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DOCUMENT RESUME 



ED 363 822 



CG 026 005 



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TITLE 

INSTITUTION 



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ABSTRACT 



Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C. 
Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues 
Bibliography. [Revised*] 

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for the 
Study of Technology in Counseling and Career 
Development • 
21 Sep 93 

2lp.; Supersedes ED 337 712; for related documents, 
see CG 026 002-011. 

Reference Materials - Bibliographies (131) 
MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. 

*Career Counseling; Career Development; *Career 
Guidance; ^Computer Uses in Education 
^Computer Assisted Career Guidance 



This bibliography, along with other bibliographies 
developed by the Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and 
Career Development, is intended to assist practitioners, researchers, 
policy makers, and system developers in identifying and locating 
sources of information on the design and use of computer-assisted 
career guidance (CACG) systems. The ultimate aim of this effort is to 
improve the availability and quality of career and educational 
services to children, adolescents, and adults. This general issues 
bibliography contains citations that address a variety of topics 
including the role of the computer and the counselor in providing 
counseling and career planning services, the implementation process, 
research and evaluation issues, and comparative descriptions of two 
or more systems. In general, documents describing a single system 
have not been included in this bibliography. Citations are organized 
alphabetically by author. A total of 266 citations are included. 
(Author/NB) 



*********************************** 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
*********************************************************************** 



1 



COMPUTER-ASSISTED CAREER GUIDANCE: GENERAL ISSUES BIBLiOGRAPHY 



O 



U.». DEPARTMENT Of EOUCAT(ON 

OH»ce of Educational Research and Improvement 

EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION 
CENTER (ERIC) 

O This document has been reproduced as 
received Irom the person or organisation 
originating ii 

Q Minor changes have been made to improve 
reproduction quality 

• Points of view or opinions stated m this docu 
ment do not necessarily represent official 
OERt position or policy 



by 

James P. Sampson, Jr. 
Robert C. Reardon 

September 21, 1993 



" PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) " 



Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development 

215 Stone Building 
The Florida State University 
Tallahassee, FL 32306-3001 



This bibliography, along with other bibliographies developed by the Center for 
the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development, is intended to 
assist practitioners, researchers, policy makers, and system developers in 
identifying and locating sources of information on the design and use of computer- 
assisted career guidance (CACG) systems. The ultimate aim of this effort is to 
improve the availability and quality of career and educational services to children, 
adolescents, and adults. Bibliographies are available on General CACG Issues and 
CACG Ethical Issues, as well as bibliographies on specific CACG systems 
(Choices, DISCOVER, and SIGI PLUS). 

The general issues bibliography contains citations that address a variety of 
topics including the role of the computer and the counselor in providing counseling 
and career planning services, the implementation process, research and evaluation 
issues, and comparative descriptions of two or more systems. In general, 
documents describing a single system have not been included in this bibliography. 
Citations pertaining to ethical issues and standards are included in a separate 
bibliography available from the Center. Additional information on the above topics 
may be obtained from the Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career 
Information, 5999 Stevenson Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22304-3300, (703) 823- 
9800 - extension 309. 

Funding for computer-assisted career guidance bibliographies produced by the 
Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development is 
currently provided by the Florida State University. Previous funding for the 
development of bibliographies was provided by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the 
Florida Department of Education Bureau for Career Development, and the Florida 
State University. 



Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information: (1993). 1993 directory 
of state-based career information delivery systems . Alexandria, VA: ACSCI 
Administrative Office, National Career Development Association. 

^ Aubret, J., & Guichard, J. (1989). Minitel and careers guidance. In A. G. Watts 

^ (Ed.). Computers in careers guidance: Report of the second European 

O conference on computers in careers guidance and of its teleconference with 

O the USA (pp. 13-17). Cambridge: Careers Research and Advisory Centre. [Also 

vq available in S?mpson & Reardon (1990), pp. 74-80, Teleconference 
Proceedings.] 

O 

ERIC 



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Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues Bibliography 



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Ballantine, M. (1980). The application of computers in the career service . London: 
Department of Employment, Career Service Branch. 

Ballantine, M. (1986). Computer-assisted careers guidance systems as decision 
support systems. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling . 14 . 21-32. 

Ballantine, M. (1986, August). Factors contributing to psychologists 9 appropriate use 
o1 computer technology. In R. A. Myers (Chair), Computer technology; Potential 
i mpact on the behavior of counseling psychologists . Symposium presented at the 
American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, DC. 

Ballantine, M., & Strebler, M. (1990). The use of information technology in the 
careers service . Careers Service Branch, Department of Employment London. 

Ballantine, M., & Watts, A. G. (1989). Computers and careers guidance services: 
Integrating the technology into the organisation. In A. G. Watts (Ed.). 
C omputers in careers guidance: Report of the second European conference on 
c omputers in careers guidance and gf its teleconference with the USA (pp. 18- 
22). Cambridge: Careers Research and Advisory Centre. [Also available in 
Sampson & Reardon (1990), pp. 81-88, Teleconference Proceedings.] 

Ballantine, M., Watts, A. G., Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Reardon, R. C. (1990). Fostering 
international communication in educational and vocational guidance via 
teleconferencing. lAEVG (International Association for Educational and Vocational 
Guidance) Bulletin , 51, 30-35. 

Banks, J. A. G., & Watts, A. G. (1989). Conclusions and recommendations. In A. 
G. Watts (Ed.), Computers in careers guidance: Report of the second European 
conference on computers in careers guidance and of its teleconference with 
the USA (pp. 62-63). Cambridge: Careers Research and Advisory Centre. [Also 
available in Sampson & Reardon (1990), pp. 110-112, Teleconference 
Proceedings.] 

Bhaerman, R. D. (1988). Selecting and using career information systems (Practice 
Application Brief). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and 
Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 307 378) 

Bledsoe, C. N. (1983). Staff training in computer literacy: A sane approach. 
Elementary School Guidance & Counseling. 18(1). 60-63. 

Bleuer, J., & Walz, G. R. (1983). Counselors and computers . Ann Arbor: 
ERIC/CAPS, University of Michigan. 

Bleuer, J., & Walz, G. R. (1985). Guide to developing a computer-enhanced 
counseling program . Ann Arbor, Ml: ERIC Counseling and Personnel Services 
Clearinghouse. 

Bloch, D. P. (1987). Self, search and synthesis: Career information in the job- 
seeking process. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal . 2(2), 49-55. 

Bloch, D. P. (1988). Reducing the risk: Using career information with at-risk vouth . 
Eugene, OR: National Career Information System, University of Oregon. 

Bloch, D. B. (1989). Using career information with dropouts and at-risk youth. 
Career Development Quarterly . 38 . 160-171. 



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Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues Bibliography 



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Bloch, D. P., & Kinnison, J. F, (1988). User satisfaction with computer-based 
career information delivery systems. Journal of Career Development . 15 . 87- 
99. 

Bloch, D. P., & Kinnison, J. F. (1989). A method for rating computer-based career 
information delivery systems. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and 
Development, 21 . 177-187. 

Bluhm, H. P. (1988). Computers in guidance, counseling, and psychotherapy . 
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 

Bluhm, H. P., & Kishner, S. (1988). The concerns and attitudes of school 
counselors toward computers. The School Counselor . 36 , 47-53. 

Bohn, M. J., Jr., & Super, D, E. (1969). The computer in counseling and guidance 
programs. Educational Technology . £(3), 29-31. 

Bradshaw, R. A. (1991), Interactive videodisc as a tool to motivate youth for 
career decision-making. CAMCRY Projects . No. 21, Canadian Guidance and 
Counselling Foundation, 

Bridges, M, (1987). Resources to find and evaluate counseling software. Career 
Planning and Adult Development Journal . 2(2), 34-42. 

Bruno, J. P. (1983). Counselor role: The impact of the microcomputer. Journal of 
the American Association for Rehabilitation Therapy . 31(2). 1-2. 

Bryson-lsrael, D. L., & Schweriner, R. (1989, June), Counselors and computers: A 
friendly alliance . Paper presented at An International Teleconference on 
Technology and Career Development, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. 

Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit (1992, November), Results and recommendations . 
Recommendations from the Third European Commission Conference on 
Computers and Careers Guidance, Nurnberg, Germany, 

Cairo, P. C. (1977). Annotated bibliography on computer-assisted counseling and 
guidance (Technical Report TR-77-A1), U.S. Army Research Institute for the 
Behavioral and Social Sciences. 

Cairo, P. C. (1983). Evaluating the effects of computer-assisted counseling 
systems: A selective review. The Counseling Psychologist . 11 . 55-59. 

Campbell, R. B., & Mack, S. E. (1984, April). Integrating computer-based career 
development into your career planning program . Paper presented at the Annual 
Meeting of the American College Personnel Association, Baltimore, MD. (ERIC 
Document Reproduction Service No. ED 253 808) 

Campbell, R. E. (1978). Building a comprehensive career program for secondary 
schools: A handbook of programs, practices and models . Columbus, OH: The 
National Center for Research in Vocational Education. (ERIC Document 
Reproduction Service No. ED 186 714) 

Chapman, W., & Katz, M. R. (1981). Summary of career information systems in 
secondary schools: Final report of study 1 . Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing 
Service. 



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Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues Bibliography 4 



Chapman, W., & Katz, M. R. (1982). Career information systems in secondary 
schools: Final report of study 2 - Comparative effects of major types of 
resources . Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. 

Chapman, W., & Katz, M. R* (1983). Career information systems in secondary 
schools: A survey and assessment. Vocational Guidance Quarterly . 31 . 165- 
177. 

Childers, J. H., Jr., & Podemski, R. S. (1984). Removing barriers to the adoption 
of microcomputer technology by school counselors. The School Counselor . 31 . 
223-228. 

Chubon, R. A. (1989, June). Developing computer-assisted career guidance 
systems for special populations . Paper presented at An International 
Teleconference on Technology and Career Development, Florida State 
University, Tallahassee, FL. 

Clabaugh, S. (1983). How to evaluate and select computer hardware. In C. 
Johnson (Ed.), Microcomputers and the school counselor (pp. 31-46). 
Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association. 

Closs, S. J. (1993). The development of computer-aided careers guidance 
s ystems: Politics and economics vs project management . Unpublished 
manuscript, Careers Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Closs, S. J., & Miller, I. M. (1989). Career guidance of adults: The computer as 
expert. In A. G. Watts (Ed.), Computers in careers guidance: Report of the 
second European conference on computers in careers guidance and of its 
teleconference with the USA (pp. 60-61). Cambridge: Careers Research and 
Advisory Centre. 

Clyde, J. S. (1979). Computerized career information and guidance systems . 
Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, 
Career, and Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 
ED 179 764) 

Coburn, K. A. (1980). A review of issues in computer-assisted counseling and a 
new approach to its applications in college selection . Durham, NH: University 
of New Hampshire. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 203 910) 

Cochran, D. J. (1989). Career counseling and computer assisted career guidance 
intervention: What, when and why? Paper presented at An International 
Teleconference on Technology and Career Development, Florida State 
University, Tallahassee, FL. 

Cogswell, J. F. (1983). Reflections of a grandfather. The Counseling Psychologist , 
11, 61-63. 

Daas, A., Bright, L, & Smaby, M. (1983). Uses and abuses of computers in 
counseling. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling . lfi(1) # 51-57. 

Dinkmeyer, D., Jr., & Carlson, J. (1983). Counselor computer competencies. 
Elementary School Guidance & Counseling . 1£(1), 5-12. 

Dungy, G. (1984). Computer-assisted guidance: Determining who is ready. Journal 
of College Student Personnel , 25, 539-546. 



Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues Bibliography 



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Dungy, G., & Sampson, G. (1989, June). Computer-assisted career guidance and 
special populations . Paper presented at An International Teleconference on 
Technology and Career Development, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. 

Dungy, G., & Smith, M. (1989, June). Reducing the distance between academic 
missions and student priorities: CACG . Paper presented at An International 
Teleconference on Technology and Career Development, Florida State 
University, Tallahassee, FL. 

Dworkin, E. P. (1970). Beware of false gods. Personnel and Guidance Journal . 49 , 
242-244. 

Ekstrom, R., & Johnson, C. (Eds.). (1984). Computers in counseling and 

development [Special issue]. Journal of Counseling and Development . 63 . 131- 
196. 

English, T. W. (1976). A comparison of the effects of two methods of 

disseminating occupational information on the vocational maturity of senior 
high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International . 35 . 1976 A. 
(University Microfilms No. 74-12, 769). 

Feller, R., & Knoll, G. (1985). A review and evaluation of microcomputer software 
for guidance, counseling & placement - 1985 [manual and computer program]. 
Fort Collins, CO: Department of Vocational Education, Colorado State 
University. 

Files, C. (1983). Computerized career guidance that works. Electronic Learning . 
78-81. 

Flanders, R. (1988). The evolution of the NOICC-SOICC programs: 1977-1987. 
Journal of Career Development . 14, 145-159. 

Flynn, M. (1990). The response of disadvantaged students to automated career 
information: A field trial. Career Planning and Adult Development Journal . £(2), 
48-52. 

Forrer, S. E. (1987). Evaluating career development software. Career Planning and 
Adult Development Journal . 2(2), 31-33. 

Frederickson, R. H. (1982). Computer-based career information systems. In R. H. 
Frederickson, Career information (pp. 166-187). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice-Hall. 

Garcia, G., Jr., & Plansker, C. M. (1990). A reaction to an analysis of nine 

computer-assisted career guidance systems. Journal of Career Development . 
12, 113-117. 

Gati, I. (1990). The contribution of differential feature-cost analysis to the 
evaluation of computer-assisted career guidance systems: A comment on 
Sampson, Reardon, Humphreys, Peterson, Evans, and Domkowski (1990). 
Journal of Career Development . 17 . 119-128. 

Gati, I. (in press). Computer-assisted career counseling: Dilemmas, problems, and 
possible solutions. Journal of Counseling Psychology . 



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Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: General Issues Bibliography 



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Gaushell, W. H. (1984). Microcomputers: The school and the counselor. The 
School Counselor , 21, 229-233. 

Gelatt, H. B. (1984). Are counselors user friendly? Journal of Counseling and 
Development , £2, 133-134. 

Gerardi, R. J., & Benedict, G. C. (1986). Computerized information systems. The 
School Counselor , 34(2), 105-109. 

Gillespie, R. G. (1983). Computing and higher education: The revolution is through 
the gates. The Forum for Liberal Education , 5, 2-3. 

Glaser, P. (1985). Some ideas for European cooperation. The role of computers in 
guidance and counselling: Proceedings of the SLO/EC conference (pp. 27-32). 
Enschede, The Netherlands: National Institute for Curriculum Development. 

Gysbers, N. C. (1990). Computer-based career guidance systems: Their past, 
present and a possible future - a reaction. In J. P. Sampson, Jr. & R. C. 
Reardon (Eds.), Enhancing the design and use of computer-assisted career 
guidance systems: Proceedings of an international teleconference on 
technology and career development (pp. 20-24). Alexandria, VA: National 
Career Development Association. 

Hansen, J. C. (1986). Computers and beyond in the decision-making process. 
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development , 19 . 48-52. 

Haring-Hidore, M. (1984). In pursuit of students who do not use computers for 
career guidance. Journal of Counseling and Development , 63 , 139-140. 

Harmon, L. W. (Ed.). (1983). Using information in career development: From 
cognitions to computers . Columbus, OH- The Ohio State University, The 
National Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. (ERIC 
Information Series NO. 262) 

Harris, J. (1968). The computerization of vocational information. Vocational 
Guidance Quarterly , 17, 12-20. 

Harris, J. (1970). Can computers counse 1 ? Vocational Guidance Quarterly , 18 , 
162-164. 

Harris, J. (1972). Tested practices: Computer-assisted guidance systems . 
Washington, DC: National Vocational Guidance Association. 

Harris, J. (1974). The computer: Guidance tool of the future. Journal of 
Counseling Psychology , 21, 331-339. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1978). Careers by special delivery. In G. R. Walz, & L. 

Benjamin (Eds.), New imperatives for guidance (pp. 327-374). Ann Arbor, Ml: 
ERIC/CAPS, School of Education, University of Michigan. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1982). Educational applications of communications 

technology . (Contract N. NIE-400-8 1-0025). Columbus, OH: The Ohio State 
University, The National Center for Research in Vocational Education. 



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Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1983). A historical perspective. In C. Johnson (Ed.), 
Microcomputers and the school counselor (pp. 1-16). Alexandria, VA: 
American School Counselor Association. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1983). The computer and the decider. The Counseling 
Psychologist. H, 9-14. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1984). High touch and high technology: The marriage that 
must succeed. Counselor Education and Supervision . 24, 6-16. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1984). The computer and career development. Journal of 
Counseling and Development . 63 . 145-148. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1984). The computer as a tool in career guidance programs. 
In N. C. Gysbers and Associates (Eds.), Designing careers: Counseling to 
enhance education, work, and leisure (pp. 362-383). San Francisco, CA: 
Jossey-Bass. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1985). The computer and career development: Retrospect 
and prospect. Journal of Career Development . 12 . 111-117. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1987). The counselor and the computer as service providers. 
Career Planning and Adult Development Journal . 2(2), 43-48. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1988). Career planning and computer-based systems: Models 
of integration. Guidance and Counseling . 4(2), 11-19. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1990). Computer-based career guidance systems: Their past, 
present and a possible future. In J. P. Sampson, Jr. & R. C. Reardon (Eds.), 
Enhancing the desian and use of computer-assisted career guidance systems: 
Proceedings of an international teleconference on technology and career 
development (pp. 10-19). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development 
Association. 

Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (1992). Systematic career guidance and computer-based 
systems. In Z. B. Leibowitz, & H. D. Lea (Eds.), Adult career development: 
Concepts, issues and practices (2nd. Ed.), (pp. 102-114). Alexandria, VA: 
American Association for Counseling and Development. 

Helwig, A. A., & Snodgres, P. J. (1990). Computer-assisted career guidance use 
in higher education. Journal of Career Development . 16 . 249-259. 

Heppner, M. J. (1985). DISCOVER II, SIGI, AND MicroSKILLS: A descriptive 
review. Journal of Counseling and Development . 63 . 323-325. 

Heppner, M. J., & Johnston, J. A. (1985). Computerized career guidance and 
information systems: Guidelines for selection. Journal of College Student 
Personnel . 2£, 156-163. 

Herr, E. L. (1985). The role of professional organizations in effecting the use of 
technology in career development. Journal of Career Development . 12 . 176- 
186. 

Herr, E. L, & Best P. L. (1984). Computer technology and counseling: The role of 
the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development . 63 . 192-195. 



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Hesketh, B., Gleitzman, M., & Pryor, R. (1989). Tailoring computerised 

interventions to client needs. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling , 17(1), 
19-33. 

Hinkle r J. S. (1992). Computer-assisted career guidance and single-subject 
research: A scientist-practitioner approach to accountability. Journal of 
Counseling and Development . 70 . 391-395 

Hopkins, V., Kinnison, J., Morgenthau, E., & Ollis, H. (1992). Career information 
delivery systems: A summary status report (NOICC Occasional paper No. 4). 
Washington, D.C.: National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee. 

Hopkins, V., Morgenthau, E., & Kinnison, J. (1991). Career information delivery 
systems (CIDS) status report . Unpublished manuscript, National Occupational 
Information Coordinating Committee, Washington, D.C. 

Hoskins, R. G., & Rosenthal, N. R. (1983). Microcomputer assisted guidance 
scheduling for career information programs. Vocational Guidance Quarterly . 
22, 122-124. 

Howland, P., & Palmer, R. (1991). Using computer-aided guidance systems: 
Balancing ethical and practical considerations . Unpublished manuscript, 
Quinnipac College, Counseling and Career Services, Hamden, CT. 

Howland, P., & Palmer, R. (1992). Ethics and computer guidance: Uneasy 
partners? Journal of Career Planning and Employment . 52(4). 38-45. 

Impellitteri, J. T. (1969). Implementation problems: Counselor acceptance of 
systems. In Office of Education (Ed.) Computer-based vocational guidance 
systems (pp. 116-119). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare. 

Isaacson, L. E. (1985). Computer systems in career counseling. In L. E. Isaacson, 
Basics of career counseling (pp. 327-378). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 

Isaacson, L. E., & Brown, D. (1993). Computer-assisted career guidance systems. 
* In L. E. Isaacson & D. Brown, Career information, career counseling, and career 
development programming (5th. Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 

Jackson, C. (1993). The case for diversity in computer-aided careers guidance 
systems: A response to Watts. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling . 
21, 189-195. 

Jacobson, M. D., & Grabowski, B. T. (1982). Computerized systems of career 
information and guidance: A state-of-the-art. Journal of Educational 
Technology Systems . 10 . 235-255. 

James, E.- M., & Smith, J. D. (1972). Traditional vs. computer-based vocational 
guidance and counseling systems: Implications for disacvantaged youth . (ERIC 
Document Reproduction Service No. ED 089 150) 

Jarvis, P. S. (1990). A nation at risk: The economic consequences of neglecting 
career development. Journal of Career Development . 16 . 157-171. 



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Jarvis, P. S. (1990). Educational and vocational guidance in Europe. In J. P. 
Sampson, Jr. & R. C. Reardon (Eds.), Enhancing the design and use of 
computer-assisted career guidance systems: Proceedings of an international 
teleconference on technology and career development (pp. 56-62). Alexandria, 
VA: National Career Development Association, 

Jepsen, D. A. (1990). A useful but limited consumer's guide. Journal of Career 
Development . 17 . 129-132. 

Johnson, C. (1983). Computer-based guidance in American higher education. 
International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling , £, 135-141. 

Johnson, C. (1983). The future. In C. Johnson (Ed.), Microcomputers and the 
school counselor (pp. 121-126). Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor 
Association. 

Johnson, C. S. (1984). Computer-assisted guidance: An example of direct student 
access. In C. S. Johnson & K. R. Pyle (Eds.), Enhancing student development 
with computers (pp. 45-57). New Directions in Student Services. 2fi. San 
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 

Johnson, C. S. (1990). Yesterday, today, and tomorrow: Response to Martin Katz. 
In J. P. Sampson, Jr. & R. C. Reardon (Eds.), Enhancing the design and use of 
computer-assisted career guidance systems: Proceedings of an international 
teleconference on technology and career development (pp. 51-55). Alexandria, 
VA: National Career Development Association. 

Johnson, C, & Ekstrom, P. (1984). Counselors and computer competency. 
Journal of Counseling and Development . 63 . 196-197. 

Johnson, C, & Pyle, K. R. (Eds.) (1984). Enhancing student development with 
computers . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

Johnson, C, & Sampson, J. P., Jr. (1985). Training counselors to use computers. 
Journal of Career Development . 12 . 118-128. 

Johnston, J. A., Buescher, K. L., & Heppner, M. J. (1988). Computerized career 
information and guidance systems: Caveat emptor. Journal of Counseling and 
Development. 67 . 39-41 . 

Johnson, R. G. (1985). Microcomputer-assisted career exploration. Vocational 
Guidance Quarterly . 23, 296-304. 

Katz, M. R. (1970). Career guidance: Expanding the student's power in making 
career decisions. Bulletin of the NASSP . £4, 88-95. 

Katz, M. R. (1988). Computerized guidance and the structure of occupational 
information. Prospects . 18 . 515-525. 

Katz, M. R. (1990). Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. !n J. P. Sampson, Jr. & R. 
C. Reardon (Eds.), Enhancing the design and use of computer-assisted career 
guidance systems: Proceedings of an international teleconference on 
technology and career development (pp. 43-50). Alexandria, VA: National 
Career Development Association. 

10 



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Katz, M. R., & Shatkin, L. (1980). Computer-assisted guidance: Concepts and 
practices (ETS RR-80-1). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. 

Katz, M. R., & Shatkin, L. (1983). Characteristics of computer-assisted guidance. 
The Counseling Psychologist , H, 15-31. 

Katz, M. R., & Shatkin, L. (1987). The need for research. Career Planning and 
Adult Development Journal . 2(2), 63-70. 

Kelleher, J. (1984, February). New help for personnel. Business Computer 
Systems . 90-104. 

Krumboltz, J. D. (1985). Presuppositions underlying computer use in career 
counseling. Journal of Career Development . 12, 165-170. 

Krumboltz, J. D. (1990). Evaluating computer-assisted career guidance programs. 
. Journal of Career Development , 17, 133-136. 

Lackner, K. G., & Feller, R. (1984, Spring). The information age: Will guidance, 
counseling, and placement personnel respond? Awareness . 12 . 29-33. 

Lambert, M. E. (1988). Computers in counselor education: Four years after a 
special issue. Counselor Education and Supervision . 28 . 100-109. 

Last, A. (1978). Computer-assisted guidance in Britain: Will the development be of 
use to adults? Journal of Occupational Psychology . 51 , 49-53. 

Law, B. (1990, Winter). Daft computer-assisted guidance needs remedial support! 
NICEC Training and Development Bulletin . No. 37, 27-30. 

Lee, J. L., & Pulvino, C. J. (1988). Computer competency: A means for learning to 
be a better counselor. Counselor Education and Supervision . 28 , 110-115. 

Lester, J. N. (1990). Career information in career development: A public policy 
reaction. In J. P. Sampson, Jr. & R. C. Reardon (Eds.), Enhancing the design 
and use of computer-assisted career guidance systems: Proceedings of an 
international teleconference on technology and career development (pp. 36- 
42). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development Association. 

Lester, J. N., & Ollis, H. T. (1988). Future challenges to career information 

providers: A NOICC perspective. Journal of Career Development , 14 , 205-215. 

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