 

Inside the simulation. MiiJionoire 
works in just about the same way as the 
stock market. News affects play, and there 
are patterns to be found and mastered. If 
the investor is good, a quick buck can be 
made with a quick buy and sell. But watch 
out — sometimes the market anticipates 
news and sometimes it ignores it. 

Error Handling and Warranty 
Support 

Unlike the actual stock market, this 
game won't kill the player's input if it is 


M ILLIONAIRE 

will be enjoyable 
to people who play 
the stock market. 


entered incorrectly. If the wrong keystroke 
is made, the machine beeps and some- 
times offers help. As in the real market, 
however, there are few guarantees. If the 
program disk is defective upon purchase, 
the user has 30 days to return it for a free 
replacement. After that replacement, 
disks cost $10. 


General Appeal 

An excellent simulation of the real 
thing. Millionaire will be enjoyable to 
people who play the stock market. A year's 
trading can be viewed in just a few hours. 
Peo[)le who have contemplated playing 
the market should take advantage of some 
of the lessons to be learned in the game. 
Losing in simulation is better than with 
real money. 


SAUCER/PAINTER/PALETTE 

Micro-G 
RO. Box 102 
Duluth. GA 30136 
List Price; $29.95 

Requires: 48K. color monitor, one disk 
drive 

Age-group: 7 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


Saucer is a game: Painter is two programs 
that turn an IBM PC screen into a painter’s 
canvas: Palette is a program that displays 
the colors and backgrounds of the color- 
board-equipped IBM PC. Together the 
four programs comprise Soucer/Painter/ 
Palette. 

The programs are an integrated set of 
tools. As a game. Saucer is only moderate- 
ly interesting. Although it might entertain 
7- to 10-year-olds for a few hours, it's not 
likely to hold the interest of anyone older 
for more than a game or two. Its biggest 
problem is that it is unfinished. The game 
has no clear end. no documented way of 
leaving the program (short of aborting ex- 
ecution with Ctrl Break), and no estab- 
lished reward for winning. 

Use of Graphics 

Looking at Saucer as a game, however, 
ignores its [nirpose. The game is better 
thought of as a test track to demonstrate 
the kind of graphin.s that c«in be built in 
Puinfer I (medium-resolution color) and 
Painter II (high-resohition black and 
white) and to allow testing of shapes built 
in the two programs. A creative artist can 
turn Saucer's missiles into cannonballs, 
airplanes, or blobs of jelly. (A creative pro- 
grammer might turn Saucer into a real 
game.) 

Pulette’s purpose is similar to that of 
Saucer, although Its potential is more 
limited. Pick any background. Pick any 
range of colors. Palette shows you what 
they look like together. It displays 16 col- 


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(312)579-0672 


PC MAGAZtNE 155 DECEMBER 1982 



ors. including (he background, and i( does 
nothing else. 

The core of the Saucer/Painter/Pai- 
ette combination is the two painter pro- 
grams. Pick backgrounds, select fore- 
ground colors, and paint in a range of 
decorator colors using narrow and broad 
brushstrokes with Painter /. Painter /I cre- 
ates sounds and draws in black, white, and 
gray. Both allow the user to fill in shapes 
with pure colors and save the artistic cre- 
ations to disk. 

Ease of Use 

Saucer/Painler/Palette is a simple 
program to use. Most users will be able to 
master the set with only minimal refer- 
ence to the documentation. Documenta- 
tion. punched for insertion into one of the 
IBM PC manuals, is adequate, and pack- 
aging is minimal. 

Most missed in the program set is a 
screen dump program that would permit 
hard copy of drawings made in Painter II 
to be produced on Epson printers, and 
hard copy of Painter J drawings to be 
made on color printers such as the IDS 
Prism. The addition of a screen dump fea- 
ture would allow a broad range of hard 
copy artistry to be done in the Painter pro- 
grams. 


J. ICKANY 
background. Pick any 
range of colors. Palette 
shows you what they 
look like together. 

Overall, the program is simple, but 
sloppy. Some things (hat appear to be er- 
rors aren't, so the player is often unsure if 
something was right or wrong. Because the 
program is written in BASIC, error han- 
dling is eas\' when it truly occurs. 

Saucer/Painter/Paiette comes with a 
90-day warrantv' on the diskette, although 
the manufacturer says it will usually 
stretch that time limit. A refund (less $2 
postage and handling) will be given to 
those who return the package within 2 
weeks. As it stands, the most satisfied cus- 
tomers will be those who are interested in 


building screen graphics for games and 
■'slide shows." 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 

Epyx Computer Games/Automated 

Simulations 

1043 Kiel Ct. 

Sunnyvale. CA 94086 
(408| 745-0700 
List Price: $39.95 

Requires: 64K. color/graphics adapter. 

one disk drive 
Age-group: 12 to adult 
Number of Players: One (but fun for 
group playl 

Te/npie of Apshai is a Dunjonquesl. a me- 
dieval search and battle game in the tradi- 
tion of Dungeons and Dragons. It is one of 
many Dunjonquests and other computer 
games that have been produced by Epyx 
Computer Games/Automated Simula- 
tions for Apple. TRS-80. and Atari com- 
puters. many of which will probably find 
their way onto the IBM PC over the next 
few years. The manual was obviously 
written for these other machines. 

Ease of Use 

'I'emple of Apshai is a complex game 
that is sure to hold surprises and difficult 
challenges for a lung time. But it is an easy 
game to play. At level one the game ap- 
pears uncomplicated. As (he player gains 
experience and moves into the depths of 
the temple, however, things become in- 
creasingly complicated. The player learns 
the value of nut kilting a spider from un- 
derneath (spiders falll and other complex- 
ities of exploration and survival. The IBM 
version of 'i’emp/e of Apshai takes full ad- 
vantage of the PC's function keys. This is 
not obvious from reading the manual, 
however, which shows the command 
structure used on another computer. The 
IBM commands are included on a quick- 
reference card, but it will not be immedi- 
ately obvious to many first-time users that 
the commands shown on this card differ 
from those in the book. One must look for 
the difference. 

(Getting started requires a thoughtful 
reading of the manual, and actual play is 
considerably enhanced when the player 
uses the manual as a reference guide, 
looking up descriptions of rooms, oppo- 
nents. and treasures. The descriptions are 
excellent, as is the fictional introduction to 


the game. "The Adventures of Brian Ham- 
merhand. " 

The manual is good, but it does not ex- 
plain evervihing that a player might want 
to know. A great deal is left for the user to 
discover on his or her own. and it wouldn't 
hurt to take notes. 

Although progress through the 'I'empie 
of Apshai is graphically depicted on the 
screen and is described reasonably well in 
the book, some strategies of exploration 
and battle will work better than others. 
Notes on strateg\- and mapping of trea- 
sures and secret doors will be of inestima- 
ble value in returns to the inn and new 
explorations of (he temple. The manual is 


T, BOW 
shoots arrows and the 
sword thrusts. 

not written in an IBM version, however, so 
it can be somewhat confusing. 

Use of Graphics 

If the user doesn't want to take notes or 
refer to the manual, or likes the idea of 
relying on memory, the game's sounds and 
graphics will provide powerful pegs on 
which to hang remembrances. One can 
Siifely rely on the picture on the screen and 
memory for most things. The many rooms 
and monsters vary enough in shape to be 
distinguishable. Where rooms seem simi- 
lar. other descriptive information is given. 

The depiction of the temple itself is 
simple. Walls never curve or twist and de- 
tails of the landscape are left out. Every- 
thing is predicated on straight lines. The 
character and monster graphics are good, 
though. The bow shoots arrows and the 
sword thrusts; both are shown on the 
screen. 

The sound effects are also effective— a 
good thing since the pace of play in 'I’em- 
pie of Apshai can be a bit slow. The slow 
pace works to the advantage of (he game, 
but it can put the player off guard. 

Some players object to the substitution 
of graphics for description in role-playing 
simulation games such as this one. Those 
people probably won't like Temple of 
Apshai. 


PC MAGAZINE tS6 DECEMBER l'»82 


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canPLiTEnuujsE jmc. 


IBM 

VCR VIDEO-LEARWIWG TAPES 

1. DATA STRUCTURES I. II. Ill S17S 

2. Structured COBOL I. II. III. IV. V S29S 

3. BASIC I. II, III. IV. V $295 

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1. DOS OPERATING SYSTEM 

FOR THE PC 

V 1 0 and V 1 1 dtscussed in detari; plenty of 
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2. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 
An elementary discussion of computers 
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computerese 

3. MORE INTRODUCTION TO 

COMPUTERS 

More topics on computers for the novice. 

4. BASIC FOR KIDS 

A detailed walkthrough fer the book. Com- 
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5. BASIC FOR THE NOVICE 

A survey of BASIC commands that allow a 
novice to use the IBM PC 

6. ADVANCED BASIC CONCEPTS 

A detailed discussion of advanced seating 
and saving techniques. 

7. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHICS 
Elementary graphics and anmaton con- 
cepts using graphics commands of the IBM 
PC 

8. ADVANCED GRAPHICS 

More detailed discussion of the graphics 
commands and music using the IBM PC 

9. GAME PROGRAMMING 

How to write a game, elementary and 
advanced techniques on animation 
programming. 

10. DATA FILES 

Mow to build and use random access and 
sequential data files on the IBM PC 


COMPUTER LITERACY 
COURSE *995.00 


Includes 1 6 hours of video tapes plus text mate- 
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How computers work, termmology and gen- 
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Standard word processing functions, con- 
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menu. 

PHASE III Introduction to User 
Software 

Introduces concept of menumg and user 
interactivity with orograms 

PHASE IV Introduction to 
Programming 

Elementary programming commands are 
introduced tor the non-techmcal individual to 
the function and use of computers 
The course is self-contained including lectures 
on video-tapes, plenty of lab exercises and 
diskettes for hands-on training. 

IBM « a trademark of International Business Machines 


PROUDLY PRESENTS __ 

PC SOFTWARE 


FINANCIAL/ BUSINESS 
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1. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE «75°° 

Sorting, billing, reports, ageing, transactions, 
payments— all performed using customer 
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does what the larger AR does, on a smaller 
scale 

2. BUDGET MANAGER ’SO" 

A great program to keep track of each and 
every expenditure, broken down into 30 cate- 
gories of your choosing; sub-totals, cross- 
references, sorts and lists expenditures by 
categories and other sorted references 

3. BUSINESS MANAGER •30» 

A must for the businessman, a log of all 
incoming and outgoing financial transactions 
with intermediate and major totals including 
history file and sorting capabilities. 

4. LABELS/SORTER «50‘» 

Produces labels, sorts, subsorts, selected 
sorts and cross references— great for mail- 
ings, includes room for company name and 
printing and non-printing of certain fields 

5. TAX MANAGER •30<>o 

A MUST AT TAX TIME Easy-to-follow break- 
downs of most tax categones. separate tax- 
able deductions from non-taxable 
deductions. Allows user to get a handle on his 
deductions 

6. WORD PROCESSOR •60<’° 

A simple-to-use word processor; contains 
most standard WP functions in an easy-to- 
use menu You don't have to be a WP expert 
to use the program. 

7. WORD PROCESSOR/ 

NAME & ADDRESS MERGE 
Same capabilities as the word processor, but 
aliosvs alt information m the Labels/Sorter 
program to be merged into your letters, 
memos, etc . a very powerful tool, 


COLLEGE-LEVEL COURSES 
»75°o each 


1. ACCOUNTING/BUSiNESS 

Uses tnal balances, general ledger, balance 
sheets and income statements to acquaint 
the student with basic accounting /business 
problems 

2. CHEMISTRY 

Includes dnil exercises, formulas, chemical 
identification and other chemistry problems. 

3. ENGINEERING 

Designed to help the engineenng student 
solve engineenng problems using the compu- 
ter system. 

4. ENGLISH 

Dnl) exercises using the most common 
grammatical mistakes 

5. MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS 

Uses simple menu commands so that stu- 
dents can easily move from program to pro- 
gram Contains over 50 different problems 
covenng all phases of math and statistics 

6. VOCABULARY 

Exercises using definitions of challenging new 
words the college student is likely to 
encounter 


GAMES *18** each 


1. BOWLING 

Keeps score automatically. You control the 
rol. spin and pitch of the ball 

2. BUeWAMMER 

Creatures, creatures, creatures 
everywhere— creeping, craiwltng. spinning 
creatures: whack those bugs before they 
crawl out of your PCI 

3. DEMOLITION RACER 

Get out of my way or ^se' A great road race: 
the more you hit, the higher your score! 

4. GLOG 

Glog eats anything in his way— consuming all 
creatures with a voracious appetite. Crunch, 
crunch, here he comes! 

5. MISSILE JALOPY 

Launch your missiles at the enemy, last one 
alive wins' 

6. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE 

Trap alien vessels in orbit around suns, 
moons, novas and supernovas, but avoid the 
same pitfall yourself' Beware of the gravita- 
tional forces of the supernova. You will lose 
more than your cod! 

7. 3-D MAZE 

Go beyond two dimensions; go mto the 3rd 
Dimension! A reahstic game that will chal- 
lenge your skills and daring! Color and sound 
combine to haghten your er^oyment! 

8 GAME-A-RAMA 

A set of ten games: something for "kKJs 'of all 
ages 

TEXTS 


COMPUTERS FOR KIDS. A LAB BOOK 
for the IBM PC •T.” 

COMPUTERS FOR KIDS. A LAB BOOK 
for the APPLE II * 7 .»» 

GRAPHICS FOR KIDS 
for the IBM PC *8.» 

OTHER SOFTWARE 


SMART MOUSE *17.m each 

1. ARITHMETIC 
2 ENGLISH 

3, SCIENCE 

4, SOCIAL STUDIES 


•17.” each 
ELEMENTARY 

1 ARITHMETIC 
2, SOCIAL STUDIES 

3 ENGLISH 

4 MUSIC 
5. SCIENCE 


•17.” each 
SECONDARY 

1 BIOLOGY 
2. chemistry 

3 ENGLISH 

4 HISTORY 

5. LATIN 

6 MATHEMATICS 

7. VOCABULARY 


Send check or money order to: 

COMPUTERWISE, INC. 
Dunlap, Tennessee 37327 



The graphics don’t really test the capa- 
bilities of the IBM PC. A Dunjonquest that 
took advantage of some of the extended 
memoiy capabilities of the PC would offer 
better animation and more varied scenes. 
Still, the graphics look good on both color 
and non-IBM monochrome displays 
('lemple of Apshoi requires an IBM color 
board). 

General Appeal 

The goal of 7’emple of Apshoi is to sur- 
vive the monsters of the lemple and be- 
come rich off the treasures found there. 
One amasses weapons, magic, and trea- 
sure. all of which can be found in the tem- 
ple. The game operates in real time, and it 
will not automatically give the player lime 
to decide on the best attack strategy’, look 
up a room, monster, or treasure in the 
manual, or take notes. Time can be cre- 
ated. however, through the use of the Trea- 
sure key (F6|, which halts execution brief- 
ly while the user decides whether to grab 
or drop treasure. The command reference 
card documents two choices: G for grab 


and D for drop. A third option is N for 
none. 

The documented and undocumented 
features of the game are numerous, and 
the PC user who becomes a 'i empie of Ap- 
shuj player is likely to become a Dun}on- 
qiiest addict. 7’he game will be difficult 
and probably frustrating for elementary 
school children, although the graphics will 
be attractive to them. The best audience is 
teenager to adult. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

'iemp/e of Apshoi’s somewhat slow 
play means that the complete exploration 
of any of the temple's four levels takes 
some lime. Fortunately, Epyx/Autnmaled 
Simulations has provided a chance for us- 
ers to siive the lemple. as explored, for fur- 
ther exploration on another day. Charac- 
ters can be siived on disk, along with their 
accumulated power and wealth, and 
moved from one Dunjonquest to another, 
when they become available for the IBM 
PC. 

This saving can be done only during 


the journey between the temple and the 
inn. but there are two ways of getting 
there. The best method is to find the way 
out of the temple (assuring safekeeping of 
the treasure or power that has been 
amassed). A less desirable route is death. 
If the player exits the temple with Olias 
the Dwarf, he or she loses everything. If 
Benedic the Cleric brings the player out. 
the loss will be minimal. 

This “saving” process was the only bug 
in the program: an intermittent problem 
with S4iving the temple sometimes made it 
impossible to return. This bug has appar- 
ently been corrected, however, and users 
who experience this problem can ex- 
change their program disks for the correct- 
ed version. 

Warranty Support 

If users find their disk to be damaged 
upon purchase, the manufacturers will re- 
[)lace it for free if it is returned within 30 
days. After that time a replacement disk 
costs $5. 

Adults and teenagers will find excite- 


PROGRAMMER’S GUIDE TO VO coiMpM fciHp 1 

CP/M 


Edited by 
Sol Libes 


H ere's an important collection of CP/M insights that you'll never find 
in any CP/M manual. CP/M is the most popular microcomputer 
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innovative techniques and enhancements of CR'M. Programmer's 
Guide to CP/M tells you what these enhancements are and how to put 
them to use, how to get around apparent limitations of a CP/M system 
and why CR'M is far more versatile than you might have imagined. 
Every articie in Programmer's Guide to CP/M originally 

appeared in MICROSYSTEMS be- 
tween January 1980 and February 
1982. Except for this collection, 
these articles are now unavailable! 
Programmer's Guide to CP/M gives 
you an in-depth look at CP/M from 
the viewpoint of the programmer— 
I HnH the individual who creates the soft- 
I ware that interfaces directly with 

f CP/M, or who is installing CP/M on 

systems for which configurations 
I do not already exist. 

f WU Contents include "An Introduc- 
tion to CP'M," "The CP/M Connec- 
I tion," "CP/M Software Reviews," 

I "CP/M Utilities & Enhancement." 

"CP/M 86 " and "CP/M Software 
Directories." 200 pages, $12.95. 



Dept.HASH, 39 East Hanover Avenue 
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Send me copies of Programmer's 

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I purchase orders under $50 not accepted. I 


PC MAGAZINE J59 DECEMBER 1982 





RAM+ with Flash Disk 
is worth asking for. 


Seattle Computer's RAM+^“ is the 
only IBM-PC expansion memory 
with a built-in serial port plus new 
Flash Disk^" software. 

If you don't see RAM+ with 
Flash Disk software on display at 
your local computer store, ask 
I for it. Because RAM+ is a super 
memory card. 

Faster than a speeding disk 
drive, more versatile than the ordi- 
nary RAM card, RAM+ with Flash 
DisK can leap tall projects with a 
single bound. And it can save IBM 
owners valuable time by allowing 
them to use memory li ke a disk— only 
faster. Flash Disk electronically simu- 
lates a disk drive 1 0 to 50 times faster 
than a mechanical disk. 

lust copy your most-used pro- 
grams and data to Flash Disk and you 
makethem instantly accessible— end- 
ing those long (and aggravating) disk 
access delays. Flash Disk is also ideal 


for temporary intermediate files. 

And best of all. Flash Disk 
comes free with the RAM -I- memory 
card. Or if you already own RAM-H, 
Flash Disk software is available from 
your local dealer. 

As always, the beauty of RAM-F 
is its gallant combination of up to 
256K of memory and a built-in 
RS-232 serial port on a single card. 
Not only does it save the $150 an IBM 
serial card would cost, but it also 
leaves an open slot for further addi- 
tions— like another RAM-F card. 

Available in 64K, 128K, 192K or 
256K, RAM -Fis expandable, fast, and 
because it's made by Seattle Com- 
puter, reliable. We're the people who 
first wrote the operating system for 
the IBM-PC. And we're still first in 
innovation. Each card comes fully 
tested and with a one-year guaran- 
tee. Expansion kits are available at 
your local dealer. 


Flow to order: New RAM-F will 
Flash Disk is available through your 
local computer store. (It may be bad 
in the corner so be sure to ask.) Call 
us tol l-free at 1 -800-426-8936 for the 
location of your nearest RAM-Fdeak 



1 1 14 Industry Drive. Sedllle. W,ishinRtt>n S«188 





UCSD 

PASCAL 


(A) PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: 
UCSD PASCAL 


(C) PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: 
BASIC 


ANEW 
USER SERIES 
FOR THE IBM 
PERSONAL 
COMPUTER 


Graham 


*^ECono 

3^ IBM 


Designed to iniroduce and explain basic 
programming languages, machine 
functions and user applications, from 
beginning through moderately advartced. 
Each text includes a broad range of 
examples, programs and exercises to 
encourage familiarity and creativity with the 
new. trend-setting IBM personal computer. 


teymour PoUack, 256 pp., papar $16.95* ISBN-0'03-062637-4 
"The Portable IBM PC Pascal!" Emphasizes the syntax of UCSD 
Pascal and good program design. An ideal introductory text/tutorial 
to be used informally, or in classroom or training situations. In- 
cludes full coverage of the system and Its uses, basic and advanced 
UCSD p-System^functions. Easy to understand, user-oriented, 
reinforces working knowledge and application. 


Neill Graham. 256 pp.. paper $16.95* ISBN-0-03-061911-4 
An introduction to programming in BASIC language. Users can 
apply material directly to their machine, with no adaptation neces- 
sary. An ideal introductory text/tutorial to be used informally, or in 
classroom or training situations. Covers the unique features of the 
IBM Personal Computer, elements of BASIC and programming, 
and various applications (text editor programs, program for storirig 
and retrieving information from random files, etc.). 


(B) YOUR IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: 

BASIC AND APPLICATIONS 

David Cortesl, 304 pp., paper $16.95* ISBN-0-03-061979-3 

Intended to get the first-time useroverthe hurdle of the initial intro- 
duction to the new machine. Provides a non-threatening, "confi- 
dence-building" introduction to the Personal Computer and to 
computing, basic language and software (VisiCalc”.word proces- 
sing. etc.). An ideal introductory text/tutorial to be used informally, 
or in classroom or training situations. Focuses on central pro- 
gramming concepts, emphasizing IBM's version of MICROSOFT 
BASIC. 


(D) PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: 
FORTRAN 77 


Robert Rouse & Thomas Bugnitz, 304 pp., paper $16.95* 
ISBN-0-03-062042-2 

Examples, problems and exercises drawn from the sciences and 
engineering teach the Fortran 77 language on the IBM Personal 
Computer. An ideal introductory text/tutorial to be used informally, 
or in classroom or training situations. Introductory and advanced 
topics, with special emphasis on use of IBM's unique Fortran 
Compiler. 


PC WRITERS: 


Let Me Know Your Book/Software Ideas . . . 
Contact Brete Harrison. Editor 


More To Come . . . 

In this exciting new "PC" series . . . 

PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: PASCAL 

NtXI Orahsm. paper S16.9S* 

PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: UCSD p-System * 

WITH FORTRAN 77 

Robert Route S Thomaa BugrtIU. paper SIS. 95* 

PROGRAMMING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: UCSD p-Sytlem 
WITH PASCAL a FORTRAN 77 

Seymour Pollaek. Robert Route, Tbotnat Bugntu. paper SIS.gS' 

USING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: VISI-CALC* 

Robert Crowley, paper $19.95* 

USING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER: MACRO-ASSEMBLER 

Mark FrarWim. paper S19.9S’ 

USING THE IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER; GRAPHICS 

Jeffrey Poadmer. paper $16.95* 

U CBS 

EDUCATIONAL & PROFESSIONAL PUBLISHING 
3S3 Madison Avenue. New York. New York 10017 
Nslionwida: SOO-227-1617 ait. 33« 

CaNferma: 800*772*354Saxt. 336 


I MAIL TODAY FOR 30 DAY FREE TRIAL 

I To. Deborah Miters 

CBS EDUCATIONAL & PROFESSIONAL PUBLISHING 
3B3 Madiaon Avenue. New York. N.Y. 10017 
I Indicate Book By Letter Code 

□ A ISBN-0-03-062637-4 □ B ISBN-0-03-061979-3 

I □ C ISBN-0-03-061911-4 □ 0 ISBN-0-03-062042-2 

I Name 

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! 




IBM OWNERS ARE DISCOVERING 
WHAT OVER IQOOO APPLE OWNERS 
ALREADY KNOW 


Chances are you don’t truly realize how helpful 
your computer can be in managing your family 
finances. 

The key is selecting the right software. 
That’s why you should know about a program 
that’s become the runaway best seller among 
Apple owners' — the Home Accountant '” from 
Continental Software. 

ADDED POWER FOR IBM USERS. 

Home Accountant Plus for the IBM Personal 
Computer has all the power and ease of operation 
that made the Apple version such a success. 

But it includes a brand new Forecasting Module 
that gives you a peek at the future. You can 
evaluate various investment strategies —or let the 
program show the way to your financial goals. 


Of course, you get all the great features of 
Home Accountant. Like room for up to 100 
budget categories, 5 different checking ac- 
counts, and all the credit cards you can carry. 
Automatic printing of your net worth and 
standard financial statements— plus checks and 
any custom reports that you specify. Also, full- 
color graphs^ of actual vs. budgeted expen- 
ditures, trend line analysis, and more. 

READY TO GO TO WORK-TODAY. 
Sooner or later, you’re going to want your 
computer’s help with your personal finances. 

Over 10,000 users have already found the 
ideal answer. Now it’s your turn. 

Home Accountant Plus . About $150 at 
computer stores everywhere. 



Continental 

Software 


Call or •rire us for your rtearesi dealer: Continental Software. 11223 Hindry. Los Angeles. CA 90043 (213) 417*0031. ‘Rated No. I tn home software packages. SoAalk tnagatine (March*June 
1982) t Requires 64k. I disk drive and mono or color dispby. Printer optional. Apple is a registered indetnark of Apple Computer Inc. IBM is a tegistete<rtrBdeinark of IBM 


I 



ment and entertainment in the theme and 
action of this game. The sword and sorcen,’ 
theme coml)ined with graphics gives this 
program the air of a slow but much more 
challenging Pucman. Its certainly worth 
the silver to grab this game for the PC trea- 
sure chest. 

UPPER REACHES OF APSHAI 

E|>yx Computer Games/ Automated 

Simulations 

1043 Kiel Ct. 

Sunnyvale. CA 9408ti 
(408| 745-0700 
List Price: S19.95 

Requires: 04K. color/graphics adapter, 
one disk drive 
Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One (but group 
play is fun) 

Upper Reaches of Apshai is an expansion 
kit for 'i empie of Apshai. Possession of the 
S39.95 Temple of Apshai is a prerequisite 
to making use of the $19.95 Upper Reaches 
of Apshai. 'I’einpie of Apshai offers four 
sword and sorcerv' adventures in the ruins 
of the immense underground temple of a 
cull destroyed in an earthquake. Upper 
Reaches of Apshai adds four new’ adven- 
tures that assume that the great quest of 
the temple is done, its treasure pillaged, 
and Its monsters defeated. 

The adventurers who defeated the 
7emp/e of Apshai are gone. dead, or re- 
turned to far-off homes with newfound 
fortunes. The locals, according to the pro- 
logue. are talking about life getting back to 
normal. But what of the adventurous late- 
comer who is too late to find fame or for- 
tune but is in need of money to pay for the 
passage home? In Upper Reaches of Ap- 
shai. work around the neighborhood holds 
the possibility of finding lost or forgotten 
treasures in the vegetable garden, in the 
magical home of Merlis the Mage, or in 
the basement of Olias (the thieving dwarf). 

Upper Reaches of Apshai reminds us 
that fame and fortune can sometimes be 
found in our own backyards: that settling 
down to a mundane existence doesn’t 
mean giving up the pursuit of our dreams. 
Its appeal is broader than 'lemple of Ap- 
shai. and it attracts people who might not 
enjoy other adventures. 

Level one. “The Innkeeper’s Back- 
yard." is a much better introduction to 
Dunjonqiiests than level one of 7'emple of 


Apsliai. The monsters are not quite as 
deadly (except forthe killer tomatoes) and 
the maze should be negotiable by elemen- 
lar\ school children, including some sec- 
onil- and third-graders. 

Ease of Use 

Upper Reaches of Apshai operates al- 
most identically to 7’emp/e of Apshai. The 
documentation and packaging are similar 
also, and its graphics are of the same qual- 
ity. Even the command structure is identi- 
cal. 'I’he monsters and the care with which 
one has to move around the neighborhood 
are decidedly different, however. One 
faces field mice, garden snakes, giant 
[)umpkins. rabid dogs, and other sul)urban 
dangers. 

Should you kill Merlis’s cats and risk 
having Merlis get angiy with you. or 
should you tn,’ to sweet talk them into let- 
ting you pass unmolested? Can you make 
your way through Benedic's Monaster\’ 
without disturbing the monks or their per- 
sonal possessions? How do you kill a killer 
tomato? These are the questions of Upf)er 
Reaches of Apshai. Your answers will de- 
termine whether you will find the money 
you need to get home. 

There is money to be made (and found), 
magic to be discovered, and adventure to 
be had doing odd jobs around town. One 
also finds flies, creeping crud. and a great 
deal of worthless garbage. 

Upper Reaches of Apshai is better than 


J. J.OW DO YOU 
kill a killer tomato? 

'I’empie of Apshai in some ways. This fan- 
tas\- holds a great deal of reality: The mon- 
sters come out of real-life suburbia where 
tomato gardens kill budgets, dogs bite kids, 
garden snakes and field mice terrify moth- 
ers. pumpkins are the consummate sv mbol 
of Halloween horror, and little girls and 
boys find adventure in the backyard. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

Since Upper Reaches of Apshai is real- 
ly an expansion kit for 7empie of Apshai. it 
pi'rforms In much the same way. Errone- 
ous keystrokes are indicated and the game 
accurately and consistently delivers all it 


promises. 

Damaged disks are replaced free of 
charge by the manufacturer within 30 days 
of purchase. After that time, replacement 
disks cost $5. 

For owners and enjoyers of 7'einpie of 
.Apshai. Upper Reaches of Apshai will be 
just as much fun. if only to retrieve some of 
the stuff Olias the Dwarf has stolen from 
them in past adventures. 

POLYCUBE 

Linear Aesthetic Systems 
RO. Box 23 

West Cornwall. CT 1)6796 
(203) 672-6360 
List Price: $26.95 

Requires: 64K, color monitor, one disk 
drive 

Age-group: 9 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

How many [)eople have a Rubik s Cube 
sitting around the house gathering dust 
since they gave up on ever solving the 
beast? Plenty of books offer ways to solve 
the cube and hordes of sixth-graders can 
descramble it in minutes, but thousands of 
others s[)end lonely nights twisting the 
faces of their cubes in frustration. 

Nonetheless, the arrival of Poiycube. 
an "ultimate cube" puzzle developed ex- 
clusively for the IBM PC by Linear Ad- 
vanced Systems, is exciting. Poiycube is a 
flexible graphic simulation of Rubik's 
Cube that allows the manipulation of any 
of seven levels of the cube on the color 
screen of the PC. The levels of simulation 
are identified by the number of cubes 
stretching across each edge of the cube. 
They range from 1x1x1 cube, for people 
who shouldn’t be allowed to randomize 
cubes except for the entertainment of oth- 
ers. to a 7x7x7 cube that would challenge 
Rubik himself. 

My excitement with Poiv’cube started 
when I heard that the program promised 
an unscramble command that looked like 
the answer to the dreams of players whose 
cubes are hopelessly randomized. And 
with its seven levels, it promises new chal- 
lenges once the original is figured out. 

Ease of Use 

The user should read the manual be- 
fore getting started. Although it is only 
four pages, it is adequate for the program. 
Don t be surprised to d iscover that the best 


PC MAGAZINE 163 DECEMBER 1982 



HowtonseetmiiHiters to 
teadunath! 

COMPUTERS IN 
MATHEMATICS: 

A SOURCE BOOK OF IDEAS 

Now that more and more math departments have access to a micro- 
computer, the problem becomes: How to use the computer effec- 
tively as a teaching aid? 

Here's where COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS can help you. 
This 224-page book of reprints from Creative Computing magazine 
is a goldmine of learning ideas, problem-solving strategies, program- 
ming hints, puzzles, brain teasers, and much more! 

COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS covers nine subject areas, 

• Computer literacy and computers 
in society 

• Thinking strategies and how to 
solve problems 

• Computer simulations and how to 
write them, 

• Probability 

• Mathematical miscellany, from 
cucular functions to differential 
equations. 

• Art and graphics and theu relation 
to mathematics. 

• Computer Assisted Instruction 
(CAD. 

• Programming style. 

• Puzzles, problems and program- 
ming ideas. 

In all, COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS contains 77 fascinating 
articles, over 200 problems for assignment, and nearly 100 programs 
Edited and with a preface by David H Ahl, Editor-in-Chief of 
Creative Computing, this immensely practical volume is an invalu- 
able classroom tool for teachers and students of all grades. 

USE THE COUPON TO ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY! 

Depl. NBIX. 39 East Hanover Avenue 

I C*l<«ciblV<* GOlfcp^IulIeQ Morris Plains, New lersey 07950 

I Please send me copies of COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS 

j A Sourcebook of Ideas, at $15 95, plus $2 00 postage & handling,* each stl2D 
I CHECK ONE: □ Payment enclosed $ (NJ residents add 5% sales lax ) 


□ Charge my: □ American Express □ MasterCard □ Visa 













(please print full name) 





*A1I foreign orders (exo^i Canada and Mexico) add $3 
to postage and handling shown Shipped an mail only 

Purchase orders under 
S50 not accepted 


For faster service, call TOLL FREE 800-631-8112. (In NJ call 201-540 0445.) 



hundreds of black-and-white 
diagrams and ilustrations. 


thing about PoJycube is its fascinating 
graphics. When displayed on a color mon- 
itor. Poiycube becomes a thing of beauty. 
The color differences don't come across 
clearly enough on a black and white (or 
black and green) monitor. The display, 
however, is still effective in the absence of 
color. 

A beautiful display does not necessar- 
ily lead to a program that will be of general 
interest. Such is the case with Polycube. 
Although its cover promises both scramble 
and unscramble modes, the unscramble 
mode is somewhat primitive, interesting 
only as a party entertainment or as a dem- 
onstration of the color graphics capability 
of the PC. It will not take a pattern and 
figure out a solution as some computerized 
cube simulations do. It simply reverses the 
moves that were made to scramble the 
cube. 

Ease of Use 

Polycube is easy to use. The commands 
are simple and functional and should be 
easy to master quickly. It is so uncompli- 
cated that it is difficult to make an error in 
play. 

If anything goes wrong with the disk 
within 90 days of purchase, the manufac- 
turer will replace it. The warranty does 
not hold, however, if the disk is damaged 
by the user. 

General Appeal 

For people who don't understand the 
workings of cubes. Polycube will probably 
be very unsatisfying except as party enter- 
tainment. As the program randomizes 
cubes, it creates beautiful patterns. Be- 
cause the program is written in accessible 
BASIC code, it should be easily modifi- 
able to randomize a cube continuously. 

Cube freaks will find the seven levels 
of Polycube fascinating, however, and 
might wear out parts of their keyboards 
attempting to solve the 5x5x5. 6x6x6, and 
7x7x7 randomized cubes that the program 
can display. /PC 


Davis Foulger is a New Canaan. Connecti- 
cut-based consultant who specializes in 
microcomputer and telecommunications 
applications. He publishes COMmodem. 
an on-line newsletter about microcom- 
munications. electronic mail, and on-line 
information services that appears on 
CompuServe. 


PC MAGAZINE 164 DECEMBER 1982 


GAMES/STEVE LEIBSON 


Space Wars And 
Earth Games 

An eclectic collection of adventure and entertainment 
for home or extraterrestrial enjoyment: Space 
Guardian, Zork II, Championship Blackjack, Bridge 
Tutor, and GroundUp! 


V 



Omric Corporalion 
1268 Main St. »207 
Newington. CT 06111 
(203) 666-4240 
List Price: $29.95 

Requires: 64K. 80-column monitor. 

one disk drive 
Age-group: 10 to adult 
Number of Players: One 




The game Star 'I'rek was introduced in the 
early 1970s and quickly became popular. 
Since then it has been rewritten to run on 
almost every microcomputer. Omric's 
Space Guardian is a good version of this 
game for the PC. 

Space Guardian is played on a field 
representing the galaxy. The field is divid- 
ed into 64 quadrants arranged in an 8x8 
grid, with each quadrant further divided 
into 64 sectors. Each playing piece— in- 
cluding the player's starship, alien ships, 
stars, and star bases— occupies one sector. 
The object of the game is to travel around 
the galaxy in the starship looking for in- 
vading alien ships. The weapons are pho- 
ton torpedoes and phasers. Every time the 
starship is moved, playing time is ad- 
vanced. To win the player must obliterate 
all the aliens before time runs out. 


The ten special function keys issue 
commands, and they are also used for 
navigation, weapons firing, shield control, 
damage reporting, and map displays. Also 


JLHE COMPUTER 
becomes the player's 
alter ego. 

included is a hyperspace drive, a sort of 
wild-card command whose results are un- 
predictable. as well as a command to set 
the level of difficulty and a resignation 
command. 

One feature missing from Space 


Guardian, as from earlier implementa- 
tions of Star Trek, is computer assistance 
for navigation and torpedo aiming (the 
phasers target automatically). This missing 
feature, coupled with less than adequate 
abbreviations for the function keys, makes 
it difficult to play the game without con- 
sulting the manual. 

The manual is typeset and has a flashy 
cover. The 22 pages are eas\' to digest, and 
a section on troubleshooting is included. 
The commands are clearly listed and ex- 
plained. but no hints about approaches or 
strategy are included. 

Space Guardian is played on an 80-col- 
umn display. The game uses no line graph- 
ics but makes good use of characters. The 
screen is split into four areas— short-range 
scan, long-range scan, ship status, and a 
command-entr>' area— that are automati- 


PC MAGAZINE 165 DECEMBER 1982 




$ Affordable Software, Inc. 






P 0 Bo« 6119S Sunnyvale. CA 94088/All prices include shipping./CA residents add saies tax. /Dealer inquiries invited 




IBM Pascal or Fortran Programmers: The Forms Tht* Forms 
Designer can save you valuable time In writing your Dosignor 
applications programs. The Forms Editor allows you 
to edit text, draw/erase lines, and define fields. The 
run time subroutines allow you to access forms or 




retrieve keyboard entries. The data entry program 
allows you to test your forms design or retrieve data 
sequentially Pascal, 128K 

The Forms Designer $275.00 

Manual & Demonstration Only $ 35.00 




The Forms Designer is a trademark of Bit Software. 




Mail Route is your best buy for a mailing list 
package. With the Mailing List program, you can 
enter names, addresses and phone numbers In 
free form, just as you would on envelopes. 

You can customize your mail list with special 
code field entries for each address. Corrections, 
additions and deletions are very easy and keep 
your list current. Search and Sort routines are 


Merge List provide routines to use most standard 
parallel or serial printers. Requires DOS 1.1 and 64K. 



$75.00 


provided so that you get only the entries you want, 
in the order you want. Print routines are provided for 
the printing of master lists, labels or envelopes. Merge 
List creates personalized form letters using Mailing List 
files and text files created with Easy Writer or DOS files 
such as ones created with EDLIN. Both Mailing List and 


MAIL ROUTE - Both disks, with extensive 
documentation and 
tutorials 

MAILING LIST-Disk, documentation and 

tutorial $45.00 

MERGE LIST -Disk, documentation and 

tutorial $45.00 

IBM authorized distributor address list — current as 
of September 1982, to get your advertising to the 


right people. Over 400 names and addresses. $35.00 




Mail Route is a trademark of Nehring Associates. 







funumre'’ 

5H f.S., ^ 



Funware is a trademark of Affordable Software Inc. Games require DOS. 64K. and monochrome screen unless otherwise specified. 
(408) 997-3469 


tr 


:{c Funware Game Package I Music Editor 

Be a maestro at your computer keyboard and 
compose your own songs. You specify the note, 
length, tempo, key and octave, then edit your song 
by changing, inserting or removing notes. You can 
even merge two songs. Songs may be saved to build 
your own music library. From DATAMAN 

$20.00 






Funware Game Package 3 Mastermind / Minefield 

Logic puzzles for ages 7-adult. With Mastermind, 
you challenge the computer by deducing which four 
of the six possible symbols the computer has chosen 
and in what order the symbols are arranged. In 
Minefield, you try to cross the computer's minefield 
without hitting a mine. The computer takes heart, 
though, and tells you the number of mines in the 
surrounding spaces, but not where they are. 32K 
color or b/w. From Nehring Associates $20.00 




Funware Game Package 2 Horse Race / Hangman 

Enjoy a day at the track without spending money 
with Horse Race, an animated game with music. 
Learn about the odds, betting and payoff. Hangman 
is an animated computerized version of the word 
guessing favorite. Included are ten libraries of words 
or create your own. A fun, educational experience 
for all. From DATAMAN j20 00 


€ 




Funware Game Package 4 Super-Trek 

The old crew is there but the ship has really 
changed! Super-Trek Is a fun but difficult-to-master 
computer game, greatly expanded in features 
beyond earlier Trek Programs. Command your 
Starship throughout the galaxy and destroy the evil 
forces bent upon the destruction of the Federation. 
Super-Trek comes with the Commander's Guide to 
Operations. Color or b/w screens. 

From Nehring Associates $35.00 




3 


C 


Christmas Special — The above 3 Funware Game Packages $45.00 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. EasyWriter is a trademark of Information Unlimited Software. 



cally uptJated afler each command. Torpe- 
does are tracked on the short-range scan, 
and the phasers are audibly fired. Al- 
though its graphics are not arcade level, 
the game is visually entertaining. 

Space Guardian is about as accurate as 
Star 7>ek. Torpedoes must be aimed very 
carefully to hit their marks. Phasers al- 
ways hit. but there is an accuracy problem: 
If the alien ship is very close, the con- 
densed energ>' of the impact will result in 
the player being credited with a bigger hit 
than is deserved. 

Error handling is excellent, Only valid 
entries are recognized, and only function 
keys can enter commands. If the wrong 
keys are struck, the computer responds 
with a beep. 

There is no warranty for Space Guard- 
ian. The game is sold as is, and the disk is 
copy protected. A registration card is in- 
cluded in the manual, but it offers no pro- 
tection to the purchaser and appears to 
have been included as a market research 
tool. No telephone number is listed. 

Space Guardian is a strateg>' game 
rather than an action game and probably 
will appeal to older players. Children 
younger than 10 might be bored with the 
lack of action compared to video games. 
As a strategy' game, however. Space 
Guardian will probably retain its appeal 
over time. It is one of the better versions of 
Star 7’rek. a game that, despite its many 
years on the market, is still enjoyable. 


ZORK II, THE WIZARD OF 
FROBOZZ 

Infocom 
55 Wheeler St. 

Cambridge, MA 02138 
(617) 492-1031 
List Price: $39.95 

Requires: 48K. one disk drive, (printer 
optional) 

Age-group: 10 to adult 
Number of Players: One (but a group 
will also have fun) 


Adventure games are the pinnacle of text- 
only computer games. Zork is a microcom- 
puter version of the original minicomputer 
game Adventure. Zork // is a new offering 
from Infocom. and it is truly a puzzler. 

In this game, as in other adventure 
games, the computer becomes the player s 
alter ego. It takes commands and reports 
what is happening in the make-believe 


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CIO 


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Computer Products Division 
1657 Red Mill 
Pittsburgh. PA 15241 


PC MAGAZINE 167 DECEMBER 1982 





Outside of money, our Real Estate In- 
vestment Program (R.E.I.P.) is the most 
valuable tool you can have at your com- 
mand in real estate. And that's true 
whether you are a beginning investor or a 
veteran. 

It provides you with the kind of informa- 
tion. guidance and analytical capabili- 
ties that help you decide which of two or 
more similar deals is the one to consider 
— what type of leverage may fit your 
situation best — whether a particular 
offering is a real opportunity or a dis- 
guised loser. In other words. R.E.I.P. is 
designed to give you the insight and 
expertise that was intuitive to the 
millionaires who founded huge real es- 
tate empires throughout history . . . 
before the time of the Apple II * or the 
IBM-PC 

With accurate analysis of a property's 
down payments, amortization, ex- 
penses. cash flow, tax consequences 
and other inter-related information, the 
knowing investor can make money in 
boom times or busts ... in inflation, de- 
flation or stagflation. And that's what 
R.E.I.P. is all about. It takes your input in a 
simple, logical and easy to enter way . . . 
probes for the necessary facts . . . scruti- 
nizes the data and then automatically 
shows you the possibilities. Thus, you 
can examine the data, digest the vari- 
ables. consider the potential payout 
against your personal goals and finan- 
cial situation . . and make a more in- 
formed decision, one not merely colored 
by emotion or someone's fast talk. 





For example. R.E.I.P. is menu operated 
(so you save time and effort) — R.E.I.P. 
provides immediate interactive error 
checking — R.E.I.P. supports the new- 
est real estate wrinkle, creative financ- 
ing — and R.E.I.P. allows you to define 
negative amortizations. 

Furthermore. R.E.I.P. is far ahead by 
having automatic report formatting . . . 
and by permitting multiple methods of 
income entry. Plus its reports are profes- 
sional. as they are based on established 
Real Estate industry practices, with all in- 
formation for an investment decision 
presented. 

So. if you are engaged in real estate in- 
vesting. or about to be. let R.E.I.P. work 
as your partner. It's the program for any 
Investor ... a must program for the 
sophisticated investor. Complete, on 
disk, with thorough, easy to follow docu- 
mentation. it's priced at only $1 29.95. 
Specify the Apple II or IBM-PC version, 
at your computer store or from: 



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While there are other real estate soft- 
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you'll agree they fail to be competitive 
with R.E.I.P. Even though others cost 
more. R.E.I.P. contains many more fea- 
tures and provides the sophistication 
needed to operate successfully in -Apple ii is a trademark of 
today's challenging market. Aix>ie computer, iik 



Copyrighted material 



world of the adventure. The challenge in 
Zork H is to explore the cave world cre- 
ated by the game's author, figure out the 
puzzles by using the clues and tools scat- 
tered about, steal as much booty as possi- 
ble. and escape from the cave. To further 
complicate matters, an addled wizard ap- 
pears from lime to time to torment the 
player with obstacles. 

Zork 1/ is a sophisticated adventure 
game. It recognizes many high-level com- 
mands. If the player finds a table with sev- 
eral objects on it. for example, and enters 
the command "Take all.” the game re- 
sponds by picking up all of the objects on 
the table. It also tries— and fails— to take 
the table, telling the player. “Nice try" or 
"No way.” The game tries hard to decipher 
what the player wants to do and is there- 
fore eas>’ to use. But because part of the 
game is to tiy to guess the right commands. 
Infocom has not made the task too easy. 

The manual for Zork // is a brief nine 
pages. It explains how to start the game, 
how to quit, how to talk to the computer, 
and how to save the player’s position on 
disk so the game can be resumed at a later 
time. Also included is a list of some of the 
more useful commands the player might 


ZlORK II IS 
a sophisticated 
adventure game. 

not think of, such as "Inventory” to list the 
objects the player is carrying. The manual 
is vague about the specifics of Zork U be- 
cause the real fun of an adventure game is 
figuring out how to play it. A quick-refer- 
ence card of commands rounds out the 
documentation package. 

Zork // employs no graphics; it is en- 
tirely a text game. At the top of the screen a 
status line tells the player’s position, the 
current score, and how many moves have 
been made. Beyond* that, the game might 
as well be played on a teletypewriter. 

The game tallies all positive and nega- 
tive point scores accurately. It also keeps 
an accurate count of player moves for rat- 
ing purposes. Errors are handled in a clev- 
er manner. If you press the Enter key with 
no command, the game responds with 
“Beg pardon?" Other responses to errors 


include “Interesting concept” and "Noth- 
ing happens.” There is nothing a player 
can enter that fazes Zork fl in the least. 

Infocom warranties the disk for 90 
days. If the disk fails within that period, it 
will be replaced free of charge; after 90 
days it costs $15. A postage-paid registra- 
tion card is included to activate the war- 
rant>’. This s>stem is less than perfect, 
however, because the disk is copy protect- 
ed and eventually will fail, probably after 
the warranty’ expires. 

Adventure games are highly appeal- 


ing-people spend hundreds of hours try'- 
ing to solve them. Zork // is especially fas- 
cinating because of its difficulty’: Objects 
must be combined in complex ways to gel 
anything done. That pesky wizard always 
pops up at the worst times to put a curse on 
the player. Zork f/'s appeal is just short of 
universal; the game is attractive to everv'- 
one but younger children, who tend to get 
frustrated by it. 

Zork // is a challenge. It is interesting, 
difficult, frustrating, and. most of all. en- 
joyable. For those who have plenty of time. 


^ 4/^0 




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minutes of hold-up at full power, about IS 
minutes at half rated load This instant 
power allows line power to return, or gives 
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PC MAGAZINE 169 DECEMBER 1982 




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CHAMPIONSHIP BLACKJACK 

PCsoftware 

4155 {dnvalarui Ave. 

San CA 92103 

List Price: S34.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Agc^group: 10 to adidl 
Number of Players: One to five (mlor|; 
one to six (monochrome| 

Blackjack is the only gambling ^ame in 
which the odds sometimes favor the play- 
er over the house. To win at blackjack, the 
player must use some kind of stratejg\-. 
Churnpionship Hiuck/cick for the PC is 
much more than a computerized version 
of the card game— it teaches two strategies 
for winning. One is simple to learn hut less 
effective: the other is more difficult hut 
can make a player a big money winner. 

In blackjack, the objective is to accu- 
midate cards that total 21 or less and to 
have a higher total than the dealer. If the 
player's total is higher, the dealer pays Si 


for even,’ $1 the player bets. Blackjack (an 
ace and a face card or 10) pays 3 to 2. Leav- 
ing things to chance, the odds are against 
the player. If a few basic rules are fol- 
lowed. however, the odds swing in the 
player’s favor. I le or she can use a simple 
strateg\- ba.sed on the cards showing or a 
more complex strateg\‘ based on a running 
count of the cards dealt. In either ca.se. 
(Jhumpionship Blackjack offers practice 
b)r that big run on the casino. 

The game is easy to use and can be 
played without referring to the manual. 
When the game starts, it asks whether the 
player wants to ii.se the computer's color or 
monochromt? screen. This is an important 
feature if both scn^ens are present, since 
IBM has not .supplied a good method of 
.switching between screens outside BA- 
SI(i. The color version accommodates up 
to five players and the monochrome al- 
lows U|) to six. The F9 function key is a 
help reipie.st anil is displayed at the top of 
the screen. The player asks for a hit In- 
typing II. stands by typing S. and doubles 
with [)- 


IBM 


COMPATIBLE 

BOARDS 


(.'hampjonshi/> Blackjack offers many 
options: The rules can be changed, lourna- 
rnenls played, and .slati.stics displayed. All 
of lhe.se functions are fully de.scribed in 
the manual, which is typeset and includes 
sam|)Ie .screen configuralion.s. 

Th(! graphics for this game are attrac- 
tive. They are almost as interesting on the 
monochromi* sr:reen as they are in color. A 
special version of (yhamj)inn.shi/) Black- 
jack is available for systems with color di.s- 
play ada))ters connected to black and 
while monitors. When the cards are shuf- 
fled. instead of printing the mes.sage 
■■(^ards are shuffling." the computer dis- 
|)lays the cards flipping acro.ss the screen 
accompanied by ap[>ropriate .shuffling 
.sound.s. The cards are .shown with both 
faces and back.s. 

(.'lia/npjonshfp Blackjack not only adds 
up the cards and keeps track of winnings 
and los.ses. it keeps game statistics and can 
conveniently display them. 'Fhe game also 
handles errors well. An incorrect entry- 
does not regi.ster: if the wrong key is used, 
the game simply beeps in response. |)a- 


BY 



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ONE YEAR WARRANTY 


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PC MAC.A/IN’F I7I D E C K M B E R 1982 


America’s number 1 discount software store. 

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Name Brand software categories include: 


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Medical Practice M.D./DDS 
Oil & Gas Accounting 
Project Planning/Scheduling 
Real Estate Accounting 
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Stock Market/Portfolios 
Taxes/Tax Preparers 
Utilities 

Word Processing 


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lienlly wailing for the player to stop fool- 
ing around and gel down to business. A bet 
cannot be taken back either, just like in a 
real casino. 

P(vSoft\vare extends a 90-day disk war- 
rant>” during that lime, a defective disk 
will be replaced free of charge. No posl- 
warranly replacement policy is men- 
tioned in the manual, nor is a phone num- 
ber 1 isled for customer service. A warranty- 
card is enclosed lo register the purchase. 

In.slead of providing just a game. 
PCsoftvvare has created a learning tool 
with a game built Into it. Players can learn 
either the basic technique for estimating 
the odds or lulian Braun's point-counting 
system for odds calculation. Chompion- 
ship Blackjack accommodates both inter- 
ests. as well as people who simply want to 
have fun. This game is a must for avid 
blackjack players. It is fun at parties and 
could pay for itself many times over at the 
casino tables. At the very least, it could 
prevent you from losing your shirt. 


BRIDGE TUTOR 

Computrickx 
533 Fifth SI. 

Santa Rosa. CA 95401 
(707) 544-8363 
List Price: $60 

Requires: 64K. color/gra[)hlcs adapter. 

one disk drive 
Age-group: Adult 
Number of Players: One 


Bridge is one of the more difficult card 
games. Bridge 7utor is not really a com- 
puter game, but a programmed aid for 
learning bridge. Such a program has a 
good deal of potential for making a com- 
plex game easier to learn. Unfortunately. 
Bridge'/utordoesnot succeed in this task. 

The program is completely menu driv- 
en. which should make it easy lo use but 
does not. All menus are simply labeled 
"Menu": at any given time, the player is 
unable lo tell at what level Bridge 'Tutor is 
functioning. There are minor irritants 
throughout the program, including stilted 
English and spelling errors, such as “ex- 
cept" instead of "expect" and "substract” 
instead of "subtract." 

An unwary’ student can easily move 
into deep water with an inappropriate 
menu selection and find the subject mat- 
ter too complex to deal with. Apparently, 
the only way to remedy this situation is lo 


PC MAGAZINE I7J DECEMBER 1982 


reset the computer. Incorrect answers to a 
question result in the question being asked 
over and over again. 

The eight-page typewritten manual is 
printed on plain white paper, with hand- 
drawn lines highlighting key sections. 
Some errors in the documentation have 
been corrected by hand. The adequate 
instructions explain how to start Bridge 
7’utor and how to use the tutorial and quiz 
generator. 

Although Bridge 7’utor requires the use 
of the IBM color/graphics adapter, it is pri- 
marily text-oriented. An illustrated begin- 
ner's introduction to bridge includes sim- 
ple graj)hics showing the playing table and 
how the cards are dealt. Except for this 
feature, how'ever. the screen is used as a 
listing device for text. 

This software package is strictly for the 
serious bridge student. It teaches the rules 
and bidding using the standard American 
approach. A quiz generator can be used to 
practice opening bids, the precision club 
system, and the scientific bidding system. 
Because Bridge 7’utor does not actually 
play a game of bridge but lets the player 
practice certain aspects of the game, its 
appeal is limited to those who are interest- 
ed in learning about the game or sharpen- 
ing their bridge skills. 

Bridge 7’utor covers a wide range of 
material, from how to shuffle and deal to 
sophisticated bidding systems. Unfortu- 
nately. the more advanced sections are 
woefully inadequate and. in some cases, 
quite inaccurate. Computrickx would 
have done belter to focus on presenting 
the fundamentals clearly and correctly. 

Bridge 7’utor handles errors fairly well, 
although it is possible, as noted earlier, to 
gel locked into a seemingly endless loop if 
the player does not know enough about 
bridge to answer a question. Because there 
seems to be no option to terminate the 
troublesome program section, the player 
must either continue to guess at the right 
answer or reset the computer. 

Bridge 7’utor has no warranty or regis- 
tration card. On the last page of the man- 
ual Computrickx absolves itself and its 
dealers of all responsibiliW for the prod- 
uct. Customer service is poor. The listed 
phone number is not for Computrickx. but 
for an organization that does not appear to 
know much about the product. 

Bridge 7’utor cannot be considered a 
computer game, but rather a learning and 
practice aid for bridge. Unfortunately, it 


does not successfully serve this purpose. 
For the money, the program should pro- 
vide the purchaser with much more. 


GROUNDUP! 

Direct. entertainment 
695-C S. Broadway 
Boulder. CO 80303 
(303) 494-8265 
List Price; $29.95 

Requires: 48K. color/graphics adapter. 

one disk drive, (joystick optional) 
Age-group: 6 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

At last a game for the PC that has real 
action! Because it is more difficult to write 
an action game for a computer, arcadelike 
games have been slow to appear. Ground- 
Up! is one of the first. 

The concept of the game is quite sim- 
ple: The screen displays a house and trees 
with a person and a dog in the foreground 
and mountains in the background. Various 
aircraft fly overhead. In the lower right- 
hand corner of the screen is a pillbox with 
a gun emplacement. The object is to shoot 
down as many of the aircraft as possible 
before the bomber aircraft can hit the pill- 
box. The player is permitted to have as 
many as three shots in the air at one time. 
The artillen," shells follow realistic trajec- 
tories and fall back to earth if they miss. 

The disk can be taken from its box. di- 
rectly loaded, and run. It is not necessaiy 
to place the PC-DOS or COMMAND- 
.COM files on the disk as is required for 
most other games. When the game starts, it 
enters a display mode. Each aircraft flies 
onto the screen accompanied by its sound 
effect. The point value for the aircraft is 
printed while the message “Strike any key 
to begin” is displayed. If the player waits a 
few seconds, the game enters a demon- 
stration mode and automatically fires at 
the overhead flyers. 

GroundUp! is played using the 8 and 2 
keys on the number pad for “up arrow" 
and “down arrow” respectively, with the 
Escape key serving as the firing button. 
This isn’t obvious from the screen display 
and is incorrectly explained on the in- 
struction sheet. A joystick plugged into a 
game adapter can also be used. The joy- 
stick controls the direction of the gun. and 
its button fires the gun. 

Groundup! is packaged in a hard vinyl 
cover that protects the disk and constitutes 


part of the documentation. The single- 
page instruction sheet is about the size of a 
diskette and explains how to start the 
game, arm the gun. and shoot. The lone 
strategN' hint is to shoot the bomber before 
it gets you. The scoring system is displayed 
on the screen. Although brief, the docu- 
mentation is adequate. 

Graphics are important in arcade-type 
games, and those used in GroundL/p! are 
ver\' effective. The high resolution of the 
PC's color/graphics adapter is put to good 
use— the expensive hardware proves well 
worth its price. 

Accuracy seems to be the major flaw in 
this game. When a sufficient number of 
moving objects are on the screen, the 
shells slow down and frequently miss. Al- 
though this might be viewed as an extra 
challenge, it becomes irritating. Also, the 
gun sometimes fires but no shell appears. 
The game treats this situation as though a 
shell were on the screen for the purpose of 
enforcing the three-shot maximum volley 
but not for scoring purposes. 

Error handling is excellent. Only the 


A T LAST A 

game for the PC that 
has real action! 

three keys used for the game are recog- 
nized. so you can't bomb the program with 
an incorrect entry. 

Direct. entertainment does not warran- 
ty the softw'are but will provide a replace- 
ment disk for $5 if the original ceases to 
function. 

Like most arcade games. GroundUp! 
has wide appeal. The three highest-scor- 
ing players’ names and scores are stored 
on the disk and displayed after every 
game, so it is easy to get hooked for hours 
trying to beat these scores. For those who 
have been itching to play an action game 
other than IBM's Donkey. GroundUp! is 
the answer. It is a simple game to learn but 
difficult to master. It will provide many 
hours of entertainment. /PC 

Steve Leibson is on eiecirical engineer 
who designs and writes about computers. 
He designs Computer-Aided-Design 
Workstations for the Cadnetics Corpora- 
tion in Boulder. Colorado. 


PC MAGAZINE 173 DECEMBER 1982 




GAMES/COREY SANDLER 


Fear And Learning 

A grab bag of video games that try to educate and 
entertain at the same time. 


WORD-SCORE 

NorFork Systems 
8 N. Fork Rd. 

Laurel Springs. N) 08021 
List Price: $29.95 

Requires; 64K. one disk drive, color 
graphics adapter. Advanced 
BASIC 

Age*group: 6 to adult 
Number of Players: One to four 


If you have ever played Hangmanand en- 
joyed it. you will love Word-Score. It is an 
electronic version of /fongmon with a 
number of inspired variations, including 
one that just might liven up parties after 
the kiddies have gone to bed. 

The game begins with a display of a 
well-drawn lynching platform, complete 
with gallows and a view of the jailhouse 
door. The bottom of the screen has the al- 
phabet and a row of dashes— one for each 
letter in the word that the player must 
guess. 

When a player enters a letter, it either 
replaces one of the dashes or a body part 
appears In the noose. The first letter 
guessed incorrectly draws an understand- 
ably worried face. Each incorrect entrv' is 
followed in succession by a torso, legs, 
arms, and finally, a hat. Accompanying 
this macabre guesswork are strains from 
the second movement of Chopin’s Piano 
Sonata U2, which every kid will recognize 
as the funeral march. 

Each letter the player chooses also dis- 
appears from the alphabet listing. If the 
letter is entered a second time, the pro- 
gram gently admonishes. "Tiy Again." 

Word-Score comes with four levels of 
vocabularN’: ‘‘Basic" for grades 1-3, "Ele- 
mentor)" for grades 4-6. "Graduate” for 
junior and senior high school students, 
and "Scholar” for college level players. 

Word-Score’s most useful option is its 



ability to accept as many as eight files of 
words that can be entered with the key- 
board. Words from a student’s spelling 
book, a technical dictionarv’. or a foreign 
language can be added to the files as a 
teaching device: or the player can invent 


J.HE MACABRE 
guesswork is 
accompanied by 
strains of Chopin's 
"Funeral March." 


an X-rated version— an ideal companion 
for "dirly-word” Scrabble enthusiasts. 

Ease of Use and Documentation 

The 12-page booklet provided with the 
game gives adequate instnictions for for- 
matting a disk and copying BASICA from 
PC-DOS and the Word-Score program 
onto a new disk. The program takes over at 
that point, flashing questions on the 
screen. 

Each player can turn the sound on or 
off and has the choice of playing the game 
with its prechosen word list, entering new 
words, listing words, or upKlating word 



files. Word-Score allows from one to four 
players to participate, each of whom may 
select a level of difficult)’. This is a useful 
feature when the whole family plays. 

Use of Graphics 

Images on the screen will not generate 
frenzied excitement, but the graphics are 
functional. There is no provision for the 
generation of a monochrome version. The 
picture and text, however, can be read 
with relative ease on a single-color moni- 
tor driven by the IBM graphics adapter. 

Players of all ages with an interest in 
improving verbal skills will find Word- 
Score a useful tool. The possibilities for 
educational use and challenging games 
are endless. The only limitation is that the 
words must be composed of only letters 
and between three and 12 letters in length. 

Accuracy, Error Handling, and 
Support 

When a random list was checked 
against a dictionaiy. ever)’ word was 
s[)elled correctly and each guess produced 
an appropriate response. 

If a player enters a number instead of a 
letter or uses a number of letters out of the 


PC MAGAZINE 174 DECEMBER 1<J82 



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Slaying 

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Be one of more than 16 million 
alter-egos that your computer can 
generate. Walk into a labyrinth 
filled with traps, treasures and 
monsters. There you'll test your 
strength, constitution, dexterity, 
intelligence . . . against thou- 
sands of monsters in over 200 
caverns and chambers — growing 
in wealth, power and experience as you progress 
through the four levels of the dungeon. 

Your character will do whatever you want him to do. 
Do battle — in real time — with the likes of giant ants, 
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maze and discover the great treasures within. 

The Game Manufacturer’s Association named The 
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••ATARI, TRS-80. APPLE and IBM 
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©1981.AaTOMATEDSlMGLATIONS, 
INC., P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, 
Ca.. 94040. 



I 





accepted ranj?e for addition to the word 
list, the program will ask for reentrs'. 

The program can be hung up by strik- 
ing one of the IBM's function keys instead 
of a letter. The player need only strike Esc 
to get out of this bind. 

Defective disks will be replaced free of 
charge within 90 days, upon return of the 
original disk to the manufacturer or any 
authorized dealer. 

Word-Score is an outstanding program 
that is both educational and sufficiently 
entertaining to maintain player interest. It 
merges learning and playing to create an 
excellent educational atmosphere. 


ADVENTURE (Microsoft) 

IBM Systems Products Division 
P.O. Box 1328 
Boca Raton, FL 33432 
List Price: $30 

Requires: 32K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 2 to adult 
Number of Players: One 

Do you remember the original Adventure 
game? Well, now it is available for the PC. 
IBM's Adventure is the direct descendant 
of Colossui Cav'e, a game written 10 years 
ago in unwieldy FORTRAN on a ponder- 
ous. cranky mainframe at MIT 

Adventure is neither flashy nor preten- 
tious. but it has affirmed its appeal 
through generations of players. The game 
is all words— no graphics or sound effects 
—but it has a fairly limited vocabulaiy. 
Adventure has become a classic because it 
does not tr>’ to overwhelm the player with 
bizarre effects, and it depends on a con- 
servative. well-engineered formula to 
maintain player interest. It should be no 
surprise that Adventure is the only true 
game marketed by IBM for the PC. 

The goal of Adventure is to enter Co- 
los.sal Cave, explore its more than 130 
rooms, and escape with as many of its 15 
treasures as possible. Magic words and 
puzzles need to be solved and various 
props along the way figure in the game, 
including a bird with a verv' special talent, 
a ferocious hut tameable bear, a lantern, a 
bottle, a set of keys, and natural resources. 
The player moves through the cave with 
directional commands such as north, 
south, up. down, and ascend and descend. 

The program accepts two-word com- 
mands. such as “take keys.” “light lamp,” 


or “free bear." If a player gets stuck— be- 
ginners are almost certain to end up in a 
maze or a room that seems to have no ex- 
it— the program will display, “I am pre- 
pared to offer you a hint, but it will cost you 
points." 

Points are accumulated by exploring 
the cave and by locating and transporting 
treasures back to the counting room. 
Points are lost by asking for help, quitting, 
accepting hints, or getting killed. 

Certain situations require independent 
thinking, but nothing that would strain a 
child or an attentive adult. One of the im- 
portant steps in the game involves crossing 
a chasm. The following display appears on 
the screen: "You are on one side of a large, 
deep chasm. A heav>’ while mist rising up 
from l>elow obscures all views of the far 
side. A southwest path leads away from 
the chasm into a winding corridor. A rick- 
ety wooden bridge vanishes into the mist. 
A sign posted on the bridge reads, ‘Stop! 
Pay Troll!’ A burly troll stands by the 
l)ri(lge and insists that you throw him a 
treasure before you may cross.” 

The player will find that the troll is a 
tough customer. Throw him your lunch 
and he will eat it. but throw him a Ming 
dynasty vase and he might drop it. Trv' a 
little violence, such as throwing an ax, and 
the following is likely to appear: "The troll 
deftly catches the ax. examines it carefully, 
and tosses it back, declaring. Good work- 
manship. but it’s not valuable enough.’ " 

Ease of Use 

Adv'enture comes with its own disk op- 
erating system. The backup procedure is 
carefully explained in the manual. IBM 
has designed this program so that it will 
allow the making of only one backup ver- 
sion: the copying process changes a code 
on both the original and the copy to pre- 
vent further duplication. (The program 
verifies the backup version before it shuts 
the door.) 

The IBM PC version of Adventure has 
a feature that holds a game in memory. 
This is a valuable feature if a player wants 
to stop before finishing the game. Reach- 
ing certain scoring levels in the cave may 
take hours. 

Adventure works well on a mono- 
chrome monitor, although the lines of 
large and medium-resolution characters 
are too close for some players’ vision. If a 
color monitor or television is attached to 


the PC. the program allows the player to 
choose both the background color and the 
color of the letters. 

Documentation and Packaging 

The instruction booklet provided with 
the disk is an excellent example of the dif- 
ference between documentation and a 
user manual. The 30-page booklet, com- 
plete with a color cover, is written in clear, 
nontechnical English. The manual also in- 
cludes an offer for a .series of hint sheets. 

General Appeal 

The reasons for Adventure's popularity' 
are as diverse as the players it attracts. Ad- 
venture cuts across age differences and 
appeals to both sexes. The game is much 
less violent than outer space shoot-em-ups 
except for .some nastiness involving an ax 
and a fiendish dwarf. More importantly. 
.Adventure forces the player to do some 
brainwork. The descendants of Adven- 
ture. such as Deadline, offer more sub- 
stantial vocabularies and complex plots, 
but still remain distant cousins and do not 
challenge Adventure's popularity'. 

Without buying a map or a book of 

A DVENTURE 

cuts across age 
differences and 
appeals to both sexes. 


hints, a neophyte will need 6 to 8 hours of 
exploration to reveal some of the hidden 
trea.sures. much less carry them out of the 
cave. The player may get frustrated, but 
not bored. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

The program s structure is practically 
bulletproof. It quickly rejects incorrect re- 
sponses and words that are not in its dic- 
tionary. The backup procedure also works 
as advertised. One copy only, please. 

One objection: Some of the words in 
the instruction manual are misspelled. 
The help message on the screen, for exam- 
ple. talks about “augery ” instead of "au- 
gur\’.“ and ‘witts’’ instead of “wits.” Is the 
IBM penchant for perfection slipping? 


PC MAGAZINE 179 DECEMBER 1982 



Warranty Support 

As with most IBM products, service on 
Adventure is professional. The company 
guarantees the disk to be free of defects 
under normal use for 90 days. The pro- 
gram is sold through IBM Product Centers 
and authorized dealers. 

Some games have better visuals; some 
beep and play amusing ditties; some even 
conduct conversations in complete sen- 
tences. But they all owe their allegiance, 
not to mention their electronic heritage, to 
Adventure. This hoaiy old classic should 
be included in any player’s collection of 
games for the IBM PC. There is nothing 
quite like an old adventure. 

WHIRLEE 

Microrad Associates. Inc. 

P.O. Box 1759 
Kingston, NY I24ni 
(9141 338-3306 
List Price: S35 

Requires: 64K. color/graphics adapter. 

one disk drive, game adapter 
Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One or two 

Microrad. the creator of Whiriee. claims 
that any similarity’ between PacMan and 
Whiriee is coincidental. Whiriee gobbles 
up brown Photon dots, chews on green 
flashing Pulsars, and guess what else? 
Whiriee is being pursued during all this 
munching by a vicious pack of red Chas- 
ers. except after eating a Pulsar, when the 
Chasers become vulnerable for a few mo- 
ments. 

All this takes place within the confines 
of a maze to the accompaniment of frenet- 
ic music and occasional blasts of the 
"Charge!" trill. 

The program Includes a unique feature 
that should become part of every- arcade- 
type game for the IBM PC. At the begin- 
ning of the game, the player is asked if a 
"joystick alignment" is necessary’. "IBM 
did not specify a standard polarity for joys- 
ticks." according to Frank Naccarato. one 
of Whirlee’s creators. "You could easily 
have joysticks respond backward to all 
your commands. ” 

By selecting the alignment command 
in Whir/ee. the player is able to tell the 
program which is top or bottom, left or 
right. The alignment need only be done 
once. If the joysticks are changed, the pre- 
vious alignment values are stored on the 


program di.sk. 

DOS must be copied onto Whir/ee’s 
program disk for use on the PC. I Isers who 
have DOS 1.0 have to type two separate 
commands to start the program: Whiriee 
and BASKjA Whiriee. The manual gives 
clear instructions to users of DOS 1.10 on 
how to .set up an AUTOEXEC file that will 
allow the program to start by itself. 

Use of Graphics 

The graphics are nothing spectacular, 
but they serve the purpose. The center of 
the monitor’s screen is taken up by a maze 
filled with brown dots. The green Pulsars 
are in the corners, w’hile the red Chasers 
burst out of their holding pen in the mid- 
dle when the game begins. The maze fills 
half the .screen, leaving a border on all 
sides. This is a smaller display field than 
that offered by PocMon. 

In the two-player version, both players 
simultaneously operate on the same 
screen: player B picks up the dots left over 
by player A. and their scores are taljulated 
separately. 

Whiriee is shaped like a spinning 
three-quarter circle, cutting through the 
maze like a buzz saw'. When Whiriee 
pauses to change direction, it looks .suspi- 
ciously like PacMan. zipping around cor- 
ners and gobbling up everything in sight. 

The programming that controls the 
Chasers is rather sophisticated. Immedi- 
ately after Whiriee eats a PuLsar. th(5 Chas- 
ers change from red to green and run 
away. Tht; effect wears off quickly, and the 
Chasers change color again and resume 
chasing Whiriee. 

If the player makes a wrong move or 
chases a solitary' dot across the screen, all 
four Chasers might pursue Whiriee at the 
same time. Two of the Chasers move at the 
Sijme .speed as Whiriee: one is faster and 
one is slower. Sometimes they split up and 
attack from different direction.s. 

Whiriee has three lives, plus an extra 
life if any player gets over 10.000 points. 
The current score for each player and the 
lop score recorded on the PC are dis- 
played on the screen. 

General Appeal 

PdcMon fever is contagious, and Whir- 
iee resembles PacMan enough to attract a 
similar following of both children and 
adults. One of the reasons for Whir/ee’s 
appeal is the music, which contributes to 
the game's frenetic pace. Each .se.ssion be- 


gins with the "Call to the Track" theme 
and each game begins with a trumpeting 
of the cavalry "Charge!” The race through 
the maze is (hme to the accompaniment of 
the chase mii.sic from the “William Tell 
Overture.” 

The game annoyingly .starts in the same 
po.sition each time Whiriee is reincarnat- 

AA^IIRLEE 

resembles PacMan 
enough to attract a 
similar following 
of both children 
and adults. 

ed after eating all the dots on the screen. 
The game would be more exciting If Whir- 
lee's .starting |)osillon were not (piite .so 
predictable. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

'Fhe program works as advertised, 
awarding 10 points for each Photon. 50 
points f(»r a Pulsar, and between 200 and 
1.600 points for each Chaser gobbled up 
during the "window of vulnerability." Bo- 
nus items range in value from 100 to 5.000 
points. Usually the game is .so fast-paced 
that the player has few chances to monitor 
the score. 

The only keyboard input occurs during 
the setu[). when the player can choose a 
one- or two-player game, turn the .sound 
on or off. or rerjuest a joystick alignment. 
The program ignores all characters except 
the function key.s. 

The joystick alignment requires a care- 
ful. light touch becau.se the wrong reading 
can be entered by allowing the joystick to 
move slightly when pushing the key. The 
alignment, however, can be changed easi- 
ly if entered incorrectly. 

If the game is not restarted by pre.ssing 
Enter or one of the buttons on the joystick, 
the program reverts to what appears to be 
an ordinary DOS A prompt. Typing RUN 
results in an "Out of Memory" mes.sage. 
The frrogram can be reloaded with the Ctrl 
Alt Del combination. 

The program is also designed for a col- 
or monitor or color TV. The game is ea.sier 
to follow if the player can tell when the 




('.hasers changn color. 

Playinj> Whir/oe on a monochromt* 
monitor drivon l)v a color/graphics adapt* 
or may enable the player to get a belter 
feeling h»r the game’s tempo. Microrad 
says the program will automatically switch 
fr(»m a monochrome display card to the 
color/graphics adapter if both are present 
in the P(^ 

Warranty Support 

The program comes with a 90-day war- 
ranty that promises to replace any defec- 
tive disks. Microrad includes a card for 
customers to forward their comments on 
the game. Microrad also includes a full- 
page license agreement, spelling out the 
legal terms and conditions for using Whir- 
iee. According to the manufacturer, the 
program is fidly copy protected. 

Whirling Right Along 

Frank Naccarato of Microrad says 
VVhirlee is the first of many products Mi- 
crorad intends to market for the IBM. 
Some of the routines retjuired for VVhiriee 
can also be used in other arcade-type 
games, he says. Microrad will concentrate 
on products for the IBM PC because of the 
market penetration that the PC is expected 
to have. ”VVe think it's going to become the 
premier machine." he siws. “For those 
who already have a PC. a modest sugges- 
tion: Pick up a copy of VVhiriee and the 
recpiired joysticks and game adapter, and 
install a third slot just to the left of the disk 
drives; then paste on a little sticker that 
reads. "25 cents per play." It s one way to 
pay for the machine. 


METEOR MATH 

Brauer Computer Support 
P.O. Box 8fifi34 
San Diego. CA 92138 
List Price: $39.95 

Requires: 64K. color/graphics adapter, 
one disk drive 

Age-group: Grades 1 through 6 
Number of Players: One 


In a recent cartoon a math teacher is 
standing at the front of a classroom point- 
ing to a long division problem on the 
blackboard. Row after row of students are 
seated before Space invaders video 
game.s. joysticks in hand. 

"Okay, class." the teacher sjiys. "shoot 
down the right answer." 


Improbable, right? Well. Brauer Com- 
puter Su|)porl has done its best to make 
fact and fiction .synonymous. Meteor 
.Math is billed as an educational computer 
game that makes learning math tables fun. 
The game mixes the flashing lights, colors, 
anil galactic cacophony of the video ar- 
cade with a measure of learning. 

The object of the game is to destroy the 
meteors that fill thi* screen. The player pi- 
lots a. spacecraft called "Radian Runner." 
armed with 50 long-range la.ser missiles. 
To launch the meteor-blasting lasers, the 
player must correctly answer math prob- 


lems within to .secomls of their appear- 
ance on the control panel. The meteor ac- 
tion on the screen, however, tends to 
overshadow the mathematical a.spects of 
the game. 

Use of Graphics 

First the flash. The graphics and sound 
(•ffects are first-rate, probably among the 
best [)rodiiced for the IBM PG After an- 
sw»*ring a few introductoiy questions 
(name, color or monochrome display, and 
.sound or .silent version|. the player 
chooses a math skill for testing. Selections 


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PC MAGAZINi; 18! f5 F. C F M B K R 198 2 



include addition, subtraction, multiplica* 
tion. division, and a random mix of all four 
operations. 

The screen clears after the player 
chooses a test skill and is redrawn as a 
view from the window of the Radian Run- 
ner. The ship goes into its take-off mode 
(with runway markings flashing into the 
window) and zooms into “hyperspace.” 

Directly in front of the player is the 
message display screen that gives readings 
of locations and indications ofthe fuel lev- 
els and missile supplies. Beneath the mes- 
sage screen is a picture of the Radian Run- 
ner and numbers 1 through 5. 

A meteor appears opposite the number 
5 and moves across to number 1. indicat- 
ing that a player has 5 seconds to answer 
the question. 

The number of meteors destroyed and 
lasers remaining is shown next to the mes- 
sage screen. The pilot’s (player's) name 
also appears beneath the message screen 
and a fuel gauge is in the lower right-hand 
corner. 

The left side of the screen has three 
information displays. One contains a 
quadrant number, which is of no particu- 
lar importance because the player can get 
a reading on the progress of the game by 
looking at the number of missiles de- 
stroyed. The second display is a digital 
clock that counts the elapsed lime from the 
beginning of the "mission." 

The third display shows the real heart 
of the game— a small rectangle marked 
“calcs” that poses the mathematical prob- 
lems. The math problem display is a major 
fault in the game design. It is difficult 
enough to find the math problem with fuel 
gauges, missile counts, and deadly mete- 
ors v>’ing for the player's attention. This 
situation is further complicated by the po- 
sition of the calcs display on the screen 
—off to the side, rather than in the center 
where it would be seen more easily. The 
emphasis on arcade effects and the loca- 
tion of the calcs display detract from the 
education potential of Meteor Moth. 

Ease of Use 

As an example of the problem-solving 
challenge, the calcs display might ask. 
“8*3=?" If the player types in the answer 
before a meteor reaches the ship, a laser 
beam arcs out and blasts the rock to smith- 
ereens. If the player waits too long, a 
"wingman" comes to the rescue, but no 
points are awarded. If the question is an- 


swered incorrectly, the player gets a .sec- 
ond chance, two incorrect answers and the 
screen display changes to show the win- 
dows of the ship covered by a "meteor 
.screen." If the player can ignore the daz- 
zling graphics for a moment, the correct 
answer appears briefly on the message 
board. 

Each double-error reduces the player's 
fuel supply by one-fifth. After five such 
mistakes, the spaceship must be. brought 
back to port. During the landing, the com- 
puter plays a complete refrain from 


IjESSONS 
should have equal 
billing with rockets 
and meteors. 

"When johnny Comes Marching Home.” 
The final display is of the "Mission 
Log." The player is told the number of me- 
teors destroyed, the number taken out by 
the wingman. and the total elapsed lime of 
the mis.sion. If any errors are made, both 
the question and the correct answer are 
displayed. The log can also suggest in 
which of the four math skills the player 
needs more training. If the player wants a 
performance record, the .screen displays 
an invitation for the player to press the 
PrtSc key for a copy of the log. The IBM PC 
command for printing the screen requires 
an upshift before the PrtSc key is pushed. 

Documentation 

For a product with such a fine on- 
.screen appearance, the documentation 
suffers by comparison. The game has no 
simple explanation on screen or in the .sin- 
gle sheet of in.structions that comes with 
the package. The manual also has a prob- 
lem with spelling. The instructions men- 
tion the "challange” of the game, declare 
that IBM is a "registrd" trademark, and 
say that the program requires a color or 
■‘monocrome" monitor. Perhaps they 
should have a spelling game as well. 

General Appeal 

In addition to the fact that the flashy 
graphics and arcade sounds are distract- 
ing. and that the calcs display is located in 
the peri|)hery. several other drawbacks 
limit Meteor Math's value as an aid for 


learning math 

One ol the dillicult ies concerns the u.se 
of sy mbols. Division questions are posed 
losing a slash symbol (/). as in 8/2=? Al- 
though computers use the slash in.stead of 
the traditional division symbol, not all stu- 
dents in grades 1 through 6 (the recom- 
mended age range for the program) will 
recognize or understand it. The program 
also asks 2*8 — ? for multiplication, instead 
of the standard 2x8=? 

Another problem involves the display 
form for answers to division problems. 
The player is alloled up to four spaces for 
the answer, which is fine for 8/4=? but 
when the que.stion is 8/7=? the answer 
and how to express it become more com- 
plicated, The program will not accept a 
fractional an.swerof 1 which is the way 
students are first taught division. Instead, 
the program insists on a decimal answer. 
So. 8/7 (which is. for the record. 
1.142857142857. . . is answered with 1.14. 
The answer to 5/3 is 1.66, not I'A. 

In most elementar>' schools, decimal 
math is introduced in the fifth grade, but 
teachers usually do not insist on abandon- 
ing fractions at that point. 

Accuracy and Error Handling 

The program works as advertised, al- 
though it does respond slowly to entries 
—enough to frustrate younger players. On 
two of the many test runs given the game, 
the meteor shield rose several times with- 
out waiting for an incorrect answer. The 
sound can be shut off. thus reducing some 
of the distraction. 

It was possible to hang up the program 
by entering letters instead of numbers, or 
by backspacing past prompts. The cure is 
to use the Escape key. although this is not 
mentioned on screen or in the documenta- 
tion. 

Warranty Support 

Brauer offers a 30-day limited warran- 
ty for the program that "if properly in- 
vStalled. operated, and stored, will perform 
substantially in accordance with the docu- 
mentation provided." No backup disk is 
provided in case of damage to the original. 

Educational computer games necessi- 
tate graphics and special effects that com- 
pliment the learning process. Lessons 
should have equal billing with rockets and 
meteors. Unfortunately. Meteor Math is 
heavy on the graphics and light (or at least 
dim) on the learning. /PC 


PC MAGAZINE 182 DECEMBER 1982 



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California's Silicon Valley may reign as 
(his country's most productive spawning 
ground of computer research and devel- 
opment. And lough, mostly young com- 
puter companies may feel compelled to 
scour the archipelagoes of the Pacific for 
cheap manufacturing sites in order to 
meet projected product demand. But with- 
out training grounds, the computer revolu- 
tion would be mired in strategy sessions 
In the cause of training the troops — or 


what has come to be known as computer 
literacy— college and university campuses 
are converting to computer bool camps 
No school has joined the crusade with 
more enthusiasm than Memphis State 
University in Tennessee, site of the recent- 
ly opened Computer Literacy Lab. 

In mid-lWI college computer courses 
more often than not either focused on pro- 
gramming or carried titles such as "Com- 
puters in Society." Neither approach was 


satisfactory. The first was designed for up 
and coming specialists apprentice 
macrowizards and robot designers The 
second appealed to anyone in need of ex- 
tra credits for graduation. Classes offering 
hands-on experience were rare: at Mem- 
phis Stale they were nonexistent. 

Like the microcomputer industry that 
created it, the problem of (raining users 
was new. It's still new. and solutions must 
be considered experimental. But after a 


PC MAGAZINE t$4 DECEMSES I9S1 



phis Stale wwren'l prepared lo write Jpriv 
penal. Who. ader all was the cuiuse 
supposed lo attract? Should Ihere be pre- 
requisites? How do you teach microcom- 
puting? Guidelines were scarce. 

Interested faculty members formed a 
committee and talked the plan over with 
local computer consultant Charles Bran- 
don Ilf. "Why not a course like this?" 
someone asked him. thrusting forth a syl- 
labus. But Brandon had already come up 


year, our experiments at Memphis State 
exhibit many satisfying signs of success. 

_ We’re well on the way in our pursuit of 
computer literacy— at least locally. 

We knew where we wanted to go even 
if we weren't sure how to get there. The 
plan required a laboratory, computers to 
slock it. faculty, the blessing of the admin- 
istration. and money. Bureaucracies, even 
. benign and enlightened ones, prefer pro- 
.. posals lo dreams. The dreamers at Mem- 


wiihaplan. - ■ V- 

He belched out a broad-based liberal 
arts approach that would introduce stu- 
dents to hardware, systems applications, 
organizational impact and related soci- 
etal issues. With his suggestions we wrote 
a concrete, comprehensive proposal. 

Brandon agreed lo join the University 
faculty for a year. For him it was a labor of 
love. He and an attorney friend, Frank 
Watson, raised $135,000 from local Indus- 



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try to romodd <md equip the hihorator>' 
and to support the course during its initial 
run. Most of the money came from the 
Federal Kxpress (Corporation. head(juar- 
tered in Memphis. In addition to its phil- 
anthropic motives, this nationwide deliv- 
er> service hoped to benefit from 
computer training for its employees. Sev- 
eral gifts came in anonymously. The Mem- 
phis-Plough Community Foundation, es- 
tablished by Abe Plough, the pharmaceu- 
ticals magnate, volunteered to administer 
contributions. 

The mad race to be operational by 
spring semester 1982 was <m. We met with 
the dean and the president to solicit their 
support. Someone talked to the director of 
the Memphis State University Foundation 
to make sure there was no c(jnflict be- 
tween fundraising efforts. University at- 
torneys drafted a contract with Mem|)his- 
Plough that would allow Memphis State to 
accept the gift of a laborator\’. We discov- 
ered that universities think 12 times before 
acce|)ting contributions of services and 
equipment. 


w 

discovered that 
universities think 12 
times before accepting 
contributions. 


Every- decision was Important and no 
details were trivial. The physical plant 
people had to approve the remodeling 
plans, and the j)lans themselves required a 
hundred amendments. How many sta- 
tions? How many students to a .station? 
How wide? How deej)? One shelf or two? 
What colors? How- much memoiy- for the 
computers? Which computers? One or two 
disk drives? How many printers? M(»- 
dems? 

Choosing Hardware 

Of all the questions our most [)ressing 
was. "Which computer?” We needed 20 
units. ii difficult order to fill for the brand 
new. if already burgeoning, industry. 
(Choosing the best make for our purposes 
was a shared but nonetheless enormous 


res[)onsibility. Four of the faculty mem- 
bers on the committee owned RadioShack 
Model 11s and were comfortably familiar 
with them. With (>4K RAM, 8-inch disk 
drives, and an array of com|)atible soft- 
ware. the Model 11 was an attractive con- 
tender. 

lust before decisirin time*, rumors of an 


impcMuling IBM microcomputer began 
circulating through the corridors. Within a 
few weeks IBM confirmed the rumors, but 
it could not [)r(»mise delivety of 2(t PCs 
during November, our delivery d«fadline. 
We heard that IBM had committed much 
of its [)roiluction to (aim|)Uterl..and. 'I'he 
('ompulerLanil of Memphis was j)repar- 


Computer Literacy for the People 

Now is (he (ime for all goad colleges to come to the aid of 
their students. 


"There’s a battle outside and it’s raging." 
Actually the battle for computer literacy 
rages inside, more often than not within 
the halls of academe. And it's more a 
.struggle than a battle. True, it's not t*xact- 
ly raging, but it is growing. So modify the 
motto: "There’s a struggle inside and it's 
growing." 

Many colleges have l)oasted com- 
puter science departments (or computer 
divisions of their math departments) for 
years. The introduction of personal com- 
puting. however, has stimulated demand 
for comjHiter instruction. Previously, 
computer science de[n»rlments trained 
programmers and provided assistance to 
nonspeciali.sts~in genetics, libraiy sci- 
ence. and history, for exam[>l«!— whose 
disciplines require at lea.sl .some facility 
with computers. 

As the number of a|)plications in- 
creases and micro hardware becomes 
more accessible, eveiyone from math- 
phobic humanities students to assi.stant 
managers of local .supermarkets is look- 
ing for a place to sign up. Some colleges 
such as Memphis Slate have adopted the 
.sensible, but at this early stage, still ex- 
perimental. lab approach to comi»uter 
literacy. Othtfrs have s(M goals that incur- 
porat«* more* ih.m one stratogv’. [)uke 
University provides an excellent exam- 
ple. 'rhe venerable Durham. North (Caro- 
lina in.stitution is charging forward on 
several fronts. During the past 2 ytuirs, it 
has implemented a campu.s-wide com- 
puter networking s\stem. initiated sum- 
mer computer camps. established a large 
computer lab, and intrrxluced micros to 
clerical levels of the university adminis- 
tation. The IBM PC figures prominently 
in all these applications. 

Duke re(|iiired a minimum of 100 mi- 


crocomputers that would not become ob- 
solete for at least 8 years. Its PC sp^jcs 
included H4K RAM. two floppy disk 
drives. Zenith monochrome monitors, 
the IKCSD p-System, color adapters, and 
asynchnmous adapters. The university 
decided on the IBM IHC due in part to an 
arrang<!tnent proposed by IBM. The cor- 
poration offered a break in the price for 
its PCs in exchange for Duke's commit- 
ment t(j create a users giiide/.student 
workbook, introducloiy course de.scrip- 
tion. and .syllabus. This joint ventur«* 
agreement is typical of IBM’s support of 
universities. 

DUCK Season 

Duke University initiated a computer 
youth camp during the .summer of 1981. 
rhe first courses, collectively referred to 
as 1)U(^K (Duke University (Computer 
Kamp). enrolled 23t> students. They 
cho.s<? from four 2-week re.sidentiid ses- 
sions and a l-vveek nonresidential .se.s- 
sion. Resident computer campers slaved 
in undergraduate dorms and shared 
meals in the cafeteria with university 
.students and faculty. Theyotiths were di- 
vided by age and experience into teams, 
each of which was assigned a camp in- 
.struuior. 

The academic staff included univer- 
.sity in.structors and local high .school 
math and .science teachers who adapted 
well to the materia) and were especially 
good with young people. The cam{)S 
maintained a one-to-six staffAstudent ra- 
tio for P(> lab perimis by relying on assi.s- 
tants. many of w horn were computer sci- 
ence majors from the university. 

Instructors taught general hardware 
and software principles as well as sci- 
ence. business. educali«>n. government. 


I‘t MA(.A/I\i; iS7 D i;c I-; M B t; R 19S2 


ing to open hut it wasn't ready to deliver 
such a sizable order. Unable to lay our 
hands on a real live IBM PC. not to men- 
tion 20. we opted for Radio Shack. Then 
another rumor drifted in from Arkansas: 
ComputerLand had opened a store in Lit- 
tle Rock and yes. it could deliver 20 IBM 
PCs during November. 

"Which will it be." we asked ourselves 
again. "Model II or the PC?” One was fa- 
miliar and trusted with reliable local ser- 
vice and ample software. The other was 


^^OLLEGE AND 
university campuses 
are converting to 
computer boot camps. 

completely new and unseen and came 
with only a modest retinue of software. 
Despite IBM's outstanding service record 
with mainframes, the availability of local 
servicing for the PC was untested. With 20 
computers in nearly constant use. servic- 
ing was a crucial consideration. Still. 
IBM's record carried some weight. And 
Charles Brandon predicted exponential 
growth in software for the PC. 

The PC's potential usefulness to our 
computer science program gave it the 
lead. It is a 16-bit machine at the begin- 
ning of its life cycle, as opposed to an 8-bil 
machine at its peak. Its capacity for expan- 
sion— an empty 8087 numerical processor 
socket and five expansion slots— made it 
more alluring. A cottage industry w’as al- 
ready beginning to produce components 
and software to extend the adaptability of 
the PC and IBM was talking about produc- 
ing a series of operating systems, including 
a version of UNIX. After assessing these 
considerations, we decided to go with the 
IBM. and none of us at Memphis Slate has 
regretted it. 

The Lab 

With the computer order placed, we 
shifted our attention to the Computer Lit- 
eracy Lab. There was still plenty of work to 
do. A separate air conditioner was in- 
stalled. not for the summer, but for winter. 
The University’s cooling system worked 
fine but its heating was overwhelming. 


The first antistatic carpet threw ‘/ 2 -inch- 
long sparks. Carpenters and electricians 
crawled ail over the walls and ceilings. 
Committee members struggled over 


course outlines and plans for lab sessions. 

Courses at the Computer Literacy Lab 
are open to the community as well as to 
full-time university students. An observer 


/cfinti/medl 

Instructors taught general hardware 
and software principles as well as sci- 
ence. business, education, government, 
and entertainment applications. The en- 
tertainment angle proved itself particu- 
larly u-seful as a teaching device. The 
course load was distributed over 17 
classroom lectures and 26 lab sessions. 
Guest speakers described applications in 
detail and field trips provided opportu- 
nities to observe the PC beast in its natu- 
ral habitat. Novice campers learned BA- 
SIC. intermediate students computeil in 
Pascal, and undergraduates used the 
UCSD p-System. 

In 1982 enrollment jumped to 600. 
The course emphasis shiftcjd to program- 
ming. The previous year's experience in - 
dicaled that the students were mo.st high- 
ly motivated by games, so the new 
DUCK sea.son stressed game creation 
rather than participation. At times in- 
structors had to reign in their charges, 
who. they discovered, pr«derred games 
to meals. 


Down the Road 

The year 1982 also marked the debut 
of Duke's two permanent computer 
teaching labs. Both have at least 40 IBM 
PCs and four or five printers. Instructors 
expect to minimize reliance on hard 
copy by recpiiring floppy disks for home- 
work assignments. Dr. Kevin Bowyer. as- 
sistant research professor in com[)Uter 
sciences, explains that disk assignments 
allow for better evaluation of students’ 
work and more realistic preparation for 
careers in business, government, sci- 
ence. or education, in which the impor- 
tance of hard copy is likely to diminish. 
Bowyer expects that handing out and re- 
ceiving class assignments electronically 
may become routine in the near future. 

To prepare for that day Duke has 
placed clu.sters <if five or six PCs at var- 
ious locations on campus, The IBM PC 
population at Duke now exceeds 189 
units, which inspires Dr. Bowyer and 
others to envision an extensive netvvork- 


ingsystem that would facilitate file trans- 
fers and homework distribution. 

The introduction of personal comput- 
ers has greatly enlarged the role of the 
computer science de|)artment at Duke 
University, The math and engineering 
(le[)artments have discovered the labs 
and frecjuently reserve them f(»r their 
own pur[)o.ses. Medical and technical 
personnel are interested in using the PC 
to monitor scientifically controlled ex- 
periments. Clerical staffers have broad- 
ened the university's technical support 
ba.se by engaging the PCs for word pro- 
cessing and other administrative pur- 
poses. 

Dr. Bowyer believ(is these applica- 
tions are just the beginning. He observes 
that many faculty members, administra- 
tive staffers, and students are unaware of 
the personal computer facilities avail- 
able to them or have otherwise not begun 
to exploit them fully. He expects that 
once the campus duscovers what the PC 
can do. it will generate greater demand 
on the network. In fact. Bowyer antici- 
pates that enrollment in the computer 
sciences will .soon reach 8(t percent of 
the student bod\-. 

The growing popularity of PCs at 
Duke and at other institutions has cre- 
ated at least one probhun for which a 
solution is nowhere in sight. If Duke 
needs 180 ci»pies of a particular copy- 
rightetl program, it mu.st buy 180 disks. 
Software manufacturers devise copy- 
right policies to protect themselves from 
the abu.ses of individual users, but the 
effect on institutional users with limited 
finances can be ver\' inhibiting, if not di- 
siustrous. 

By pre.ssing ahead in the struggle to 
a.ssure computer literacy to anyone who 
desires it. Duke University provides a 
model for other schools across the coun- 
try. The overall effect of tlie rush to es- 
tablish new microcomputer applications 
and literacy labs, camps, and courses is 
the democratization of computers in 
America. And that's what revolutions are 
all about. - Murguret Brooks 


PC MAGAZINE 188 DECEMBER 1982 



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stepping into a lab session could find busi* 
nessmen. housewives, professors, retired 
couples, and popular rock singers among 
the 24 students working in the carrels. 
They use their 3 hours a week to write 
simple programs; experiment with word 
processing, electronic spreadsheets, and 
data base packages; and extract informa- 
tion from public access data banks such as 
The Source. 

Many students were skittish at first. 
Now excitement and enthusiasm are more 
evident. A constant clamor fills the room. 
“Do you know how to fix titles on Visi- 
Coic?" “Can you help me? I can’t gel 
THDB (Tiny Hierarchical Data Base) to 
print out what I want.” "Come and see 
what this little program is putting on the 
screen!” 

The Course 

The Computer Literacy Course eases 
students in. Starting with “What Makes a 
Computer Compute?" it goes on to discuss 
the impact of computers on organizations 
and socieW. Technical subjects such as 
digital logic and the manufacture of sili- 
con chips are treated lightly. The lecturers 
cover other subjects, such as the gross ar- 
chitecture of a computer, with more care 
and attempt to make unfamiliar words (or 
unfamiliar contexts of familiar words) 
such as ossembier, compiier. interpreter, 
and operating system meaningful con- 
cepts to the students. 

We rely heavily on case studies as aids 
in learning applications. And because 
many of our enrollees are considering pur- 
chasing microcomputers for their homes 
and/or businesses, we discuss these appli- 
cations and study the life cycle of business 
computers. We culminate the course by 
studying such societal issues as privacy, 
the effects of computers on the labor force, 
and computer crime. 

Students spend as much time in the lab 
as in the classroom. In the first lab session 
they combined NAND and NOR gates 
into flip-flop circuits and half-adders. By 
midsemester they had embarked on 
course projects. They were required to 
produce their reports on a word processor 
and use at least one of the other software 
packages they had studied (or perhaps a 
program of their own). 

One student combined a voice synthe- 
sizer with an IBM PC to give lessons in 
French. Another produced and analyzed 
student surveys for an exercise class. One 


of the more unusual projects was a pro- 
gram to teach the Lord’s Prayer to deaf 
children. The most sophisticated was a 
load analysis program to determine cargo 
and fuel weights and placement for air- 
craft. 

The lab sessions are headed by Austin 
Smith with two assistants. For some appli- 
cations programs they relied on tutorials 
from the manuals. For others, we prepared 


JLHEIBMPCs 
valiantly withstood 
inexperienced use and 
abuse. 

our own detailed instructions. We as- 
signed regular graded lab assignments. 
After discovering that the original 3-hour 
lab sessions were too long (the last half- 
hour was usually unproductive), we ad- 
justed the format to two 90-minute ses- 
sions per week. This schedule is working 
well. 

Other Uses of the Lab 

This past summer we offered two 1- 
week computer day camps for junior high 
school students. In each. 30 seventh and 
eighth graders spent 3 hours in the lab ev- 
ery* weekday morning learning to program 
the IBM PCs in BASIC. We taught by ex- 
periment; the students were given brief 
instructions and encouraged to experi- 
ment for themselves. For example, an in- 
structor would ask them to fill the screen, 
draw a triangle, or build a Christmas tree 
using the commands Locate. Print, and 
For. .Next. By the end of the week the stu- 
dents were flying solo, making pictures on 
the screen and printer, designing games, 
and generally having a ball. 

In September we added a Seattle Com- 
puter memory board with an additional 
64K RAM (expandable to 256K and con- 
taining a serial port) to each PC. This al- 
lowed us to use IBM's Macroassembler for 
teaching a graduate level microcomputer 
programming course in the Literacy Lab. 
This course concerns itself with the orga- 
nization and assembly language program- 
ming of the IBM PC. Enrollment is re- 
stricted to 15 students, one per lab station. 


The Lab has been used by students of a 
finance class from the School of Business 
and by various elementary math classes. 
University' instructors with 200-studenl 
sections use the lab’s VisiCafc for record 
keeping. Marathon Saturday workshops 
entitled "The Personal Computer for 
Home and Office” are scheduled for fall 
and spring. Three-day training seminars 
for Federal Express managers are to be 
held once a month beginning in )anuary. 
The corporation will limit enrollment to 
15 participants, one for each computer. We 
are considering using the lab for beginning 
computer science courses. To this end. the 
department has acquired a Pascal compil- 
er. The possibilities seem endless. 

One Year Later 

We circulated a questionnaire the last 
day of class that confirmed student enthu- 
siasm for the course. “I’ve lost my fear of 
the computer/techno revolution,” one stu- 
dent remarked. *T now realize that com- 
puters are here to stay and I’ll devote my 
energies to using them instead of fighting 
them. Big change for me!" 

The IBM PCs valiantly withstood inex- 
perienced use and abuse. One even sur- 
vived the overflow of an air conditioner 
drain onto its keyboard. During 9 months 
of operation, we’ve had only a couple of 
minor disk problems and have replaced 
only three memory chips. Austin Smith 
has learned computer maintenance from 
IBM technicians. Equipped with a full kit 
of replacement parts, he has had little 
trouble keeping the equipment running. 

The Epson MX-80 printers, which are 
essentially the same as IBM printers, in- 
terface with no effort. Our supervisor's 
station contains a two-drive IBM PC with 
a Radio Shack Daisy Wheel 11 letter qual- 
ity printer attached. Again, interfacing 
these two pieces of equipment posed few 
problems. The Radio Shack direct-con- 
nect modems allow our PCs to communi- 
cate with other computers via telephone. 

Our first semester is over and the sec- 
ond is under way. We are pleased with the 
students and faculty and are proud of our 
Computer Literacy Lab. /PC 

Stan Franklin, Ph.D., is the Chairman of 
the Department of Mathematical Sci- 
ences at Memphis State University, Ten- 
nessee. A mathemotician by training, he 
has become addicted to personol comput- 
ing both at home and at work. 


PC MAGAZINE 190 DECEMBER 1982 





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EDUCATION/BARBARA HARVIE 


Sunmming, hiking, and programming — the latest way 
to combine learning and recreation during the summer. 

Computer Camps 


Computer camps can now be added to the 
already substantial list of well-inten- 
tioned strategies designed to lure the war\^ 
public into something resembling friend- 
ship with computers. 

The anxieties and fears aroused by be- 
ing away from home for the first time 
could hardly be evoked more appropriate- 
ly than in the still-intimidating and arcane 
world of microelectronics. Computer 
camps try to allay unnecessar>’ fears and 
offer a variety of courses ranging from how 
to move the cursor with confidence to pro- 
gramming sophisticated graphics and 
sound. There are camps for educators and 
profcjssionals— camps for ever>’one from 
reluctant adults to the most unflaggingly 
eager children. 

Before going to a camp, prospective 
participants should beware of buying 
what they don’t want, can’t understand, or 
don’t need. Faced with an array of nearly 
identical services and features, they 
would be wise to consider the following: 
languages. S()ecial curriculum, cost, ac- 
creditation. teacher-to-student ratio, com- 
puter-lo-student ratio, types of computers 
used, levels of experience and age groups, 
and s|)ecia! offerings. 

A Day at Camp 

A (lay at a Epical computer camp be- 
gins at 8 a.m. with a class in BASIC consist- 
ing of a 1-hour lecture on programming 
concepts followed by hands-on practice of 
the day’s lesson. Special projects in sound 
or graphics may also be included. For 
those new to computers, the first few 
classes are spent mastering general key- 
board functions and learning to play 
games. In the afternoon participants at- 
tend advanced classes in electronics, ro- 
botics. networking, or more programming 
languages. Free time may be spent work- 
ing on special projects, such as designing 


programs for a parent’s business or com- 
peting in a computer game tournament. 

This nearly complete day-and-night 
immersion in computer activities serves 
two ilistinct purposes. The first is to learn 
for the siike of learning— an endeavor that 
yields its own rewards. The second, more 
practical purpose is to give a head start, 
hence a competitive edge, to adults in the 
workplace and to children in school. Giv- 
en the ev'er-increasing importance of com- 
[)uter literacy, this head start is rapidly be- 
coming a major advantage. 

Languages 

Instruction in computer languages con- 
stitutes the major part of the curriculum at 
computer camps. BASIC seems to be the 
most popular, followed by Pascal. LOGO. 
PILOT. APL. FORTRAN, and assembly. 
Most camps also teach participants to pro- 
gram microcomputers and often specialize 
in specific languages. However, not all 
camps provide instruction in advanced 
programming languages— a limitation for 


participants who are already experienced 
programmers. 

All microcomputers can be pro- 
grammed with BASIC, which is usually 
the first language taught. After learning 
BASIC, participants can study any other 
language offered, according to their needs 
and interests. The IBM PC can use lan- 
guages such as BASIC. LOGO. Pascal. 
FORTRAN, and FORTH. LOGO and PI- 
LOT. both relatively new languages, are 
designed to teach young children pro- 
gramming concepts by using conventional 
English and straightforward graphics. 
Learning LOGO or PILOT first is some- 
times preferable for younger compulei ists. 

Special Curriculum 

The curriculum at some camps is spe- 
cifically designed to help teachers manage 
computer projects at their schools and to 
teach them innovative ways to use com- 
puters in the classroom. A few camps even 
offer vocational training in word process- 
ing and computer literacy. One camp in 



PC MAGAZINE 195 DECEMBER 1982 


TKANSFORM YOUR IBM® TOTALLY 

GRAPHICS + BUFFERING + TERMINAL 


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Computer — Printer 
Output Buffering 


• Buffer sizes software 
selectable 1 6K, 32K, 48K, 64K 

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• Buffers time consuming 
graphics reproduction as well 
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• Print speed no longer 
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Dot Matrix Graphics 
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• Full Color or BA/V tones 

• Uses any standard memory 
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• All Hires and Medium 
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• 4 dot scale sizes for 4 different 
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• Whole graphics screen, or any 
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• Picture rotation, across or 
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• 'Shift'-'PrtSc' feature to make 
snapshot copies at keyboard 
level 

• Inversion of color/BW for any 
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• Colors on Prism 132/80 can be 
swapped and mixed as desired 

• Compatible with: 

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NEC 8023 

C-ITOH PROWRITER I/ll 
OKIDATA 82, 83 with graphics 
IDS PRISM 132 80, with color and 
without color options 


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• Software permitting intelligent 
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• Usage of INT' call permits 
specific and easy user 
adaption of base emulator 
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• Queuing of incoming and 
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• Modular structure permits 
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Arizona that specializes in environmental 
issues allows participants to work on con- 
servation projects with computers. The 
University of Connecticut Health Center 
runs a camp for diabetic children that uses 
computer games and programs to teach 
them how to manage their health. This in- 
novative approach may be extended to in- 
clude children with other kinds of disabil- 
ities such as cerebral palsy and skeletal 
abnormalities. 


A FEW CAMPS 

offer vocational 
training in word 
processing and 
computer literacy. 


Cost 

The cost of attending a computer camp 
varies with the length of stay and the ex- 
tent of training. Prices range from $30 for a 
3-hour workshop to $1,000 for a week of 
instruction, food. lodging, and activities. 
The average cost per week is $400 to $450; 
however, some camp sessions last longer 
than 1 week. Most tuition costs cover room 
and board, but check with the camp direc- 
tors to see if there are any hidden costs 
such as fees for diskettes or recreational 
activities. Some camps offer scholarships 
to needy students, and local service clubs 
may also provide financial assistance. 

Accreditation 

Many computer camps are not accred- 
ited, usually because they are so new. You 
can check the credentials of a particular 
camp in several ways: Contact the Ameri- 
can Camping Association to find out if the 
camp is accredited. Ask the camp director 
about the staff members' credentials, and 
get an expert opinion on the camp's cur- 
riculum. 

Teacher-to-Student Ratio 

The teacher-to-student ratio should 
ideally be one to one. but this is seldom the 
case. Prospective participants should try 
to find a camp that offers individual atten- 
tion and small-group support. Find out if 


the camp allows participants to pursue 
personal interests such as graphics, game 
development, or music during free or 
scheduled time. 

Types of Computers Used 

Most camps provide hands-on experi- 
ence with a variety of microcomputers. 
However, if participants already own a 
PC. they should be sure that the program- 
ming instruction they receive will be com- 
patible with it. Although many camps do 
not use the IBM PC. growth in both the 
populariW of the PC and of computer 
camps will probably change that. 

Computer-to-Student Ratio 

To avoid the somewhat exaggerated 


scenario of queuing up the previous night 
to guarantee access to a computer, pro- 
spective participants should find out from 
the camp director how many computers 
will be available per student. While some 
camps can offer each student a computer, 
the usual ratio is one computer to every 
two campers. 

Experience Levels 

Some camps and workshops cater 
strictly to the novice, providing increased 
comfort and familiarity with computers. 
Others have prerequisites in programming 
ability and experience, and some may con- 
centrate on software development or on 
advanced topics such as robotics and elec- 
tronics. 


Selected List of Camps 

A sampling of summer computer camps for adults, educators, 
and children. 


One or two computer camps first appeared 
in These were followed by a phe- 
luimenal period of growth to over 50 
camps in 1982. The summer of 1983 will 
probably bring several hundred new 
camps, ami so far no directory' exists to 
keep track of them. To supplement this li.st 
of camps, check with local colleges and 
computer stores. Other good sources for 
finding camps are summer edition college 
catalogs and computer magazines. 

Computer camps and institutes are lo- 
cated primarily on the East and West 
coasts (which is likely to change by next 
summer) and are usually situated in or 
near college campuses. To really get away 
from it all you cun take computer classes in 
between scuba diving and water skiing 
lessons in exotic Club Med locations such 
as Sicily. Mexico, and the Bahamas. 

The camps includeil in this list were 
htdd during the summer of 1982 and the 
information about them was taken from 
their respective brochures. This list, al- 
though not comprehensive, offers a sam- 
pling of the types of camps available. It 
does not include an evaluation of camp 
services or programs. 

The list is divided into three sections: 
Adults, Educators, and Children. The 
cam[)s are listed geographically within 
each section. All available information on 
the categories of camp selection criteria 


(locution, cost, teacher-to-student ratio, 
compuler-to-stiident ratio, level of experi- 
ence. and other offerings) is included. Un- 
less otherwise indicated, all costs are per 
person, if any category is not li.sted. the 
[»ertinent information was not available. 

ADULTS 

Overseas 

CLUB MKI) 

•4(1 \V. 5th St. 

New York, NY l(l()l» 

|8n0| 528-31011 
Luxurious surroundings 
f.unguoge: BASIC 
Computer; Atari 

Locuf/ons; Sicily. Mexico. Bahamas 
Cost: $930 per week 
7’e«cher/stu(fenl rotio: 1 to 1-4 
Stu(i(?nt/coinputer ratio: 1 to 1-2 
K.\pt?rience/uge: Novice adults 
Olh(;r offerings: Tennis, yoga, water 
sports 

East Coast 

COMPUTER CAMPS INTERNATIONAL 
310 Hartford 'nirnpike 
V'ernon. CT 0(i06(i 
1203) 871-9227 

Weekend seminars for adults 
/.unguogtis; BASIC. Pascal 
Location: Moodus. Connecticut 


PC MAGAZINE 197 DECEMBER 1982 



Age Groups 

In general, summer computer camps 
were developed for children between the 
ages of 8 and 18. with the average age re< 
ported to be 12. One camp director re- 
marked that some computer whiz kids 
have already begun to work and have no 
time for camp: some have even organized 
their own companies. Some camps do not 
cater exclusively to children. The Family 
Computer Camp in Potsdam. New York, 
encourages entire families to learn about 
computers. Others, such as special teach- 
ers’ institutes and some Club Med facili- 
ties. are geared specifically for adults. 

Special Offerings 

Synthesized music and computer eth- 
ics are two of the special courses offered at 
certain computer camps. Others include 
courseware development and software 
evaluation designed specifically for edu- 
cators. Field trips, guest speakers from 
computer companies, and films also sup- 
plement the curriculum of many camps. 

Individual instruction and supervision 
are integral parts of any computer camp's 
program. Counselors can assist in teaching 
such traditional values as honesty and fair 
play by demonstrating their relevance to 
computing. "Thou shall not steal." updat- 
ed to a high-tech commandment, be- 
comes. "Thou shall not pirate thy neigh- 
bor’s program, sabotage thy neighbor's 
data files, nor access thy neighbor’s ac- 
count." 

One may legitimately ask whatever be- 
came of good, old-fashioned fun and 
games. Although some consider comput- 
ing full-time recreation, most camp direc- 
tors also encourage participants to indulge 
in traditional summer camp activities such 
as swimming, hiking, or tennis. 

Sending your child or yourself to com- 
puter camp can be a valuable investment. 
With the increasing use of personal com- 
puters and the need for computer literacy, 
computer camps will be springing up 
throughout the country, offering tradition- 
al modes of exercise and fun as well as 
helping to develop computer skills in a re- 
laxed atmosphere. /PC 


Barbara f/orvie isa free-iance writer who 
specializes in education. She also works 
for ComputerTown. a nationwide com- 
puter literacy pro/ect sponsored by the 
National Science Foundation. 


Cost: $299 per person, $549 per couple 

counting, financial forecasting, [uirchas- 

Fxperience/age; Novice aclull 
Other offerings: Word [)rocessing. ac- 

ing (H|uipinent 

counting, home iipplicalions, swimming, 
golf, tennis 

EDUCATORS 

FAMILY COMPUTER CAMP 
Conference and Information Center 

East Coast 

Clarkson College 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS 

Potsdam. NY 13676 

COLLEGE 

(3151 268-6647 

Summer Workshops 

One-week sessions for families 

525 W, 121st St, 

language; BASIC 
Location; Potsdam, New York 
Cost; S270-S300 (board not included) 
Kxperience/age; All levels and ages 
Other offerings; Word processing, 
graphics, home applications 

New York, NY 10027 
(212) 678-3740 

Languages; LOGO, BASIC, Pascal, Pilot 
Location; New York, New York 
Cost; $175-$295 
K.xperience/age; Novice adidt 
Other offerings; Software evaluation 

West Coast 

South 

COMPUTER CAMP FOR GROWN-UPS 

8 Benton Ct. #4 

NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND 

Tiburon. CA 94920 

MATHEMATICS 

(415)435-1310 

Summer Workshops 

Adult version of Computers for Kids 

P.O Box 24t8 

camp held during the year 

Durham. NC 27705 

Language; BASIC 

Two-week sessions for high school math 
and science teachers 

V 

Lunguag(!s; BASIC, Pascal 
Location; Durham, North Carolina 
Cost; $125 

JLOU CAN TAKE 

Kxperience.^’uge: Novice and intermedi- 
ate adults 

computer classes in 

between scuba diving 


and water skiing. 

Southwest 

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS 


EDB 458 LRC 

I.ocation; Marin County, California 

Austin, TX 78712 

Cost: $395 for 4 davs 

(5121 471-5211 

Kxperience/age: Novice adult 

Six-week. 3-credit course for teachers 

Other offerings: Word Processing, hot 

Language; BASIC 

tubbing, hiking, swimming 

Location: Austin, Texas 
Experience/age; Novice adults 

COMPUTER CAMP. INC 

Other offerings; Software evaluation. 

1235 Coast Village Rd., Ste G 
Santa Barbara. CA 93108 

purchasing advice 

(805) 969-7871 

Week-long computer camp for adults 
Language; BASIC 

Midwest 

Location; Santa Barbara, California 

MCGR-AW-HILL MICROCOMPUTER 

Cost; $600 per week for tuition 

CURRICULUM WORKSHOP FOR EDUCATORS 

Computers: Atari. Commodore. TI. 

(8(I0| 223-41 HO 

Apple 

Tvvo-dav workshops 

Experience/age: Novice adult 

Locations; Indiana, Michigan 

Other offerings: Word processing, ac- 

Cost; $225 for tuition 


PC MAGAZINE 198 DECEMBER 1982 


Kxfw.*rience/ogff: Novice iulults 
( )Jher offerings: Software and hardware 
evaluation, applications, funding. man> 
aging computer projects 


West Coast 

MICROCOMPUTERS IN EDUCATION 
105 School of Education 
Stanford University 
Stanford. (-A 94305 
'rhrtjt*- anti O-week sessions 
i.unguuges: BASIC. LOGO 
/.ocolion: Stanford. California 

COMPUTING CENTER 
Eastern Oregon Slate College 
La Grande. OR 97850 
(503)903-2171 

rhr<M»- to 5-day workshops for credit 
UNIVERSITY OF OREGON 
COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 
Eugene. OR 97403 
(503) tiBO-4408 

Eour and 8-week sessions for credit 


CHILDREN 

Various Locations 

ATARI COMPUTER CAMPS 
40 E. 3^th SI. 

New York. NY lot) 16 
(800) 847-4180 
Four-week sessions 

Locutions; California. Wisconsin. Penn- 
sylvania. North Carolina 
Cost: $1,590 per session 
Computer; Atari 

Computer/sfudent rotio: 1 to 1-2 
ExtM?rience/oge; 10-18 

COMPUTER CAMP. INC. 

1235 Coast Village Rd.. Ste. G 

Santa Barhara. CA 93108 

(805)‘Hi9-7871 

Two-week sessions 

Lunguuges: BASIC. Pascal 

/.ocutions: (California. Massachusetts. 

London 


Cost: $795 per session 
(..‘ornputers; Atari. TI. (>omm(Klore. 
Apple 

(>oniputer/student ratio; 1 to 2 
Experience/uge: All levels, ages 10-18 


East Coast 

NATIONAL COMPUTER CAMP 

P.O. Bt»x 624R 

Orange. CT (Mi477 

1203)795-3049 

( )ne-wet!k sessions 

/.ocutions: Connecticut. (Georgia 

Cost; $345 per week 

Computers; Wang. Apple. TRS-80 

Kxperience/uge; All levels, ages 10-18 

COMPUTER CAMPS INTERNATIONAL 
310 Hartford Turnpike 
Vernon. CT 06066 
(203)871-9227 
Two-week sessions 

/.unguuges: BASIC. Pascal. LOGO. APL. 
As.sembly 



i';r 


\m\i 

Mm mm mm 


PROFEEL COLOR MONITOR/TV 

• TfihittonA E mmy ,-mard wirminfi fur.luft* tiitx? #ilh lf>0% ot lh»} lir« 

IHictMK) Apor1ti(r> GriHe *44^ ot a ronvonlional I?" tutM* 

• Ft(^if)(wiscat)at)k;olaf.c»*|)tifxit)olhfJ(qit.tlan(Janalrx|'.KjnaKi(Mh«qti nfVjMion 
tiomo a>mpij|r!r virlf?r>ie)'. or irHnlox applicatiryi. plus vkIho and sloroo in[MA 

character riisf>lay 

• High lech rJylirxj with ‘Joek gunmot.il gray cat>ifwj| and hidiien rnnlrol i^met 

MODEL KX- 1211 HG 

Opitonal Proteel with Ml lealurc lemotr? conirol lor Hick ol iho switch 
VttF and UHf reception 

MODEL VTX- 1000 R 

TRINITRON COLOR MONITOR/TV 

Otf*rt moat of lh« umt high-quality loaiurM a« Profatl at an excaplional valua. 

• KGB^video inputs tor Ib PMiiani iite-like colors (with Atech miertacinrj module) 

• Built in TV reception with mlrated remote control 

• Output lacks tor stereo video recorder tape recorder and earphone use 

MODEL KV- 1223 R 

Before committing yourself to a color nHynltor system, make 
sure it can say “I DO." SONY. The one and only. 

^)'fi>kijo£lectioiiic8 

_ 222 Kavny Siraat. Sm Frandaco. CA M 10 S 41 S 3 M -1004 TWX 910^2249 

wme tor more ntormakon Deater mqunea wetoome 


• aw M ac M a 


The Marriage of IBM’. & SONY 


Do you, SONY, promise to love and to honor your IBM 
Personal Computer? — I do. 

Do you, SONY, promise (o provicfe fUck-ot-the-awHch 
Trinitron TV viewirtg. In sickness and In health? — I do. 
Do you, SONY, promise to deliver brilliant full color, till 
death do you part? —I do. 


PC MAGAZINE 199 DECEMBER 1982 


Copyrighted maf 'ial 




Free Yourself from Time Consumii^ 
Drudgery - Be More Productive 

"*'THE DATA REPORTER 


For People New to Computers . . . 

The DATA REPORTER puts the IBM PC at your command In the form of a 
powerful information marvigement tool. Manipulate your data quickly arKi 
easily without programming or computer knowledge. The Illustrated and 
irKlexed manual, with its numerous examples, shows you how to achieve 
results with the DATA REPORTER. The simple step-by-step customizing 
feature lets you convert the DATA REPORTER into an accounts receivable, 
bibliography, sales journal, appointment calendar, or whatever application 
you need, ifyou want to alter your program, the DATA REPORTER lets you 
rearrange or add rvew inforrr>ation to all RIes without retyping your records. 

Running the DATA REPORTER Is simplified by prompting ar>d 
sophisticated error avoidance techniques. Program options require only a 
keystrokes to perform functions such as printouts, sorts, searches of 
records, totalling, etc. The helpful Soundex locator will Rnd your records 
even if you do not know the proper spelling. When entering data, 
repetitive information and the current date may be entered with a single 
k^troke. Quick record entry is accomplished without long delays for disk 
access. Entering and updating Information is done in memory tl^ fastest 
wc^ possible with a microcomputer. 

The DATA REPORTER allows you to use the same information for 
mar^erlal reports, nrtailing labels, and a variety of information needs. 

and Experienced Database Users 

The DATA REPORTER is easy enough for beginners yet powerful and 
flexible enough for database professior>als. A unique combination of 
BASIC arxl nrwichirte language supplies speed in an unlimited variety of 
appHcations. 


DATA REPORTER FEATURES INCLUDE: 

• System requires 64K ar>d one disk drive. The program's power is 
enhanced if 96K or more and two disk drives are available. 

• This user-friendly program uses simple menus for all commands. 

• Each record can have up to 1 0 calculated fields. Subtotals and grand 
totals can be performed on any Reid. 

• Machine language searches and sorts are available on any Reid or a 
combination of fields. (Sort 300 on-line records in less than S seconds, 
search 300 records in less than I secor>d.) 

• Seven search types are available, including: range. Soutxlex, full Reid, 
substring, and their complements. 

• Sort data on up to 3 Reids. Up to 6 files of data can be sorted in one 
operation. 

• For repetitive tasks, batch sequences of up to 60 inputs can be saved 
and later performed with a single command. 

• File manipulation is simplified by global editing, file merging, file 
apperxling. ar>d block deletion of data. 

• Features such as file backups, reformatting of files without reentering 
data, mailing labels, fully copyable disks, optional password 
protection, and nr>any more make the DATA REPORTER the best data 
base value. 

To allow you to obtain the particular programs you need, the DATA 


REPORTER has two packages: 

DATA REPORTER - A complete database $250.00 

REPORT WRITER — An optional word processir^ utility for 

DATA REPORTER provides a variety of output formats using 

data reporter data In printed reports, form letters. 

pre-printed forms, etc $ 100.00 



Synergistic 

Software 


Synergistic Software 
830 N. Riverside Drive 
Suite 201, Renton, WA 980SS 
(206) 226-3216 

ORDER ONLY 1-800-426-6505 

WE ACCEPT CHECKS. MASTUCARO, VISA AND COJX ORDERS. S2.00 HANDUNC FU EXCEPT ON PREPAYS. 





at work or at home... 


TEXTRA 


IS THE FASTEST, EASIEST WAY 
TO ENTER TEXT INTO YOUR PC 


FINALLY! With its advent into the microcomputer market. IBM has pro- 

duced a machine with more advanced features than any of its 
predecessors Now. TEXTRA. the new full screen editor from 
Ann Arbor Software Associates, harnesses this power, mak- 
ing it remarkably easy to enter text into your PC 


POWERFUL. . . With copy, move and replace commands, sweeping changes 
can be made to your programs in seconds. A rich set of cursor 
movers and a flexible search commaird. along with user 
defined labels, makes movement through your text a hree/e! 

FULL 

FEATURED. . . Document prepamtion is a snap, with features like: Word 
wrap — User defined maryins— Auto indent — Line shifting — 
Line centering. And any part of a separate file can be merged 
with a few simple keystrokes. 


AND 

FRIENDLY. . . From the very first time you use TEXTRA. the helpful 
prompts will guide you quickly and efficiently through your 
editing sessions. Documerrtalion includes a lull tutorial as well 
as a thorough user's manual. 


EXCEPTIONALLY PRICED AT ONLY $70 

(A demonstration disk is available for $20) 


P.O. BOX 7;M5 
ANN ARBOR, MI 48107 
(313) 769-9088 


ANN ARBOR SOFTWARE- ASS<TCIATES 


Dealer inquiries welcome - Requires PCDOS and b4K memory - Michigan residents add 4‘^> sales tax 
TEXTRA will work with either a monochrome adaptor or any monitor connected to a color graphics adaptor 


TEXTRA- A Text Editor Plus! 



Give Unde 
Sam a run 

for your 

money. 


introducing 

TaxCut: 

The first total 
income tax 
system for 
your personal 
computer. 


Now you can fight back. 

With an IBM Personal Computer. . .and this 
sophisticated income tax system . . . you can tackle 
the Feds head-on. 

TaxCut was designed by tax experts. It gives you 
incredible tax planning and computational powers 
by allowing you to access and update the informa- 
tion all year long. 

You can calculate. Income average. Analyze. 

Even pro/ect. (Here's where it gets exciting... 
and profitable.) 

You can test hundreds of different tax planning 
alternatives. "How will an IRA affect my taxes?" 
"What are the tax benefits of buying more business 
equipment?" "Should I sell my house?" 

It's an invaluable tax tool. In fact, after all your 
data has been entered, it will even fill out the return 
for you. And it's capable of handling over 30 com- 
mon forms. 

The program has all the latest tax laws incorpo- 
rated and can be updated yearly. 


You get more than the Software. 

Included in the cost is a year's sub- 
scription to TaxTips.This monthly 
newsletter will keep you current 
with all the latest tax planning 
information. 

The cost is only $250, so 
order TaxCut now. Uncle Sam 
approves . . . it's deductible. 

To order or for information where to buy: 
Call toll free: 1-800-251-2320 
In Arizona: 1-800-972-7479 
Write: United Micro Systems, Inc. 

P.O. Box 3035 
100 N. Stone #1100 
Tucson, AZ 85702 
Visa/Mastercharge accepted 





TaxCul is a trademark of United Micro Systems, Irn. 


l.ncAHinns: ('<»nmH:ticnt. Wisconsin. 
I'oxas 

(JosC S7‘)5 por so.ssinn 
Conipu(f?r/sli«iont raP'o; 1 (o 1 
KxporioncH/ugo: all levels, ages 9- 17 

CHA.MPLAIN COLLEGE COMPUTER CAMP 
Ui31 S. Willard St. 

Hurlington. VT 05-102 

(H02I (i5«-0800 

'l\vo- and 4-vveHk sessions 

J.onguoges; BASIC. F(JRTRAN 

/.ocolion; Burlington. Vermont 

Cost; $325 p(?r week 

Crjmpiifer slini<?/it rulio: I to I 

Kxperience/age: 10 10 

( )t/ier offcTings; Qjmputer ethics, graph* 

ics. sailing, canoeing 

COMPUTER CAMP FOR CHtLOREN WITH 

DIABETES 

Pt-'diatrics D(?pt. 

1 hiiversity of Connecticut Health (Center 
Farmington. (’/I’ 00032 
( )ne*\\eek se.ssions 
/,ocofif)/i; Simsbury. Oninecticut 
Cost; $375 

COMPU TER INSTITITE 
C('N Computer Camp 
c/o International Education 
51 Spring St. 

Wal(?rtown. MA 02172 
|0l7|023-77(t7 

'I'liree-week day camp featuring h?ssons 

in s«weral languages. 

i.ocotfon; ('.hestnut Hill. Massachusetts 

(a)st; $-175 per s<;ssion 

Experience' (ig(;: Beginner to advanced. 

ages H 15 


Midwest 

COMPUCAMP 
7101 York Ave. South 
MintitNipolis. M\* 55435 
|(it5)»35-tK)(i4 

( )n»‘- or 2-week, or day se.ssions 

/a/tiguages; B.ASIC. Pascal. EtKX). 

machine language 

I j)cat i( in: .\ I i n lu *.s< )la 

(a)sf; $30)1 per wettk: $175 per day 

Experience/ uge; All hweks. ages 8-17 

LAKE FOREST COMPUTER CAMP 
bake Fm-est (adlege 
Shmulan and College Roads 
bake Forest. II, ti0045 
|3!2) 234-3 imt 
One-week .se.ssions 


/.ungudge; BASK} 

/.ocolion; Lake Forest. Illinois 
(a)s(; $350 per we(*k 
(Computer stiK/<;nl rotio; I to 2 
i'7xpericuicc'/oge; Beginner, ages 12-18 
Other offerings; Word proce.s.sing. 
graphics 


Southwest 

ARIZONA CO.MPUTER CAMP 
2940 Darca Dr. 

Prescott. AZ 80301 
|002I 445-3778 

()ru*-we<*k sessions on computer skills 
and c(»ns«'rvalion 
iatcdlion; Mingus Spring, Arizona 
(/ost; $245 per week 
Ex/»?rieiice/dge; .*\11 levtds. ages 8-15 
( )tln?r offerings: Swimming, fishing, ten- 
nis. environmental i.s.su»*s 


West Coast 

COMPl'TER TUTORS 
105 School (»f Education 
Stanford I hiivt'rsity 
Stanhtrd. CA 94305 
Unitpu? 5-week program 
/.dngudgtjs; BASK;. EOCO 
/.o<;<jIioo: Stanford. (California 
(ajst: $ 1,000 per .session 
(.'rjmputers; IBM PCb Ap[>l(x .Mari 
Ofhtfr fdferings; (Jrapfuc-s, field trips 
CO.MPUTERS FOR KIDS 
980 Magnolia Ave. 

I.arkspur. (2A, 94939 
14151401-7535 
/.diigudges: B.^SU;. I,<XK) 

/.ocdfion; Santa Ouz. California 
(Jost; $455 per week 
(Joniputer: Apple 

Kxtx.Tience dge; All levels, ages 7-t7 

TIMBERTECH COMPUTER CAMP 
1287 Eawrence Station Rd. 

Sunnyvale. (;a 94080 
14081745-1110 

Two-week .sessions in the woods 
/.dngudge.s; BASKE EOCO. Pa.scal. Pilot 
/.fjcution; Scotls X'alley. California 
(Jost; $895 j)er se.ssitm 
(auufjuter; Atari 

(ami/niter student rotio: 1 to 1-2 
ExprTience/Mge: All levtds, ages 9-17 
Other off(?rings; Craphics. electronics, 
riding, hiking 

-».//. 



5V4 flexible 
DISKETTES 
WITH HUB RING 

LIFETIME WARRANTY 
BLANK LABEL QUANTirv 

MO BOX n-50B0X 
S/S D/D 19.90/Box 19.00/Box 

D/S D/D 2B.00/BOX 26.00/Box 
(PoefcogM to OtskeftBs Per Bex) 

8' DISKETTES Also Available 

Sbb Below For AdJonol Oosli Disooonts 

COLOR MONITORS FOR 
IBM® ft APPLE® USERS 

TAXAN RGB vision ' $39900 


• RGB *16 001095 

• 12" 60 CHAR. 
•380 LINES H RES. 

• 1 YEAR WARRANTY 
A *90 DAY RILL 
_ EXCHANGE 



niiiiiiiiiiiiii I 

mK- 




• APPLE III CABLE $19.00 •IBM CABLE $19.00 
•APPLE II l/F CARD $129.00 

OTHER MODELS AVAILABLE 



SMITH CORONA TP-1 

DAISY 
WHEEL 
PRINTER 


$65000 

• 120 WORDS PER MINUTE 

• PARALLEL OR RS-232C/SERIAL (SPECIFY) 

• RJLL LETTER QUALITY 


DiSCOUIST 

SOFTWARE 

PRODUCTS 

Over 350 Vendors Represented 
MICRO et HOME COMFUTERS 

CP/M • IBM • Apple • Atori # TRSOOS • Commodore 
We speoaue m business scrfiwore ooa ccny 22 dlllereri tormols 
(types ol oomputeis the software will run on). 

SEND S2.00 FOR 72 PAGE CATALOG 

Terms and condlionsr (C O O Cashier's Check Only) 
CHECK • MONEY ORDER • WIRE TRANSFER 

Teios residenis add 5% Kb. 

PREPAY • 5% DISCOUNT 
Plus we pay the freight! 

F.O.B. Dallas - Siipmenr by UPS or customer choice (specify). 

To ordor call or writ#: 


=nTnRn,iNC/ 


DOMESTIC 


INTERNATIONAL 

P.O. BOX 28041 3 
DALLAS, TEXAS 75228 
214/669-1520 

SM* ti 0 regstered trodemoni of IBM Corporohon 


PC MAGAZINE 203 DECEMBER 1982 






A GIFT FOR IBM PC USERS 


TANDON TM 100-1 SSDD Floppy Disk Drive 160KB capacity $189 

TANDON TM 100-2 DSDD Floppy Disk Drive 320KB $249 

TANDON TM 100-4 $359 



MONITORS & PRINTERS 


BMC 12” green $89 

BMC 12” green (high res.) $149 

BMC 13” color monitor $289 

C.ITOH Prowriter parallel $499 

C.ITOH Prowriter serial $599 

C.ITOH Prowriter 

15” carriage.. Parallel $699 

FIO Daisywheel letter quality $1395 



MANNESMANN TALLY MT 160 
microcomputer printer. Dot 
Matrix printer, 160 CPS, 

Compact, Cost Effective, 


Built-in graphics. Save $200 

$799 

OKIDATA 




82A 

$459 

83A 

$730 

84AP 

$999 

84AS 

$1099 

EPSON 


MX 80 

$469 

MX 80 FT .. 

$525 

MX 100 ... 

$699 

AMDEK VIDEO MONITORS 


Video- 100 . . . 

. $95 

Color II .... 

$675 

Video-300 .. 

$169 

Color III ... 

. $420 


Color I $345 

RGB 


Color Monitor with Cable $399 


We consider these prices a gift. 



CompuShrck 

bfoUiet 

BROTHER Mode! HR 1 
16 CPS. Daisywheel, 
letter quality, 
bidirectional printer 

$769.00 


CompuShrck 

sbb 

SMITH CORONA Tp 1 
12 CPS. 10 or 12 CPI, 
Unidirectional 
Letter quality printer 

$569.00 



CompuShrck 



IBM PC Complete System: includes 64K 
IBM PC with 2 Floppy Disk Drives. Floppy 
Drive Controller, 12” monitor. Color 

Graphics card. All for only $2899 

AST CARD 512K memory board for IBM-PC 
512K ram, Clock/Calcndar. Serial Port, 
Parallel Port. 

64K $620 512K $1199 

AST I/O Interface card with Clock/Calendar 


1 Parallel Port and 2 Serial Ports . $249 
AST COMBO CARD 256K ram. 

Parallel Port. Serial Port, Clock 
Calendar and Battery back up . . . $599 
MAYNARD ELECTRONICS 
PRODUCTS 

Floppy Disk Controller $179 

Floppy Disk Controller w 'Parallcl Port $229 
Floppy Disk Controller w/Serial Port $239 

Memory Card w/256K ram $499 

PDS UNIVERSAL MEMORY CARD 
A unique memory card with 256K ram. 
Game Port and Serial Port $499 


HERCULES GRAPHICS CARD 

This card gives you 720 x 350 
graphics capabilities and it is 

completely compatible with 

DOS software for only $489 

BIG BLUE — Dual I/O ports, dual 
processing. Serial port. 

Parallel port. 5 MHZ Z-80 B. 

64K, Hard disk interface, 

Clock/Calendar, let’s you run 
existing CP/M software. 

List $589 Ours $479 


We Are The Systems Specialist 

CompuShrck 

Business Home Compicters 

( 714 ) 730-7207 

2630-H Walnut Avenue, Tustin, CA 92680 


IBM Personal Computer Hard Disk Sys- 
tem, contains SMB Winchester Software 
Power Supply, Cabinet, 

Cables, etc 


179522 


Same system W/10MB .... $1995.00 

Mfg. by DEVONG and CORONA 


*/BM is a trademark of IBM Carp. 



THE TRUMP CARD FOR IBM PC 

PDS UNIVERSAL introduces TRUMP CARD IBM-»- compatible, contains 
256K RAM, + serial I/O + game I/O board. 

The Price $ 499.00 



256K RAM 

A B4K to 256K 
parity checking 
RAM is fully 
socketed for easy 
memory expansion. 
The memory 
address is switch 
selectible. using up 
only the required 
memory space. 


GAME I/O 

Interface consisting 
of two joy-sticks 
and four switch 
inputs are IBM 
BASIC compatible. 

A standard GAME I/O 
DB1 5 connector 
provides connection 
to the rear plate of 
the IBM computer. 


GOLD IBM 
INTERFACE 

Gold connectors as 
well as glass epoxy 
PCB will provide 
years of reliable 
service, with all 
hardware interface 
meeting the IBM 
specification. 


ASYNCHRONOUS 

COMMUNICATION 

A RS232 and 20Ma 
[TTY) interface 
supports software 
programable baud 
rates, parity, stop 
bits, and character. 
Modem and serial 
printer are fully 
supported by the 
IBM communica- 
tion software. A 
standard DB25 
connector allows 
for the easy 
connection to serial 
devices. 


THE QUALITY 
ECOIMOMY. 


IS EXCELLENT AND PRICES MATCH THE 

For Further Information Contact: 


Dealers Programs Available. 
-;;-IBM IS a trademark of IBM Corp. 


PDS Universal, Inc. 

2630 Walnut Ave., Suite G 
Tustin, CA 92680 
(714) 730-6772 

Telex 1 8-351 1 answer back CSMA 





The DSI-501 Disk Drive fits into the 2nd stot 
your IBM Personal Computer, to give you 5 MB 
formatted (6MB unformatted) storage for 
$1995. The DSI-512 provides 10 MB formatted 
(12 MB unformatted) storage for just $2495.And 
the DSI-51 9 provides 15 MB formatted (19 unfor- 
matted) for $2995.Compatlble with IBM software. 


$ 1995 . 

PLUG IN HA... 

FOR THE IBM 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 


One low price buys you the expanded 
storage, speed and reliability of a Winchester 
technology hard disk system. The DSI-501 , 
DSI-512 and DSI-51 9 support IBM DOS.® Full 
software support includes an installation program 
and complete diagnostics. 

The DSI-ASYNC-I- RAM provides 64K 
RAM, expandable to 256K with parity, and 2 
serial I/O ports on one card. Select the option 
and save space as well as dollars. The price of 
$495* includes extensive software for flexibilify. 

More low-priced expansion options. Our 
wide selection lets you mix and match products 
to fit your needs and your pocketbook. 


Choose the DSI-64K, DSI-192K, or the DSI- 
256K fixed RAM cards with parity. For powerful 
upgrades, select the DSI-EX64K — a 64K RAM 
card that easily expands to up to 256K with the 
addition of individual memory chips. Prices start 
at $299*. Also available is the DSI-ASYNC, a 
dual port serial I/O card priced at $199*. 

Expand your IBM 
Personal Computer 
for a lot less money. 

Take this ad to your 
local cornputer retailer 

and ask for products Mountain View. CA 94043 
by Davong. (415) 965-7i30 


D 


DAVONG 

Systems, Inc. 


* Manufacturer'* auggaatad retail price. Inclutfea all required components. 

IBM Personal Comouier and IBM DOS are registered tiademarks of IBM Corporation 


Business Graphics for the IBM 
Personal Computer 

CHARTMAN now puts color to your IBM PC 




Introducing: 


For financial managers, executives, consultants, 
non programmers and businessmen. This 
CHARTMAN program turns columns of numbers 
into graphical charts, which are quickly and 
easily understood. It brings out the messages 
buried in piles of data and raises productivity. 
The user chooses from menus by easy function 
keys. Fills in the blanks. Charts are generated 
on screens, printers or HP multicolor plotters. 
Highly professional and productive charts are 
prepared in seconds. 

The new CHARTMAN series combines a "Menu 
Driven” concept with the "Input Form Fill-in- 
the-Blanks” new software technology to provide 
a highly advanced and user friendly program. 
CHARTMAN series are not converted from other 
microcomputers but rather are specially 
designed for and utilize all the powerful features 
of the IBM PC. 

Major contributions of the new "CHARTMAN” 
series of programs: 

• Offers 2- and 3-dimensional Business Graphics 

• Charts can be printed on printers. 

• Charts are generated on papers or overhead 
transparencies. 

• Charts are stored or retrieved onto discs. 


• VISICALC spreadsheet analyzed data can be 
eusily interchanged by CHARTMAN and 
converted into productive charts. Up to 6 
Columns or Rows of data can be transfered to 
CHARTMAN in one single transfer. 

• A "SLIDE PRESENTATION” feature is also 
integrated in CHARTMAN I & II where the 
charts could be saved as slides and later a 
manual stepping or a timed automatic slide 
presentation can be given. 

• Offers over 20 types of high quality charts. 

9 Charts are produced on high quality 2 pen 

HP7470 or 8 pen HP7220 plotters. 

• Many customers who have compared and 
evaluated CHARTMAN have responded "It is 
by far the most impressive Business Graphics 
Program we've seen." 

CHARTMAN I S380.00 over 20 types of charts 

with graphics on the screen in monochrome. 

CHARTMAN II $425.00 over 20 types of charts 

with graphics on the screen in high resolution 

color. 

CHARTMAN III $199.00 pie, bar, line charts. 

Keep contact with your dealer or: 

GfdQhicMmtinc. 


• It IS menu driven for ease of use. 


PO Box 367 

Kenmore Station Boston. MA 02215 (617) 491 2434 



EDUCATION/GARY YOUNG 


IBM faces the challenge of tight budgets, limited 
courseware, and growing competition for the 
classroom market. 

I 

i 

I 



The computer revolution is old news. Dur- 
ing the past 20 years, the miracle machine 
has found its way into every conceivable 
niche in corporate America. Revolution is 
now evolution in the business arena. The 
computer has taken its time coming to 
class, however, and the course of its evolu- 
tion in schools remains a critical concern 
of educators. Teachers have always been 
faced with the task of making their stu- 
dents literate, but with the dawn of the 
Computer Age. they have found that they 
must also make them computer literate. 
When the microcomputer was introduced 
in 1977. they hoped that they could com- 
bine the former goal with the latter. The 
results have been erratic but encouraging. 

Gameware Becomes Courseware 
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI). 
the use of computers as learning tools in 
the classroom, began when several arcade 
game makers realized that their programs 



Goes To 



could be modified to combine learning 
with planet wrecking. Ps>'chotechnics. 
Inc. of Chicago got the ball rolling by de- 
veloping 80 math programs (designed by 
elementary and secondary school teachers 
in San Diego) with this competitive learn- 
ing approach. Simple, nonprogrammable 
microcomputers were assembled to run 
the programs. The package, a dedicated 
CAI s\’stem that provided math drills and 
games for elementary and junior high 
school students, was called Telemath. The 
cost of the programs was reasonable ($800 
for the complete set] and 7elemath was a 
modest success. 

Today Telemath is used in 33 Califor- 
nia school districts. New impetus has been 
given to the program by Psy'chotechnics’ 
decision to abandon its original micro in 
favor of the IBM Personal Computer. This 
software conversion will be one of the 
largest undertaken for the PC. Still. 7ele- 
muth'sappeal and distribution are limited 


because it remains game- and drill-orient- 
ed at a time when educators are looking 
for more sophisticated courseware. 

The majority of educators continue to 
look to the first wave of microcomputers 
led by the Apple II. The Apple, Atari, and 
various Commodore micros dominate the 
expanding school market. They have the 
corner on the market in terms of cost and 
courseware for classroom instruction. 
When their inexpensive hardware hit the 
market, software houses and a few pub- 
lishers rushed in to tr>' to fill the need for 
educational software. The result was a 
jumble of hastily conceived courseware, 
much of it game-oriented. More sophisti- 
cated programs were provided by Minne- 
sota Educational Computer Consortium 
(MECC), CONDUIT (a ten-college con- 
sortium based at the University of Iowa), 
and other groups, but the need for quality 
courseware is yet to be filled. 

Now the second wave— the 16-bit 


PC MAGAZINE 208 DECEMBER 1982 



wave— is upon us. The name IBM is on the 
lips of those who only a short while ago 
were content with the passions and pains 
offered by the Apple and other early mi* 


/?» 


SYCHO- 
technics got the ball 
rolling by developing 
80 math programs. 


cros. Home users and businesses seem to 
be responding to the PCs charms: 300,000 
units have been sold since its release. IBM 
hopes, by dint of name identification and 
technology, to grab a share of the lucrative 
school market to round out this triad. 


The PC Goes to Class 

Tight budgets make school administra- 
tors keep an eye on the bottom line. The 
PC is more expensive than the 8-bit micros 
currently used in the classroom. A PC may 
offer more byte per buck, but why drive a 
Cadillac when a Honda will do? 

By most standards the PC is a superla- 
tive microcomputer. Its features make it 
attractive to both the number-crunching 
MBA and the teacher looking for a versa- 
tile machine for computer literacy and 
programming classes. The PC is hard to 
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bilities menn to tho teacher hoping to im- 
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teaching all subjects— math. English, and 
social science— and depends on adequate 
courseware. Some PC courseware is on 
the market, but it is limited in both scope 
and quantity. 

Is the PC sophisticated enough to run 
the complex programs of the future and 
remain simple to use? Perhaps. The ap- 
peal of courseware (and CAIlgoes be\ ond 
drill and practice ap[)lications: it lies in the 
ability to engage a student’s imagination 
and hold it. This requires a program that 
can interact with a student: assess the stu- 
dent's performance: and combine simula- 
tion. graphics, animation, and sound to 
teach effectively and vividly, If the pro- 
gram can relieve the teacher of record- 
keeping chores, .so much the belter, 

The PC appears to fit the bill. In addi- 
tion. school administrators hesitant to start 
or expand CAI programs see a familiar, 
reliable name. The IBM logo stands for 


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({ualily and. better still, the assurance that 
the machines will still be made and sup- 
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publishers rushed in 
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software. 


ming classes and is made with future 
courseware in mind. 

■'If courseware is going to improve, you 
have to have graphics, simulation, and 
much more.” says Ruth VVag\'. a [)rogram- 
ming teacher at St. Andrew's High School 
in Boca Raton, Florida. "You need a so- 
phisticated machine like the PC.” 

Simon Greenstein. head of the com- 


puter center at Torrey Pines High School 
in San Diego. California, concurs: “The 
PC gives us a lot of flexibilih' for the fu- 
ture. It’s a powerful machine. The Apple 
and Atari were good cominiters in their 
time, but the PC Is one of the first of the 
new wave. VVe have to prepare out stu- 
dents for the ‘80s and ‘90s.” 

Doug Cobb, a P(^ software programmer 
for DesignVVare of San Francisco, adds. 
"The P(^ has all kinds of capabilities that 
the Apple doesn't have. The multifunction 
keys alone make it more user-friendly. 
Kids can use those keys without knowing 
anything about the computer: this is an ad- 
vantage in CAI. And becau.se of its design, 
the P(^ can be used for a wider age range 
of students." 

Teachers Grade the PC 

Successful school use of the PC de- 
pends on the computer literacy of the 
teachers and the amount of planning put 
into the CAI program. If the PC is the first 
computer a teacher has been exposed to. 
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manual, which is not a tutorial guide, can 
give even an experienced user the jitters. 
Unless the PC is bought from and installed 
by a dealer familiar with schools, little in- 
service training is available. PCs have 
been known to sit in storage for months 
while schools figure out what to do with 
them. 

"I'm getting a lot of flak.” said one frus- 
trated teacher in Northern California. 
“Everv’body has an Apple and people are 
saying. ‘Why are you bothering with the 
PC?' The keyboard is very sophisticated 
and all the special keys are great, but I 
really don't know how to use them yet. We 
need someone to train us. And we need 
courseware.” 

Those who have been through the 
wringer with the Apple and other micros 
usually have fewer problems with the PC. 
A programming background also helps. 
Planning, above all else, is the key to suc- 
cess. Two schools that aptly illustrate this 
are Torrey Pines High School in San 
Diego, California, and St. Andrew's High 
School in Boca Raton. Florida. 

St. Andrew's is a Catholic high school 
located in IBM's hometown. The local 
community is supportive of the school's 
efforts in computer literacy. IBM original- 
ly loaned St. Andrew’s two PCs. The 
school bought two more and. with its older 
complement of four Apples, began to ex- 
pand its computer classes. Ruth Wagy. 
computer science teacher and director of 
the program, offers three beginning pro- 
gramming classes, one advanced class, 
and one workshop in Pascal. Her work has 
been so popular that nearly a quarter of 
the students attend one of these classes. 

"I started out 4 years ago with only six 
kids in the class.” Wag\’ recalls. "We had 
Apples first. When we later got the PCs, 
the kids weren’t enthusiastic. They had 
learned on the Apples and saw no reason 
to change. One of the boys who com- 
plained the loudest won’t even touch an 
Apple now. They love the PCs. We have to 
kick them out at the end of the day. 

"The PC makes programming fun. The 
graphics are much better than the Apple's. 
The editing features are outstanding. The 
kids make lots of mistakes, so they are 
overjoyed to find that they can edit easily. 
The renumbering command is helpful too. 
We run our PCs in FORTRAN and Pascal. 
Thai’s another advantage — you just buy 
the software and you don’t need a lan- 
guage card. 


"The PC’s character set is superior too. 
And it has music. One of my students 
wrote a program that drew the music staff 
on the screen. You tell the computer the 
notes you want to play, and it puls them on 
the staff and stores the song in a file. When 
you want the song, you call it out of the file, 
and the computer plays it back while dis- 
playing the notes. 

Wag>' is enthusiastic about the PC, but 
she admits that even with her technical 
background it’s a difficult machine to get 
up and running. The user manual is con- 
fusing at first. Because the machine has so 
many features, this confusion can be mad- 
dening. 

"I wanted to show the kids how to do 
graphics.” she relates. "I had to go through 
the manual from beginning to end and 
pull out anything having to do with graph- 
ics. Every'thing was scattered throughout 
the book. It took me a long time to figure 
out how to get the soft-key display on and 
off (he screen. It’s frustrating because 
there are so many things you can do with 
the PC ' 


T,. PC FILLS 
needs in computer 
literacy and 
programming classes 
and is made with 
future courseware 
in mind. 


Though St. Andrew's has focused pri- 
marily on computer literacy and program- 
ming. it also uses the PC for true CAI. Bui 
with little courseware available. Wagy has 
had to make do with software such as Visi- 
Calc and EasyWriter. Word processing 
seems to be a way of luring the computer 
war>' to the keyboard. Students can use 
Easy^Writer for assignments, and teachers 
can use it for course planning, tests, and 
even preparing ditto masters. 

"Were planning to use the PC for 
CAI.” says Wagy. “There isn’t much qual- 
ity courseware out for any micro. What is 
out is either dull or not educationally 
sound. Now the MECC courseware (cur- 
rently on Apple) is terrific, and I trust it 


PC MAGAZINE 212 DECEMBER 1982 



will be available for ihe PC. I'd recom- 
mend Ihe PC for CAI. Right now there’s a 
lack of PC courseware, but what does 
come out is worth the wait. The PC busi- 
ness software seems to demonstrate this." 

This feeling is echoed by the staff at 
Torrey Pines High School. The school's 
computercenter. which includes 12 PCs. is 
open all day throughout the year for stu- 
dents and teachers. “If you want to make a 
school into a computer school." says direc- 
tor Simon Greenstein. "you’d better train 
the staff." 

At Torrey Pines, computer use is en- 
couraged and courses in computer liter- 
acy. business software, and staff training 
are offered. VisiCa/c, Vo/kswriter. and 
other business packages are being used to 
introduce students to the skills of the busi- 
ness world, journalism students use word 
processing packages to prepare the school 
newspaper, saving ty pesetting costs while 
they acquire new computer skills. 

The rapid growth of computer courses 
at Torrey Pines was the result of deter- 
mined planning. "We formed a committee 
consisting of staff from UC Irvine, our 
school, and Ken Bowles, the developer of 
UCSD Pascal." says Greenstein. "We dis- 
cussed what we needed and how we 
would introduce computer technology 
into our curriculum. Then we looked for a 
computer to fit that curriculum. The PC 
was it. " 

Greenstein isquick to point out that get- 
ting the PC was a risk. The machines were 
expensive and no software was available 
when they first received their machines. 
Faith in IBM and the software industry 
sustained them. Greenstein is somewhat 
skeptical about courseware for CAI. how- 
ever. "Ken Bowles gave us the best advice. 
He told us that self-generated courseware 
was not very time-efficient. CAI is a func- 
tion computers can serve, but weTe not 
stressing that." 

The desire for courseware is nonethe- 
less strong at Torrey Pines. The school’s 
measured response to the courseware 
shortage— focusing on computer literacy, 
programming, and business software 
manipulation — is in many ways preparing 
teachers and students for courseware to 
come. Green.stein was animated when dis- 
cussing the possibilities of SAT prepara- 
tion programs or of using CAI for math. 
English, history, and other subjects. Like 
so many schools edging into CAI. Torrey 
Pines is being cautious. 


Bruce Reynolds, a computer science 
teacher at Torrey Pines, agrees with 
Greenstein but is a bit more optimistic. 
After surveying a number of companies 
and institutes that produce courseware, 
the staff decided to involve itself with the 
Educational Technology Center at UC Ir- 
vine. "They have programs that are inter- 
active and use good screen design that are 
being converted to the PC." says Reyn- 
olds. "Computer literacy projects will be 
available, and we’re a part of that. We're 
helping to write some of those programs 
and we will receive them for distribution 
in the school. 

"The programs are very sophisticated, 
but it’s not hard to get programmers. It’s 
harder to find good leaching materials and 
curriculum design. The only people who 
are experienced at that are teachers. UC 
Irvine is inviting teachers to work with 
them in designing programs and wxiting 
scripts.” 

The finished courseware will be avail- 
able for use on the PC through the Center 
nr through an educational publisher. At 


this point, however, no one has been will- 
ing to invest the money necessary for 
wide-scale marketing. "We’ve been quite 
successful in getting funding for develop- 


I. PC GIVES 
us a lot of flexibility 
for the future. 


ment.” said Werner Feibel. a project di- 
rector at UC Irvine. "We’re trv'ing to get 
publishers to help us put these materials 
into some sort of marketable form, but it's 
difficult to get them to think along those 
lines. The biggest problem is that it's hard 
to talk to anybody if you’re not talking 
about Apple,” 

Marketplace realities intrude even at 
the university. The first programs for the 
PC will be conversions of existing Apple 
courseware followed by CONDUIT pro- 




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grams for junior and senior high school. 
Older materials have already been field- 
tested for content so that debugging and 
cost are minimized. But development is 
proceeding on original PC courseware. 



courseware shortage 
remains the major 
concern of educators 
considering the PC. 

"People have become sophisticated,” 
says Feibel. “The possibilities for graph- 
ics. simulation, and interaction are there, 
but its hard to deliver that on current 8-bit 
machines. The PC can draw graphics 
(piickly. Many of our programs use almost 
all the main memor>’. and the PC has the 
advantage there. It's (piicker too. That's es- 
sential with an interactive program.” 
Once again, courseware is the issue. 
Because CAI needs courseware. Feibel 
acknowledges a problem for schools. 
Waiting a year for more PC courseware 
may be worth it. he says. but. *T have real 
({uaims about suggesting that teachers buy 
P(^s now. Thai’s bound to cause frustration 
and some sort of backlash in the long run." 

Courseware Is Late 

The courseware shortage remains the 
major concern of educators considering 
the P(^ One of the most informed PC users 
is Leroy Finkel.a writer of technical books 
on microcom[)Uters. including one about 
the PC. Finkel has taught computer educa- 
tion to teachers for nearly 15 years and 
flatly asserts that the PC is not a product 
for the school market. Why? "The price 
and the absence of courseware are the 
main reasons. Whatever argument some- 
body would raise for me to buy a PC for 
classroom use. I would have something to 
counter it. Notice I did not say school use. 
If you're going to teach programming or 
computer science, you need multiple lan- 
guage capabilities. I would probably buy a 
PC and run it in CP/M. If you want to 
leach BASK^ programming, then go out 
and buy a Timex/Sinclair ZX-81 for SHH). 
( )r g»!t a bunch of PETs on a siring. I would 


never spend S3.800 for a PC. 

"1 see no evidence of adequate 
courseware for the next 12 months. 
There's going to be some coming out. obvi- 
ously. but not enough to support an in- 
structional program in the K-12 area. The 
first software I'm seeing is on the office 
end. 1 told the IBM representative that if 
he came in saying. 'Don't buy an Apple for 
your office: buy a PC.' that might not be a 
bad idea. Th<; P(' has more power; you can 
run CP/M software on it. But don’t sell it 
to me as a classroom computer. And don't 
give me the line that it’s a 16-bit. because 
it’s running in an 8-bit environment. 

"As a management tool the PC may be 
okay; it may be a better machine. But supe- 
riority of hardware and being on the lead- 
ing edge is none of my business; it’s not 
any educator's Inisiness. What I need must 
be available and practical. I need neigh- 
bors who have similar machines: and I 
need software to help me. and I need it in 
(jiiantity. Teachers .should learn about 
computers in the classroom. They won’t be 
able to do that with an IBM PC because 
there's such a limited amount of software 
available." 

As for the notion of teachers program- 
ming courseware: "Teachers aren’t capa- 
l)le of doing that. I’m a ver\’ competent 
programmer, and it takes me 300 to 400 
hours to generate a small program . Then it 
has to be field-tested. You’re telling me 
that teachers have that kind of lime? 
That’s not the case. Teachers can design 
programs, but they can’t write them." 

It’s impossible to know exactly when 
more courseware will be available. Psy- 
chotechnics expects some of its PC conver- 
sions to be ready by the end of this year. 
But many software companies are expect- 
ing late 1983 or early 1984 release dales. 
Competitors are also taking a toll. Atari, 
which offers guaranteed sales to some 
software converters, has made a major 
sale to the Department of Defense schools. 
Apple's plan to donate thousands of ma- 
chines to schools across the United States 
is closer to approval by Congress. The 
competition for programmers and other 
resourcesand the market pressure will be- 
come more intense. 

How the market will change during the 
next 5 years is anyone's guess. Courseware 
for the PC may appear sooner than ex- 
pected. Paul Sanders of Photo and Sound, 
an educational technolog\' firm in San 


IH MAC.,\/I\I 214 mclMBIR 19 82 



Kriincisco. sins. “VVhiit ediicalors have to 
understand— what we al! have to nnder- 
sland— is that it takes time to hiiild some- 
thing good. IHM is ver\- concerned ahout 
its name. VVe feel that when the course- 
ware does come out. it's going to work; it 
will establish a standard of ({uality. 

"CAI is not necessarilygoingtj) turn out 
the way we’ve be(;n told al! these years. It 
may not be tutorial or like P/oto. It may 
have more simulation, problem-solving 
situations. If nothing else, we're giving 
kids computer literacy and leaching them 
how to handle the unit. There are 300,00(1 
P(^s out there already. If you want to be 
able to survive in this job market, you'd 
b(‘tter learn how to operate a PC. That 
might be as important a reason as any for 
having one.” 

Who’ll Go to the Head of the Class? 

The controversy surrounding the use of 
the PC in the classroom will no doubt con- 
tinue. Having entered the market late. 
IBM has been slow to catch on to some of 
the needs of schools. Almost everv'one 
connected with the PC— u.ser.s. teachers, 
courseware developers, and engineers— 
notes IBM's failure to support c«nirseware 
develo[)ment and interact with schools. 

Apple. Atari, and Tandy Oirporation 
have divisions solely devoted to the educa- 
tional market and to bringing courseware 


H 


OWTHE 


market will change 
during the next 5 
years is anyone's 
guess. 


writers and publishers together. IBM has 
recently formed an education division and 
has seeded .some P(Js at a number of 
.schools in th«? East. Notable in this effort is 
IBM's backing of Dr |ohn Henry Martin's 
"Writing to Read" project. It u.ses the PC 
and audio reinforcement to boost reading 
and writing abilities of fir.st. .second, and 
third graders thrmighout the Ea.st (^oast 
and parts of th(? Midwest. The preliminary 
residts are impressive. 

Th(? availai)ility t)f the PC and service 


fcrr it is still a problem. Outside of IBM 
there are only a fistful of distributors. The 
planned Sears outlets have so far faib^d to 
materialize. In Silicon Valley, the center 
(jf the cfimputer industry, one Sears .store 
had only three PCs. which were jostling 
for space with stereos and televisions. To 
improve distributirm. IBM has contracted 
with educational technology firms such as 
Photo and Sound to market the PC and 
provide training. This move alone has 
drme much to bridge the gap between IBM 
and the schools. 

But the (|ueslion still remain.s: Should 


educators buy PCs for classroom instruc- 
tion? The A()ple HE. a highly crrmpelitive 
micro, will be available soon. The Com- 
mrulore (i4 is out already: purchasing one 
could be a cost-effective way of buying 
fi4K memory and 16-color graphic.s. The 
an.swer seems to he that schools can either 
wait and see or buy and wail. /PC 

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LOGO: 


Ancient by microcomputer standards, this language is 
at once so simple and sophisticated that tiewcomers can 
create grapdiics from the first command. 






No. it's not ii do-it-yourself video game. 
Nor is it an illicit screening of pirated out- 
takes from Slur Wars III. The microcom- 
puter is operating in a highly interactive, 
graphics-based language called LOGO. 
On the monitor LOGO conjures up turtles 
that draw and sprites that take on any 
imaginable shape. These highly trained 
creatures derive from perhaps the sim- 
plest command structure available. For 
this reason. LOGO is well-suited for intro- 
ducing microcomputers to newcomers. In 
fact, its proponents look forward to the day 
LOGO will replace BASIC as the lingua 
franca of computer literacy. 

Although logo's creature characters 
have childish names and many elemen- 
tar\’ and high schools teach only LOGO in 
their computer science classes, the lan- 
guage is not child's play. Nor can it be dis- 
missed sim|)ly as training wheels for more 
difficult computer languages. To an adult 
who knows BASIC, a cursory examination 
of available commands and an hour or tw'o 
at the keyboard will elicit a great respect 
b)r the |)ower of LO(X)‘s simplicih'. 

The Vision of LOGO 

L0('*0 is by no means a new language. 
Its origins predate the computers for 
which it was designed. Seymour Paperl. 
the creator of LOGO, began working with 
childr(»n and computers in the late 1960s 
when he was professor of applied math- 
ematics and codirector of the artificial in- 
telligence laboratory’ at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology’ (MIT). His vision 
extended beyond its immediate applica- 
tions jleaching arithmetic and geometry) 
to create an educational system in which 
children could learn to manipulate com- 
puter-based machines and discover new 
capabilities. From that experience. Papert 
believed, children would learn the power 


ofap|)lied knowledge and gain self-confi- 
dent. realistic images of themselves as in- 
tellectual agents. 

Papert and his team carried out most of 
their r(>search at MIT. In those early days 
they anticipated an era when computers 
would be small enough to sit on a desk top 
and inexpensive enough so that every 
child could have access to one in school. 
After studying their potential applications 
and capabilities. Papert began to envision 
a customized language for microcom- 
puters of the future. Thus the idea of 
LCOGO was born. 

The challenge in creating LOGO was 
finding the best method of facilitating 
communication from child to computer. 
Papert beli«?ved that 2-year-olds talk to hu- 
mans more proficiently than high school 
computer students talk to a computer in 
BASIC. He reasoned that there must be a 
technupie for learning computer language 
that mlmicsthe way children learn tocom- 
municale with other people. 

Kids learning to talk discover an infi- 
nite number of things to talk about. For 
them. l(‘arninga language is both interest- 
ing and practical. The same cannot be said 
about computers: for newcomers there 
really isn't much to discuss. Consequently. 
Papert emphasized gra[)hics as the subject 
of conver.siilions with computers. 

Papert had access to larger com[)Uters 
t() aid in develo|)ment of the new lan- 
guage. The central figure of LOGO was a 
three-dim<*nsional “turtle." a robot device 
controlleii by the computer. Several early 
versions looked like miniature replicas of 
an armless R2-D2. the short, beeping au- 
tomaton of Star Wars fame. The turtle was 
highly mobile and responded to simple 
English commands, called “primitives" in 
LOGO, .such as Forward and Back, or 
Right and I.<*ft. All the user had to do was 
specify values for each primitive. When 






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placed on a blank piece of paper on the 
floor, directed to put its pen to the paper 
and move forward 50 and turn 90 four 
times, the turtle would draw a square 50 
units per side. 

Three-dimensional, motorized turtles 
are still available. However, a less costly 
and more flexible alternative is to repre- 
sent the turtle with a triangle on a com- 
puter monitor and control its movements 


A CURSORY 

examination of 
available commands 
and an hour or two at 
the keyboard will 
elicit a great deal of 
respect for the power 
of logo's simplicity. 


with the same primitives. So far. LOGO 
has been adapted to three microcom- 
puters: the Apple II. Texas Instruments' 
TI-99/4A, and Radio Shack’s Color Com- 
puter. Interactive Sciences. Inc., a Califor- 
nia-based nonprofit organization dedi- 
cated to research and dissemination of 
information on computers, has written a 
version of LOGO for the IBM PC. It was 
developed as part of a recent, intensive 
teacher training seminar at Stanford Uni- 
versity. Interactive Sciences has an- 
nounced no plans to market IBM PC 
LOGO commercially. 

Within the LOGO method of mathe- 
matics instruction, the turtle is essentially 
a transitional object that links the subject 
matter to a student’s knowledge. The stu- 
dent learns by manipulating the turtle. He 
or she actually becomes the teacher of a 
turtle-student w'ho responds unfailingly 
and patiently to properly conceived 
instructions. 

Consider the example of the square. 
Children may recognize a square when 
they see one but may not understand the 
elements of its construction. By manipu- 
lating. or “teaching," the turtle through tri- 
al and error, they see that a square re- 
quires four equal sides and four equal 


angles. They no longer memorize shape- 
less formulas, but learn by doing some- 
thing interesting— creating screen images. 

Early experiments with LOGO as a 
math leaching tool have shown encourag- 
ing results. One lest at a Massachusetts ju- 
nior high revealed that most students were 
highly motivated, even when tackling pro- 
jects several weeks long. The students pre- 
ferred to make many small discoveries 
along the way. building on experience 
gained in earlier steps of the project, to 
learning by the usual chapter-by-chapter 
method of working (m small sets of repet- 
itive problems for ever\’ new- concept. To- 
day. LOGO is finding its way into school 
systems that have the foresight and fi- 
nances to include computer education in 
their curricula. 

How LOGO Works 

The features found on Texas Instru- 
ments' TI-LOGO cartridge, which has ad- 


vanced graphics characteristics not neces- 
siirily found on other implementations of 
LOGO, best exemplify the language’s ca- 
pabilities. At the start of a session or after a 
Clearscreen command, the turtle appears 
in the screen center as a small triangle fac- 
ing up jnorthl. T\’ping in a Left or Right 
primitive causes the turtle to spin the 
specified number of degrees. Forward 
makes the turtle move ahead, trailing a 
line behind it. There's a surprising amount 
of flexibilit\’ in pen control, so it’s easy to 
erase lines or move the turtle to a new 
location without leaving a trail. By making 
the turtle invisible, users can draw lines 
without the apparent aid of any screen in- 
dicator. 

Users can create new shapes or charac- 
ters with the Makeshape primitive. To 
make shapes, the user works on an ex- 
panded 16x16 grid of 256 boxes represent- 
ing pixels. The user moves the cursor to 
each box, opting to either fill it in or leave 


LOGO Commands 


TI LOGO features a total of 116 different primitives. These 
commands demonstrate some of the more advanced powers 
of LOGO. 

BOTH condition 1 condition 2 

Gives true if both conditions ore true. 

Example: TEST BOTH :X<:Y :Y>:Z 
CALL thing “name 

Gives a value |7) to o name (X). 

Example: CALL 7 "X 
CONTENTS 

Prints an index of names, procedures, and sprites in active memory'- 
DEFINE “procedure name (list) 

Gives a procedure name to a list of commands. 

Example: DEFINE “X |(N)(FORWARD :N RIGHT 90)| 

TELL TURTLE 
X40 

EDIT name of procedure 

Allows editing of the named procedure. 

EITHER condition 1 condition 2 

Gives true if either of the two conditions is true. 

RANDOM 

Gives a random number from S through 9. 

RC? 

Returns true if a key has been pressed. 

READCHAR 

Waits for a hey to be pressed and gives the key character. 

SAVE 

Enters the SAVE mode for saving procedures, shapes, and tiles. 

-D.G. 


I’C MAGAZINE 2J9 DECEMBER 1982 





Your IBM 
Personal Computer 
Deserves the Best. 

Protect Your Investment 

Keyboard Cover 

Model No. 1 

Protect your IBM Personal Computer Keyboard 

with our dustcover made from rigid smoked bronze plastic. Its 

low silhouette was custom designed to fit with the IBM’s contemporary 

design, and provides the protection your keyboard requires. 

Manual Rack 
Model No. 3 $24.00 

extruded black plastic 

- j 11^3: nianual rack with individual 

irfi ^ spacers to allow easy access to six 

/ * pj^ H manuals. This sturdily designed 

/ ' pj) 'hL V rack will be an asset to your 

|V IBM Personal Computer System. 

I m Locking pins are included that 

, ; ^E| jijlii T ■ T allow for the connecting of two 

■ racks that would contain a 
total of thirteen manuals. 
(MANUALS NOT INCLUDED) 


Disk Drive Cover Model No. 2 $8.00 

Designed to protect the disk drive area from dirt and dust, this cover 
is made from black plastic that was produced to match the IBM’s 
contemporary styling. The vinyl foam seal around its perimeter 
prevents harmful elements from entering the disk drive area. 

Reading Stand 
Model No. 4 $20.00 

Made of strong smoked bronze 
acrylic, this 10” x 15” reading 
stand neatly displays your 
manuals for easy reference. 

Large enough to hold an 8H ” 
x 11” three ring binder. Its 
contemporary design would 
be an attractive functional 
addition to your system. 

CRT Turntable (not ihown) Model No. 5 $20.00 

A low silhouette ball bearing turntable that allows you to rotate your 
CRT to any convenient position. Made of sturdy plastics that were 
designed to last. 

Send check or Nat Heilman III, Inc. Plcaae note Model No. and 

money order to: 400 South Beverly Drive, Suite 214 quamine* with your order. 

Beverly Hills, CA 90212 (213) 273*0133 Dealer inquiries invited. 


it empty. Up to 32 of these new shapes may 
be stored in memory and may even be 
named. The user can then recall a design 
and command one of 32 sprites to carry it 
to the desired screen location. 

A sprite is a creature to which the user 
can assign any combination of shape, col- 
or. speed, and direction (Heading). Five of 
the 32 sprites have preassigned shapes: 
plane, truck, rocket, ball, and box. If more 
than 27 new shapes are needed, however, 
these five may be altered in the same way 
thal the others are created. Sprites are ad- 
dressed by numbers (Sprite 29. for exam- 
ple). Each sprite needs attributes of Color 
(from a palette of 16). Speed, and Heading. 
As the user enters these values on the key- 
board, the designated sprite responds to 
the command. 

The LOGO screen mimics the board of 
the Scrabble game with 31 (across) by 23 
(down) character positions. LOGO has 256 
types of TILEs to which each is assigned a 
character, number or punctuation symbol, 
etc. To position a character, the user types 
PUTTILE and a code number (for stan- 
dard characters, same as Ihe ASCII code) 
followed by the X. Y coordinates of the 
desired location. 

To modify a standard character 
(change a 7 tu a 7. for example) or create an 
entirely new character, the user enters the 
MakeChar command. The monitor pro- 
duces an enlarged "blank” tile in the form 
of an 8x8 grid. Users can design new char- 
acters on the grid in the same way that 
they created designs on the original 16x16 
grid. The new character is assigned its 
own code and stored in memory. The TI- 
99/4A has room for a total of 256 tiles in 
memory, all of them colorable from the 
palette. 

Programming With LOGO 

These are all examples of what BASIC 
programmers would call direct state- 
ments. With LOGO, multicommand jobs 
can be called up with a single word. Sup- 
pose a user wants to draw a box in several 
places as part of a graphics scene. This 
would require the creation of a program, 
or procedure in LOGO parlance, by typing 
To Box . Then, on succeeding lines (with no 
line numbers needed), the user types in 
the Forward and Right commands to draw 
a square as outlined earlier. From then on. 
whenever a box is needed, the user types 
Tell Turtle Box. 


PC MAGAZINE 220 DECEMBER 1982 


Our software package 
is better than most of theirs 
put together. 



Instead of buying four 
or five different programs, 
learning how to operate 
this one and how to link 
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Tiiere’s no need to buy 
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Final Copy™ is portable. It’s 
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Ticom Systems, Inc., 13470 
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BY TICOM 

You'll learn it in a few days. You’ll use it for years. 


Procedures can incorporate sprites and 
tiles too. For example, the following proce* 
dure will create a red ball and make it 
trace a square at a speed of 10 velocity 
units every' time Square is typed into the 
computer: 

TO SQUARE 
TELL SPRITE 1 
CARRY :BALL 
SETCOLOR RED 
HOME 

SETSPEED 10 

REPEAT 4 [NAIT 30 RIGHT 90] 

SETSPEED 0 
END 

From the home position, the ball-carrying 
sprite moves north at a speed of 10 for a 
duration (Wait) of 30 units, at which point 
it makes an immediate right angle turn. 
The two-step sequence is repeated four 
times, followed by a command to stop (Set- 
speed 0). If the last Setspeed command 
were missing, the ball would continue 
moving north forever, wrapping around to 
the bottom of the screen. 

Procedures can also contain subproce- 
dures (subroutines) that act as building 
blocks for a much larger procedure. The 
language is intelligent enough to allow the 
creator to work on any subprocedure at 
any time in any order, with total disregard 
for such orderly concerns as line numbers. 

Plain English descriptors bring subpro- 
cedures together easily. For example, if the 
user has written subprocedures called 
Dots and Dashes that make the computer 


produce short and long beeps respective- 
ly. he or she can create procedures linking 
those dots and dashes in proper Morse 
Code sequence, calling each sequence by 
the corresponding alphabet letter (To A. 
To B, etc.). By bringing letters together as 
follows, the user will hear a standard 
Morse rescue signal whenever SOS is 
typed into the computer. 

TO SOS 
S 
0 
S 

END 

More advanced features in TI-LOGO 
take the student into the understanding of 
X and Y coordinates and what BASIC pro- 
grammers call conditional branching. In 
Tl-LOGO, a procedure can test for a given 
condition and jump to subprocedures 
based on 1ft (if true) and Iff (if false) re- 
sults. 

It may seem that many of the com- 
mands require numerous keystrokes. For- 
tunately. there are 29 two-letter, short- 
form commands. Clearscreen can also be 
accomplished with CS. Setheading with 
SH. etc. As with any computer program. 
LOGO procedures can be saved on cas- 
sette or disk for recall at a later time. The 
user can also save libraries of special 
shapes and tiles. TI-LOGO accomplishes 
Save and Recall functions with the help of 
screen prompts. 

That LOGO is a sophisticated, intelli- 
gent language can be confirmed by the de- 


mands it puts on computer memory. All 
three microcomputers to which LOGO has 
been adapted require 48K RAM. For the 
Tl. LOGO is largely contained in a plug-in 
ROM cartridge. 

Error messages further reveal the lan- 
guage's intelligence and reluctance to 
frighten the student. In fact, in TI-LOGO, 
the word error doesn’t even appear. In- 
stead. mistakes are met by helpful mes- 
sages like Can't (the computer is unable to 
perform an operation logically). Tell Me 
More (the computer needs a number or 
variable to carry out the command), and 
Then Is Out Of Place (in an If.. .Then. ..Else 
command. Then is out of place). 

Microcomputer users who have experi- 
ence in programming will be charmed by 
the simplicity and enormous power of 
LOGO. It is the kind of tool one wishes was 
available for learning math, geometry, and 
computer science as a child because it in- 
vites the user to experiment and discover. 
Those who have never touched a com- 
puter keyboard will find that LOGO is a 
painless way to learn or refresh many con- 
cepts at once. /PC 


For more of Seymour Puperfs theories, 
four of his published papers are gathered 
in The Computer in the School: Tutor. 
Tool. Tutee, edited by Robert P. Taylor 
(Teachers College Press, 1980). Contact 
Teachers Coifege Press, c/o Columbia 
(.University, 81 Adams Dr., Totowa. Nf 
07512. 




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PC MAGAZINE 222 DECEMBER 1982 


Inviting! 


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No comer cutting here 
You may think that since this board costs so 
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How much memory? 

We offer the board with your choice 64K, 
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Maximum use of SuperDrive is achieved 
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Clock/calendar & clip-on battery 
That round thing in the picture is a lithium 
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it is only needed when the computer is 
turned off. Note the holder it is in. The under 
$4.00 battery Just slips out and a new one 
slips in. No soldering required as with some 


other clock boards. The clock/calendar sets 
the time and date when your computer is 
turned on. This is done with a program which 
we send you on a diskette. The clock on the 
board is set using the IBM DOS commands 
TIME and DATE. 



Cheap Software too 

What good is great hardware without some 
good software to use it with? We are now 
offering some untouchable prices on software 
that can utilize the features of your board. 
SUPERCALC, the current cream of the spread- 
sheet crop. will address 51 2K and is available 
with a board for just $176. Or how about the 
new DBase II by Ashton-Tate for just $4697 
Why buy from us? 

Because we provide the service and support 
most companies only talk about. We realize 
how integral the use of this board will be to 
the everyday use of your computer. What 
good is a warranty if it takes weeks for 
repairs to be made? By the time you get your 
board back from repair you will have forgotten 
where to put iti We offer 48 hour turnaround 
or replacement on all warranty repairs. Do 
you hear anyone else making this promise? 
Our board comes with little extras (ike a low 
cost diagnostics program that let's you do 
your own testing to be sure you really do 
have a problem before sending your board for 
repairs. If you still aren't convinced, and just 
want to compare prices, remember we don't 
charge extra for credit cards, shipping, or 
COD'S. If you still want to buy elsewhere ask 
them if they will face the acid test. 

The acid test 

Qubie Distributing gives you our 30 day 
satisfaction guarantee on all board purchases. 
If you are not completely satisfied we will 
return the entire cost of your purchase as 


well as pay the postage to return it. If you can 
get one of our competitors to give you the 
same guarantee, buy any other board you 
think compares and return the one you don't 
like. We're not worried because we know 
which one you'll keep. On top of this we give 
you a one year parts and labor warranty, and 
a one year extended warranty for $50. War- 
ranty repairs are done in 48 hours or we will 
send you a new board 

FREE SOFTWARE 

SuperDrive and SuperSpooler Software 
lets you use your board as fast accessing 
disk space and as a printer buffer. 

TO ORDER BY MAIL SEND: 

— your name and shipping address 
— memory size. Optional printer port? 

— software and cables you need 
—daytime phone number 
— California residents add BVt% sales tax. 
— Company check or credit card number 
and expiration date, (personal checks 
take 1 8 days to clear.) 


TO ORDER BY PHONE: 

(21 3) 870-371 8 or (806) 482-9829 
PRICES: 

64K $375 192K $499 

128K $439 256K $599 

(includes async port, memory, clock/cal- 
endar, SuperDrive and SuperSpooler soft- 


ware) 

OPTIONS: 

Parallel Printer port $50 

Cable for parallel printers $35 

Cable for Modem or Serial Printer $25 
Memory Diagnostic Diskette $10 

SUPERCALC by Sorcim $176 

DBase II by Ashton-Tate $469 

SHIPMENT 


We pay UPS surface charges. UPS blue 
label air service $5 extra. Credit card or 
bank check orders shipped same day. Per- 
sonal or company checks take 1 8 days to 
clear 

QUBIE’ 

DISTRIBUTING 

918 VIA ALONDRA 
CAMARILLO. CA 93010 

Calil: 805/432-9829 > 800/821-4479 












EDUCATION/RONALD H. AXTELL & RICHARD A. WALKER 


Instructional programming for the PC transforms 

learning into an imaginative, entertaining educational experience. 


EDUCATIONAL 

SOFTWAREForThe 


P( 


Teamed with the right software, personal 
computers can be excellent instructional 
tools. The IBM PC. with its color, graphics, 
and sound capabilities is especially well* 
suited to this purpose and has inspired the 
publication of a number of educational 
programs. 

New programs arrive on the market ev- 
ery month. The 18 programs reviewed in 
this article constitute a comprehensive 
sampling of educational software avail- 
able for the PC. Educational software can 
be divided into three broad categories; 
general instructional, educational games, 
and systems or applications training. Each 
program reviewed was placed in one of 
the categories and then measured by five 
criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, docu- 
mentation. appeal, and use of the PC. 

To be effective, a program must define 
its educational goals at the outset, either in 
the documentation or on the disk. It should 
demonstrate good organization, use rele- 
vant examples and practice exercises, and 
provide feedback to the user. An effective, 
well-designed program establishes its tar- 
get group by age. background, and level of 
expertise. If the program underestimates 
the ability of users it is aimed at. or if it is 
overambitious. it will not be effective. A 
misdirected program is a poor teacher. 

Efficient software is accurate and easy 
to use. Nothing destroys a user's resolve as 
quickly as a program that's difficult to use. 


or worse, one that won't run without self- 
generated errors. Software should move 
easily from display to display and lesson to 
lesson, and give the user some control over 
the sequence of exercises. 

Good documentation cannot save a bad 
program, but bad documentation can ruin 
a good one. Some software publishers still 
do not realize this. Good documentation is 
comprehensive, well organized, and writ- 
ten in clear, simple English rather than 
computerese. Programs listed in this re- 
view were rated lower if they failed to in- 
clude system configuration and start-up 
procedure. 

An efficient, well-documented pro- 
gram is worthless if no one likes to use it. 
One way to assure appeal is to design the 
program to be interactive, allowing users 
to exert some control over the learning 
process. Audio-visual features also con- 
tribute to a program's appeal. If the dis- 
play gives the user headaches, the pro- 
gram is a failure, even if everything else 
rates high. Legibility and organization of 
the display, interesting graphics, appropri- 
ate sound effects, and overall packaging 
also contribute to a program's appeal. 

The last criterion is the use of the PC. 
Does the program exhibit strong compati- 
bility? Does it make imaginative use of the 
PC's capabilities, including sound, graph- 
ics. function keys, and systems software? 


COMPUTER DISCOVERY 

Science Research Associates (SRA) 
155 N. Wacker Dr. 

Chicago, IL 60606 

1800) 621-0664 

List Price: $200 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive. 

color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 12 to 18 


Computer Discovery comes in two ver- 
sions: one for junior high school students 
and one for high school students. The ob- 
jective of both programs is to introduce 
basic computer concepts, including logi- 
cal analysis, programming, applications, 
and the history of computers. 

Contrary to what many novices may 
think, computer science is more than 
learning how to program. Technically 
competent coders may be able to pro- 
duce reams of adequate code, but getting 
the most out of a computer requires a 
firm grounding in all the aspects of com- 
puter science covered in this program. 

Computer Discovery has a lot more go- 
ing for it than thoroughness, however: it 
is a pleasure to use. The program is visu- 
ally appealing, makes good use of both 
color and graphics, and presents the 
course material in imaginative, interest- 
ing ways. The software and accompany- 


PC MAGAZINE 227 DECEMBER 1982 






biterested in the 
IBM Personal Computer? 



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J P f you’re interested 
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Computer then you 
need PC magazine. 

PC magazine is the 
Independent Guide to IBM 
Personal Computers. Each 
issue is packed with 
information for everyone 
interested in IBM Personal 
Computers. 

PC magazine tells you how 


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issue brings you hundreds of 
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insights, and straight talk 
from respected experts— 
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educators, and many others. 

PC covers software, 
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ing workbook are well integrated and the 
practice items maintain the student's in> 
terest. All of these features mean that us* 
ers are more likely to understand and re- 
member the material. 

Computer Discovery is one of the best 
introductions to computer science. The 
complete program takes 15 to 30 hours to 
complete but requires no previous 
knowledge of computers. The instruc- 
tor’s guide comes with learning objec- 
tives. potential projects, and a key to 
workbook assignments. The price in- 
cludes 20 student workbooks, a teacher's 
guide, and two disks. 

Computer Discovery does have a few 
minor glitches. When students complete 
an exercise, for example, they must re- 
turn to the main menu before going on to 
the next exercise. While this may be a 
good idea initially, it becomes tedious. 
The function keys could have been used 
more effectively, and adding sound to 
the program might have spiced up the 
package. But these complaints do not de- 
tract from the fact that this well-planned, 
well-packaged program is one of the best 
educational products on the market. 


THE SPEED READER 

Davidson & Associates 

6069 Groveoak PI. #14 

Rancho Palos Verdes. CA 90274 

(213) 378-7826 

List Price: $74.95 

Requires: 64K, two disk drives 

Age-group: 10 to adult 

Speed Reader teaches students to read 
faster and with greater comprehension. 
It combines excellent graphics and 
sound effects to lead students through a 
variety of self-paced practice exercises 
that offer immediate feedback in both 
speed and accuracy. 

The documentation clearly outlines 
the general principles of speed reading 
and offers a few exercises to illustrate 
each example. The program consists of 
four parts or lessons: letters and words, 
eye movement, reading columns, and 
reading passages. The only problem with 
the documentation is that it lacks detail 
when it describes the initial setup. 

Speed Reader is a practical program 
that systematically enhances reading 
skill. Increasing reading speed is a bene- 


fit for users who want to keep pace with 
today's expanding information world. 


TYPING TUTOR 

IBM Corporation 

Systems Products Division 

P.O. Box 1328 

Boca Raton, FL 33432 

List Price: $24.95 

Requires: 48K. one disk drive 

Age-group: 16 to adult 


Tj’ping Tutor emphasizes accuracy over 
speed. This program teaches the letters, 
numbers, and special functions of the PC 
keyboard. The program’s strength lies in 
its linear agenda, a step-by-step series of 
practice exercises. It also includes a fea- 
ture. dubbed the Time Response Moni- 
tor. that helps evaluate the student's pro- 
gress by keeping track of speed and 
accuracy, as well as introducing addi- 
tional keys when typing speed reaches 30 
wpm. 

Typing Tutor allows teachers to moni- 
tor up to 39 students. The program as- 
sumes that the teacher will develop and 


Readtt 

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PC MAGAZINE 229 DECEMBER 1982 


input typing tests, since none are includ- 
ed in the program. This characteristic has 
one advantage: the teacher can individ- 
ualize tests for each class. 

The program has a few curious omis- 
sions. The otherwise excellent documen- 
tation covers finger reach to the home 
keys only. The user must figure out the 
proper way to reach the other keys, l yp- 
ing Tutor's menu is not ver\’ flexible: it 
ignores the function keys. But even with 
this flaw. 'iVping 7’ulor is a useful tool for 
users who are new to the PC keyboard. 


VOCAB TEACHER 

The Moonware Company 
39 Sylvan Ln. 

Weston. MA 02193 
(617) 237-443-1 
List Price: $25 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 6 to adult 


Vocableacher is not an ordinarv’ vocabu- 
lary,' builder. This program allows teach- 
ers to create their own instructional 
units. It offers five basic options to facili- 
tate lesson planning: begin a session, cre- 
ate a lesson, erase a lesson, and create a 
special character set. 

Using these resources, a teacher who 
has no previous experience can set 100 
drill and practice sessions on various 
subjects: the answer and question struc- 
ture is not limited to language skills. 

Vocab Teacher does an excellent job 


of implementing the drill and practice 
formal. However, as a general authoring 
.system, the program lacks versatility. 
Students must follow the order of drills 
selected by the teacher. The program can 
assist the student, but the instructional 
path of a lesson cannot be changed. 

Th<> [)rogram uses some function keys 
and alternate character sets. Use of the 
color monitor is not advised, as it results 
in poor display quality. This is a short- 
coming: educational software should be 
al)lH to .su[)porl both monochrome and 
color monitors. Considering its modest 
price. Vocub Teacher is a practical class- 
ro(jm resource. 

Educational Games 


ARITHMETIC GAMES SET 1 

Science Research Associates (SRA) 
155 N. Wacker Dr. 

Chicago. IL 60606 
(800) 621-0664 
List Price: $65 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive. 

color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 10 to adult 


Arithmetic is a subject that is difficult to 
make appealing, but Arithmetic Gomes 
Set 1 manages to do just that. It employs a 
competitive game format that provides 
practice in the four basic arithmetic 


skills: addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion. and division. The program includes 
two games: i>oth make good use of the 
PC's graphics and sound capabilities. 

Users play Beano, a variation of 
bingo, by performing arithmetic on the 
two or three numbers rolled by comput- 
erized dice. Rockets uses a 15x15 grid on 
which students practice skills while 
moving a s[>aceship around the board. 
Both games allow individual students to 
compete against the computer or two stu- 
dents to compete. 

The only thing that kept this program 
from scoring straight A's was the inad- 
equate documentation. It does not in- 
clude clearly explained objectives and 
fails to give good examples. Although it 
has its shortcomings. Arithmetic Games 
Set 1 is a fun and instructive program. 


ARITHMETIC GAMES SET 2 

Science Research Associates |SRA) 
155 N. Wacker Dr. 

Chicago. IL 60606 
(800) 621-0664 
List Price: $65 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive. 

color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 10 to 16 


Like its predecessor. Arithmetic Games 
Set 2 livens up the dntdgerv’ of practicing 
the four basic arithmetic functions. The 
games in this set are dubbed Discovery 
Machine and Number Chase. The first 


^PCsof ^ware^. 



PC MAGAZINE 230 DECEMBER 1982 





ACTION, ADVENTURE, BRILLIANT COLOR GRAPHICS AND FLAWLESS 
ANIMATION. A GAME DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUR IBM PC. 


Requires IBM PC with 64K, one disk drive and color^raphics 
adapter. Joystick and game control adapter optional. 

Get in deep with your micro dealer or send check or money 
order for S39.95 to SOFT SPOT Micro Systems, Inc., RO. Box 
4 1 5, North Canton, CT 06059. Telephone: (203) 379-7047. 
Visa, MasterCard, COD accepted. Dealer inquiries invited. 


Micro Systems 





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Featuring up to five functions on tme board, the OMNl-board provides the capabilities of an expansion 
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• MEM-512 IBM PC compatible memory board expandable to S12KB in 64KB increments $329 

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The tel^one receptionist adapter coruiects directly into a modular phone Jack and provides a fully featured 
300/ 1 2w baud Bell 1 03/202 compatible modem with auto dial and auto answer. A voice synthesis unit and 
touch tone decoder provide interfaces for automatic telephone answering and remote data inpuL Audio and 
control outputs enable the IBM PC to function as a telephone answering machine. Configurable. 

• BSR-XIO** CONTROL MODULE $95 

This integrated module plu 0 into the DIN cassette connector of the IBM Personal Ccanputer and provides 
full remote control of 256 BSR appliance or switch modules and comes with sample software listing. 

• COLOR TO MONOCHROME INTERFACE CABLE MODULE $95 

Plugging conveniently between the IBM monochrome display and the RGB ctmnector of the IBM color 
graphics adapter, this integrated module gives you the capability to use all the graphics and character line 
matures of the IBM color graphics adapter with IBM monochrome display. *(Aemal photo above) 

• APPLE" JOYSTICK INTERFACE MODULE For 2 APPLE joysUcks $29 

• PROTOTYPING BOARD With bracket and DB25 connector provision $45 

ft TWO SLIMLINE DISK DRIVES plug into single IBM PC disk drive opening. Second drive 

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Dual sided/ dual density disk drive $349 Dual sided/quad density disk drive $449 


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9 DISKSAVER' PROGRAM $49 

This elegant utility program allows you to create backup copies of most software protected diskettes. It offers 
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ft PASCAL GRAPHICS LIBRARY $95 

This IBM PASCAL compatible library provides full access to the graphics of the IBM color graphics 
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shows a pair of numbers and a solution. 
The player tries to guess which arithme- 
tic function was applied. In the second 
game, players try to determine a secret 
number from numerical information 
provided by the program. 

Arithmetic Gomes Set 2 is highly inter- 
active and makes good use of sound and 
graphics. Its sole weakness is inadequate 
documentation. Overall, it’s an imagina- 
tive program that can take much of the 
pain out of learning arithmetic. 


MATH DRILLS I 

Starware 

1701 K St. NW #801 
Washington. DC 20006 
(2021 466-7351 
List Price: $25 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 6 to 16 


Does the J in the program title Moth 
Drills 1 mean that this program has only 
one thing going for it? Perhaps, because 
the only good part about the program is 
that it is easy to use. 

Documentation is minimal; it doesn’t 
include hardware requirements, a pro- 
gram explanation, or a lesson descrip- 
tion. For all practical purposes, the docu- 
mentation stops at “insert the disk.” 
Neither the packaging nor the program 
content are particularly appealing, the 
graphics are simple, and use of color is 
almost nonexistent. In short, the program 
fails to avail itself of many of the PC’s 
unique advantages. Other arithmetic 
programs will more effectively suit the 
user's needs. 


QUESTION 

Alpha Software Corp. 

12 New England Executive Park 
Burlington, MA 01803 
(617) 229-2924 
List Price: $45 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive, color 
monitor, dot matrix printer 
Age-group: 8 to 18 


Question uses an entertaining format to 
provide players with practice in remem- 
bering facts about various categories, 
such as cities, animals, and famous peo- 
ple. The player thinks of an item from 
listed topics, and the computer tries to 


PC MAGAZINE 232 DECEMBER 1982 




The World' s Best Data Base 

nt Sfyste muj^ ns^n more-micros | 


and minis than any other DBMSF9 



Computers courtes> of Computer Mart Ann Arbor. Ml 


Why not have the World's 
Best DBMS for your computer? 
Choose MDBS III. 

MDBS III runs on hundreds of 
computers including; 

• IBM Personal Computer • IMS 

• DYNABVrE • ALTOS 

•TRS-80 Model II •PDP-11 

•APPLE II •WICAT 

MDBS III is the most powerful and flexible 
DBMS for micros and minis. 

Based on the latest innovations, MDBS III 
is the only DBMS— in the mainframe, mini, 
or micro world— that surpasses relational, 
hierarchical and CODASYL data structures, 

MDBS III— The cost/performance 
leader 

MDBS III can usually cut application 
development time by 80% . Its many devel- 
oper-friendly features provide the key to rapid 
dwelopment of flexible, high performance 
applications. 

High Power— Defines data structures naturally 
and conveniently without relational redun- 
dancies, thereby assuring data base Integrity. 
Allows direct named representation of many- 
to-many and recursive relationships. 

Increased Productivity— Powerful conversa- 
tional query system. Generates reports 


automatically In response to simple non- 
procedural statements. Supports virtual 
tabular end-user views, without costly data 
redundancies. 

Improved Protection— Encryption, password 
assignment and read/write restrictions down 
to the held level. Crashed data bases may be 
recovered automatically without data re-entry 
through special transaction logging and 
recovery. 

Extensive Portability— Applications are easily 
transported across hardware environments 
—allowing a single, uniform approach to 
application development 


Operating Systems and Machine 
Environments 


CP/M.MP/M: Z80 GMIX XEMDCetc.: Z8000 


MSDOS; 


IBM PCDOS: 8088 


8080 

68000 

8085 

8086 

8086 

PDP-11 

8088 RSX-llM: 

PDP-11 

8086 TURBODOS: 

Z80 

TRSDOS (II): 

Z80 


Developed by: 

Micro Data Base Systems, one of the 
world s leading software R&D firms, 
creators of SCREEN MASTER, 

C and other fine software products. 


( 2 ) 


Offered by: 

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Enterprises, an inter- 
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the world's leading software and consulting 
firms, providing developer-friendly tools 
for building user-friendly applications. 



To find out whether your computer runs 
MDBS III, contact: 


In the (J.S. and Canada 
ISE-GSA 

65 West Algonquin Road. Suite 400 
Arlington Heights. IL 60005 
(312) 577-6^ 


In the United Kingdom and Ireland 
ISE-R\CTEL dl -828-7744 


In VW?st Germany 

ISE-ADV/ORGA 089-192-071 (72.73) 
In France 

ISE-CEGOS 620 61 61 
In Sweden 

ISE-DATEMA 08 83 4020 


In liorway 

ISE-DATEMA 02 670880 
In Finland 

ISE-TIETOTEHDAS 0-5261 
In Switzerland and Austria 
ISE-ADV/ORQA 041-2323 60/61 
ELSEWHERE 

ISE-INTERNA710NAL (317)463-4561 



Processor Operating Systenx 

PSame 


ISE-aSA. Inc. 

85 West Algonquin Road, Suite 400 

Arlington Heights, IL 60005 

□ Please have an authorized ISE-GSA Sales 
Representative contact me. 

□ Send set(s) of complete docu- 

mentation ($100 plus $10 shipping and 
handling per set).* 

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□ Send free brochure. 

Prices subiect to change without notice. 


Title Phone< ) 

Cftfripany 



rTty SJMits ?ip 

□ Check enclosed DVISA □ MasterCard 

Card Nn Firpirarifvn Date 

'Indiana Residents add 4% Sales Tax. 

MDBS ni. SCREEN MASTER and C are Trademarks of Micro Data Base Systems. Inc. DYNABYTE is a Registered Trademark of 
DYTtABYTE; APPL£ D of APPLE; ALTOS of ALTOS; CP/M, MP/M of Digital Research; TRS-80. TRSDOS of "^dy; MSDOS. XENIX of 
Microsoft UNIX of Western Electric: RSX-I1M. PDf^l I of Digital Equipment IBM PC. PCDOS of IBM: Z60 of ZUog. TURBODOS of 
Software 2000: IMS of Industrial Micro Systems. 



The Pro-Comp Business System integrates all of 
the financial needs of the small business into a 
USER FRIENDLY MENU DRIVEN financial 
accounting system. 

The Pro-Comp Business System is faster, less 
than two second retrieval of any record, and 
eliminates tedious double entries. 

No long sorts or updates as files are sorted and 
updated automatically as entered. 

The Pro-Comp Business System is written using 
IBM DOS and Extended Basic. The system 
requires a minimum of 128K of Ram, two disk 
drives, a 132 column printer, monitor and 
firmware protection card (supplied with 
software). 


in-te-gra-tion 

The act or an instance of combining into an integrai whole. 

Making up, combining, or completing to produce a whole or larger unit. 


The Pro-Comp 
Business System on 
5" single sided diskettes 

only $ 1195 . 00 . 


Accounts Payable 

Multiple account dispersion 
Automatically takes earned discounts 
Produces checks and register 

Ledger 

Fully referenced general journal 
Can be up dated anytime 
Comprehensive Profit and Loss statements 


Inventory Control 

Includes Point of Sales 
Produces re-order report 



Payroll 

Accepts most deductions 
Processes multiple types of pay 
Withholds Federal, state and local 

Accounts Receivable 

Grants earned discounts 
Applies interest on past due accounts 
Generates bank deposit 


pro comp internotionol 


Pro-Comp brings integration to the printer buffer. 

You simply plug it into any microcomputer with a Centronics compatibie 
parallel interface and immediately expand your output by four. 


• Printer selection and 
online/offline condition is 
displayed with the use of 
LED’s. 

• Pro-Comp’s Controiler IV 
uses its own power supply. 

• Buffer condition is displayed 
using four LED’s represent- 
ing one quarter of usabie 
memory. 

• Pro-Comp’s Controlier IV 
comes standard with 16K of 
dynamic ram upgradable to 
64K. 



CONTROLLER IV 

The Sophisticated Printer Buffer 

• 16K Parallel input version ...$349.00. 


• You now command up to 
four printers. Controlier IV 
gives you two parallei and 
two serial outputs. 

• Printer selection is switch- 
able or program selectable. 

• Pro-Comp will soon be 
releasing the serial input 
version of Controller IV. 


New Products from Pro-Comp International 
Suita B-IOS 

32700 Pacific Hwy. So. 

Federal Way, Wa. 9S003 
(206) 271-1710 


D( 


id OEM Inquirloa invitad 





A UDIO-VISUAL 

features contribute to 
a program's appeal. 

guess the item by asking questions. The 
program also allows users to design their 
own programs. 

Question features an extensive data 
base that includes almost 200 animal 
names. The program’s response time is 
fast and the documentation is thorough 
and concise. Part of the introductory in- 
formation comes on an audiocassette 
tape, an innovation unique among the 
programs reviewed. 

Question makes good use of the PC’s 
capabilities. It has imaginative graphics 
and sensible keyboard commands. 


T.E.L 

Computrickx, Inc. 

533 Fifth St. 

Santa Rosa. CA 95401 
(707) 542-5335 
List Price; $40 

Requires: 64K. two disk drives. 

color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 8 to 16 


T.E.L (Teach. Enjoy, Learn) is a variation 
of 20 Questions. The program prompts 
users to ask questions about various cate- 
gories such as “cities of the world.” Stu- 
dents learn to make relevant inquiries 
about distinguishing features such as lo- 
cation. population, geography, and city 
government. 

The program is easy to use but suffers 
from omissions, design flaws, and poor 
documentation. The manual needs more 
examples of the program’s capabilities 
and procedures. The data base is so small 
that users are compelled to create their 
own. Compared with other software in 
this category, the packaging, screen qual- 
ity. and use of sound are inadequate. 
Graphics are nonexistent. 

T.E.L.'s use of the PC’s capabilities is. 
in short, primitive. Alpha Software’s 
Question would be a better choice for us- 
ers interested in this kind of educational 
gameware. 


SNOOPER TROOPS: THE 
DISAPPEARING DOLPHIN 

Spinnaker Software 
215 First St. 

Cambridge. MA 02142 
(617) 868-4700 
List Price: $44.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive. 

color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 10 to adult 

Snooper Troops challenges players to 
solve the mystery of “Who stole the dol- 
phin?” Players must collect clues as the 
program proceeds and store the informa- 
tion in an accompanying booklet. The 
program makes imaginative use of this 
format to provide practice in note-taking, 
organizing information, and reasoning. 

Players collect clues by traveling over 
a simulated landscape, stopping at var- 
ious residences to ask questions, entering 
buildings to photograph evidence, mak- 
ing telephone calls at designated times, 
and collecting messages. This is not a 
short game; playing time averages 12 
hours. Fortunately, the designers have 
made provisions for players to log off and 
reenter the game at the same point. 

Players won’t stay away for too 
long— this program is just too enticing. 
With its clear and well-packaged docu- 
mentation. complemented by excellent 
graphics, color, sound, and an imagina- 
tive story line. Snooper Troops is the 
game against which other educational 
games must be judged. 


WORD CHALLENGE 

Proximity Devices Corporation 
3511 N.E. 22nd Ave. 

Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33308 
(305) 565-2188 
List Price; $39.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 10 to adult 


Word Challenge, a spelling game similar 
to the popular game Boggle, asks the user 
to find as many words as possible in a 
square with 9. 16. or 25 boxes. Each box 
provides a clue by revealing one letter at 
the game's outset. Users play against the 
computer and score one point for each 
word identified. The computer also 


earns one point for each correct identifi- 
cation. Players are given the opportunity 
to verify the spelling of their choices. 

Word Challenge achieves a high level 
of interactivity and offers many clear ex- 
amples. The most impressive feature of 
the game is the size of its vocabulary; it 
packs close to 90,000 words in its lexicon. 
These attributes tend to keep the user’s 
interest despite the below-average 
screen display and limited use of sound 
(an occasional beep). The documentation 
does not provide detailed procedures for 
setting up the program. However. Word 
Challenge is an entertaining and effec- 
tive tool for practicing word identifica- 
tion and spelling. 

Systems and 
Applications 
Training 

ATI POWER FOR IBM PC-DOS 

America Training International 
3800 Highland Ave. #300 
Manhattan Beach. GA 90266 
(213) 546-4725 
List Price: $75 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 16 to adult 


ATI Power is designed to teach students 
how to use PC-DOS commands. It covers 
the basic steps necessary to fire up the 
system, monitor available space, and 
perform certain maintenance opera- 
tions. The DOS commands covered are; 
DIR. ERASE. TYPE. RENAME. COPY. 
BATCH. CHKDSK. EDLIN. DISCOPY. 
DISKCOMP. FORMAT, and SYS. The 
manual includes a troubleshooting guide 
that shows common error messages and 
remedies. 

ATI Power could be improved by the 
inclusion of a Help option. Other than 
that, the program is easy to use. and al- 
lows the student to select either a tutorial 
or a review of specific commands. The 
documentation lacks a discussion of sys- 
tem configuration but is otherwise excel- 
lent. A7'l Power could make better use of 
graphics and would also benefit from 
better packaging. 


PC MAGAZINE 235 DECEMBER 1982 





jREAlZCRS— you 'II find it super 

easy to locate the products and services you 
need. Categories have been expanded, and 
listings have been simplified. The new 
Directory is a quick and comprehensive 
“yellow pages" that will save you time and 
effort locating the programs, hardware and 
services you need. 

AD^^EBTISEBS— you'll find 
that our new Directory is well targeted and 
economical. You’ll never find a better way to 
test the market for a new product, or to 
cross-reference your display ads in PC. The 
new format improves the readability of your 
listing, and the expanded coverage of the 
Directory increases your readership. 

To place a listing in the new directory, call PC’s Directory Department 
at 212-725-4215. Listings cost $125 per issue. 


This is a fairly good tutorial simula- 
tion of PC-DOS for the first-time user 
and is recommended for novices who 
wish to unravel the mysteries of PC- 
DOS. 


BBASIC 

Computrickx. Inc. 

533 Fifth St. 

Santa Rosa. CA 95401 
(707) 542-5335 
List Price: $130 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive. BASICA, 
color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 16 to adult 


BBASfC uses a simplified version of BA- 
SIC to introduce students to program- 
ming. It makes BASIC less overwhelm- 
ing by breaking it down into 13 units. 
Besides an introduction, it includes les- 
sons on immediate and deferred modes, 
disk manipulations, variables and input, 
branching and loops, simple graphics, 
subscripted variables, flow charting, 
conditional branching, subroutines, ar- 
rays. nested loops, and debugging. 

The screen gets crowded at times, and 
the program s flashing messages can be- 
come annoying. In most respects, howev- 
er. BBAS/C makes use of appealing 
graphics that engage the user. The docu- 
mentation provides most of the neces- 
sarv’ information, but users will need to 
supplement it with reference books. 
Novices will probably find BBASfC use- 
ful and informative. 


D.B. POWER 

American Training International 
3800 Highland Ave, ^f300 
Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 
(213) 546-4725 
List Price: $75 

Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 16 to adult 


D.B. Power professes to give an introduc- 
tory education to dBase II. Unfortunate- 
ly. it’s hardly up to the task. This program 
simply does not have enough content for 
the price. Considering that prospective 
students are first-time users of a data 
base. D.B. Power lacks adequate exam- 
ples in the various categories. For in- 
stance. it demonstrates how to sort via 
ZIP codes, an easy sort routine. It stops 


PC MAGAZINE 2S6 DECEMBER 1982 




ANATRON MULTIFUNCTION RAM BOARD 

For IBM Personal Computer 

64K, 128K, 192K, or 256K Bytes With Parity 


standard Features 


Socketed for easy memory expansion 
Base address selectable on any 64K boundary 
Two RS232 ports configured as COM I and COM2 
Parallel printer port may be configured 


as LPT1 or LPT2 or LPT3 


Each port may be individually disabled 
All features fully compatible with IBM PC 


$450 



EVERYTHING FOR THE PC 

HARDWARE 


SOFTWARE 

• Disk Drives: 


• Condor DBMS 

Single Sided [ 1 60 kb] 

$239.00 

• Ed-Word' Screen Editor/Word Processor 

Double Sided [320 kb] 

$300.00 

• NECPRINT (NEC 8023AC print utility] 

• RAM Expansion Packages for 


• GRAPHDUMP 

Mother Board [16 kb] 

$25.00 


Memory Expansion Board [64 kb] . - 

$130.00 

Prices rcfliKl 3% Cas/) Discount 

• Printers [NEC, EPSON, OKIDATA] 

• Monitors [NEC, TEKO,AMDEK] 

$CALL 

. . .$CALL 

More hardware and software coming. 

• Diskettes [3M^,"Tj';'“lal 

. . .$CALL 

Call for details. 

• Extension Cables for: 



Printer 

$CALL 


Monitor [two cable set) 

$CALL 


Keyboard 

-$CALL 




AEGIS SYSTEMS 


P.O. Box 401 
Terms FOB Saline 

Copv" 


202 West Bennett Street, Saline, Michigan 48176 


Hours 9 a.m. — 5 p.m. E.S.T. 


1-800 521-0S( 
Michigan [3131429-28! 






Teamed with 

the right software, 
personal computers 
can be excellent 
instructional tools. 


short there, without even mentioning the 
other descriptors one might use for sort* 
ing. The program claims that “the power 
of a data base management system is that 
it allows you to organize information." 
This is a reasonable statement, but it 
would also seem reasonable to include 
•more than one example of ways to ac- 
complish this task. 

D.B. Power has problems wherever 
you turn. To proceed from one segment 
or operation to the next requires return- 
ing to DOS and logging on— a rather silly 
and arduous procedure for a program of 
this type. The documentation discusses 
the cause of various errors, but it neglects 
to mention how to correct them. It also 
fails to describe the system configuration 
or to provide a useful list of dBase II ap- 
plications. 

The screen output, lacking both color 
and graphics, is a disappointment. It dis- 
plays text only. The program does not use 
the cursor or the function keys, although 
they would seem to be particularly ap- 
propriate for this purpose. 


THE INSTRUaOR 

Individual Software, Inc. 

24 Spinnaker PI. 

Redwood City, CA 94065 
|415| 591-4166 
List Price: $39.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 14 to adult 

The Instructor is the’best software-for- 
mat introduction to the PC around. It al- 
lows users to interact freely with the 
computer while presenting them with 
many good examples and practice exer- 
cises. In just a few hours newcomers can 
feel comfortable and familiar with the 
PC, confident of their ability to use a new 
tool. 


The Instructor's use of color, sound, 
and screen organization provides ap- 
pealing and effective lessons. One minor 
glitch: The color version is difficult to 
read with the monochrome display. The 
documentation package is superb — one 
of the best in the business. It is very well 
integrated with the software. The mix be- 
tween disk and documentation is just 
right. The incorporation of a dictionary 
and reference aid in the software con- 
tributes to this excellent program's ease 
of use. 


KEYBOARD 

Compulrickx, Inc. 

533 Fifth St. 

Santa Rosa, CA 95401 
(707) 542-5335 
List Price: $40 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive, 
color/graphics adapter 
Age-group: 16 to adult 


Keyboard is a very limited program. It 
attempts to teach users more than they 
ever wanted to know about the PC key- 
board by presenting a step-by-step intro- 
duction to each key. an example of its 
application, and a practice drill. If this 
sounds a little boring, it is. Though easy 
to use, the program forces the student to 
proceed in lock-step through the entire 
program. Better use of graphics would 
have helped, as would the use of color, 
sound, or the function keys. The graphics 
that are presented are clear, but they 
don't save the program. 


MENU-POWER 

American Training International 
3800 Highland Ave. #300 
Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 
(213) 546-4725 
List Price: $49 

Requires: 64K, one disk drive 
Age-group: 16 to adult 


Menu-Power is an excellent introduction 
to WordStar for the newcomer who 
wants to plunge right in with hands-on 
experience. The program is very easy to 
use and offers plenty of good examples 
and practice exercises. It is also flexible: 
the user has the option of either follow- 
ing a programmed introduction or using 


a menu to pick and choose among the 
eight lessons. 

Menu-Power has a few problems. 
Screen quality is poor to the point of be- 
ing confusing. The screen tends to be- 
come cluttered with text. It is sometimes 
hard to tell whose menu — WordStar's or 
Menu-Power’s — is being shown. And it 
lacks an eas>' method of selecting menu 
options. The documentation, which is 
otherwise clearly written, neglects to 
clarify the correct system configuration. 

Menu-Power nonetheless offers a 
good, quick introduction to WordStar. It 
lacks lessons on some of WordStar’s 
more sophisticated commands (center- 
ing. chaining, print options, scrolling], 
but according to the manufacturer, these 
will be available on an advanced pro- 
gram called Command Power. Buyers 
should evaluate their own requirements 
to determine which of the two packages 
best suits their needs. 


PC TUTOR 

Comprehensive Software Support 

P.O. Box 90833 

Los Angeles. CA 90009 

(213) 370-6355 

List Price: $79.95 

Requires: 64K, two disk drives 

Age-group: 16 to adult 


PC Tutor attempts to familiarize novices 
with the IBM PC. Because its objective is 
appropriately modest, it generally suc- 
ceeds. It makes good use of graphics, col- 
or, and the function keys to take the stu- 
dent through a number of topics, 
including computer concepts, disks, files 
and devices, and DOS commands. It also 
introduces advanced topics such as so- 
phisticated commands. 

With its solid documentation, PC Tu- 
tor should satisfy most first-time users 
who strive to become familiar with the 
PC in a painless manner. /PC 

In 1978, Ronald Axteli and Richard Walk- 
er received doctorates in instructional 
psychology from Brigham Young Univer- 
sity in Provo, Utah. Currently, both serve 
as adjunct faculty members at National 
University in San Diego. Axteli is also a 
project area manager at Courseware, Inc.; 
Walker is director of the Electronic Pub- 
lishing Group and a senior technical advi- 
sor at the same company. 


PC MAGAZINE 238 DECEMBER 1982 





The Universal Operating System! 
Finally you don’t have to repeat yourself. 


There was a time when, if you wanted to develop 
applications for more than one micro, you had to sink 
si^ficant time and money into reprogramming. Time 
after time. 

With the UCSD p-System* from Sofifech Micro- 
systems, the industry s only Universal Operating 
System, those days are over. Whether its an IBM PC 
or Displaywriter, an Apple, a DEC, an HR an Osborne, 
a Philips, a Sage, a Thndy, or a TI, the p-System is 
portable across virtually any micro made anywhere 
today. 

At last, increase your productivity. 

Because the programming you do is portable 
and reusable. Every time. Rir every micro. So you can 
broaden your customer base quickly. Because the 
p-System runs the same object code programs on vir- 
tually all 8 and 16-bit micros. 

know how much work you put into 
programming, so the p-System 
allows you to reuse program com- 


ponents. At last, you can use programs and utilities 
over and over again— instead of writing them over 
and over again. In fact, as much as 50% of the code 
used in one application can be reused on others. 

Designed to be timeless. 

With the p-System, youll never have to worry 
about locking yourself into an OS that will some day lock 
you out of the market. Because the p-S 3 ^tem’s effi- 
cient, advanced design will let you grow with tomorrow’s 
hardware, and let you continue to expand your 
product line. 

You can develop higher quality applications faster, 
less expensively, more dependably and more efficiently. 
Fbr the entire market. 

All at the same time. All on one micro. 

Finally, once really is enough. 

fbr product information or information on 
how to get a copy of the p-System Applica- 
tion Catalog, call or write to us 
at Sofifech Microsystems. 


Finally, 
Once is Enough 


Th« p-Systero (or the IBM PC c»n be purchased from IBM product centers or through your nearest retail outlet. 

Soflbch Microsystems • 16885 ^^fest Bernardo Drive • San Diego, Calif. 92127 ■ (714) 451-1230 

'Universal Operating System ia a trademark of Soflbch Microsystems Inc. UCSD p-System ia a trademark of the Regents of the University of California 





*•**'»' 


Plenty of other manufacturers have LAN's on their 
drawing boards. 

At Novell we approached the network problem with 
a broad vision which led to a new perspective. That 
perspective, in short couples a 16/32 bit processor, 
memory, and a sophisticated network operating system. 

We call the system NOLAN. * 

At its heart is Motorola's MC68000 micro processor, 
512 K-Bytes random access memory, and a highly tuned 
management software system, designed to maximize 
through-put to network users. With that perspective 
NOLAN gives you a true on-line, real-time, multi- 
user,system with negligible thru put degradation on 24 
simultaneous complies. 


NOLAN is capable of concurrently supporting up to 
24 work stations while maintaining a sophisticated file 
sharing/locking system, and simultaneously spooling 
up to five printers. 

IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER and CP/M micro com- 
puter nodes can be intermixed at will on the NOLAN 
network while maintaining a common file or data base, 
such as MOBS. 

If you're caught in our information-based society 
trying to manage more and more information, then 
NOLAN'S perspective is your answer. 

By design, NOLAN delivers main-frame/minl-per- 
formance while keeping hardware one-third to one- 
half the cost. 

That's perspective! 

Give us a call so we can show you NOLAN'S 
problem-solving perspective; 800-453-1267. 


NOVELL DATA SYSTEMS 
800-453-1267 
1 1 70 N. Industrial Park Drive 
Orem. UT 84057 
Telex 669 401 AIR COURS PHX 

• NOVELL'S LOCAL AREA NETWORK 

Novell producu are serviced by GE INSTRUMENTATION COMPUTER SERVICE 

CE(M 15 4 tHdem^d* o( Qiaiial gese^cp WOKEI I Ddl§ n 3 l«EEQI l§KD ICIIWIIEIC5 comosoi 









SOFTWARE/ARLENE ). BERLIN 


The Best Little Programs 


In Texas 


With games and personal finance programs, this 
all-in-one package is a great introduction to the PC. 


Friendly Ware— 

PC /nlroductory Set 
FriendlySoft. Inc. 

213 Pebblebrook 
Arlington. TX 76014 
(817) 277-9378 
List Price: $49.95 
Requires: 64K. one disk drive 
Age-group: 8 to adult 
Number of Players: One 


What do you do when your cousin Cla- 
rence from Kalamazoo wants to see what 
your new PC system can do; your spouse, 
tired of losing you to the computer, wants 
to join in the fun; or your 10-year-old, who 
has a computer in school, wants to learn 
all about it? FriendlySoft. Inc., of Texas 
has come up with an answer: Friendly 
Ware— PC Introductory Set. For $49.95 
you get three disks containing three per- 
sonal finance and 27 game programs and a 
well-prepared reference book. 

From Games to Personal Finance 

The first disk contains a program called 
Introduction to the PC. Since it is present- 
ed as a story, you need do nothing more 
than read the displays to understand what 
computers are all about. The disk also in- 
cludes a novel vision and hearing test pro- 
gram and six good games: Mastermind. 
Nevada Dice. Sea-Battle. Hangman, Tic- 
tac-toe. and Killer Maze (a three-dimen- 
sional game challenging enough to drive 
anybody insane). 

The second disk features ten more 
games, from Blackjack to Othello and 
Golf. It also includes a personal bior- 
hythms program and a program to aid in 
predicting the outcome of sports events 
based on biorhythms. 

The final disk contains personal fi- 


nance and business simulation programs. 
Check Register, a personal finance pro- 
gram. is an excellent tool for help in main- 
taining a checkbook. Similar analytical 
programs include the calculation of Pres- 
ent and/or Future Value, Break Even 
Analysis, and Amortization Analysis. The 
Business Simulation program takes you 
through all of the terminology and transac- 
tions necessary for keeping a set of ac- 
counting documents. If you are unfamiliar 
with accounting, this program will provide 
an excellent introduction to the basics. 

The reference book was intentionally 
prepared by someone who was unfamiliar 
with computers before being exposed to 
the programs on the Friendly Ware disk. 
Consequently, the instructions for doing 
such things as backing up the disk are ex- 
tremely well written and leave no ques- 
tions even for the novice. Several pages of 


the manual are devoted to '*A Little Histo- 
ry,” a brief but interesting overview of the 
history of computers. There is also a dis- 
cussion on the IBM Personal Computer, 
operating systems, memory and storage, 
languages, and disk organization. A short 
section subtitled “Anatomy of a Program 
— Inside Mastermind” gives a detailed ex- 
planation of sections of the program. This 
is done in terms everyone can understand. 

The programs are user-friendly and 
self-prompting with built-in instructions. 
If you give a wrong command when using 
the software, for example, the program 
clearly tells you what to do. Because of 
such clarity. little printed material is re- 
quired to explain the programs. A few sim- 
ple paragraphs describe how each pro- 
gram works and some of the assumptions 
made, such as in Nevada Dice. The whole 
manual is contained in a small, padded, 



PC MAGAZINE 241 DECEMBER 1982 



NEC 

12" Color RGB Monitor 

When it comes to resolution the NEC 

matches the IBM and surpasses the 

AMDEK Color-ll. 

• The NEC’s high (690 x 230) resolution 
matches IBM’s (640 x 200) resolution 

• The AMDEK Color-ll’s resolution (560 
X 260) does not match IBM’s resolution 
(640 X 200) 

• 80 characters with 25 lines 

• Includes cable and Intensity 
modification for 16 color capability 


Sony Profeel 

19" Color RGB Display 

At last, Trinitron color is now available on 

an IBM compatible display. 

• Large, easily readable display (possible 
to read 80 columns at 10') 

• Perfect solution to programmers’ eye 
strain 

• Store front and classroom displays 

• Includes cable and intensity 
modification for 16 color capability 

• Also available in 25" Sony Profeel 


AMERICAN COMPUTER PRODUCTS also Offers the finest In graphics software and 
hardware add-on products for your IBM PC. Call today for Information or to order: 305-263-7166. 


American Computer Products, Inc. 

7120 S.W. 48th Lane, Miami, Florida 33155 • (305) 263-7166 



'Sony Ptolsel and Trinitmn are reg/sfered trademarks ot 
the Sony Com. of America. IBM is a registered 
tmdemarkal International Business li^hines < 




three-ring binder. 

Use of Graphics 

These programs have to be seen to be 
appreciated: they have fantastic graphics, 
all done on the monochrome display. A 
color graphics card is not required. Excel- 
lent graphics representations are achieved 
by using character graphics with various 
attributes such as reverse video. 

General Appeal 

The games on both the first and second 
disks are excellent, and the finance pro- 


PERSON 
claims that with 
the Check Register 
program he was able 
to uncover the 
source of an error 
in his checkbook that 
had plagued him 
for months. 


grams are instructive and helpful. One 
person claims that with the Check Regis- 
ter program he was able to uncover the 
source of an error in his checkbook that 
had plagued him for months. Both fun and 
interesting, these programs deliver all 
they promise. 

The only disappointment with this 
package is that there is no warranty if the 
programs prove defective. The risk is en- 
tirely the user’s. 


Do You Use a Printer or Modem? 

The average microcomputer "moves" data at 
120,000 characters a second. A typical disk drive 
transfers it at 27,000 CPS. Most printers however 
plod along at 100 CPS and many modems squeak out 
30 CPS. That’s quite a drop in efficiency not to 
mention a waste of 
computing power! 

We’ve broken 
this bottleneck 

with a smart little , 

"white" box called the PRINTER OPTIMIZER that 
features a 64,000 to 256,000 character memory 
buffer. Now you can "print" your inventory in 2 
seconds instead of 10 minutes, and no longer will 
your computer be tied up transmitting or receiving 
modem transmissions. The OPTIMIZER is smart 
too. You'll notice a keypad and display in our 
picture. You can tell the OPTIMIZER to convert 
data, send control sequences, pause on cue, and 
more. For example: access all of your printer's 
capabilities (graphics, font size, forms control, 
special symbols) with the ease of selecting a 
station on a pushbutton car radio. Use it to adapt 
an XYZ printer to your ABC computer running a 
PDQ word processing program. Run a serial print- 
er or modem from a parallel port . If you can afford 
and justify a disk drive, then you certainly need 
our OPTIMIZER to bring your printer, plotter or 
modem "up to speed" with the rest of your system. 


If You Need A Letter Quality Printer 


. . .then consider our affordable ^ 

yet high quality alternative. Our MEDIAMIX ETI* 
converts an IBM Electronic Typewriter (and some 
other brands) into a computer printer. Every 
office needs a typewriter. So for example, you can 
buy an IBM Model 50 ET that costs about $1200 and 
have a superior typewriter, and then with our 
ETP have a printer that produces probably the 
highest quality printed image available. You can 
even do typesetting like this ad! And for financial 
printing you can’t beat a wide carriage IBM ET. 
It’s a truly cost effective investment. There are a 
number of arguments in favor of choosing this 
route over a single use computer printer, and we 
have an article on this subject you should read . 




Getting Your Money’s Worth 

Introductory’ Set is not one of those dis- 
appointing packages advertised as "100 
Basic Programs for $1.00 Each it is highly 
recommended and sure to please. The on- 
ly surprise is that it doesn’t cost more than 
it does. /PC 


Arlene J. Berlin recently turned an 8-year 
hobby in microcomputing into a career. 
Her company. Software 'n Stuff, in Dallas, 
Texas, sells software strictly for the IBM 
PC. 


We apply technology creatively, with insight 
and with respect for the non-technical end user. 
Feel welcome to write or call our toll free number 
for more information. 

APPLIED 

CREATIVE 

TECHNOLOGY. INC. 


2723 Avenue E East, Suite 71 7 
Arington, Texas 7601 1 
(01 7]-26 1-6905 

(600]-433-5373 copvwomt ve2 


PC MAGAZINE 24S DECEMBER 1982 







Communications Software 


why do people prefer E/LYNG to programs selling for five times the cost? 


E/LWVC $45 

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* Interact with lime*share systems using phone modem 

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E/LYNC and LYNC are licensed on a per user basis. If you intend to use K/LYN(! or LYNC to communicate with another person, they must also 
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BUSINESS/JEREMY lOAN HEWES 


The Federal Reserve Bank offers on-line services to 
banks in nine Western states and provides PCs to 
participants. 


FedLine: 
The Bankers' 
Bank Installs 
The PC 


By January 1983, at least 100 financial in- 
stitutions in the Western United States 
will be using FedLine. a new service of- 
fered by the 12th District of the Federal 
Reserve Bank (commonly called the Fed). 
Each of those institutions will be using an 
IBM PC to "talk" to the Fed. 

FedLine is designed specifically for 
small- and medium-sized banks, savings 
and loans, and credit unions— institutions 
that previously lacked the computing pow- 
er or the volume of transactions to justify 
going on-line with the Federal Reserve 
Bank. Now these more modest financial 
institutions can communicate with the 
Fed’s mainframe computers as the big 
banks have been doing for years. 

The FedLine service would be a sig- 
nificant development in banking even 
without its most innovative feature— the 
IBM PC. In a notable departure from the 
conservative behavior that has been the 
hallmark of the Federal Reserve Bank, 
this institution has bought dozens of PCs 
and is leasing them to FedLine partici- 
pants at the impressively low cost of $175 
per month. Even more impressive, per- 


haps. is that the Fed has invited all its Fed- 
Line customers to use their PCs as they 
please whenever they’re not on-line. 

Alternative Access 

John F. Hoover, vice president of Fi- 
nancial Services for the Fed’s 12th Dis- 


The FED 

has bought dozens of 
PCs and is leasing 
them to FedLine 
participants. 

trict. explains the program this way: "We 
wanted to design inexpensive, alternative 
access for small- and medium-sized banks 
so that we could give them the same ser- 
vices as the larger banks do with their 
computers or direct-line terminals. After 
looking at a number of possibilities, from 


dumb terminals to small micros, we decid- 
ed on the IBM PC." 

Before FedLine came along, financial 
institutions had three options for transact- 
ing business with the Fed: communicating 
through their own mainframe computers; 
renting a dedicated terminal and special 
data line (for $600 to $700 per month); or 
using an off-line means of communica- 
tion— the telephone or Telex— to contact 
the Fed's wire room, where Federal Re- 
serve staffers would execute the transac- 
tion. With the addition of FedLine and the 
PC network, access to the Fed’s services is 
more attractive for small banks. 

As Hoover notes. "The first application 
we’re going to have on this is wire transfer. 
Our typical customers have about 20 to 30 
wire transfers a day. The break-even point 
for them in computing our off-line trans- 
action cost versus our on-line cost is about 
four to five transfers a day. So it’s really 


/ohn F. Hoover, (right) vice-president of the 
Financial Services for the Federal Reserve 
Bunk's 12th district. 


PC MAGAZINE 246 DECEMBER 1982 



cost-effective." Considering that the off- 
line charge for a transfer is at least $4.75 
and that the on-line cost for the same ser- 
vice is only 65t, it's easy to see how the 
savings in transfer charges would quickly 
offset the $175 per month to lease the PC. 

The Banking Marketplace 

Obviously the FedLine service is good 
for participants, but it’s also very good for 
the Fed. The program was developed as 
one response to the Monetary Control Act 


J.EDLINE 
and its low-cost PC 
could bring many 
small institutions into 
the Fed's fold. 


of 1980, which opened access to the Feder> 
al Reserve Bank’s services to any financial 
institution that accepts deposits. This law 
added savings and loans and credit unions 
to the base of potential customers for the 
Fed. In the 12th District (California, Or- 
egon. Washington, Nevada. Utah, Idaho. 
Arizona. Alaska, and Hawaii), this group 
includes more than 4,000 institutions, most 
of which had previously found other ways 
of obtaining the same services now avail- 
able to them from the Fed. 

In the past the Fed’s services were free 
for members, but membership was costly; 
in fact, until the 1980 law went into effect, 
fewer than 150 banks in the Western Dis- 
trict were Federal Reserve members. Now 
the Fed is allowed to charge a fee. compa- 
rable to what a private firm would charge, 
for each service. So the Federal Reserve 
Bank needs customers— small and large— 
to operate cost-effectively itself. FedLine 
and its low-cost PC could bring many 
small institutions into the Fed’s fold rather 
than having these institutions pay large 
commercial banks to provide them with 
the same services. 

So far. the institutions targeted for this 
service have responded enthusiastically, 
lohn Hoover recalls that when FedLine 
was in the testing stages during july and 
August, his staff took an informal survey to 
gauge interest in the project. "We asked 
around the district and, without doing any 


marketing at all, found that we could easi- 
ly sign up 200 customers by year's end. It’s 
a product that almost sells itself, because 
when the PC is not accessing Fed services, 
a bank can use it for a lot of other things.’’ 

FedLine officially began taking on 
customers in mid-September. Hoover 
planned to start out conservatively: "Be- 
cause of the interface with a new com- 
puter. we wanted to take it a little bit easy, 
to make sure we did it right. So we’re look- 
ing at having 100 institutions interfaced 
with us by the new year.” 

FedLine Services 

At present the participating institutions 
can use FedLine to transfer funds to and 
from their own accounts with the Federal 
Reserve Bank and to send or receive funds 
from another participating institution. 
One advantage of using a microcomputer 
for this is that the transactions are quick. 
Another advantage is that participants can 
produce both electronic and printed re- 
cords of their transactions instantly. 

In the future FedLine will offer ex- 
panded services. These include on-line 
cash ordering (something that no bank, 
large or small, can do now; it must phone 
or send a letter to order cash), transactions 
of government securities, exchanges of 
economic information, and implemen- 
tation of an administrative message sys- 
tem. The Fed also hopes to use FedLine to 
receive the statistical reports that all banks 
are required by law to file. 


The PC-Mainframe Connection 

In strictly business terms. FedLine is 
unusual for its effort to attract customers, a 
role that's new to the Federal Reserve 
Bank. A key part of the attraction, of 
course, is the PC. Its integration into the 
Fed's communications network is a pio- 
neering effort. The FedLine’s communica- 
tions link was created when the PC was 
brand new. This is the first service to use 
PCs for such a far-flung group of users. 

The two programmers who charted this 
unknown territory by interfacing the PC 
with the Fed's mainframe system are ]ohn 
Hsiao and Dave Smith, under the direc- 
tion of Charles Barry. "The original con- 
cept was a low-cost terminal.” says Smith. 
"We thought that the age of the micro- 
processor as a tool had really arrived, so 
when the IBM came out, we ordered 
some.” 

Two of the first PCs arrived at the Fed’s 
San Francisco computer center in Novem- 
ber 1981, when Hsiao and Smith went to 
work with them. Hsiao had extensive 
mainframe programming experience but 
did not know BASIC, the principal lan- 
guage available for the PC at the time. Ac- 
cording to Smith, Hsiao “read the BASIC 
manual. As soon as he got to the last page, 
he started programming in BASIC.” Smith 
became the Fed’s resident micro expert 
because he already had a micro. 

The two men divided up the work of 
writing a complex program that would al- 
low PCs to communicate with one of the 


The PC That Goes to Every 
FedLine Member 

A unique leasing program that incJudes installation, service, 
and a free consultation with every rental. 


When a bank, savings and loan, or credit 
union joins FedLine, it receives a com- 
plete PC system. Such a sy^stem includes 
the PC with 128K of RAM. a printer card, 
and an asynchronous communications 
adapter, the monochrome display, two 
double-sided disk drives, the IBM dot ma- 
trix printer, and a Novation 1200 baud mo- 
dem. The software includes PC-DOS and 
the custom-designed FedLine program. 

The monthly cost of leasing the PC sys- 
tem is $175, which includes a service con- 
tract. The Federal Reserve Bank pur- 
chases the PCs from ComputerLand of 


San Francisco, which also provides ser- 
vice. Computer experts from the Fed's 
staff install the PC at the site of each mem- 
ber institution, 

Participating institutions are encour- 
aged to use the PC for internal computing 
tasks such as financial forecasting, ac- 
counting. and word processing. FedLine 
support staff will evaluate commercial 
programs and assist participants in choos- 
ing software that is appropriate to their 
needs. Member institutions may upgrade 
their PCs al their own cost. 

-f.I.H. 


PC MAGAZINE 24S DECEMBER 1982 




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Fed's mainframes, provide multiple levels 
of security, and offer clear, easy-to-use 
instructions to the staffs of participating 
financial institutions. They wrote most of 
this program in BASIC (which should en- 
courage everyone who's still learning to 
program], adding a few subroutines in as- 
sembly language. ‘This combination of 
elements had an unexpected result,” 
Smith notes. 


IbM DIDN'T 
have the expertise to 
answer our questions 
because we were 
going into an area 
nobody had tried. 

"When we wrote some subroutines in 
assembly language, we committed our- 
selves to interpretive BASIC, although we 
didn’t know it at the time. When the com- 
piled BASIC came out. we found that the 
coordination, the linking, with the assem- 
bly routines uses a different structure for 
strings. So without a lot of reprogramming, 
we couldn’t adapt the program to com- 
piled BASIC simply because compiled 
BASIC wasn't available when we started.” 

Plowing New Ground 

Much of the programming involved 
that sort of learn-as-you-go technique, the 
men point out. “The manual from IBM 
doesn’t give a lot of the information we 
needed." Hsiao says, "and IBM didn't 
have the expertise to answer our questions 
because we were going into an area no- 
body had tried. So we just went in our- 
selves.” 

Over the course of this 6-month project. 
Smith and Hsiao ran into surprisingly few 
roadblocks. Their biggest challenge was 
getting the host computer, a 370 series IBM 
mainframe, to acknowledge the PC's sig- 
nals. As Smith puts it, "I remember there 
was at least a month when we were trying 
real hard to communicate with the host. 
When we finally got through and got the 
host to acknowledge what we were saying, 
it was like a holiday.” 

If 6 months of full-time work by two 


programmers— and a month just trying to 
get the mainframe to send a greeting— 
seems like a long time, consider the result; 
a program that fills 95 percent of a single- 
sided PC disk, or about 150K of RAM. Be- 
cause of its size, the FedLine program is 
divided into a number of separate mod- 
ules. Still, a PC must have at least 128K to 
run it. 

The FedLine Vanguard 

As FedLine prepares to add services. 
Hsiao and Smith will participate in the 
research and planning to implement them. 
"Anything that we could conceivably 
stretch to be applicable to this, we’ll try 
out,” Smith predicts. "One of the first 
things we’re looking at is electrically alter- 
able ROM to keepcertain information that 
cuts across applications boundaries in 
nonvolatile storage on the PC.” 

Smith also plans to use compiled BA- 
SIC for some of his future programming. 
"We believe that compiled BASIC is one 
good way to go because you get stuff that's 
almost as efficient as assembly language 
and is very easy to program, very easy to 
change.” 

Both Hsiao and Smith are pleased with 
their programming achievement for Fed- 
Line and both have developed a particular 
respect for the PC. Smith sums it up well: 
"Our experience with the PC was good. 
The PC is a powerful micro and we're im- 
pressed with its capabilities.” 

FedLine is now in its fourth month of 
operation in the nine Western states. Sev- 
eral other districts in the Federal Reserve 
system are studying the project and the 
PC. The Dallas district is using the PC for 
some operations, and offices in St. Louis, 
Minneapolis, Kansas City, and Atlanta are 
evaluating both the PC and the FedLine 
software. 

If the 12th District’s experience is any 
guide, FedLine is likely to be popular with 
financial institutions throughout the na- 
tion. The Fed's john Hoover observes that 
more institutions are interested in the ser- 
vice than the project can accommodate 
now. "The problem we’re having, frankly, 
is keeping up with the demand.” /PC 


For more information about FedLine, 
contact Financial Services, Federal Re- 
serve Bank of San Francisco, 101 Market 
St.. San Francisco. CA 94105, (415)544- 
2127. 


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PC MAGAZINE 251 DECEMBER 1982 



DUY U.S. STEEL SELL GENERAL MOTORS. 
LEARN ALL ABOUT THE STOCK MARKET. 
AND HAVE THE TIME OF YOUR LIFE DOING IT! 


If you've always been bullish 
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life savings — you're going ro love 
Millionaire! Blouse Millionaire 
offers Q unique, no-risk scenario 
rhor stretches your decision-making 
acumen ro rhe limit. 

Millionaire'” .the gome! 

You start your finonciol adven- 
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wield rhe power ro buy and sell 
stock from rhe world's lorgesr corpo- 
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logic ore or rheirshorpesr, because 
Millionaire's week-by-vieek format 
presents you with o steady stream 
of reol-life industry trends. Anolyze 
these correctly (and invest wisely!), 
ond o finonciol empire is yours. 
Ignore them, and run rhe risk of 
losing your venture capital. 


Millionaire'”.. the learning oidi 

'There's much more ro Millionaire 
thon exciting, realistic gome 
oaion — becouse Millionoire Is o 
learning tool of incomparable vol- 
ue. In faa, once you've read rhe 
comprehensive users monuol, 
you'll be omozed at how much 
you've olreody leorned obour the 
stock morket. 

Call options. Put options. Borrow- 
ing ogoinst your net worth. Buying 
on morgin. It's oil here in rhe most 
occurote simulotion of its type. 
AAoybe that's why todoy's lorgesr 
investment houses ore finding that 
AAillionoire is the ideol leorning oid 
for their brokers. 

Is Millionaire a gome or o finon- 
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ber. . . your finonciol future rests on 
your ability to effectively monipu- 


lote your stock portfolio with utmost 
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AAillionoire. A superb gome. An 
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And rhe best reason ever ro own o 
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Available an disk far: 

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1-6C»-635-2246 Ew- 234 




EDUCATION/LINDA V. WILLIAMS 


Recess Is Over 

A PC iu every classroom? Possibly. The time 
may finally he right for computers to make 
the breakthrough. 


Since at least the mi{l-1960s, reporters, 
educators, and computer programmers 
have been predicting the imminent arrival 
of the computer age in American schools. 
Its one of those all loo familiar stories, 
such as ‘ Killer Bees Moving North” or 
”Earth(|uake Prediction Rumbles Closer.’ 
that recurs as regularly as the winter sol 
slice. More than one publishing and com 
puter com()uny has squandered half a cor 
porate fortune in preparation for the great 
day. only to discover that it has acted pre- 
maturelv, 


a 


'EMAND FOR 
computer training is 
so great that 
workshops fill as soon 
as they're announced. 


The oracles are stirring again. This 
time their forecasts, which are generally 
shorter term and more modest than earlier 
predictions, may deserve attention. The 
big difference is the relatively inexpen* 
sive. u.ser*friendly. durable, and adaptable 
microcomputer. This and recent develop- 
ments in California suggest that 1983 may 
turn out to l>e a promising year for comput- 
ers in education. 

One of those developments Is the allo- 
cation of funds by the California Legisla- 
ture to establish a statewide network of 
Teacher Education and Computer iTRCj 
Centers. The TEC Centers are designed to 
encourage and sup|)ort greater use of com- 
puters in education. California funds 
them through its Investment in People 
program, a $27.5 million effort to mmlern- 


/7o/)| floix?rt Preston of X'afiona/ Semiconductor; /bottom/ /ienr>' D. Weiss of the tndusfr\- 
K(iucotion Counci/ and Al Dutra of IHM. 


ize elementar\’ schools, community' col- 
leges. and universities. 

A United Front 

Planning teams from 15 statewide re- 
gions met this fall in San |ose for a state* 
s[)onsored TEC Institute. The convocation 
confirmed that computer education has 
widespread support from teachers and ad- 
ministrators. as well as from business and 


government. David LeCompte of the San- 
ta Clara County Office of Education re- 
ports that the demand for computer train- 
ing is so great in his county that workshops 
fill as soon as they're announced. "We had 
to turn away a couple hundred teachers at 
Christmas time last year.” he declares. 

One might expect that Santa Clara 
(bounty (Silicon Valley) teachers and ad- 
ministrators are enthtisiaslic and well in- 


PC MAGAZINE 25 J DECEMBER 1982 


Photograph: Linda V. Williams 



Caiifornia Superintendent of Public Instruction Wiison Riies 


formed about the prospect of computers in 
the classroom. But the prevailing attitude 
of California educators was summed up 
best by Dr. Ruth Gordon, a school official 
in remote Lassen Count>’. *‘We may be in 
the mountains." she said, "but we want 
our children to have the same opportuni- 
ties as any child anywhere in the state or 
countr>’. You can’t graduate children with- 
out the tools of the age— it's unfair. If our 
kids leave school without a knowledge of 
the microcomputer and what it can do. I 
think they'll be seriously hampered." 

Business and industry also have a stake 
in computer education. Most observers 
expect private demand for programmers, 
word processors, and other trained per- 
sonnel to grow. Both Governor jerry 
Brown and State Superintendent of Public 
Schools Wilson Riles have made a direct 
connection between technological literacy 
and the growth of California's economy. In 
his 1982 Slate of the State address. Brown 
asserted that “the first prerequisite to 
maintaining California's leadership is 
technological literacy. That means that our 
schools must augment the 3Rs with the 
3Cs— computing, calculating, and com- 
municating-through technologv." 

In her opening remarks at the TEC 
Center Institute, judy Hubner of the gov- 
ernor's office stated that the California Of- 
fice of Economic Policy estimates that 50 
percent of California's new jobs in this 
decade will be related to new technol- 
ogies. She noted that “traditional industri- 
al plants are closing down in various parts 
of the state, leaving workers unemployed 
and. without retraining, unemployable. At 
the same time, the new high-technology 
industries have pages of want ads listing 
job openings." 

Speakers from IBM. Pacific Telephone 


and Telegraph. Pacific Gas and Electric. 
National Semiconductor, Lockheed, and 
the Bank of America also addressed par- 
ticipants at the TEC Center Institute. Each 
con firmed his or her company's interest in 
computer education in the schools. As Al 
Dutra. a senior marketing representative 
for IBM. told educdtors, "There exists to- 
day in both large and small companies an 
environment in which individuals cannot 
perform their jobs without interacting 
with a computer system." 

The TEC Centers are unusual in their 
explicit mandate to work closely with busi- 
ness and industr>'. The exact form of that 
interest will not become clear until the 
centers are in operation. Henry D. Weiss, 
the vice president of the Industry Educa- 
tion Council of California, told educators. 
“ There are people, equipment, materials, 
and resources in the private sector that can 
assist the TEC Centers. The private sector 
is interested, but you'll have to make the 
first move." 

The First Move 

This year California passed Assembly 
Bill 3194. a state version of the proposed 
federal "Apple Bill.” The new law pro- 
vides a tax credit of 25 percent of the fair 
market value to companies donating com- 
puter equipment to California schools be- 
tween january 1983 and june 1984. If 
passed, the “‘Apple Bill” would extend an 
as yet undetermined tax credit to donating 
companies on a nationwide basis. 

Assembly Bill 3194 will increase the ef- 
fectiveness of the TEC Centers by encour- 
aging the donation of thousands of com- 
puters to schools that otherwise could not 
afford them. This infusion of computer 
hardware will not. however, guarantee 
that computers will be used in the class- 


room. 

Running and supporting computers re- 
(juires money, even if the hardware is do- 
nated. Unfortunately, the money must 
come from school budgets, which are 
stretched just to pay for textbooks. 

Schools also need technical assistance 
and teacher training. TEC Centers will 
help provide assistance by setting up dem- 
onstration centers where teachers can ex- 
amine various microcomputers and re- 
ceive training in the ways they can be 
utilized in teaching. Teachers will receive 
help in evaluating courseware and soft- 
ware and in selecting the materials that 
best meet their needs. The centers will 
provide technical assistance in planning 
and restructuring school programs to inte- 
grate computers into the instructional 
process. TEC Center training will also be 
available to administrators, community 
leaders, students, parents, and the general 
community. 

When educators are faced with the de- 
cision to buy reading books on computer 


Lean budgets 

do not encourage 
innovation. 

equipment, computers become a luxury. 
When teachers struggle with classes of 30- 
plus students, a computer is just one more 
thing to track. Lean budgets do not encour- 
age innovation. 

The situation is not much better in oth- 
er states. California is just an example of a 
national trend. The demand for computer 
education comes at a time when financial 
support of schools is at a low point. Every- 
one wants computers in the classroom, but 
the question is whether anyone wants 
them enough to pay for them. The federal 
government, other state education depart- 
ments. and private industry will all be 
watching California to see if public enthu- 
siasm translates into financial support. 

/PC 


For more information on TEC Centers, 
contact California State Department of 
Education. Educational Tech Unit. 721 
Capitol Mall. Sacramento. CA 95814, (916} 
322-5588. 


PC MAGAZINE 254 DECEMBER 1982 



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CALL 




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PC. MAC.AZrNI 258 DECEMBER l‘»82 




EDUCATION/LINDSY VAN GELDER 

SECT Demystifies The 
Microcomputer 



Stephanie Burns, the force behind SECT, hrin;^s hi tech 
down to earth at the Computer SIwwcase Expw in New 
York City. 


Th«^ Fcill 'H2 ComimUtr Showrnso Rxpn, 
held at the (^)lis«mm in New York City is a 
computer show like many others: T(*enaj^e 
video game junkies cluster around the 
PKTs and Apples, techies with copies of 
Robotics Age In their l)ack pockets cnii.se 
the aisles for the latest prmlucls. and sides- 
|)eo|)le proclaim that their booths are dis- 
playing the (»nly hardware or software 
worth buying. None of these people speak 
English as you and I know it. hut rather an 
al|)hanumeric dialect re|)lete with refer- 
ences to RS-I*32 [)orls, 25fiK RAM. H088 
chips, and Sinil buses. 


On the other side of this t(H:h-talk gap is 
a guy we‘11 call |oe Showgoer. |oe thinks a 
serial port is a town that exports corn 
flakes and that RAM refers t(» someone 
born under the sign of Aries. He is inter- 
ested in learning more about computers. If 
he could only cut through the jargon and 
the hard sell, he might even buy one. 

Enter Stephanie Burns, president of 
Spun* ISource of Educational Qjmputer 
Training). Burns and members of her firm 
run continuous crash seminars for con- 
sumers during the 3-day show, Called the 
Small Computer College, the seminars 


co.st an extra admission fee and consist of 
two alternating 1 1 :-hour courses: an intro- 
ductory session called "What is a Personal 
Computer— How to Select the Right One 
for You” and a follow-up cla.ss on business 
applications. Together they add iip to an 
Everything You Always Wanteil to Know 
About Micros B«it Weren’t (Computer Lit- 
erate Enough to Ask. 

Burns' year-(»ld company also runs reg- 
ularclasseson all phases of micr(K:omput- 
ing and provides in-house instruction for 
companies that are computerizing. Burns 
is devoted to iiringing thi* |oes of the w'orld 
into the information age . . . painlessly. 

"We do a lot of attitude adjustment.” 
she explains (hiring a between-workshops 
br<*ak. "The ntimber tme block is lh(> ter- 
minology’. which pr(!vents peo{)le from 
knowing how to begin to look at the indus- 


V t M A G A / I \ H 259 DECEMBER 1982 



Ir\‘. Then there are the feelings that people 
have when they’re forced to learn to use 
computers: ‘Am I going to lose my job? 
Will 1 understand how they work? Will I 
be bor«‘d?' What we're all about Is helping 
people make that transition to computers." 
Rudimentary Rap 

On this particular day Burns is fine- 
tuning her standard rap for New Y»)rk City 
audiences, who. she’s finding, have 
■‘.slightly different rhythms than the audi- 
ences in California. On the West Coast ev- 
eiybcnly would be sitting on the floor 
laughing. Here they .seem to want it as fast 
as I can possibly give it to them — no hu- 
mor." Audiences are asked to fill in evalu- 
ation cards after eveiy workshop, and one 
Big Apple resident has actually requested 
that Burns be "less friendly.” At the .same 
lime, the New Yorkers' rudimentary 
knov\ ledge of computers strikes her as lag- 
ging behind the West Coast. She Lsn't sure 
they’re getting it completely. Burns repro- 
grams herself. She decides to begin the 
introductory seminar by asking people 
why they came. The answers vary: One 
man thinks he wants to learn about data 
processing: someone else is there to gel a 
handle on leaching kids about com))Uters; 
another can't figure out which machine to 
buy. One guy announces that he's a com- 
puter illiterate but wants to change. 

"How many of yoti have heard at least 
»»ne word out there." Burns gestures to- 
ward the display booths, "that you didn't 
understand? " Everyone looks sheepish. A 
few hands go up. "Okay." says Burns, 
“there’s a myth that you need to be a math- 
ematician to operate these magical. my.sti- 
cal machines. I want you to throw those 
ideas into the trash can." 

Over the next 90 minutes Burns leads 
these new pilgrims through the electronic 
wilderness of input/oulpul devices, disk 
.storage, and circuit boards. Her speaking 
style is clear, concise, and friendly. When- 
ever possible, she compares the functions 
of a computer with something the audi- 
ence is already familiar with, such as a 
digital watch. 

While Burns makes it clear that she be- 
lieves that computers are the future, she 
cushions future shock by pointing out that 
computers do five basic things: s(»rt infor- 
mation. store it. perform calculations, in- 
put inf(»rmalion. and spit it back out. She 
ex[)lains each function, joe Showgoer is 
transformed into someone who no longer 


thinks that if he touches a computer key- 
board. it might explode in his hand.s. 

The Chip Pitch 

The next part of the lecture aims to help 
the .uullence .sort through th«? manufactur- 
ers' t:laim.s. “Don't get caught up in the 
hardware .sales pitch. " she warns. With 
few exceptions, the different chips on the 
market “are Sugar Pops vs. Cap’n Ounch- 


not reallyall thatdifferent." In any case. 
<).ssessing chi|) power is a crazy place for a 
novice to begin compari.son .shopping: 
■'What I'd lik<* you to do is approach this 
show a little bit differently than you have 
been. Put yourself and your business in the 
{:*-nter— not all this hardware that you 
don't under.staml. You do understand your 
own business andyourown needs. Ask the 
salespeople how to solve your problems." 


Entech: Computer Skills Center 

Adults nt)H' huvi; u chuncc; In catch up with the whiz kids. 


When Mamie and Philip Ackerman 
opened up the big gray and white cartons 
containing their m*w Pfl la.st year, they ex- 
pej;t<rd to be up. running, and Visitadcu- 
lating in .'li» inimites. After all. the ads- 
“(o‘e. Da<l. can 1 borrow the IBM to- 
night?" had implied that op(?n»ting a 
cijmputiT was child's play. Instead, the 
.Xckt.Tinan.s spent the next few weeks in 
frantic consnltalion with th<ur local (^om- 
pnterband dealer. 

began to feel like soiiUMme who 
bothers her doctor with every little hang 
nail.” r-ecalls Mrs. .Acke*rrnan. ".And then I 
would get ri*ally angry, because here I was 
spenrling Sii.iMiir and being made to feel 
like an irliot ’ The worst of it. according to 
Mr. .Ackerman, were the alphabetized 
IBM hardware refenmc** notebooks. “It 
w.rs like trying t<j learn a foreign language 
by h.iving someone luind yrui a dictionarv'. 
My background is in eleclrrmics design 
<iml tn\ wife's liackground is in erliication. 
.so wt! figured that if it v\as hard for us. it 
wotdd he hard for almost eveiylrody." 

Their dealer estimated that 90 percent 
of his cu.stomers were having the same 
he.rdaches- The .Ackermans recogniz.ed a 
consumer need and decided to fill it. The 
result o( llu-lr efforts is the Entech Com- 
puter Skills Cente.T in Conunack. New 
^'ork. The center o|)ened this Septetnlrer 
in an office building just oulsidt; a I.ong 
island indn.slrial park. It isclo.se to tho.se 
business |)eo[)lH. lawyers, doctors, and 
dentists wluc the Ackermans fe»d. art- 
rrurst likrdy to l>e inlere.sterl in computers, 
but who ne<*<! fast. tr»-the-iHunt in.struclion 
in busin»‘ss [irograms. rtol a semester-long 
college course* in programming. 

Most cmir.stjs at the Entech Center 


meet twD to four times b>r sevepcjl hours, 
on nights or weekends, and cost about 
$175. An intr-odu<:l<ir\‘ class starts at what 
Mr. .Xckerrnan calls “the level ol which 
end of the flop()y disk faces up when you 
pul it in." There ar e also courses in U’ord- 
Sltrr. .\Iuil.\Ierge. Visi(>ulc. Suf»*r(ajlc. 
EosyU'rifer, Micro.soft BASK', and Pascal. 
,is w»dl as tnoi«' general courses and spe- 
cial instruction in the use of modems and 
coin[mt<fr graphics. The teaching staff in- 
cludes t;ngin«M!rs. university computing 
in.struclfjrs. and coiU()Uter salespe(»ple. 

The ceiit(?r is heavily geared toward the 
PC. mainly irecause the Ackermans be- 
lieve it's the best machine for business. 
iThey dr> ki*ep a few A|)ples and a 1)E(' 
around for tluise who haven’t yet .seen the 
big blue light. I The Ackermans proml.se 
ih.il their students will learn ev(?r\ thing 
from how to lake the P(J out of the box to 
bow to lake the top off the central process- 
ing unit so they can gel a good look at all 
those chips, ports, and expansion slots. 

'I’he .Ackermans s^jy that their sUulenIs 
also include people wlu) may not even 
need computer.s. or who might ntied dif- 
ferent .systems than the one they could (or 
did) buy out of ignorance. "We have no ax 
to grim! Irecause we don't work for (!)(jm- 
put»*rhanil or IBM," sa\s Mrs. Ackerman. 
“We want to give pe»3ple the tools to keep 
them from being raz.zle-daz.zl(‘d by .sales- 
p«;<iple. It's hand holding, but there's need 
for it out there." — 


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She also discusses specific systems: “The 
IBM PC has one of the best-written man- 
uals I've ever seen.” A question-and-an- 
swer period follows, and the audience is 
sent away with some hard copy: a mini- 
glossary of computer terms, a fact sheet on 
all the things computers can do. a how-to- 
buy checklist, and a recommended read- 
ing list beginning with Alvin Toffler’s The 
Third Wove. 


Nurturing a Business 

Burns got into the micro business when 
she was a U.S. Army Signal Corps military 
instructor at Fort Monmouth in New jer- 
sey. There she became the first woman to 
teach the Army’s computer maintenance 
course. After the Army, she held a number 
of jobs in the electronics field, including a 
stint at Searle Diagnostics in Illinois. At 
Searle she trained people to use the Intel 
8080 microprocessor and was directly re- 
sponsible for the maintenance of new 
products such as nuclear cardiology 
equipment. Along the way. as her biogra- 
phy notes, “she became fluent in assembly 
language and hardware architecture for 22 
different microprocessors.” She came to 
Southern California 3 years ago as a mi- 
croprocessor development specialist for 
Tektronix and a year later founded her 
own company. MicroPlus, a combined 
program writing, hardware design, and 
engineer training service. 

SECT is an outgrowth of MicroPlus. It 
has nine full-time and ten part-time em- 
ployees. all chosen on the basis of being 
“people who are totally committed to rais- 
ing consciousness.” according to Burns. 
Chief among their services are workshops 
offered to the general public in basic com- 
puter literacy, plus short courses in word 
processing, electronic spreadsheets, data 
base management, and various computer 
languages. 

Hands-on classes at the SECT center in 
Encino are conducted on a fleet of Apples. 
"It’s what a lot of people want; they think 
Apples are less intimidating,” according to 
Burns. She says they'll be switching over 
to IBM PCs in the future, however, be- 
cause she believes that they’re the ma- 
chines most business people will prefer. 
(She herself travels with an Osborne.) 

In addition to the classes and the firm's 
regular road show with the Small Com- 
puter College, SECT does extensive on- 


site training for companies undergoing 
computerization, schools and organiza- 
tions, and even tech-talking computer 
dealers and manufacturers who want to 
learn the best method of teaching the pub- 
lic to buy and use computers. SECT'S past 
clients include ABC and NBC. General 
Dynamics, the Carnation Company, the 
University of Arizona, the University' of 
San Diego. Sears Roebuck. Osborne Com- 
puters. Mattel. 7-Up. and the U.S. Navy. 

Today’s Techies 

sect’s former students tend to talk 
about their experiences in terms usually 
reserved for encounter group sessions: ”I 
walked into that first seminar doubting my 
sanity, and 1 walked out knowing that 1 
was normal." confessed Susan Gains, an 
operations analyst fora major Los Angeles 
food company. “With Burns, there's no 
such thing as a dumb question.” 

A nontechnical person with a business 
background. Gains had been pul in a posi- 
tion in which she needed to know some- 
thing about hardware purchases and pro- 
gram writing. She tried to teach herself, 
but she fell into the “computer abyss " be- 
fore she had heard about SECT and per- 
suaded her company to send her to an in- 
troductory’ workshop. She has since taken 
courses in BASIC and assembly language, 
moves that put heron an entirely different 


MOURNS IS 
devoted to bringing 
the Joes of the world 
into the information 
age . . . painlessly. 

career track. Her firm has hired SECT for 
in-house workshops on the IBM PC and 
VisiCofc. (Gains is also planning to buy her 
own PC to use at home.) 

Another student, DeWayne Cox. first 
heard Burns at an Anaheim computer 
show and was instantly riveted. “If I were 
to tell you the story of my life.” he says, 
“one of the major themes is a right brain/ 
left brain dichotomy.” A former rock musi- 
cian and actor (left brain). Cox is also a 
mathematics type who works as senior ac- 


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PC MAGAZINE 263 DECEMBER 1982 


Imagine this . . . 

You are working on a big document on your IBM PC. It runs at incredible speed . . . you have not 
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The KEYNOTE'" application program by Gerard J. Cerchio lets you enhance your typing by assigning 
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counting coordinator for a Los Angeles ad 
agency. “Computers bring creativity' and 
logic together, and Burns understands that 
and communicates that.*’ according to 
Cox. “Most people are spooked by com- 
puters; a lot of the people who get into 
them are just thinking that it's where the 
money's going to be— it’s like somebody 30 
years ago deciding to become a plumber. I 
don't have either of those mind sets. I was 
ready for this.” 

Cox has convinced his company that he 
is the person who should be looking into 


± H EARLY EVERY 
home will be 
computerized within 
the next 4 years. 

what sort of office system to buy. He says 
that whether or not this particular project 
pans out. his career choices have now 
changed, thanks to his exposure to SECT. 
In fact, he sounds extremely at one with 
micros: “It's like my left brain is my oper- 
ating system and my right brain is my mi- 
crochip.” 

Both Gains and Cox report that career 
guidance, while not an advertised portion 
of the SECT training package, is a terrific 
throw-in. “The staff people are knowl- 
edgeable, and the classes are small.” says 
Gains, “and they all balance each other 
out. Burns is kind of the dynamo who fires 
you up. Then the rest of them come in with 
all this patience." 

The Business with Business 

Yet another former client is Andrew 
Papageorge. president of Perst>nal Re- 
source Systems. Inc. in Delmar. Califor- 
nia. The firm markets a ten-section note- 
book in which a person can file schedules, 
addresses and phone numbers, and short- 
and long-term goals. “So I'm obviously or- 
ganization- and time-conscious. " says Pa- 
pageorge. "Still, before I thought about 
buying a computer. I had never even read 
a newspaper article about one.” 

Papageorge and his partners recog- 
nized that a data base management pro- 
gram could help them keep track of their 
customers. When he first began looking at 


the computer market (mainly at sy'stems 
owned by friends). “The more I got into it. 
the more I was overwhelmed.” He had 
heard about SECT through word of mouth 
and hired Burns as a consultant. 

“She nursed me through the decision to 
buy the PC." he recalls. (His system in- 
cludes 256K. a 14-megabyte Davong hard 
disk in one of the IBM drives, a Diablo 
printer, the Baby Blue board. dBoself, Su- 
perCaic, WordStar. MailMerge, and the 
Peachtree accounting software package.) 

SECT continues to work with his firm 
in developing a sales-tracking data base 
program, but what Papageorge is most 
grateful for is that Burns "put me on the 
learning curve." 

“At various times along the way.” ad- 
mits Papageorge. “I would get really pan- 
icky. I would think I was buying the wrong 
system, or I would wonder whether I 
should buy a s>stem at all. Somehow it's 
like stepping out into a whole new dimen- 
sion of living— it’s entering a new age." 

Since the inevitable emotional sorting 
nut. however. Papageorge has become a 
true believer. He is especially taken with 
SuperCa/c. which, he says, “gave me a pic- 
ture of the company I just didn't have. It's 
tremendously expanded my abilit\’ to 
think." 

Burns believes that nearly ever>' home 
will be computerized within 4 years— a 
statistic many would argue with, but one 
that she sees going hand in hand with 
changes in the way people view work it- 
self. "We'll have to get out of the mentalit\' 
that unemployment is a moral issue. 1 see a 
lot of programs that help people deal with 
having more leisure lime.” In most cases, 
she predicts, the computer of the future 
will be much easier to use than anything 
available, and the machine will be seen as 
just another household appliance. 

“But even if only 10 percent of the pop- 
ulation uses microcomputers, such use 
will, creatively speaking, be exponential. 
There will be creativih’ like we've never 
seen it.” And she is one person who wants 
to be there. /PC 

Linds>’ \'on Gelder is a free-iance writer 
ivhose work hos appeared in Ms.. Rolling 
Slone. New York, and Vogue. She was for- 
merJ\' a news reporter for several New 
York daily papers. For more information 
on SECT, write P.O. Box 29780, Los Ange- 
les. GA 90029. (2131 240-1574. 







The best thing about being at the top 
is that I can spend all mv time playing 
Executive Suite”* frt)7tt Gray Flannel Fun!^ 


EXECUTIVE 

SUITE 

Rise to the challenge of 
rising to the Executive Suite 
at Mighty Microcomputer 
Corporation. 

it’s a game of wits. And 
wit. You’ll need plenty of 
horse sense, and a sense of 
humor, when Malcolm 
Farmsworth III (the Presi- 
dent) storms into your office 
demanding to know why his 
pet project hasn’t been com- 
ph?ted on schedule. Or when 
Joyce Stern (the attractive VP 
of Administration) suggests 
a decidely non-busine.ss tryst 
after work! 

But be warned, some 
of the answers that might 
seem most sensible turn out 
to have unfortunate conse- 
quences. Just like in real life. 

Executive Suite is a Ciray 
Flannel F'un game from 
Armonk Corporation. It 
runs on the iBM® Personal 
Computer. 

To find out more, ask 
your IcKal software dealer. 
Or call Armonk. 

|ARM( )NK | 

ftlO New|M)rl Center Drive, Suite 955 
New|K)ri Beach, C^aliforniu 92<>(>0 
(714) 760-3955 

(Imv ElaitnH Fun and Executive Suite are trade 
mark« of Armonk Cor|M>ration I IIM is a registered 
trademark of Iniernationai Hiisinest Mathines 
Cor|)oration. 


PC MAGAZINE 265 DECEMBER 1982 




THE MICRO COMPUTER BUSINESS 
WILL GROW FROM $10 TO $100 BILLION 
IN THE NEXT EIGHT YEARS! 

ARE YOU REAOY TO CASH IN? 


> micro computer busmess is predicted to grow from its present S10 billion to S100 billion before 1990' Imagine the 
possibilities this opens for you! No matter where you live, if you re starting up or presently in business no other Industry offers 
you more opportunities! 

Now. finally, al) the inside information you need to secure a prosperous future in this dynamic industry is available in 
one place * THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL! An immense information source, compiled by our inquisitive research 
team, aided by a panel of experts and business people from all areas of the computer industry! 

We present the inside story of more than 100 lucrative computer businesses you can enter, where you II find the real 
opportunities for the eighties from one man operations like Programming Author, Word Processing Center or Consulting, to 
Systems House. Service Bureau, Computer Store etc! Many at little or no investment' All the invaluable tacts and figures 
How to start. Capital needs. Profit estimates and Margins. How to Sell and Market. How missing technical or business 
experience need r>ot stand in your way. Source of Suppliers, etc! Details that could take years to find out on your own' 

We II show you inside tricks, like how to never again pay retail for computer products and consumer electronics, even for 
one item - right r>ow. while you re starting your business' How to get free merchandise and trade show invitations, etc. This alone 
will more than pay for the manual! You’ll read actual case histories of other computer entrepreneurs, so you can learn from their 
mistakes, and profit from their success stories! Where you'll be one year from now depends on your actions today! Let us 
show you how to take the first crucial steps! 

Order now and lake advantage of our limited introduction special. THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL, and a 
six month subscription to THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR REPORT/NEWSLETTER ( so you're always up-to*date with the 
industry ), both for only S29.95! You must be convinced on how easy you can strike it rich in the micro computer business • or you 
may return the manual for a full refund within thirty days' USE OUR TOLL FREE NUMBER TO ORDER! 



EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW 
TO SUCCEED IN THE COMPUTER BUSINESS 
IS ALL IN THIS MANUAL! 


THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL has the artswers to all your quaationa about 
selecting, starting and succestuily running a computer business! There has never been such a 
comprehenelve collection of know-how and information about this business in one place! Alt the 
tacts you need to plan and acheive your goals m easy-to-follow, step-by-step instructions! 
These are some of the lOO-plus businesses covered m PART ONE of the manual with the 
1 tacts on How to start and run. Start-up Coat ( Even how to operate on a shoestring ). What profits 
I to expect. Wholesale prices. Mark-ups. Suppliers, future outlook, cate hiatoriea for each, ate: 
Systems House. Software Author ( who to sell to and who to avoid ) Service Bureau. Soft- 
1 ware Publisher < How to find programs that sell Word Processing Service. Consulting and Con- 
*sultant Broker i use your skills or those of others, make S1S0 • S1000 a day!). The incredible 
Games Business. Computer Store < Franchises Pro and Contra or a low mver^tory store in your 
home! ). OEM. Hardware Mfg. Data base and Teletext Service ( big prospects! ). Used Com- 
puters. Repairs. Rent-A-Computer. Promote Fasts and Trade Shows. Turnkey Systems. 
Bartering. Mail Order. Compile and rent mailing lists. Specialized Oats Headhunting and Temp Help Service. Tech Writer Shop. Custom Engineering. The 
highly profitable Seminars and Training Businass. and many more! 

Many new ideas and ground floor opportunities! Interviews and success stories on companies of all sizes! Privy Info on the profits made; How some 
computer store operators net $100 - $250,000! Little known outfits that made their owners millionaires, one of these low-key companies making simple boards 
went from nil to $20,000,000 and 100 employees m four years! Programmers lhal make $300,000, Thousands ol micro millionaires m the making etc' 

Whatever your goal is - Silicon Valley Tycoon, or iusi a business al home - we guarantee you ii find a business to auit you - or your money back! 

PART TWO of the manual is loaded with the know-how and "atraetfighting" savvy you need both as a novice or business veteran, to get started to slay 
and to prosper m the micro computer business' A goldmine of information m clear and easy-to-use instructions How to prepare your Business Plan. Outside 
financing. The mistakes you must avoid. How to hire and manage employees. Incorporation | when and how to do it cheaply ). Surviving bad limes. Record 
Keeping, how to estimate your market before you start. Use multiple locations to maximize profits, how to promote and stay steps ahead of the competi- 
tion! How to get free advertising, free merchandise, free advice. Power negotiating with suppliers to double your profit margins, etc! Even how to keep a 
present job while starling a businasa part time! 

Don't miss this opportunity to be part ot this great industry • the next success story could be your own! Order the manual today! Part one and two 
bound in a deluxe ring binder, where you can also collect our newsletter ( free for six months with the manual - a $32.50 value! ) - all for only $29.95! 




- 

/ 

? 

. 


/ 





THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR NEWSLEHER - 
ALL THE LATEST INSlOE RUSINESS NEWS! 
NOW! SIX MONTHS FREE WITH YOUR MANUAL! 

Vou're always attuned to the industry and your 
manual kept up-to-date, with our newsletter! Each issue has 
the latest business news, ideas, new suppliers, our in- 
dispensible "watchdog" column on profits, discounts 
( don I miss mfg s promos like recently when top video moni 
tor sold al $80 thats half wholesale one third of the retail 
price! ). the competition, the big deals, ate! Feature stones 
with start-up info and case histones on new micro busi- 
nesses! 

You II get invitations lo trade shows and conventions 
the usage of our advisory service and our discount buying 
service for your purchases' 

You II find many items m our newsletter ihat will save 
you the cost of your manual many times over! 



Order by phone (Credit cards only), or use the coupon; 


CALL TOLL FREE! 

CHARGE m 
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accepted 24 hours/day 
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i Please send me THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 
: MANUAL, and the six month free subscription to 
I THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR REPORT/NEWSLETTER 
s All for only $29.95. plus S3 for poslage/handling ( NY resi- 
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E manual 1 may return >t within 30 days for a full refund. 

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S O Check or M O enclosed Charge to Q VISA QMC 

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B91 


c 1982. THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 


Apple 
II 


Quality Disk Software 
from 

SPECTRUM 





PERSONAL RNANCE MASTER 

The premier personal and small business financial 
system. Covering all types of accounts including 
check registers, savings, money market, loan, credit 
card and other asset or liability accounts, the system 
has these features; 

Monthly Transaction Reports 
Budgets Income & Expense 
Reconciles to Bank Statements 
Prints Checks & Mailing Labels 
Automatic Year-End Rollover 
Prepares a Net Worth Report 
Searches for Transactions 
Handles Split Transactions 
User-Friendly Data Entry Forms 
Fast Machine Language Routines 
Extensive Error Trapping 
HI-RES Expense/Income Plots 
For Apple II (48K) & IBM PC $75.00 

Manual & Demo Disk only . $15.00 

COLOR CALENDAR 

Got a busy calendar? Organize it with Color 
Calendar. Whether it's birthdays, appointments, 
business meetings or a regular office schedule, this 
program Is the perfect way to schedule your 
activities. The calendar display is a beautiful HMIES 
color graphics calendar of the selected month with 
each scheduled day highlighted In color. Using the 
daily schedule, you can review any day of the month 
and schedule an event or activity In any one of 20 
time slots. 

For Apple II (48K) ... $30.00 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE SERIES 

Both Programs $250.00 

A user-friendly yet comprehensive double-entry 
accounting system employing screen-oriented data 
input forms, extensive error-trapping, data validation 
and special routines for high speed operation. The 
series includes these two modules: 

GENERAL LEDGER: A complete accounting system 
with these features; 

• Up to 500 accounts and 500 transactions per 
month, 

• Interactive on-screen transaction journal 

• Prints checks and mailing labels. 

• Produces these reports: 

Transactions Journal Balance Sheet 

Account Ledgers Account Listings 

Income Statement 

For Apple II (48K) & IBM PC $150.00 


ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

A flexible system with these features 

• up to 500 accounts and up to 500 invoices 
per diskette. 

• Prints invoices, customer statements & 
address labels. 

• Interfaces to General Ledger. 

• Interactive screen-based invoice work 
sheet. 

• Produces these reports 

Aged Receivables 
Sales Analysis 
Account Listings 
Customer Balances 

For Apple II (48K) & IBM PC (2 DRIVES} $1 50.00 


LOGIC DESIGNER & SIMULATOR 

An interactive HHIES graphics program for designing 
and simulating digital logic systems. Drawing 
directly on the screen the user interconnects gates, 
including NANO. NOR. INVERTER. EX-OR. T-ROP. JK- 
FLOP. D-FLOP. RS-FLOP. USER-DEFINED MACRO and 
N-BIT SHIFT REGISTER types. Network descriptions 
for the simulation routines are generated 
automatically. 

The program is capable of simulating tne bit-time 
response of any logic network responding to user- 
defined source patterns. It will simulate networks 
of up to 1000 gates. Includes a source pattern 
editor. MACRO editor and network editor. Produces 
a fan-out report. Simulation output is a string of 
1 s & O's representing the state of user selected 
gates for each bit time of the simulation. 

A typical page of a logic drawing looks like this; 




mCAP 

Microcomputer Circuit Analysis Program 

Tired of trial & error circuit design? Analyze and 
debug your designs before you build them. With 
//CAP MU simply sketch your circuit diagram on 
the CRi screen and run an AC. DC or TRANSIENT 
ANALYSIS. Y 3 ur circuit may consist of RESISTORS. 
CAPACITORS. INDUCTORS, DIODES, BATTERIES. 
BIPOLAR or MOS TRANSISTORS. OPAMPS. 
TRANSFORMERS, and SINUSOIDAL or USER-DEFINED 
TIME DEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES. pCAP can 
analyze any such network containing up to 40 
separate nodes. Includes a user controlled MACRO 
library for modelling complex components such as 
OPAMPS and Transistors. 

Typical pCAP AC and Transient Analysis graphs; 


M 




m 


For Apple II (48K) & IBM PC (2 DRIVES) $250.00 
MANUAL AND DEMO DISK: Instruction Manual and 
demo disk . $30.00 

MATHEMATICS SERIES 

The Series Includes These 4 Programs: 

STAT1STKAL ANALYSIS k This menu driven program 
performs UNEAR REGRESSION analysis, determines 
the mean, standard deviation and plots the 
frequency distribution of user-supplied data sets. 
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: HI-RES 2-Dimensional plot 
of any function. Automatic scaling. At your option, 
the program will plot the function, plot the 
INTEGRAL, plot the DERIVATIVE, determine the 
ROOTS, MAXIMA. MINIMA and INTEGRAL VALUE. 
MATRIX: A general purpose, menu driven program 
for determining the INVERSE and DETERMINANT of 
any matrix, as well as the SOLUTION to any set of 
SMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS. 

3-D SURFACE PLOTTER: Explore the ELEGANCE and 
BEAUTY of MATHEMATKS by creating HI-RES PLOTS 
Of 3-dimensional surfaces from any 3-variable 
equation. Disk save and recall routines for plots. 
Menu driven to vary surface parameters. Hidden 
line or transparent plotting. 

For Apple II & IBM PC $50.00 



FREBUENCY IN HZ 


For Apple II (48K) & IBM PC (2 0RIVES)$475,00 
Manual & Demo Disk $30.00 

ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS: All programs are supplied 
on disk and run on Apple II (48K) with a Single 
Disk Drive or IBM PC (64K) with Single Disk Drive 
unless otherwise noted. Detailed instructions 
included. Orders shipped within 5 days. Card users 
include card number. Add $2.00 postage and 
handling with each order. California residents add 
6 V 2 % sales tax. Foreign orders add $5.00 postage 
and handling per product. 


SPECTRUM 

SOFTWARE 

690 W. Fremont Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 


FOR PHONE ORDERS: 

(408) 738-4387 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



Enjoy the 

RAMifications 

of Pure Data. 


□ Configured as 4 banks of 64K bytes each 

□ Each 64K bank is individually addressable and 
locatable on 64K byte boundaries 

□ On-board parity generation and checking 

□ Refresh is synchronized and Planar Memory insuring 
present and future compatibility 

□ Full speed, no wait-states 

□ All integrated circuits and socketed 

□ Intel 200 ns ceramic DRams are used throughout 


□ Active delay line incorporated for precise refresh 

□ Comprehensive installation and operation manual 
provided 

□ Source listing for exhaustive memory testing included 

□ Extensive dynamic testing during burn-in. Available in 
128K {PDI128). 192K (PDM92) and 256K (PDI256) 

□ Field expandable up to 256K bytes 

□ Guaranteed for 1 full year, same-day service 

□ Nickel-plated bracket and card guide included 



D YES I would like lo order ir>e Pure Data memory expansion 
RAM card for my IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER. Please 

send cards @ $529.00 US each Total $ 

Please add $15 for postage & handlmgtmsurance) 
Any unused portion will be refunded 

□ YES I am interested in the Pure Data dual serial channel 
and real time clock card for my IBM PC. 

D YES I would like more information on the Pure Data RAM 
card 

D YES I am interested in the Pure Data direct connect 300- 
1200 baud intelligent modem for my IBM PC 

C YES I am interested in the Pure Data Intelligent Serial 
Communication Card for my IBM PC 

D Certified cheque or money order is enclosed. 

D Visa □ American Express 

Account# Expiry Date / / 

Authorized signature 

PLEASE RUSH MYCARD(S)TO; 

Name 

Street 

City 


Province/Slate 
MAIL TODAY TO: 

Pure Data Ltd. 

950 Denison St.. Unit 1 7, 

Markham. Ontario. Canada L3R 3K5 


. Code 



256K Expansion Memory 
for the IBM Personal Computer 
for only S529.22 U.S* 

Order your PDI256 today 
and enjoy the RAMifications! 

•Inquire lor Canadian pricing. 


0 Designed and Manufactured by 

Apu^e 

(|] DATA LTD 

r @ Dealer inquiries welcome. 


950 Denison St . Unit 17. 
Markham. Ont 
Canada. L3R 3K5 
(416) 498-1616 



10 GREAT NEW PROGRAMS FROM 


Single SOURCE Solution 


TM 


ill 


1 STOCKMAP’^ $49.95 

An Interactive program to draw bar charts for stocks or 
commodities on a weekly or daily basis and to display or 
print a detailed graph of high/low and closing prices 
and vol jme. STOCKMAP also displays short- and long- 
term moving overages with user-selectable p>eriods as 
well as price/ earnings ratios arKl dividend yields. Easy 
to use. STOCKMAP is available for HP-86 users. A Micro- 
soft BASIC version will be available January 1 983 for 
IBM-PC users. 

2. PORTMAP'“ $49.95 

ArKJlyze your existing investment portfolio, whether it 
contains stocks, bonds, moneymarket instruments. ar>d/ 
or other securities. PORTMAP's summary report arxstyzes 
cost basis, number of units, and expected income by 
account, type of security, month of payment, arid tax- 
ability (Federal. State, or non-taxable). The gain/loss 
report ar>alyzes market values, gain/loss, and holding 
period by irvitividual lot oryj typ>e of security: margin 
account status is also reported. For ease at tax-time, a 
special report containing all required data for Schedule 
D is provided. Any number of portfolios may be pro- 
cessed. arKj data may be selected by p>ortfolio or iixti- 
vidual accounts. All data entry is interactive and user- 
oriented. PORTM AP is written in Microsoft BASIC arrd will 
be available in September 1982 for the IBM-PC and other 
computers running MS-DOS or CP/M. 

3. INTERACTIVE RESUME’” $49.95 

A user frler>dly program for updatir>g or tailormaking 
your resume to meet the needs of particular job oppor- 
tunities. Use a menu-driven set of routines reloted to 
education, volunteer and work experience, special skills, 
work objectives, etc. to functionalty define your resume 
using accepted managerial psychology principles. 
INTERACTIVE RESUME provides special text formatting 
features. A detailed manual is included. 

4. THE ADDRESSOR™ $49.95 

A name and address filer system, alphabetized ond 
adaptable to a 2 " by 3" binder. It will also print address 
labels as well as remiixj you of Important dates. Set to 
run on the IBM-PC under PC-DOS with at least one disk 
drive and Disk BASIC. ADDRESSOR includes a tutorial on 
setting up the filing system and a detailed manual. 


5. PCWORD’” $49.95 

The sophisticated Full-Screen Text Editor. PCWORD runs 
urKler PC-DOS ond Disk BASIC and provides optimum 
use of the full IBM-PC keyboard. All the normal text editing 
functions are available including online “help", auto- 
matic file saving, paging up and down. etc. All function 
keys may be redefined for the convenience of the user. 
Detailed manual is provided. 

6. PCSCREEN’” $49.95 

Paint your screen any way you want and have an effi- 
cient BASIC program module written for you for inclusion 
in various programs. PCSCREEN runs under PC-DOS and 
Disk BASIC. You type on the screen just as you wish to 
see formats In your program, complete with Input fields 
arxj protect prompts. A ready-to-run BASIC program 
segment is generated that can be linked to your own 
program. Various fields may be colored with reverse- 
video. high and low intensity, etc. A "help" nr>odule is 
included to simplify the programmIrTg tasks even further, 
as well as a detailed nxinual. 

7. PCFORMS’” $49.95 

A super text-formattir>g system which runs urxler IBM- 
DOS and Disk BASIC with at least 32 Kbytes of memory. 
Designed specifically for operating with the line printer, 
text may also be formatted for display on the screen, 
PCFORMS supports macros nested ten deep and printer 
specifications for overstrike, doublestrike, etc. PCFORMS 
accomplishes five main functions: Setting Text Charac- 
teristics. Text Formatting, Page Control. Printer Control, 
and Macros. When combined with PCWORD. PCFORMS 
provides all word processing capabilities of software 
selling for considerably more. 

8. XREF™ $39.95 

A complete cross-referer>ce utility for PC-DOS Disk BASIC 
programs. XREF will first generate a listing of your pro- 
gram with formatting that aids in the program's read- 
ability. such as indentation, pogitxstion. program name, 
time and date, etc. It will then print out a list of every 
variable, their line numbers. ar>d finally a table of all 
line numbers. Since large arrays are used. XREF requires 
as much memory as possible. 

9. PCGRAPHS™ $49.95 

Providing full graphics capabilities. Coming Soon! 

10. COMPLETE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM $149.95 

Coming Soon! 


Dear Single SOURCE Solution. 

Please enter my order for the following programs at your special 10% discount rate through 1982. 
Circle program(s) ordered: 123456789 10 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY STATE ZIP PHONE ( ) _ 



Make check or money order payable to: Single SOURCE Solution 
(California residents add 6%) 

Postage and Handling add $2.00: C.O.D odd $1.50 Mail today to: Single SOURCE Solution 

2699 Clayton Road 

TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED $ Concord. CA 94519 


Satisfaction Guaranteed or Your Money Back in 10 Days • Dealer Inquiries Invited 


or Call: (415) 680-0202 


FABS 


/PC 


THE 



TO 


PRICE 
$ 150.00 

AUTOSORT 

is an 8068 assembly language 
sort/merge/selecl subroutine 


HIGH SPEED DATA ACCESS: 

"• MAINTENANCE FREE BTREE STRUCTURE "• 

For DOS and BASIC/BASIC COMPILER/PASCAL 

on the IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 


COMMANDS: 


Can be used as a Stand-Alone or as 
a subroutine lor BASIC. BASIC 
COMPILER or PASCAL 

Sorts on 10 keys: Compares up to 4 
independent select keys. Rapid 
with large data tiles. Mas subrou- 
tine to merge two files into one. 
Sons files as large as DOS & work- 
space allows; Has prompted disk 
change capability 

Output file can be full records, rec 
pointer & sort keys, or rec pointer 
only. 

Son parameters defined in para- 
meter tile or dynamically in a com- 
mand string. 

PRICE... S150 


Features: 

■ Versatile, fast. easy, to use assembly lang. multi-path BTREE 

■ Loarls as resident to DOS for easy, continuous access by BASIC 

■ Random search time approx. 1 sec.: sequential approx. 'U sec. 

■ Duplicate keys permitted: search returns the first duplicate 

■ Insert/Delete multiple keys with a single command string 

■ Deleted data records automatically reclaimed by later inserts 

■ Generic search returns the first occurrence of a partial key 

■ FABS directs all access to the data file with record pointers 

■ Allows ASCII keys SO bytes). Integer keys use only 2 bytes 

■ Up to 32767 records (limited by BASIC. FABS supports 65535) 


Create Key File 
Open Key File 
Close Key File 
Search For Key 
First. Last. 

Next. Previous 
Generic Search 
Insert Key 
Delete Key 
Replace Key 

# of Open Deletes 

# of Data Records 
0 of Primary Keys 
Max. Key Length 

IBM IS a 

registered trademark 
of Irrternalional Busmess 
Machines Corporation. 

FABS'PC IS a trademark ot 
Computer Control Systems 


Excellent error handling: errors/warnings returned to basic 


COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS, INC. 

298 21st Ten-ace S.E., Suite 100, Largo, FL 33541 (813) 586-1886 


AU NEW FROM AEROCOMP 


DISK DRIVES •MONITORS* PRINTERS 


FOR YOUR IBM PC 


• INTERNAL DRIVES (A & B) 

"FLIPPY " * or STANDARD 40-TRACK 
Standard (List S569.99) ....$249.00 each 

"FLIPPY " (Not available from IBM) 

$269.00 each 

Purchase your IBM PC without drives 
but with the disk drive con- 
troller/adapter & cable and the Disk 
Operating System (DOS) and SAVE A 
BUNCH! 


• PRINTER 
EPSON MX80 
$469.00 

(Same as the IBM 
21201 printer sell- 
ing for $754.99) 

• PRINTER CABLE 
$9.95 

•With purchase 


• EXTERNAL DRIVES (C & D) 

Standard $289.00 each 

""FLIPPY" $319.00 each 

These drives are complete with mat- 
ching case& power supply. 

• EXTERNAL 2-DRIVE CABLE 

$23.95 

•"’"FlipPY'"’ aiiows flipping the diskette 
over and reading/writing to the back 
side. Cuts diskette cost in half. NO 
special diskettes required. 


of a printer! 
purchased separately) 

• ZENITH 12" 
Monitor 

Green Phosphor 
$135.00 
cable $7.00 

(Monitor requires 
IBM 21022 col- 
or/ Graphics Card in 
your PC) 


ORDER NOW! 

TO order by mall enclose 
check, money order, visa or 
MASTERCHARCE Card number 
and expiration date, or re- 
quest C.O.D. shipment. Texas 
residents add 5% sales tax. 
Add VA% of total for shipp- 
ing i handling icont. USI. 
Please allow 2 weeks for per- 
sonal checks to clear our 
bank, no personal checks will 
be accepted on c.o.D. 
shlpments-casn, money 
orders or certified checks 
only. YOU will receive a card 
snowing the exact C.O.D. 
amount before your ship- 
ment arrives. Be sure to In- 
clude your name and shipp- 
ing address. You will be 
notified of the scheduled 
snipping date. Your bank 
credit card will NOT be 
charged until the day we 
ship!! 


CAU TOiL FREi FOR FAST SERVICE 
(ROO) R34-TRRR, ORERATOR 34 

Vl»« 'M*STtKMAt<H/C.O.D OM(M 

C«i.t9<A«d.o> (00 0»*<OFa-2« Aiotkd 

BAd d,«i HO tat ’<■• OparaFfM 24 

rou rail uwis wiu accirr oaoin oniti 

2>4 }}> 4M Xw vT« lO'd *■"**"* *• 


-A...«d 

Ac^ocoinp 

Redbird Airport. Bldg. 8 
P O Bo> 24829 
Oollos TX 75224 


PRODUCT REPORTS/FRANK J. DERFLER, Jr. 


Speak To Me, PC! 

An easy-to-use and reasonably priced device that turns your 
text into spoken words. 


Echo GP Speech Synthesizer 
Street Electronics 
1140 Mark Ave. 

Carpinteria. CA 93013 
(805| 684-4593 
List Price: $299.95 

T he phrase “Come out and fight like 
a robot!" is part of a popular video 
arcade game that uses a simple 
voice synthesis device to enhance the 
game-playing experience. Voice synthesis 
can add appeal and efficiency to many mi- 
crocomputer applications, especially in 
aid to the handicapped, aural proofread- 
ing. and user training. 

It's no surprise that people are uncom- 
fortable using many computer systems. 
People who are accustomed to multilevel 
visual and aural communications are 
asked to limit themselves to reading words 
presented in strange forms (video screens 
and dot matrix print) and to type out their 
thoughts on a keyboard. 

\^/CE 

recognition devices 
are still limited in 
accuracy and require 
large amounts of 
memory. 

The more color and graphics a program 
includes, the better it communicates with 
the user. Vision is usually the most power- 
I ful human mode of perception, taking up 
most of the brain’s sensory processing 
area. Although sight can quickly convey 
general impressions, many details and in- 
tellectual concepts are best expressed by 
speech. Voice synthesis (getting a com- 
puter to “speak”) and. to a lesser extent. 


voice recognition (making the computer 
"understand" human speech) devices are 
allowing speech to become an important 
part of the computing process. 

Voice recognition can be an extremely 
helpful method of data entry or of issuing 
commands to the computer, especially for 
the visually handicapped. Voice recogni- 
tion devices, however, are still limited in 
accuracy and require large amounts of 
memor>'. The development of micro- 
processors that are able to address large 
memory blocks and continual improve- 
ments in memory density and cost will al- 
low the introduction of practical voice rec- 
ognition devices within 2 to 3 years. 

Practical voice synthesizers are avail- 
able at reasonable prices. Three technical- 
ly mature methods of voice synthesis are 
now on the market: format synthesis, 
waveform digitization, and linear predic- 
tive coding. Each of the techniques has 
individual strengths and weaknesses for 
various applications. 

Format Synthesis 

Format synthesis, or synthesis by rule, 
was developed by Votrax. (See the review 
of Type-’N-7'olk in this issue.) This system 
breaks speech into phonemes, the smallest 
distinguishable units of sound. The system 
also provides for different pronunciations 
of phonemes in different contexts, or allo- 
phones. The phoneme p in piano, for ex- 
ample. is an allophone of the p in spin. 

The most developed Votrax units pro- 
vide 128 allophones that are strung togeth- 
er to form an unlimited vocabulaiy'. The 
speech provided by this s>'stem is excel- 
lent. but selection of allophones requires a 
large amount of programming time. 

Waveform Digitization 

A word spoken into a microphone can 
be broken up and digitized, and the result- 
ing pattern of ones and zeros is saved on a 
programmable read only memory. This 
memor>' is read by a microprocessor when 
needed and replayed as sound. The phone 


company often uses digitized speech to de- 
scribe why a call has not been completed. 

Waveform digitization can produce ex- 
cellent speech in any language for which it 
is used, but it requires a great deal of mem- 
or>' to gain flexibility in what it can say. 
With data compression, one word can be 
stored in about 1000 bytes. Therefore, a 
20.000-word vocabulary would require 2 


digitization can 
produce excellent 
speech. 


megabytes of fast memory, a prohibitive 
expense even with the rapidly decreasing 
price of memory. 

Linear Predictive Coding 

Easy-to-use voice synthesis with a large 
vocabular>' can be achieved at a moderate 
price and only a slight sacrifice in speech 
quality. Linear predictive coding, devel- 
oped primarily by Texas Instruments, uses 
integrated circuits to represent the human 
voice tract. A synthesizer and linear filter 
mimic the operation of vocal mechanisms. 
A microprocessor calculates and predicts 
the acoustic patterns and calls a read only 
memory’ to provide speech parts. The 
speech parts are coded according to their 
voicing, pitch amplitude, and frequency. 
Since the human voice is not a very fast 
communications port, this system can pro- 
vide an acceptable rate of speech by oper- 
ating internally at 1.200 bits per second. 

Many have heard the results of this 
process as the output of the Speak and 
Spell devices from Texas Instruments. 
The words are not as clear as a tape-re- 
corded voice’s, but they become easy to 
understand after a few minutes. 


PC MAGAZINE 271 DECEMBER 1982 



The Echo GP Speech Synthesizer 

Street Electronics has incorporated an 
ujj^raded version of the Texas Instru- 
ments TMS 5200 speech processor into the 
Echo GP. a simple text-lo-speech unit that 
interfaces with the IBM PC. 

This system uses linear predictive cod- 
ing to pronounce a stream of standard 
English words from text fed to it through 
the PC's parallel port (for the Echo GPP| or 
RS-232C serial port (for the EchoGPS|. No 


special software is required other than the 
word processing or communications pro- 
gram used to feed the words out to the port. 

Software written in BASIC can easily 
he modified to send word strings to the 
s|)(;ech synthesizer and repeat or add de- 
tail to the information presented on the 
display screen. The serial version (Echo 
GPS| can echo characters to the screen or 
can ()e "daisy chained" to another serial 
device such as a modem. The Echo GP has 


an internal memory,’ buffer of 250 charac- 
ters. It will begin speaking when its buffer 
is full or when it receives a carriage return. 

The Echo GP is small and sturdy: it 
combines real wood and high technology 
in an attractive unit. The power supply is a 
[)lug-mounted transformer, and the unit 
has its own speaker and audio amplifier. 

The Echo GP contains special circuitry' 
to convert the word stream into compo- 
nents that the Texas Instruments process- 
ing system can understand. As an alterna- 
tive. special codes can be transmitted to 
put together phoneme strings. This second 
method enables the Echo GP to perform 
with languages that are not derived from 
the same roots as English, Languages shar- 
ing Latin or Greek roots can be entered 
with common spellings or slight phonetic 
modifications. The Echo GP does a good 
job on French. Spanish, and |apanese. 


A POTENTIALLY 

valuable use of the 
Echo GP is the 
generation of 
compressed speech. 


Various features of the system can be 
activated by control codes placed in the 
character stream. A Ctrl E gets the sv'stem's 
attention. Other control codes vary the 
pitch of the voice (it always sounds male), 
allow the unit to tr\' some vocal variety’ 
(with mixed results), adjust the volume 
from the console, control punctuation, and 
handle upper- and lowercase. 

A potentially valuable use of the Echo 
GP is the generation of compressed 
speech. Compressed speech reduces the 
amount of time required to transmit infor- 
mation by nearly half, but it lakes some 
practice to understand. Compressed 
speech would be particularly useful for vi- 
sually handicapped persons who would 
have a great deal of experience with the 
system and want to move a lot of informa- 
tion through it. 

Phonetic Spelling 

The Echo GP is preprogrammed with 
nearh' 400 rules, allowing it to correctly 


Help Is In Sight 

A terminal for the visuol/y impaired enlarges and enhances 
video text display. 


I.arge Print Video Terminal 
Arts (Computer Protluct.s. Inc. 

80 Hnylstnn St. #1260 
Boston. MA 02116 
|0I7| 4H2-H24H 

List Price: SO.OOO; keyboard (optional) 
S240; black and while monitor (optional) 
$.349 

The Large Print Video Terminal (LP\T1 
is a stand-alone device that buffers, en- 
larges. and enhances standard video out- 
put In allow the .sight-impaired to inter- 
act ea.sily and efficiently with any 
computer .system. It can l>e u.sed wherev- 
er an ASCdl terminal is in u.se. It con- 
nects to the PC through an RS-232 serial 
communications port. 

The LPVT consists of <\ standard 19- 
inch col<ir or black and while monitor, a 
typewriterlike keyboard, and a Z-80 mi- 
croproces.sor with a power su[){)ly and 
ten-slot SI no enclosure. The terminal 
f:ould be used primarily as a display de- 
\’ice for the PCL 'I’he P(Ps keyboard can 
maintain full CJimpatibility with pro- 
grams that utilize the function keys. 

Unlike other units used for similar 
purposes, the I. PVT is self-contained 
and rerpiires no .special externa! soft- 
ware to adapt it for use with the IBM P(^ 
or any other computer .system. 

Flexibility is the LPVTs greatest a.s- 
.set. The terminal can be u.sed 1)\ people 
who have vaiying degre*is of visual acu- 
ity It is an ea.sy matter to adjust the ter- 
minal f(tr .someone with 20/20 vision and 
tlum for a u.ser with 20/400 vision. 

'I’he flexibility is incorporated in the 
terminal's built-in software. In the "for- 


mat" mcnie. for example, the user can 
control the size and spacing of charac- 
ters. and the s|)eed with which text ap- 
|M?ars on the screen. The "host" mode 
controls communication between the 
terminal and the computer system so that 
format changes may be made indepen- 
dently of the computer. 

The manufacturer also produces a 
.speech .synthesis device, called the Ora- 
tor. and a terminal that combines fea- 
tures of the LPV'Fand Orator in one unit. 

The terminal does have a few short- 
comings: It has only one RS-232 jack that 
connects it to llie computer. Therefore, a 
[)rinter or modem must be connected to 
the computer, and not directly to the ter- 
minal. The numeric keypad that oper- 
ates inde|)endently of the standard key- 
board is not adequately labeled. The 
eiirsor position is al.so a |)rol)lem when 
extreme magnification is u.sed on the ter- 
minal, Knowing the exact column loca- 
ti<m of th(‘ cursor becomes difficult, (air- 
sor position is especially im|)ortant when 
programming in FORTRAN or COBOL 
because commands and expressions 
must be in specific columns. The pro- 
grammer is forced to count out spaces to 
kef?p things in the [)roper columns. 

'('hese shijrtcomings notwithstanding, 
the LPVT is an excellent vehicle that 
provides computer systems access to 
sight-impaired individtials. 

— Michael .Martin 

.Michael Marlin is legally blind, lie is in 
his junjor year ul San Diego Stale? Uni- 
versity and is mujoring in information 
Systems. 


PC MAGAZINE 272 DECEMBER 1982 



pronounce over 96 percent of the 1.000 
most commonly used words in English. 
However, the system will mispronounce 
many English words unless they are 
spelled phonetically. Phonetic spelling 
can be mastered with a little practice. The 
user quickly learns to recognize the cor- 
rect phonetic spelling when the Echo GP 
mistakenly makes a standard English text 
sound like French. Without phonetic 
spelling, the quality of the speech pro- 
duced by Echo GP requires the inexperi- 
enced listener to pay close attention. If 
phonetic spelling is used, even a casual 
listener can understand ever>’ word after 2 
or 3 minutes of listening. 

Using the Echo GP 

This device can be used in a variety of 
ways without any modification to the PC 
or other existing hardw'are. A writer can 
use the Echo GP to read an article back 
before the final printing. Even after the 
use of a spelling checker, a writer may still 
have duplicated words or awkward sen- 
tence constructions in the text. Listening to 


the text may uncover errors that would go 
by unnoticed in a second silent reading. 
Echo GP could also be an excellent 


^^OMPUTERS 
are beginning to talk 
to us. Soon they'll be 
listening as well. 


way for the visually handicapped to use an 
information utility such as The Source or 
CompuServe. The UPI service on The 
Source provides a keyword search of cur- 
rent news items. Visually handicapped 
persons could have Echo GP connected 
with a modem through the PC's serial port, 
hear the prompts spoken, and then cap- 
ture interesting news and information on 
disk by using a terminal program such as 
Crossto/k. After signing off the utility, the 


stored disk files could be sent out the serial 
port to the Echo GP. 

In education and business, voice sys- 
tems are particularly good for explaining 
procedures and commands to new users. 
They can be used just as the voice is in 
human communications — to explain the 
details of processes shown in graphic form 
on the screen. The audible text need not 
be the same as the visual text and may 
enhance the visual presentation. 

In games, vocal text can explain rules 
that are boring or confusing to read, as 
well as support, motivate, or otherwise in- 
teract with the game player. 

Watch and Listen 

As computer technology' matures, de- 
vices that promise to change the nature of 
communications are becoming more read- 
ily available. The Echo GP Speech Synthe- 
sizer demonstrates the reality of that 
promise. As display screens are filled with 
color and new shapes, computers are be- 
ginning to talk to us. Soon they’ll be listen- 
ing as well. /PC 


Can your IBM PC 
make and take 
phone calls? 

U-MODEM^", the ultimate 
300 baud PC datacomm sys- 
tem, lets your IBM PC 
originate and answer tele- 
phone calls, provides auto dialing (pulse and tone) and permits unat- 
tended auto answer -all with just a plug-in circuit board. 

■ Fully FCC approved for direct connection to the telephone 
line; Bell 103 compatible. 

■ No boxes, cables and connec- I 
tions. 

■ Built-in speaker for monitor- 
ing calls. 

■ Completely crystal-controlled, 
assuring unsurpassed perfor- 
mance and extremely low error 
rate. 

■ Second serial port for addition- 
al serial interfaces. 

■ Complete software included. 

Available from stock -direct or 
from participating PC dealers. 

Distributor and dealer inquiries in- 
vited. Call our 800 number. 

IBM Personal Computer is a trade- 
mark of IBM. 


1 liiliiiliiPORI 

1 149 Palmer R<xid 

1 HOO-221-0732 In 

1 DU-MODEM $4- 

1 □I-QlJEUE(16K)with 
1 CLCK'K CALENDAR .$4! 

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I with 65K exf)an<le<l mem< 

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1 Mami» 

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NY State: 21Z-%1-2103 j 

»9 □ l-tJl'ElIE(6.5K) $670 1 

D U-MODEM bmchure 
9.7 □ I-QI EIIE brochure i 

□ U-MODEM and l-yUElJE I 
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Is your IBM PC 
bogged down 
with printing? 

I-QUEUE’'*', the intelligent 
printer buffer, frees your IBM 
PC from the time consuming 
printing function and pro- 
vides sophisticated word processing functions-all on one circuit 
board that plugs into your PC. 

■ Accepts data at processor speed (over 4000 characters per 

second) and sends it to the printer* 

at whatever speed the printer can 
accept. 

■ Stores 16K of RAM (7 pages of 
printout). Optionally expand- 
able to 65K (for storage of 28 
lages. 

■ Complete pagination and for- 
matting capabilities, a reprint 
buffer, a clock calendar and 
other design enhancements. 

Available from stock -direct or 
from participating PC dealers. 
Distributor and dealer inquiries in- 
vited. Call our 800 number. (See 
coupon.) 

'Fully compatible with IBM print- 
er and all Centronics interface 
printers. 


Our Best To 

Your Personal Computer. 
Complements From 
Computer-Mate.”* 



Every week, new accessories flood into the 
computer marketplace. Your decision of which 
to select becomes harder and harder. That's 
why you need Computer-Mate™ products. 

We make your choice simple. We keep up-to- 
date on new products manufactured for the care, 
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IBM Personal Computer. After thoroughly examin- 
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back them up with our 100% unconditional 
guarantee. 


When you've made a personal investment as com- 
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best. Complements from Computer-Mate.™ 


Your personal computer deserves personal attention. 

Computer-Mate, Inc. 



VIDEO HIM RECORDER 
BY COMPUTER-MATE™ 


VP-01-35 


Now, quickly convert your computer 
graphics to 35mm siides or prints. 

An extremely economical and professional 
device. Provides the user of the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer with the ability to quickly 
and automatically produce presentation 
quality 35mm slides or photographic 
prints. Completely automatic, including 
film advance and rewind. One convenient 
size: TVi" x 9H" x 17%". 

Easy to operate. No special knowledge of 
computers or photography is necessary. 
With a push of a button you'll have a sharp 
slide or photo of your computer's video 
display. Update or revise each slide at any 
time by computer— a snap to use with 
minimal adjustments. The Video Rim Re- 
corder Is an economical way to enhance 
the Impact of any slide presentation, 
this device uses standard 35mm slide film 
that can be processed at any local photo 
lab or store. Its sleek, modem design Is 
color coordinated with the IBM System. 
The unit is also compatible with a variety of 
other personal computers. 

VP01-35 $2,495.00 OEM and Dealer pri- 
cing available. Prices include 35mm film 
system with autowind. TTL RGB interface 
(IBM Personal Computer). All prices FOB 
Dallas, Texas. Prices subject to change 
without notice. 


DESKS BY COMPUTER-MATE™ 

Exclusively designed to match your IBM 
System. The desk protects your compo- 
nents, provides ample storage space and 
a large work area. 

• Protective recessed bay tor CPU and 
Disk Drive 

• Self-adhesive plug strip with master 
on/otf switch 

• Self-adhesive cable supports 

• Adjustable leg levelers 

• Two toller drawers for storage 

• Gray color with black accents to match 
IBM System 

DK-01-IBM 4-foot model $399.00 (shown) 
DK-02-IBM 5-toot model $499.00 



CASES BY COMPUTER-MATE™ 



PRINTER STANDS BY COMPUTER-MATE™ 


Avoid the headaches and expense of rough 
handling when traveling with your IBM 
Personal Computer by using a secure, 
dependable case by (^mputer-Mate.'" It 
ensures complete protecbon for your IBM 
Personal Computer. Designed to meet or 
exceed Air Transport Association Specifi- 
cation 300 tor safe travel under most 
rigorous handling tests. An extremely du- 
rable tool that may be custom-designed to 
your personal sp^cabons. Built tor life. 
IBM Cases 

CS-01-1 For CPU and keyboard $279.00 
CS-02-1 For monitor $199.00 
CS-03-1 Full transport case tor CPU, key- 
board, monitor and Epson MX-80 or 
MX-100 printer plus special, handy ac- 
cessory compartment $419.00 
Options: 

Locks $25.00 each 

Removable Caster Assembly $50.00 

(tor toll transport rase) 


COVERS BY COMPUTER-MATE™ (Not Shown) 

Give your computer equipment double pro- 
tection from dust and spills to insure its 
efficient functioning over a longer life. 

Many types to choose from. Attractively 
designed and custom-fitted tor each piece 
of your computer equipment; unobstruc- 
tive to computer cables or connectors; 
made from anti-static vinyl that may be 
wiped with a damp cloth. Call for more 
^formation. 


Computer-Mate. Inc., distributes Electrohome 
monitors (Model ECM 1302-2 shown) Call or 
return order term for information. 


Designed exclusively tor your IBM Printer 
. . . available In desk top or tree standing 
models. Optional basket available. Sturdy 
construction with attractive gray color and 
black accents to match IBM System. 

IBM Models 
DTPS Desktop $39.95 
18” wide X 10” deep x 8" high 
PS-01-IBM $129.00 
18" wide X 12" deep x 26!^'' high 
PS-02-IBM $215.00 
24" wide X 20” deep x 2514" high 
PS-01-B-I8M Printer Stand 
Basket $20.00 


CABLES BY COMPUTER-MATE™ (Not Shown) 

Have greater freedom to fit your configura- 
tion needs with these extension cables, ex- 
clusively designed for the IBM Personal 
Computer. 

Extension Cables 
Keyboard Extension Cable: 

3-toot, 5-pin din cable connects keyboard 
to CPU 

K-01-IBM $28.00 each 
Monochrome Monitor Extension Two 
Cable Set: 

3-toot, 9-pin monitor extension cable 
3-toot power extension cable 
Both cables needed to connect monitor 
to CPU 

MMPD2-IBM $49.00 per set 


All Items available at your local participating 
ComputerLand stores or other fine dealers. If a 
local dealer Isn't available, order direct from 
Computer-Mate.’" 




I would like to order the 


. items checked trelow: 

I □ DK-01-IBM 4-(ool 

I model S399.00 
□ DK-02-IBM 5-foot 
model S499 00 


Printer Stands; 

□ OTPS Desk top 


S39 95 

□ PS-01-IBM $129.00 

□ PS-02-IBM $215.00 

□ PS-01-B-IBM Printer 
Stand Basket $20 00 


biano basi 


Cables: 

□ K-01-IBM Keyboard 
$28 00 each 

□ MMPD2-IBM 
Monochrome 
Monrtor $49.00 set 

Cases: 

□ CS01-I 

CPU/Keyboard $279 00 

□ CS-02-1 Monitor $199.00 
O CS-03-1 Transport 

$419.00 

Options 

□ Locks $25 00 each 

□ Casters $50.00 each 


Covers: 

Call or return form for 
prices and »zes. 
Electrohome Monitors: 
Call or return form tor 
information. 

Video Film Recorder 
DVP4)1-35 $2,495 00 
Enclosed is my check or 
money order for 

S 

IfKiuding $2.00 tor 
shipping except desk, 
include $15.00. 


Charge my □ MasterCard □ VISA GAmerican Express Please send shipment C.O.D.D 




Bank No. . 


. (For MasterCard and VISA) _ 


Card No. Exp. Date 


Signature 








City 

State 

Zip 

Phnnft No 


To order or for more information, send form or call; Computer-Mate, Inc. , 1006 
Hampshire Lane, Richardson, Texas 75080. Dallas (214) 669-9370 • Houston (713) 
491-6550 • Texas Residents (800) 442-4006 • Out of State (800) 527-3643. 

Please allow 4 to 6 weeks (or delivery. 



INVENTORY MANAGERS: 



WHEN YOU BUY 
INFOTORY™. . . 
YOU’RE BUYING 
THE BEST! 


SSR Corporation has been providing 
business solutions for all makes and 
sizes of computers for over twelve 
years. They know your needs and 
how to satisfy them. 

They know what management wants 
in an inventory system. . less time 
learning and more time producing. 

Last year SSR introduced INFO- 
TORY. . the ultimate solution to inven- 
tory management problems. 

With INFOTORY anyone in the 
office can learn the system— in less 
than four hours. . because it's so 
easy to use. 


Even though the system is easy to learn and 
operate it has great flexibility and power. 
INFOTORY promises the information you 
need— when you need It and the way you 
want it. You design your own report with 
INFOTORY’S unique reporting feature 
called ANYREPORT™. This easy to learn 
feature will deliver customized reports within 

minutes. 

ANYREPORT's capabilities are almost 
unlimited. Other inventory systems do 
not have an ANYREPORT feature. You 
would have to buy an additional soft- 
ware package to get this extra. . and you 
might have to take a computer course 
to learn how to use It. 
So, for the best, most flexible, 
simple-to-learn inventory package 
available. . stop in at your near- 
est IBM PC Dealer, or give SSR 
a call for more information. 


SSR Corporation, 1600 Lyell Avenue, Rochester, New York Telephone 716-254-3200 



VISA 
MasterCard 
accepted. 


Updating our club’s membership list was a cinch, 
thanks to TCI Software's new MAILTRAK. ” 


/Malltrakl 


List Management System 


Customers, prospeas, clubs, sales lists, membership organizations, fraternities, 
neighbors, alumni, volunteers. . . . Whatever your list, it can be managed with 
TCI's MAILTRAK. Complete name and address information Includes first and 
last name, two address lines plus city, state, and nine digit zip. Full 
tracking and seleaion capability is enhanced by the availability of two 
Phone numbers, five Marl codes, plus four Activity codes with assoc- 
iated dates. On-screen editing and updating is learned in seconds. 
Output Includes telephone dirertories, master list, labels (user 
seleaed format up to 4 across and any depth), and output files for 
word-processing programs or your Basic programs. Sort on any 
five fields in the data record and select on any or all fields of 
information. Stores up to 1. 200 records on a srngle-sided diskette 
or 2,400 on a double-sided diskette. Access your records by 
number or last name. Coming soon . . a MAILTRAK form letter 
program! Also ask about the 1 28K version for hard disk systems. 

(Minimum system 64K, MS DOS. Printer and display -40 or 80 charaaer) 

S6S Includes diskette, marsual and shippirsg StS tor manual only 


Call or write today 
6107 West Mill Road, Flourtown, PA 19031 215-836-1406 (24 hours) 


I WRAPPED IT UP LAST 
WEEK, HEIMRY. HOW'S 
YOUR END COMING? " 


PC MAGAZINE 276 DECEMBER 1982 



LEGAL/DANIEL REMER 


How To Cop)night Your 
Software 

Attorney Daniel Renter offers legal counsel to protect 
your programs from piracy — Part Three. 


This is the last of a three-part series on 
copyrighting computer software. Part 
One defined copyrigh! and expioined 
how to give correct copyright notice. Part 
Two brought the reader through the me* 
chanics of fiiing with the Copyright Of- 
fice. and this month's conclusion discusses 
the legal remedies available to copyright 
owners, as well as the problems owners 
face in enforcing their rights under the 
copyright law. 


Warning 

This software and manual are both pro* 
tected by U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17 
United States Code). Unauthorized repro* 
duction and/or sale may result in impris* 
onment of up to 1 year and fines of up to 
$10,000. Copyright infringers may also be 
subject to civil liability. 

This notice informs all purchasers and 
users of computer software and manuals 
that specific items are protected under the 
copyright laws of the United States. The 
notice seems simple enough; it warns 
against the "unauthorized reproduction 
and/or sale" of computer software prod- 
ucts. Yet as a complex industry becomes 
even more complex, so do the laws that 
govern it. Many contend that the current 
copyright law does not adequately protect 
computer software and technology. In 
both the computer and legal press the 
copyright law is often bemoaned. But. al- 
though the code may need some improve- 
ment. it isn’t as toothless as some believe. 

There are several good reasons for the 
copyright law getting such bad press. The 
first is that most lawyers and computer 
writers are fairly ignorant of the law. It 
does not protect, nor was it ever designed 
to protect, the actual ideas embodied in 
software; this fact is often misunderstood. 
It is legal to steal a program idea as long as 


the idea’s form of expression is not copied. 
(This point was discussed in Part One of 
this series.) 

A problem frequently cited by critics of 
copyright law is that infringers are hard to 
catch and cases are often difficult to 
prove. There is much confusion as to how 
much protection can be given to object 
code (the actual messages that direct the 
workings of a computer) and especially 
object codes contained in ROM. 

Not much can be said about the igno- 
rance of copyright commentators; time 
will doubtless take care of much of this 
problem. That software piracy is difficult 
to prove is no reason to denigrate the copy- 
right law. Arsonists are difficult to catch, 
and, when caught, their crime is often dif- 
ficult to prove. But this does not lead most 
people to the conclusion that laws against 
arson are worthless. When pirates who are 
profiting from stolen programs are caught, 
current laws will probably help remedy 
the situation. 


The U.S. Code 

U.S. Copyright Law is formally referred to 
as Title 17 of the United Stales Code. 
Copyrights. References to specific statutes 
within the section dealing with copyrights 
are usually written as follows: (17 USC 
502) nr (17 USC 504). The numbers 502 and 
504 refer to the specific citations within 
the code. 


Remedies: Civil and Criminal 
Current law provides for both civil and 
criminal penalties against copyright in- 
fringers. These penalties may carry fines 
and/or imprisonment, depending on the 
infringement. Criminal lawsuits are initi- 
ated by the government and require the 
cooperation of a federal prosecutor. If a 


company were accused of unlawfully sell- 
ing copyrighted material to another com- 
pany or to a foreign country, criminal pros- 
ecution might well ensue. In addition, the 
owners of the copyrighted material could 
bring a civil suit against the infringers. 

The penalties referred to in the warn- 
ing that began this article— $10,000 per in- 
fringement and 1 year in jail— apply in 
cases of criminal prosecution. 

In civil cases, the Copyright Code al- 
lows for the recovery of profits that pirates 
have made from copying and/or selling 
stolen software. If the losses cannot be 
proven, or if the losses weren’t primarily 
monetary (a company might, for instance, 
suffer a loss in reputation) the courts may 
award from $100 to $50,000 per infringe- 
ment. These awards are referred to as 
"statutory damages’’— money damages 
defined by a statute within the code. 

The law further provides that the 
courts may require the defendant to pay 
court costs and attorney’s fees (17 USC 
505). When willful infringement has been 
proven, such an award is likely. 

In addition to money damages, injunc- 
tions are often granted that prohibit pi- 
rates from continuing to copy or sell stolen 
material (17 USC 502). Other statutes (17 
USC 602. 603) stop the importation of in- 
fringing software through U.S. customs. 
With the severe criminal and civil penal- 
ties the courts are meting out. copyright 
infringers will do well to reconsider any 
plans they may have. 


Daniel Remer is a partner in the law firm 
Remer, Remer and Dunaway of Mountain 
View. California. He is also the author of 
Legal Care for Software (Addison-Wesiey, 
Reading. Massachusetts. 1982}. More of 
Mr. Remer's legal counsel will appear in 
PC. February. 1983. 


PC MAGAZINE 277 DECEMBER 1982 


The Piranha Problem 

One of the reasons pirates are so diffi- 
cult to catch is that most don't copy pro- 
grams on an ongoing professional basis. I 
refer to these not-for-profit infringers as 
piranhas: individually they don’t do much 
damage, but together their nibbling may 
represent a significant threat. 

Making copies of copyrighted software 
by anyone except the owner of the copy- 
right is a violation of the law. But piranhas 
are difficult to locale, and the copyright 
law itself cannot keep them from occasion- 
ally taking a bite. No law can. Eventually 
some angr\’ software author will drag one 
of these piranhas into court, but most own- 
ers have neither the time nor the money 
for such gestures. 

Difficult as it may seem, software au- 
thors should stop fretting about not-for- 
profit piracy. Such small-scale operations 
will probably always be in existence. It is 
against larger profit-making operations 
that specific court cases are deciding the 
meaning of copyright law. 

MicroPro vs. Data Equipment 

One recent court case has begun the 
process of interpreting copyright law as it 
applies to computer software. MicroPro 
International and Digital Research, the 
publishers of WordStar and CP/M re- 
spectively. used the copyright law success- 
fully to stop a pirate from copying object 
code. 

The law clearly provides that software 
iseligible for copyright protection (17 USC 
101(al. 117). It defines a computer program 
as ”a set of statements or instructions to be 
used directly or indirectly in a computer In 
order to bring about a certain result” (17 
USC 101(a)). This definition seems broad 
enough to cover j ust about all forms of soft- 
ware. Some people argue, however, that 
certain pieces of object code, specifically 
ROMs, cannot be copyrighted. 

In the case in question. Data Equip- 
ment Inc. was a dealer for MicroPro and 
Digital Research. Former employees of 
Data Equipment reported that they had 
been asked to create unauthorized copies 
of WordStar and four other programs. 

Ron Laurie, an attorney with the law 
firm of Townsend & Townsend, which 
specializes in intellectual properh' mat- 
ters. represented MicroPro and Digital Re- 
search. The law’suit was purely one of 
copyright infringement. This in itself was 
significant since Data Equipment, as a Mi- 


croPro dealer, could have been sued for 
breach of contract. Apparently MicroPro 
felt that the best recourse lay within the 
copyright law. 

The case resulted in a consent judg- 
ment in which both parties agreed to abide 
by a settlement made by the judge. The 
case has no value as a legal precedent, but 
the results are encouraging. Rather than 
lr>- to prove each and ever\' instance of 
copying, the plaintiffs opted for statutory 
damages. The award was assessed at the 
maximum of $50,000 for each pirated pro- 
gram— a total of $250.00(t. Attorneys' fees 
were assessed at $30,000. Overall, it was 
an impressive settlement for a law some 
call toothless. 


Whether the plaintiffs will be able to 
collect the monies awarded them is doubt- 
ful. If the defendant doesn't have suffi- 
cient assets, there won't be much money 
for MicroPro and Digital Research. Nev- 
ertheless. MicroPro vs. Data Equipment 
(August 20. 1982) remains possibly the first 
case on record that involves copyright pro- 
tection for microcomputer application 
software in object form. 

Apple vs. Franklin 

Another recent case illustrates the 
complexities involved in copyright in- 
fringement cases. In Apple Computer Inc. 
vs. Franklin Computer Corp. (LI.S. District 
Court. Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 


Catching a Copyright Pirate 

Proving infringement isn't always easy. 


Catching a copyright pirate can be diffi- 
cult if not im{K)ssible. There is little prob- 
lem in a case like Apple Computer vs. 
Franklin Computer. Franklin made no at- 
tempt to hide the fact that it came with 
“Apple-compatible software.” Apple now’ 
faces the task of proving that its software 
was eligible for copyright protection in the 
first place. If this is determined in Apple's 
favor, proving that the program was copied 
should be fairly eas\’. 

The toughest cases to prove involve pi- 
rates. often former em{)loyees. who copy 
relatively small portions of code, or who 
copy whole programs and then disguise 
them. These cases have been broken 
when sus[)iciously similar bugs have ap- 
peared in both programs. One case was 
proven because of t\'pos in comment state- 
ments that reappeared in the pirated ver- 
sion of the program. 

Sometimes it is too difficult to prove 
program copying. Instead, if a manual or 
documentation is copied in addition to the 
program, the pirate can be slopped on the 
grounds that the copyright in the docu- 
mentation was infringed. Circumstantial 
evidence such as the sudden departure of 
an employee to set up a competing com- 
pany has helped prove infringement 
cases. 

Even if evidence of copying can be 
proven with some satisfaction, it may be 
difficult to convince a jur\' that one pro- 
gram is copied from another if the pro- 
grams look the least bit different. — D.R. 


"Any exact copies prepared in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section 
may I>e leased, sold, or otherwist* trans- 
ferred. along with the copy from which 
such copies were prepared, only «is part of 
the lease, .sale, or other transfer of all 
rights in the program. Adaptations so pre- 
pared may be transferred only with the 
authorization of the cojn’right owner. " 
(SSI 17. Limitations on exclusive rights: 
Com))uter programs.) 

Copies of programs can l>e made under 
certain conditions. The first condition re- 
fers to configuring a program to run with a 
certain com))uter and creating a cop>' by 
doing so. The second condition allows a 
backup copy to be made for archival piir- 
poses. Although the law allows backup 
copies of a program to be made, if the pos- 
session of the program ”cease(s) to be 
rightful.” all backup copies must be de- 
stroyed. Possession ceases to be rightful 
when the program or a copy is sold or giv- 
en away. 

What bearing do the legal-sounding 
warnings on copy-protected software 
have on the right of legal owners to make 
backup copies? This hasn’t been lest(;d in 
the courts, hut for mass-marketed soft- 
ware where no face-to-face relationship 
exists between software publisher and 
))urchaser. such warnings are probably 
meaningless. The law specifically allows 
individuals who bought programs to cre- 
ate backup copies. — D.fl. 


PC MAGAZINE 278 DECEMBER 1 9 ft 2 


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PC M c; z I N i; ZSO December i 9 s 2 



Programs Copy Programs 


Making backup copies of copy-prolectcd programs, nr. peo[>lc 
don't copy programs; programs copy programs. 


For the last few years ])ovverful copy pr<j‘ 
^r.jmshavel)een available for all j)ersnnal 
{:om[)Hters. These programs can copy even 
the most sophisticated copy-[)rotect**(l [irn- 
grains When a software [nihlisher thinks 
of a better copy protection trick, it isonK a 
matter of days or even hours before it is 
cracked. The ijiieslion freipiently ari.ses. Is 
it legal to copy these programs for one s 
own use? 

Copying a j)rogram is illegal if the pro- 
gram was not legally obtained. It doesn't 
even matter whether the jmjgram is copy 
protected: if the program wasn't pur- 
chased legitimately, it cannot be copied le- 
gally Hut w hat if someone purchases a le- 
gitimate c()py of VjsjCoIc and wants to 
make a backu[)? Following is what the law 


s«iys. 

■'Notwithstanding the provisions of 
section UMi. it is not an infringement for 
the ow ner of a copy of a computer program 
to m.ike or authorize the making of an- 
other copy or adaptation of that computer 
[jrogram provided: 

"1 1 1 that .such new copy or adaptation is 
created as an essential step in the utilizii- 
tion of the computer program in conjunc- 
tion v\ith a machine and that it is used in 
no other manner, or 

“lU) that such new'copy or adaptation is 
for archival pur|H)ses only and that ail ar- 
chival copit*s are de.strnyed in the event 
that continued {lossession of the com[)Utei 
program should cease to l>e rightful. 


|uly 30. 19801. Apple asked the court for a 
preliminary’ injunction ordering Franklin 
to stop selling certain software on the 
grounds that it infringed on Apple’s copy- 
rights. Some of this software was con- 
tained in ROM chips on the Franklin com- 
puter. 

If the court had granted Apple its in- 
junction. Franklin would have been 
barred from selling its Ace computer. As a 
practical matter Apple was saying. “Order 
Franklin to stop selling its computers until 
we can hold a full trial on whether or not 
Franklin has been infringing on our copy- 
rights." 

In a lengthy opinion the court refused 
Apple’s request for several reasons. The 
judge had some doubt about whether Ap- 
ple's copyrights on its programs were val- 
id. In order to Ijc granUul a preliminary' 
injunction. Apple needed to show, among 
other things, "a reasonable probability of 
success on the merit " of the case. In other 
w’ords. Apple needed to convince the 
judge that it would ultimately win its full 
trial. Apparently the judge was not con- 
vinced (though more recent cases indicate 
that the judge's ruling was incorrectl. 

The second reason that Apple did not 
receive the injunction had to do with bal- 
ancing equities. The court decided that 
forcing Franklin to slop selling computers 
pending the full trial would damage the 


company unfairly. According to the court. 
Apple was playing the part of the big com- 
pany trying to sijuash the small company, 
ludge Newcomer observed: “Ap[)le is bel- 
ter suited to withstand whatever injury it 
might sustain during litigation than is 
Franklin to withstand the effects of a pre- 
liminary injunction. While I am not pre- 
pared to find that the injunction sought by 
Apple would force Franklin out of busi- 
ness. it would certainly have a devastating 
effect,” 

While Apple has suffered a setback in 
its suit against Franklin, this is only round 
one. Should Apple win its case. Franklin 
will probably be liable for damages in- 
curred throughout the period that it con- 
tinued to sell its computers. If it can be 
shown that Franklin copies Apple’s pro- 
grams. Apple .stands a good chance of win- 
ning. That some of the.se programs were in 
object code, stored on ROM.S. should have 
no bearing on whether they can be pro- 
tected under copyright law. 

Other Legal Questions 

Similar court cases decided both be- 
fore and after Apple vs. Franklin support 
the eligibility' for copyright protection of 
object code resident in ROM. One .such 
case. Tandy Corp. vs. Personal Micro 
Computers. Inc. [524 F. Supp. 171 (1981|1 
involved the theft of Tandy's I/O routines 


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for use in a competing computer. The de> 
Cendant made an interesting metaphysical 
claim: A ROM chip that is a copy of an- 
other ROM chip is not a copy of the origi- 
nal copyrighted program. The court dis- 
agreed. holding that a copy of a ROM is an 
infringing copy. Similar decisions have 
been made with respect to video games. 




E COPYRIGHT 


law will have a great 
bearing on the future 
of microcomputer 
technology. 


While the question of copyrighting an 
object program in ROM is being settled, 
other questions arise. Is it an infringement 
if someone copies a FORTRAN program, 
but the copy is written in BASIC? In litera- 
ture. an original work cannot be translated 
from one language to another without per- 
mission from the copyright holder, but 
computer programs are arguably differ- 
ent. To translate a program, one might es- 
sentially have to rewrite it. Is this copying? 

Another puzzling question concerns 
people who buy a program that was de- 
signed for a single user on a single com- 
puter and use the program on several com- 
puters (or terminals) simultaneously. A 
business, for example, might buy only one 
copy of VisiCoic to share among its ten 
PCs. Is this legal? Is it fair? 

In Summation 

The copyright law— Title 17 of the 
United States Code. Copyrights— will 
have a great bearing on the future of mi- 
crocomputer technology. The meaning of 
“unauthorized reproduction and/or sale" 
will continue to fluctuate between the 
pure intent of the law and what is possible 
under the law. As the industry continues to 
grow, new applications will give rise to 
new questions. And after the questions, 
new answers will surely follow. /PC 

Readers with comments on the issues 
raised in this series, or on other iegai is- 
sues. are welcome to send them to Daniei 
Remer, PC, 1528 frving St.. San Francisco, 
CA 94122. 


PC MAGAZINE 282 DECEMBER 1982 




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PROGRAMMING/ALAN E. HEIMLIGH 


Modus Operandi: How To 
Write A Computer Game 


A computer game designer reveals the pitfalls in 
producing a commercial game and offers tips on 
how to avoid them. 


People create computer games for a vari- 
ety of reasons. In my case, I wanted to give 
my kids something to do with the computer 
besides seeing who could hit the keyboard 
the hardest. Developing Omegabug was 
hard work, but it did stop my kids from 
pounding the keyboard. Now they keep 
asking me when I’m going to gel off the PC 
so they can play the game. 

Put It Down on Paper 

As with any project, the best way to 
begin is to decide exactly what’s wanted 
and why. Write down goals and strategies. 
The ultimate purpose and system limita- 
tions of a program will narrow the options. 
This can facilitate system design. 

My original goal was to create a game 
that I could enjoy as much as my children. 
The game would require a means of vary- 
ing speed and complexity. At the same 
time I wanted a game that exercised and 
improved players' hand-eye coordination 
and that any new system purchaser could 
play without having to buy additional 
hardware and software. I had to consider 
alternatives before I began programming, 
but my criteria pointed me in the direction 
of a “shoot and attack” concept. 

The IBM PC minimum system config- 
uration offers two options for display mon- 
itors: monochrome or color. Because I 
wanted the game to be compatible with 
both options, 1 had to design it accordingly. 
I had to consider whether to use a joystick 
or keyboard for input. People don't nor- 
mally buy the IBM PC solely for entertain- 
ment. so I decided to control the game 
from the keyboard, saving users the trou- 
ble and expense of purchasing and cali- 
brating a joystick. 






One of the many challenges is to devel- 
op a game that doesn’t resemble anything 
else on the market. Nothing is more dis- 
concerting than the threat of a lawsuit, es- 
pecially if a large company's lawyer comes 
calling. Careful research and planning at 
the outset helps avoid such headaches. 

The initial planning stage is a good time 
to note personal likes and dislikes. No- 
body enjoys plunking a quarter into an ar- 
cade game, playing for 3 minutes, and get- 
ting wiped out. "#$7r@&!!” is my usual 
response. I dislike being wiped out by ran- 
domly generated characters. In Omega- 
bug. players dig their own graves: their 
mistakes lead to their ultimate demise. 

Character Set 

The initial requirements called for a 
game in which the object is to destroy an 
attacking enemy. This meant selecting 
suitable characters for the player, the 
weapon, the enemy, and other game fea- 
tures from the character set available on 
the IBM PC. It's important to select char- 
acters that don't resemble each other and 
to remember to keep the screen unclut- 
tered. Don’t worry about color at this stage 
of development: that comes later. 


I decided to use double vertical dia- 
monds for the weapon and the cursor ar- 
row for the missile. The Greek character 
Omega serves as the omegabug. which 
moves from left to right, drops a column, 
and moves from right to left until it is ei- 
ther shot or collides with the player's 
weapon. Another omegabug. called a 
dropper, falls vertically, trying to land on 
the weapon. A U indicates a dead omega- 
bug. and periods, dot patterns, and solid 
bars serve as barriers and obstacles. 


Strategy 

After devising a set of characters, you 
can begin operating the game. Everything 
starts moving fast at this stage, tempting 
the game designer to think. "This is great.” 
Blit developing the skeleton is the easy 
part. Revisions are inevitable, so it's best to 
number them: Omega^l, Omega02, and so 
forth. Keep backup files at all times: noth- 
ing is more frustrating than having to re- 
construct a lost program. 

My list of requirements called for a 
game that varied in speed and complexity 
so that it would appeal to a variety of play- 
ers. Omegabug began with a feature that 


PC MAGAZINE 285 DECEMBER 1982 



allowed players to select speeds on a scale 
of one to four, with four as the fastest. After 
1 began adding features and action. I be* 
gan testing. The best test is to let kids play 
the game. While testing, remember that 
not everyone has the same visual acuity, 
and some reactions have to be discounted. 

By revision number 24. I had refined 
the game enough for the player to main- 
tain control over operation. A variety of 
people of different ages played the game, 
and I noted their reactions. I decided to 
introduce new elements and features 
while preserving the characteristics of 
previous stages to maintain continuity. For 
example, the omegubug appears in the 
first stage; a glider lays down a dot-pattern 
barrier in the second stage; and droppers 
begin to appear in the third stage. The 
game increases in complexity’ until the 
tenth and final stage, when the player 
wins if his or her weapon hasn’t been hit. 
As players increase their proficiency, they 
can select a higher speed to keep the game 
challenging. 


Scoring 

The scoring strategy’ depends on the 
level of difficulty of various operations. 
For example, it’s hard to hit an omegabug 
moving horizontally across the screen; for 
this the player earns 100 points. Yet the 
wild, random shooter can hit it with ease. 


Sound is 

perhaps the most 
dilficult feature 
to perfect. 

The scoring solution is to penalize ten 
points for any missile that goes off the 
screen. Only two possibilities prevent mis- 
siles from going off the screen; hitting an 
omegabug and colliding with the various 
barriers that start to appear in Stage 3. Hit- 
ting easy targets, such as trails of dots, pen- 


etrating barriers, or dead omegabugs. 
earns only one point. 

Omegabug includes features to foil the 
’ system player.” the person who employs 
a consistent strategy to beet the game. 
While cluttering the screen with dead 
omegabugs may give the player an advan- 
tage during the early stages of the game, it 
becomes a disadvantage as the game pro- 
gresses. Such features keep the player 
alert by forcing changes in strategy and 
adding interest to the game. 

Sound and Title 

Sound is perhaps the most difficult fea- 
ture to perfect. It must suggest impending 
action to assist the beginner, yet avoid an- 
tagonizing the advanced player. At times 
(late at night, for example) players may 
wish to disengage all computer-generated 
sound. Omegabug includes a prompt at the 
start of the game that allows the player to 
select the no-sound option. 

Developing a different sound for each 
character and action requires trial and er- 
ror. After listening to more than 300 differ- 
ent notes over a 5-hour period, one can no 
longer discern which sounds or combina- 
tions of sounds are best. Understanding a 
few basics helps. 

Each unique character or action should 
have a distinct sound. In Omegabug. play- 
ers can distinguish between droppers, 
gliders, and barriers by their sounds alone. 
An experienced player should be able to 
recognize what's happening from the 
sound alone. For example, hitting an 
omegabug produces a distinct sound. Gen- 
erally longer, lower-frequency sounds 
suggest slow action, and high-pitched, 
short sounds signal fast action. Sliding fre- 
quencies represent continual motion. 
Sound can both reward and chastise play- 
ers. When they rack up points, for exam- 
ple. cheerful sound should acknowledge 
their accomplishment. Sounds should be 
as pleasing as possible. Care must be taken 
to avoid shifting from low to high frequen- 
cies too abruptly, as this tends to irritate 
players after awhile. 

Before moving on to color, decide on 
the look of the title. This is probably the 
single most subjective element in the de- 
sign of a computer game. It’s a personality 
area; programmers can do just about what- 
ever they choose. I’ve seen games in which 
the title presentation displays more graph- 
ics and fancy features than the program 


Secrets of Sound 

The PC possesses a symphony of audio abilities. 

Through its monitor the IBM PC demonstrates a protean ahilih' to change form. It can 
display an infinite variety of snund-color-shape combinations. Certain mortals, 
calleil programmers, stiuly this capability and manipulate it by creating program.s. 
'I'apping into th«^ programming power of the PC. however, does not retpiire magical 
incanlation.s, years of apprentice wizardry, or pilgrimages to Delphi. It takes inspira- 
li(»n. time, and know-how. 

The Secret of Sound 

The IBM P(' generates sounds through a built-in 2'.<-incb speaker. In assembly 
language, one can choose betv\een two methods for engaging the speaker. The first is 
to toggle the Intel 8255A-5 Programmable Peripheral Interface chip (PPI) via bit 1 of 
I/O port 61 1 i. The second method uses the gating of an Intel 8253-5 Programmable 
IntervalTimer|PIT|. The clock is a 1.19MHz signal and gate 2 is controlled by the PPI 
at bit Oof I/O port 61 H. Both approaches can be combined to allow great flexibility in 
sound generation. 

In BASIC, two statements generate sound: Sound and Play. The Sound format is: 
SOUND freq. duration 

Freq stands for frecpiency of the s(nmd (37Hz-32767Hz). Duration is the length of 
time the sound is on. It is measured in terms of clock tick.s, which occur 18.2 times per 
second. The value of duration can range from 0 to 65535 clock ticks; consequently, 
total lime on for a tone ranges from 0 seconds to over 1 hour. 

The Play format is: 

PLAY string 

String is a series of music commands. The BASIC manual contains many combina- 
tions. variations, and intricate details of the Play statement. String can be composed 


PC MAGAZINE 286 DECEMBER 1982 



Continues 

of musical notes with symbols for sharps and flats. It's possible to set an octave of 
music or a single note independent of an octave. The length of notes and pauses can 
also be set. BASIC provides for adjustable tempo and normal, legato, and staccato 
commands. Music can be played in foreground or background and can be specified 
by substrings. 

The following, short BASIC programs demonstrate some of the sound capabilities 
of the IBM PC. 


Sound Demonstration Program 

3010 KEY OFF : WIDTH 40 : CLS ' turn off soft key display, set to 40 characters per column . 
and clear the screen 

3020 PROGRAMS = “SOUND GENERATION DEMO" ’title of program 
3030 SCREEN 0.1 ’set to text mode with color on 
3040 LOCATE 10,10.0 : PRINT PROGRAMS; print title 
3050 FREQ = 150 initialize it 
3060 FOR R = 1 TO 38 do it 38 times 

3070 SOUND FREQ. 5 : LOCATE 20. R : PRINT 'generate sound and place dot 

3080 FREQ = FREQ*1.1 go up 10% each time 

3090 NEXT do till done 

3100 FOR R = 38 TO 1 STEP -1 do it 38 times 


itself. This is not my particular preference. 
Omegubug displays a simple title that in- 
cludes the copyright notice and company 
name. 

Color 

Color should be added only after ac- 
tion. title, and sound have been debugged, 
A good general rule is to use color to mini- 
mize the player’s fmstration. Color can be 
dynamic, but use it judiciously: poorly ap- 
plied color can be a disaster. Consistency 
is the key to proper use of high-contrast 
and subdued colors. Critical features and 
anything that's urgent should stand out 
clearly. Features that aren’t viewed often 
and don’t change much should be consis- 
tently subdued. 

The eye is easily fooled by contrasts, so 
be careful with the colors of adjacent char- 
acters. Use flashing only to gain immedi- 
ate attention, and don’t use it for too long. 
A black background works best. Try to 
avoid filling the outside display area. 

The most difficult features to color are 
those that aren't critical but are nonethe- 
less loo important for subdued treatment. 
They shouldn't distract the player from ur- 
gent features, block critical characters, or 
clutter the screen. 

One of the original requirements of 
Omegubug was minimum system config- 
uration. I had to consider that users may 
connect their PCs to a poor-quality dis- 
play. I added color to the program and test- 
ed it with old color televisions so it would 
perform even under poor circumstances. 

RF (radio frequency) modulators and 
set-up colors don't necessarily correspond 
between displays, so at the start of the 
game I added a prompt that gives a choice 
of three different color combinations. 

In its final form. I tested Omegubug on 
four RGB monitors, three different color 
television sets with two different RF mod- 
ulators. one black and white television, 
and two monochrome monitors. These 
tests demonstrated that the control knobs 
on color television sets can improve colors 
on the game. The best color television dis- 
play is obtained by turning off the bright- 
ness and automatic color controls while 
leaving on the AFC (automatic frequency 
control). 

User-Friendliness 

“User-friendly” normally means mini- 
mizing the quantity and complexity of dis- 
play information to avoid overwhelming 


the user. With this as a guideline. I decided 
to use the prompt "Press any key to contin- 
ue.” My motive was pure and the prompt 
seemed innocent enough, but unexpected 
repercussions revealed that game design- 
ers must test even the best of intentions. 


increase their 
proficiency, they can 
select a higher speed 
to keep the game 
challenging. 

Many players were confused by so many 
choices; they couldn’t decide which key to 
hit. My solution was to change the prompt 
to “Press the space bar to continue.” This 
solved the problem as far as adult players 
were concerned but didn't uncomplicate 
matters for kids. They thought the space 
bar was a cosmic saloon. Also, other pro- 
grammers preferred the original "Press 
any key...” because they felt “Press the 
space bar...” was too restrictive. My solu- 
tion was to retain the space bar prompt on 
the monitor and the "any key” function of 


a Halt key that allows players to stop the 
the keyboard. This seemed to satisfy ev- 
eryone. Most players soon realized that 
they could actually use any key despite 
what the prompt tells them. 

Using batch files is another way to 
maintain user-friendliness. These call up 
files that might otherwise be difficult for 
the user to remember. For once-only pro- 
cedures. such as transferring the PC- DOS 
onto the disk, a SETUP batch file is ideal. 

Try to cover as many bases as possible 
in the batch files. For example, the PC 
automatically calls up AUTOEXEC file, 
which calls up the Omegobug file, which 
in turn calls up MDPOMEGA (monitor 
determination program execute file), that 
eventually calls up the actual game pro- 
gram. The game will then start at power 
up. at system reset, or if the user types in 
the name of the game. 

There are other user-friendly consider- 
ations. Players who discover that they 
have chosen a game speed inappropriate 
to their skill levels should not be forced to 
choose between restarting the whole sys- 
tem or playing the game through to the 
end. Omegobug allows them to press a Re- 
start key to begin again without rebooting. 

Players should be able to get up from 
the game at any point without losing it. 
They may be in the midst of a super game 
when the telephone rings. Omegobug has 


PC MAGAZINE 287 DECEMBER 1982 



action and resume as often as necessary. 

Players have enough to do without hav- 
ing to worr>’ about scoring. The score indi- 
cator on the monitor should keep an easy- 
to-read, reliable, responsive account of 
the score at all times. In Omegobug the 
score box also indicates the current stage 
of the game. 

Revisions 

Omegobug went through 79 revisions, 
required about 5 months to complete, and 
probably generated a 6-inch stack of print- 
outs. When a game program is finished, let 
some kids loose on it. If it’s still up and 
running after an hour, it may really be 
complete. Always number each program 
revision sequentially. I recommend saving 
the five latest revisions and any “golden” 
copies, those that provide a record of ma- 
jor turning points in the design. 

The importance of keeping backup 
files cannot be overstated. I have two com- 
pletely independent disks on which I 
make backups at all times. Even the best of 
backups can cause problems. For exam- 
ple. at 2 a.m. one morning I finished pro- 
gramming a particularly difficult part of 
the code. I optimized it for speed, saved it. 
put my backup disk in. saved it. and went 
to bed. I tried running it in the morning 
and discovered that 1 had saved nothing 
but garbage. I kept my fingers crossed as I 
loaded my backup copy, but it was just as 
bad. Needless to say. I was quite frus- 
trated. It took another 4 to 5 hours to recon- 
struct what I had done the night before 
because I had been loo sleepy to print out 
the improvements. 

User Manual 

Always write a user manual. Some 
game designers put a manual on the disk 
and let the user print out a hard copy. 
Don't do it that way. 

Keep the manual short and to the point. 
Use examples— graphic ones if necessary. 
Avoid dot matrix printing. Break the man- 
ual up into small, discrete topics that can 
be read independently. Tiy to limit these 
to one page each (or two facing pages), Re- 
member that most users read manuals 
when all else fails. If they read one full' 
page, the manual may be considered a suc- 
cess. Always include a company address 
and telephone number to give users the 
option of contacting an expert. Players of- 
ten make useful criticisms and offer excel- 
lent suggestions; they should be consid- 


ered a resource. 

Even if most players never look past the 
first page, manuals should be user-friend- 
ly, Those who are interested should be 
able to read further and learn a little more 
about the game; how it originated, expla- 
nations of the characters, how they move 
up and down the screen, how firing in a 
particular sequence can raise the score. 
Those who take the lime to read the man- 
ual should be rewarded for their extra ef- 
fort with tips on defense and clues on pro- 
gressing through stages of the game. 

All told. 1 probably wrote ten or 12 ver- 
sions of the Omegubug manual. Probably 
the next best test of any game after hand- 
ing it over to the kids is to try it on people 
who have never played it before and who 
know nothing about computers. Give them 
the disk and the manual, and see if they 
can start it up on their own . Such a test can 
be very instructive. 

The Real World 

There are many points to remember. 
The most important: Ideas are generally 
free. Put down in writing the purpose of a 
proposed program. Define strategies. 
Write the initial version with limited I/O 


and for black and while. Test, test, test. 
Perfect the program before adding color 
or sound. Always keep golden copies, if 
for no other reason than to go back and see 
how the game developed. Test some more. 
Let kids play the game. Write a user man- 
ual for someone who doesn’t even know 
how to locate the power switch. 

Anybody interested in writing a game 
should pursue it. but be forewarned that 
it’s not simply a matter of having an idea 
and getting it to work. It is a laborious 
process that at times is not much fun. 
Many details must be cleaned up and us- 
ers’ reactions taken into account. Once the 
game and manual are completed, the easy 
part is over. The really hard part— market- 
ing— is about to begin. /PC 


A/an K. Heimiich has been working with 
microprocessors since intei introduced 
the 4004 in theear/y 1970s. ffe is presently 
general manager of Personal Computer 
Products, u Santa Clara, California, man- 
ufacturer of IBM PC software and plug-in 
peripherals. For a review of Omegabug, 
see "Superployers Run the Gauntlet” in 
this issue. 


Cuotinurs 

3110 SOUND FREQ, 5 : LOCATE 20. R : PRINT " ’generate sound and renove dot 
3120 FREQ = FRE0- 1.1 'go down each tine 
3130 NEXT do till done 
3140 ENO 

Play Music Demo 

4010 KEY OFF . MIDTH 40 : CLS turn off soft key display, set to 40 characters per colunn. 
and clear the screen 

4020 PROGRAM$ = "PLAY MUSIC DEMO" 'title Of program 

4030 SCREEN 0.1 set to text mode with color on 

4040 LOCATE 10.20.0 r PRINT PROGRAMS, print title 

4050 STARTNOTE^IS Starting note value 

4060 N0TE = STARTN0TE initialize it 

4070 PLAY “L52" 'note length 

4080 FOR R = 1 TO 38 do it 38 times 

4090 PLAY NOTES LOCATE 20. R : PRINT generate sound and place dot 

4100 N0TE = N0TE + 1 : N0TE$ = “N’’ 4 STRS(NOTE) go up 1 note each time 
4110 NEXT 'do till done 
4120 FOR R = 38 TO 1 STEP -1 ’do it 38 times 

4130 PLAY NOTES LOCATE 20. R : PRINT ’generate music and remove dot 
4140 N0TE = N0TE-1 : N0TE$ = "N" STRS(NOTE) go down 1 note each time 
4150 NEXT do till done 

4160 ENO . 


PC MAGAZI^E 288 DECEMBER 1982 




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PROGRAMMING/MARSHALL FRASER 

With a little coaching and some BASIC ingredients, 
you and your PC can pick up where Archimedes, 
Gregory, and Euler left off. 


Baking Pi In "ibur PC 


Everyone has heard the classroom story 
about how pi (x) calculated many times 
over would fill all the chalkboards with 
small print. In 1961 an IBM 7090 computer 
was used to compute pi to 100,000 decimal 
places. In the last 20 years that landmark 
of “piology” has been exceeded many 
times. With the enormous advances in 
computer hardware, pi has been comput- 
ed to over 1 million decimal places. For 
the fun of it. you can calculate pi to a large 
number of decimal places with an IBM 
PC — even without knowing advanced 
mathematics. 

BASIC Ingredients 

The decimal expansion of a number 
like Vi can be represented as a decimal 
point followed by an infinite number of 
threes (.333...). Like all rational numbers. 
Vi exhibits a pattern in its decimal expan- 
sion. After computing the first serie.s of dig- 
its. you can predict what the rest will be. 

Irrational numbers such as pi. however, 
never follow predictable patterns. It's not 
possible to know the first 100 decimal 
placesof an irrational number until all 100 
have been computed. Pi starts as 3.14159 
and never displays a predictable pattern 
in its decimal expansion. 

Historical Pi 

The first person to find a reliable way 
of computing pi was the Greek mathemati- 
cian and inventor Archimedes in about 
240 B.C. Archimedes used the perimeters 
of inscribed and circumscribed polygons 
to approximate the circumference of a cir- 
cle (see Figure 1). By increasing the num- 
ber of sides of the polygons, he could 
squeeze the value of pi between the two 
bounds. Archimedes’ calculations com- 
puted pi to between 3.140845 and 


3.1428571— within two decimal places of 
accuracy. 

Archimedes’ method is programmable. 
A discussion of his method, a program, 
and the program results can be found in 
Fifty BASIC Exercises by (.P. Lamoitier 
(Sybex, Berkeley, 1981). It's difficult, how- 
ever. to obtain more than about five deci- 
mal places of accuracy with Lamoitier's 


Figure 1: Pol>'gon Measurements 



I nscribed fwlygons are those meosurenl inside 
the circle (points touching). Circumscrilwd 
poh’gons ure those measured outside the 
circle (flats touching). Archimedes used both 
polygon measurements more than 2.200 years 
ago to cuicuiate pi to within two decimal 
places of accuracy. 


method— results a calculator could obtain. 
The limitations of this method stem from 
the fact that as the number of sides of the 
polygons is increased, each side gets 
shorter, making it increasingly difficult to 
maintain accuracy in the length of a side. 

Fortunately, more tractable methods of 
approximation were developed in the sev- 
enteenth and eighteenth centuries. The 
Scottish mathematician fames Gregory 


discovered an infinite series for the arc 
tangent. Recall that in a right triangle the 
tangent of the angle A is the ratio x=a/b, 
which we write as tan A = x = a/b. Usually, 
we know the angle A and find the ratio x. 
However, if we start off knowing the ratio 
x and find the angle A. we find the arc 
tangent. So the arc tangent is just an angle, 
and the formula is written as arc tan x= A 
(see Figure 2). 

Gregory's timely discovery was the for- 
mula 

arc Ian x-| + | ~ f + .... 

All we need now to bake our pi is an 
ingredient provided by the Swiss math- 
ematician Leonhard Euler. Euler's formu- 
la for pi is 

x==4 (arc tan (V 2 ) + arc tan (Vs)). 

Pi can be expressed in terms of two arc 
tangents that, in turn, are computed using 
Gregory’s formula. Combining Gregory’s 
and Euler’s formulas yields an effective 
method for computing pi to a large number 
of decimal places. 


Figure 2; Arc Tangent 



'I’he arc tangent is an angle measured in 
radians. By combining Gregory's formula 
with Euler's, users can compute pi to a large 
number of decimal places on on IBM PC. 


PC MAGAZINE 291 DECEMBER 1982 


Pi-Cu/cuiating Program 





F igure 3; 

Pi accurate to 97 decimal places 












3 . 1 

4 


5 

9 

2 

6 

5 


8 

9 

7 

9 



3 

8 

4 

6 

2 

6 4 

3 3 

8 3 

2 

7 

9 


0 

2 

8 

8 


1 

9 

7 


6 

9 

3 

9 

9 

3 

7 5 

1 0 5 

8 2 

0 

9 


4 

9 

4 


5 

9 

2 

3 

0 

7 

8 


6 

4 

0 

6 

2 8 

6 2 0 

8 9 

9 

8 

6 

2 

8 

0 

3 


8 

2 

5 


4 

2 




0 





Developing the Program 

Two arrays are necessary to begin de- 
veloping the program. Think of each array 
as being indexed by decimal places and 
holding a single digit. In IBM BASIC, ar- 
rays are indexed starting from 0. so the 0 
position corresponds to the units digit. The 
position indexed 1 corresponds to the 
tenths digit; the position indexed 2 corre- 
sponds to the hundredths digit; and so on. 
This is a fixed decimal point rather than a 
floating point. Another feature of IBM BA- 


SIC is that a user can input the dimension 
of arrays and modify the number of deci- 
mal places each time the program is run. 

One of the two arrays will ultimately 
hold the value of pi. and the other is an 
auxiliary array used to compute each term 
of the arc tangent. The terms in Gregory’s 
formula are calculated recursively: when 

the term — has been calculated, the next 
n 

term, — — - , is found by multiplying — 
(n + 2) n 


bv n * — — - .Remember that X is either 
|n + 2) 

1/2 or 1/3. 

Each time a term is calculated, the 
auxiliary' array must be either added to or 
subtracted from the pi array. One way to 
let the program know whether to add or 
subtract is to use IBM BASIC's MOD 
function, which gives a remainder after 
integer division. For example, n MOD 
2=0 if n is even, and n MOD 2=1 if n is 
odd. For Gregory's series, the expression 
((n-1) 2) MOD 2 is 0 when n = l,5.9... and 
results in 1 when n =3,7,11.... 

Users will want subprograms to add 
and subtract the two arrays and multiply 
and divide an array by a number. Pattern 
these subprograms after the algorithms 
for these four arithmetic operations — as 
in grade school math. The subprograms 
for multiplication and division included 
in the following program modify the 
grade school algorithms somewhat. 

To let users know when to stop calcu- 
lating the terms of arc tangents, the pro- 
gram presented in this article includes a 
subprogram that utilizes Boolean algebra 
to check whether all entries in the term 
array are 0. When every entry is 0. there 
is no need to add or subtract any more 
terms. 

This pi-calculating program com- 
putes pi to ten decimal places in 25 sec- 
onds. to 25 decimal places with a running 
time of 2.5 minutes, and to 100 decimal 
places in about 45 minutes. With pa- 
tience. users should be able to obtain 
many more places before an overflow 
occurs. 

Truncation occurs in the division sub- 
program. Division does not always come 
out even (as with Va), so users must ignore 
the repeating digits. This results in slight 
errors, which accumulate. As a result, the 
last few decimal places of the expansion 
will be wrong. When the program com- 
putes pi to ten decimal places, the last 
one will be wrong. Computing to 25 
places results ih the last two digits being 
wrong, and the last three places will fail 
when 100 places are computed. 

Results can be checked by comparing 
with Figure 3, which shows pi calculated 
to 97 decimal places. Have fun! /PC 


Marshal] Fraser teaches BASIC program- 
ming and college level mathematics in 
San Francisco and is the author of three 
algebra textbooks. 


PC MAGAZINE 292 DECEMBER 1982 



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munication. this package can equip your com- 
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micro-, mini*, or mainframe computers. (For 
IBM-PC. Osborne I. or any CP/M Computer) 


I OMRIC Corp.. 1 Mun St.. Newington. CT 0« 1 1 1 

I Ptease idencif)> the nearest distributor of; 

I □ Screen Machine"* □ Biingsplatz"* 

• □ Space Guardian ’'* □ Champion Draughts 
I □ ^nterm 

I Name 

I Address 

City Sute Zip 


1268 Main Street, Newington, Connecticut 06 1 1 1 
Tel (203) 666-4240 


THE PERSONAL INVESTOR 


Successful investors spend 
hours scanning stacks of 
publications looking for 

information on their 
investment interests. 

They keep up to the minute and accurate 
records, analyze their holdings, and keep a 
sharp eye on stock prices and volumes. The 
Personal Investor software does the time 
consuming work, while giving you the facts 
you need to make wise investment decisions. 

The News/Terminal automatically connects 
your computer with the Dow Jones News/ 
Retrieval Service or manually to other terminal 
services to collect financial news and reports. 


The Stock Portfolio records and reports on 
stock purchases, commissions, dividends and 
splits. It also keeps a sales transaction ledger 
that helps you with your taxes and shows 
actual profits and losses (after commissions). 
The portfolio can be manually updated or 
automatically updated by the Dow Jones 
service. 


'^4 


(\7 


Quotations on the stocks in your portfolio and 
any stocks you add to that list are collected 
each time the portfolio is updated by the 
Dow Jones service. These quotes are stored 
and can be viewed on the monitor screen or 
printed. 

The Personal Investor includes one password 
to Dow Jones News /Retrieval Service and one 
hour free usage. 


The IBM PC version requires 128K and one disk drive 
($1 45.00). The Apple II version requires 48K and one or two 
drives ($145.00). Dow Jones News/ftetrievel Service is 
a trademark of Dow Jones and Company Inc. The Personal 
Investor can be purchased from many Computerland and 
other retail computer stores. For more information or the 
location of your nearest dealer call or write: 


PBL Corporation 
PO Box 559 
Wayzata MN 55391 
612 473-3769 


PBLi 


The Investment 
Software Company 


PC MAGAZINE 293 DECEMBER 1982 


Some “Clear” Answers 
About Printer Stands 

Desk Top Printers need space to function. In normal operation the desk-top printer has to 
load and stack its paper from the same desk space. This causes paper jams, wrinkled 
printouts, and torn copy. All of this can be eliminated by placing your printer on top of a 
stand which will allow the feed paper to be placed UNDER the printer. 

Now The “Clear” Choice 
B.T. Printer Stands 


The BT Printer Stand has been carefully designed to give you 
all of the best features in a printer stand for your desk*top 
printer. The clear stands mixes well with any decorand allows 
you to see the forms or paper under the printer. The five inch 
height both front and rear allows maximum paper or forms 
storage. The material used in the stand is of the highest quality 
Plexiglass for strength and appearance. Be sure your dealer 
has the original BT Stand. Do not accept a substitute! Demand 
the one that gives your printer a CLEAR STAND! Look for the 
BT on the side. 

If your local dealer does not carry the BT Stand, have him 
contact us for stock, or call or write and order direct: 



B.T. Enterprises For Orders Toll Free 

Dept. 4L 800 645 1165 

lOB Carlough Road In New York Call 

Bohemia. N.Y. 1 1716 516 567 8155 


For Modem 
Users Call 
516 588 5836 


Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Welcome 


B.T. Enterprises is a division of Bi-Tech Enterprises Itk. 


IMAGINE a program that saves you hundreds of keystrokes per hour ... lets you create forms in 
minutes ... runs long sequences of commands on automatic pilot ... customizes your keyboard for 
any application ... makes macros in any language or application ... and is on all the time and 
can be used within ANY program. 

IMAGINE a program that does all this and more for only S50.00! 

Introducing 

ProKey 


Your full-time, on-line 

Running a computer requires a lot of tedious 
keyboard input. You find yourself typing the some 
things over and over: spreadsheet headings, the 
long series of keystrokes necessary to move a block 
of text or update your database, the sequerxre of 
commands to edit, compile, link and debug your 
programs. Wauldn't you like to type something one 
last time - and from fhen on have the computer 
retype it at the touch of a single key? 

Now you can - with ProKeyI And ProKey types 

Start saving time now 

MC/VISA 

TOLL FREE ORDER LINE 
(800) 227-3800 
(800) 792-0990 in Calif. 

Please ask tor extension 217. 


keyboard assistant 

faster than any fingers and never makes a misfakel 
With ProKey you can memorize over 90 strings while 
you work and have immediate access to them. And 
for later use you can save strings in editable files. So 
you can create reuseable "vocabularies'' for all 
your projects arxj modify them at any time. The 
passibilities are limitless. 

ProKey requires MS-DOS and a 64K‘ system with 
one disk drive. 

’Min 96K with WofdStof 

- order ProKey today. 

Or send S50.00 to 
ProSoft 
PO Box 5850 
Seattle, WA 98105 
(206) 632-3603 

(Washington residents please add 6.5% soles tax.) 


T€Ugraph 

The Universal Graphics Tool 


FEATURES: Sophisticated graphics in 

minutes, with 8 colors, 7 shades of gray 
and almost limitless textures. Graphic 
objects are macro-definable — Merged 
graphics and text: 7 character sizes are 
provided, including all international charact- 
ers and special symbols. Characters can 
be colored as well as rotated and located 
on any pixel of the screen — Full com- 
munications facilities for graphic pages. 
Typical transmission time per screen: 
15 seconds at 300 Baud — undistorled 
graphics printout in up to 5 sizes on any 
Epson printer (MX80/82/100, models II 
and 111). All aspect ratios are corrected 
and colors are translated as 
shades of gray — Extremely 
compact graphic files: 300 
to 500 screens can be 
stored on a 320 Kb 
diskette — Highly user- 
friendly, with full screen 
help available at any 
time, for any operation 
— Extensive & accurate 
documentation includes 


tutorial guide, and referenoe index. 
PLUS: TELIgraph is the full implementation 
of the NAPLPS-TELIDON World Standard, 
an elegant and powerful concept tor 
graphics creation and transmission. This 
standard has already found thousands of 
professional applications: TV animated 

commercials, computer assisted education, 
design, flowcharting, games, etc.... TELI- 
graph does not generate a bit image of 
the screen, but a stream of machine 
codes that describe the generated graph- 
ics. Thus, the graphics you create today 
on the IBM 320 x 200 dot screen will be 
fully compatible when you upgrade to our 
512 X 512 (or 1024 x 1024) dot 
systems. Plus, TELIgraph al- 
lows you to transmit and 
receive pictures to or 
from ANY machine or 
data-base that is NAPLPS- 
Telidon format — and 
we're working hard to 
get the package running 
on other popular micro 
and mini-computers. 



When we say this is the Universal Graphics Tool, 
we mean just that! 



microtoure. 


Keyboard-Input version: $398.95 (CANADA: $495.95) 
Graphics Editor - Decoder - Communications - Slide Show 
Ask your local dealer or order directly from Microtaure 
MasterCard - Money Order - Certified Cheque 

Intelligent professional graphics tablet version available soon. 
Tablet resolution: .001 inch - Sizes: from 11" x 11" to 42" x 60C 
Dual RS-232 ports, stylus & crosshair cursor included 

MICROTAURE Inc., 

P.O. Box 6039, STATION "J" 

OTTAWA (ONT.) K2A 1T1 
(613) - 745-6661 


Minimum System reoui/emenls IBM Personal Computer with BOTH colOf & 
monochtome screens • 256K Memory • One tfrs* tjnve 



PROGRAMMlNG/SCOrr PRUSSING 


P(»|). zap. whirr, buzz. Video ^ames are lo 
Gompiilor ap|))iciiti(ins what roller coast- 
ers are to transportation: all flash and fan- 
tasy. Th^y provide an exhilarating ride to 
nowhei 


lust as one can !xiCf)me acciis- 
lom«;d to the twists, loops, and vertiginous 
descents of a “Big Dipper" or "Atom 
Smasher." one can learn to master the 
strategies of a f^ucMun or Space /m'oders 
with stunning <li.splays of hand-lo-eye co- 
ordination. The immense attraction t)f vid- 
eogames comes from the challenge inher- 
ent in beating the machine. 

If vidtfo games are the roller coasters of 
computer appiicntion.s, eHiv'tmtiire games 
.ire tin* crnss-countr\’ Imses. They have a 
st.irting point and destination but normal- 
ly lra\erse the must uiiinleresling route 
and take forever tu arri\ e. A new territoiy 
is open ing that may alter this nuKle of trav- 
el. I'he PC is becoming an inslniinent for 
the user's literary imagination, creating a 
n»nv vista in the land of adventure games. 


HCianim|d narratives tlmt captured the 
pl.iyetf nttention as g 


the presentation of inslmclions followed 
hy a “blind menu." a list of conimands 
.such as Hast. West. North, South: LIt>r 
Down: and Attack. Klee. Thu player refers 
to the menu for a command whenever the 
game reaches one of its frecpient diltan- 
ma.s. The presf?ntation of each dilemma 
recalls the format of old movie .serials. 
Kach episode of the narrative is [iraCtically 
.self-contained. The grand desi^ of a 
well-written novel doesn’t usually <;xist in 
adventure games. ^ 

I'he serial formula is heller suited to 
the movies titan computei*s, however. 'I'he 
vi.siial dimension of movies more easily 
draws the viewer into the narrative. Cum- 
piilerizml .serials would work better if ad- 
venture game authors developed pro- 


movie Of a fu6t- 

paced^A.guller. 

Must Ipv^utlure garrm ti>xts are terse 
.snd hori^>: they fail to involve the pla\’er 
The plave^ remains outside the narrative 
-«»n olijecfive ohservtv viewing the mo- 
notonous landscaiK.' from the window of a 
bus. If the narrative weroni written in the 
second twrson - wu.‘* it could pass as the 
iH»les of an unimaginaliye police inspec- 
t<m Tho;fol!ov\ing excerjit provides an ex- 


Inside Adventure Games 

.Advimlure games usually begin with 




ULYSSES 
COMES 
TO 






■‘You have entered a large, rectangular 
cavern. It is dimly lit. The cavern has two 
exits: a passage 50 feet away in the north 
wall and a wooden door 20 feet away in 
the west. No lock is visible on the door. A 
pile of stones blocks the east end of the 
cavern. More stones litter the ground. The 
layer of dust and dirt covering everything 
bears no footprints or any other traces of 
recent disturbance. Suddenly a noise ech- 
oes through the cavern and the ground be- 
gins to vibrate.” 

At this point the program presents a di- 
lemma. It will prompt the player to choose 
one of the two exits (North or West). Both 
choices lead to consequences, either fa- 
vorable or unfavorable, By threading 
through the maze of consequences from 
one episode to the next, the player eventu- 
ally completes the game. 

Many computer adventure game de- 
signers enhance the features with unex- 
pected. often amusing responses. If a play- 
er. frustrated by an apparent dead end in 
the maze, types in a curse, the program 
may respond by cursing back via the moni- 
tor. or by taunting or soothing the embat- 
tled player. 

Adventure games can be exceedingly 
clever and intricate. The basic problem. 


T 


HIS NEW 


computer genre 
combines the thrill 
of video with 
the narrative 
possibilities of the 
adventure game. 


however, is that designers do not take ade- 
quate advantage of the computer's capa- 
bilities and provide only a skeletal plot. A 
fiction writer attempts to grab the reader 
by enriching the plot with mood and feel- 
ing: adventure game programmers con- 
centrate their talents on constructing clues 
and obstacles. As a result, most adventure 
games read like a set of instructions on 
how to assemble a computer. This flat, un- 
interesting style does not create the emo- 
tional involvement necessar>' to generate 
excitement and suspense. 


The adventure game program style is 
similar to chess. Pleasure is derived from 
developing strategies and selecting moves. 
The thrills are almost entirely cerebral, 
providing a stimulating exercise in ab- 
stract thinking. But why limit the adven- 
ture game to abstract thought alone when 
its potential for excitement is so much 
greater? 

The “participant novel " has been de- 
veloped to take adventure games beyond 
the limitations of conventional program- 
ming into a new realm of experience. 

Inside the Participant Novel 

This computer genre combines the 
thrill of video with the narrative possibili- 
ties of the adventure game. The partici- 
pant novel differs from an adventure 
game as much as a roller coaster differs 
from a bus. Writers, rather than program- 
mers. develop the narratives, relying more 
on plot development as in a traditional 
novel. The narrative moves toward a sin- 
gle climax and attempts to create a sense 
of emotional involvement appropriate to 
the text. Players are “participants” in sev- 
eral senses of the word. Each player liter- 
ally "plays” the role of hero or heroine, 
becoming totally immersed in formulating 
game strategy and emotionally engaged as 
an actual character within the narrative. 


PC Software of San Diego. California, 
is close to completing its first participant 
novel for the IBM Personal Computer. 
The prototxpe participant novel includes 
a questionnaire in which players rate their 
attributes to determine a handicap based 
on size, strength, speed, and agility. Play- 
ers enter the questionnaire data into the 
PC and the computer creates a protagonist 
based on the players’ profile. 

After completing the questionnaire, 
participants enter the narrative as a read- 
er enters the lives and feelings of charac- 
ters in a novel. Use of the second person 
“you" helps bridge the gap that separates 
players from the fictional world of the nar- 
rative. The success of the participant nov- 
el depends on the player’s ability to create 
the illusion of being in the narrative. 

The aulhor/designer may decide to 
have players demonstrate their skill as 
warriors in battles with strange foes. Some 
players may be strong enough to success- 
fully engage in hand-to-hand combat with 
a troll, but might be too slow and awkward 
to defeat a renegade elf. A player may 
have the speed and endurance to flee a 
gremlin, but lack the instinct to anticipate 
the attack of an oversized hawk. The game 
narrative can go anywhere the author di- 
rects it. challenging each player's skill. 

Adventure games have been criticized 



PC MAGAZINE 299 DECEMBER 1982 


for their lack of consistency regarding di- 
rection and physical orientation. This is 
the result of carelessness and inattentive- 
ness on the part of game authors. Partici- 
pant novelists will have to pay closer at- 
tention to “mapping.” Caverns, mountain- 
tops. and cities must be laid out as if on 
paper. Authors will have to create reliable, 
consistent geographical images. If the par- 
ticipant novel phenomenon catches on. 
there will be a need for “participant edi- 
tors.” experts at checking computer fiction 
maps. 

To increase excitement and involve- 
ment in participant novels, authors can 
adapt the capabilities of the PC to the ele- 
ment of time. Adverb commands such as 
“swiftly” or “cautiously” can be Included 
in the novel’s menu. Each command will 
produce a different result. Moving swiftly 
through a chamber may awaken a slum- 
bering monster or it may allow entrance to 
a passage that would have been blocked if 
players had moved too cautiously. On the 
other hand, moving cautiously may allow 
them to avoid a hidden trap. Players would 
not know for certain how to react in either 
case, having to rely on intuition and clues 
in the text to decide on the proper speed of 
their movements. 

Episodes in the game can have time 
limits that make the speed of the player’s 
response critical. A computer signal in- 
forms players that they have entered such 
an episode. They may. for example, hear a 
rumbling in the cavern of an ogre. They 


have 5 seconds to choose the escape door. 
If they wait too long, a cave-in may block 
one of the exits or even bury them under 
several tons of rock. This device could be 
even more effective if players are in- 
formed that the time allowed for their re- 
action is limited to an unspecified period 
—maybe 5 seconds or 1 minute. Forcing 
players to respond will heighten emotion- 
al involvement, particularly after a series 
of difficult confrontations. 


^^OVING 
swiftly through a 
chamber may awaken 
a slumbering monster. 


Authors can adapt the time factor to 
battle routines. The program describes a 
specific attack: a downward chop with a 
battle ax; a side-to-side sword slash. Play- 
ers must counter these movements imme- 
diately. using the appropriate move from 
five predetermined commands coded 
onto specific keys. An illogical or plodding 
response could be damaging or even fatal. 
Responding immediately to a downward 
chop with a straight sword thrust might 
wound an adversary by beating him to the 
punch, but a delay of 2 seconds might 


mean the ax strikes home. Battle experi- 
ence will refine the players' skills and im- 
prove their reactions in tense situations. 

A New Literary Genre 

Participant novels are not a radical de- 
parture from adventure games. They are, 
however, the wave of the future and there 
is no predicting what direction this devel- 
opment will take. They do not have to 
compete with video games. The fast mov- 
ing, visual concept of video games appeals 
to a different t>pe of player than adven- 
ture games. 

Someone once noted that the British 
are a “literal” people. Americans, on the 
other hand, are a “visual” people. Wheth- 
er or not this is true, the distinction be- 
tween literal— of letters— and visual is 
useful. Adventure games, including the 
participant novel, are textual, and there- 
fore more likely to appeal to players with 
literal tastes. The participant novel aspires 
to bring literature into the computer age. 
creating a new literary genre by adapting 
the microcomputer to traditional literary 
forms. It faces an uncertain, experimental, 
but potentially exciting future. /PC 


Scott Prussing is a free-lance writer who is 
collaborating with PC Software to pro- 
duce his first participant novel. The De- 
vouring Darkness, scheduled for publica- 
tion in early 1983. For more informotion 
write to PC Software, 9120 Gramercy Dr. 
#•116. San Diego. CA 92133. 


TANDO mZE YOUR PC 

Tandon Drives for IBM Internal A & B: 

TM 100-1 S'A". Single sided. 40 TRK. 48 TPI. SI95 

TM 100-2 SW". double sided. 40 TRK, 48 TPI. $265 

TM 100-4 5'/«". double sided, 80 TRK, 96 TPI. $359 

Tandon Drives for IBM External C & D: 

TM 100-1 Chassis Fully assembled beige chassis with one TMIOO-J drive & $249 

power supply. 

TM 100-2 Chassis Fully assembled beige chassis with one TMIOO-2 drive £ $329 

power supply. 

TM 100-4 Chassis Fully assembled beige chassis with one TM 1 00-4 drive & $409 

power supply. 

How to order — Order by calling CompuAdd Toll Free on 1-800-531-5475 (if outside of Texas} or 1-512-250-1523 (If in Texas) You can also order by mail. 
Orders may be charged to a MasterCard or Visa account or paid by Cashier's Check or Money Order We do accept personal checks — allow 10 days for check 
processing. We pay shipping and handling on orders delivered in continental U.S.A Add 5% sales tax if Texas resident. 

All hardware has a 120 Day Limited Warranty. 


CompuAdd Corp. 

13010 Research Blvd. 
Suite 218 

Austin, Texas 78750 

FREE SHIPPING 
ORDER NOW 
TOLL FREE 

"If we can't ship the rtext working 
day, we won't take the order." 


PC MAGAZINE 300 DECEMBER 1982 


FROM TALLCRAS5 
TECHNOLOGIES 

A New Advantage in winchester Hard Discs and 
Removable Cartridge Media for the IBM PC. 




TC-3006 6Mb Fixed + i2V2Mb Removable 
TC-5012 12Mb Fixed + l2V2Mb Removable 
TC-3020 20Mb Fixed + l2V2Mb Removabie 


from $3,095.00 sugg. retaii 

Advantages- 

• 18 to 32 Mb Of total formatted storage 

• File sizes from 6 to 20 Mb 

• Compiete transfer/verification of l2V2Mb within 
10 minutes, no operator intervention required 

• ANSI standard certified data cartridge readiiy 
available at low cost 

• one l 2 V 2 Mb cartridge holds the equivalent of 
40 320K floppies 

Tailgrass 
Technologies 

corporation 

9207 Cody overland Park, Kansas 66214 (913) 492-6002 



Available from computerland" and other participating dealers. 


'.'..Lattice C compiler is the best 
compiler all around that I have 
ever seen outside of 
the UNIX environment 
The quality and completeness... 
is truly awesome.” 

Jason T. Linhart ( Mark of The Unicorn, Author of Mince) 


In praising Lattice C, Jason Linhart 
has a lot of company. It is considered by 
experienced users to be the definitive 
compiler. This 8086/8088 C Compiler sup- 
ports the full C language. It is not a subset. 
Lattice C takes advantage of the features 
provided by the 16-bit 8086 instruction set 
and is especially suitable for applications 
where clear structure is crucial. 

Applications of considerable complex- 
ity and power can be developed— text pro- 
cessing, file manipulation, data model- 
ing, system maintenance, and much more. 

lattice C accepts source code files 
written in C and produces relocatable 
machine code in Intel’s'" 8086 object 
module format, which can be linked 
together into larger programs. The Lattice 
C library defines a comprehensive set of 
I /O subroutines that implement UNIX'"- 
compatible standard functions. 

Lattice C is ideal for anyone who 
wants to work with or learn C— for experi- 
enced programmers who wish to enjoy 
the clarity and speed of C in their appli- 
cations; for anyone who wants the pro- 
gramming capabilities of a higher level 
language without sacrificing program 
efficiency. In fact, all of the program 


examples listed in The C Programming 
Language by Kemighan and Ritchie can 
be compiled by Lattice C. 

Lattice C implements the C language 
on all Intel 8086/8088 code-compatible 
microcomputers, including the IBM'" PC 
under DOS. MS'"-DOS. and SB-86'". 

For more information about Lattice C 
and other programs available for the IBM 
PC and o