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UNISIST; intergovernmerital conference for the 
Establishment of a World Science Information System 
(Paris, 4-8 October 1971). Final Report. 

United Nations Educational, scientific, and Cultural 
Organization, Paris (France) , 

SC— MD— 25 
Dec 7 1 

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Conference Reports; *1 nf or mat i on Dissemination; 
Information Retrieval; Information Storage; 
♦Information systems; ♦information Utilization; 
♦International Programs 

♦scientific and Technical Inf ormation; ■ UNISIST; World 
Science Information System 



ABSTRACT 

In pursuance of resolution 2.141 (a) adopted by the 

General Conference at its sixteenth session (October- November 1970) , 
the Intergovernmental Conference for the Establishment of a World 
Science Information System (UNISIST) was organized by Unesco, The 
purpose of the Conference held October 4—8, 1971 was to make 

recommendations covering the basic principles of the nroposed world 
science information system and the mechanisms and procedures by which 
member states and international organizations could play an active 
role in its implementation. The resolution adopted by the conference 
and its general report appear in this volume. Additional appendices 
include the report of the U.S, delegation and remarks by the U.S. 
representatives to the Conference. (Author/SJ) 



00 3 61 ? ED 061952 



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Lfn e 5 C O 

TO ERIC AND ORGANIZATIONS OPERATING 
UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH THE U S. OFFICE 
OF EDUCATION FURTHER REPRODUCTION 
OUTSIDE THE ERIC SYSTEM REQUIRES PER 




Paris 

4 - 8 October 1971 



I ntergovern mental Conference 

for the Establishment 

of a World Science In formation System 

Final Report 



Unesco 



hERLC 



i 





SUMMARY 



In pursuance of resolution 2* 141 (a) adopted by the General Conference at its sixteenth sssion 
(October -November 1970), the Intergovernmental Conference for the Establishment of a World 
Science Information System (UNISIST) was organised by Uneseo* 

The purpose of the Conference was to make recommendations covering the basic principles of the 
proposed world science information system and the mechanisms and procedures by which Member 
States and international organisations could play an active r61e in its implementation. 

The resolution adopted by the Conference and its general report appear below* 





table of contents 



Introduction • ♦ « 

I. General Report • * * 

II* Resolution. 

III* Appendices * * - 

A* Agenda **.**.*.* * 

B. Addresses and speeches delivered at the inaugural session: 



Address by Mr. Ren4 Maheu, Director-General of Uneseo * 

Address by Mr* V* Ambartsumian, President of the International 

Council of Scientific Unions 

Science and Information in Prospect, by Mr. P. Piganiol . - 

Scientific Information Today - A Scientist's View, by Mr. H. Brown 



7 

9 

17 

19 

19 



22 



26 

30 

36 



C* List of participants . . . 



41 



D, List of officers of the Conference and Secretariat 

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59 



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5 



INTRODUCTION 



1* In accordance with resolution 2. 141 (a) 
adopted by the General Conference of Unesco at its 
a ixtee • th session, the General Conference authorised 
the Director-General to convene an intergovern- 
mental conference to advise him on the desirability I 
of establishing a programme to implement the re- 
commendations made in the study conducted jointly 
by Unesco and the International Council of Scienti- I 
fic Unions (IGSU) on the feasibility of a world sci- 
ence information system (UNISIST), 

2 m Subsequently, the Unesco F ^ecutive Board 
by its decision 6, 1. 1 at its 88th sessicn authorized 
the Director-General to transmit invitations to 
Unesco Member States and Associate Members in 
accordance with Article 21(1) of Unesco Regulations, 
Invitations were also sent to States which are mem- 
bers of one or more United Nations organizations 
in accordance with Article 21(3); to organizations 
of the United Nations system in accordance with 
Article 21(4), and, in accordance with Article 2 1(5) 
to certain categories of intergovernmental and non- 
governmental international organizations to attend 
as observers, 

3. The Intergovernmental Conference met in 
plenary session at Unesco House, Paris, from 4 
to 8 October 1971, 

Antecedents of the Conference 



4, The UNISIST study was initiated by an ex- 
change of correspondence between the Director- 
General of Unesco and the President of IGSU in 
April 1968, and subsequently approved at the four- 
teenth session of the General Conference of Unesco, 
25 October - 30 November 1986 (resolution 2. 222 
(b)). The feasibility study, supported jointly by 
Unesco and 1CSU with supplementary assistance to 
the latter from the Ford Foundation, was conducted 
over the succeeding four years by a joint Central 
Committee chaired by Professor Harrison Brown, 
Foreign Secretary of the United States National 
Academy of Sciences, The co-operation between 
Unesco, as a principal intergovernmental organi- 
zation concerned with the international growth of 







science and technology, and IGSU, the principal 
non -governmental international organization dedi- 
cated to the same goals, was very close through- 
out the study. It was in recognition of this 
exemplary co-operation that special provisions 
were made in the Rules of Procedure for IGSU to 
play a special r61e at the Conference, IGSU was 
invited to play an advisory rdle in all plenary ses- 
sions through the presence of its President on the 
platform as well as through the participation of a 
large delegation of observers, and a representa- 
tive of ICSU was invited to represent ICSU’s in- 
terests on the Conference Steering Committee as 
a non ^voting member, 

5. The UNISIST study resulted in the publica- 
tion of a report entitled "Study Report on the Fea- 
sibility of a World Science Information System" 
and of a Synopsis of that Report ("Synopsis of the Fea- 
sibility Study on a World Science Information Sys- 
tem")* The Synopsis was used as the working 
document for the conference, while the Report 
constituted a reference document: both versions 
were made available to all participants at the Inter - 
governmental Conference. In addition, the Pro = 
ceedings of the UNISIST study, consisting of the 
minutes, reports and contract studies initiated by 
the Central Committee, accompanied by the minutes 
and reports of the working groups convened to in- 
vestigate particular problem areas, were assembled 
and issued in a microfiche edition through the co- 
operation of the ( FR ) Centre national de recherche 
scientlfique. These proceedings had been forwarded 
through the co-operation of the permanent delegates 
to Unesco, to the appropriate national libraries or 
archives of Unesco Member States. 

6. The Intergovernmental Conference for the 
Establishment of a World Science Information Sys- 
tem (UNISIST) was attended by delegates represent- 
ing 84 Member States and one nen-Memher State 
of Unesco. The delegations of several countries 
were headed by individuals of ministerial rank. A 
total of 40 intergovernmental and non-governmental 
organizations was represented by individuals in the 
capacity of observers. The largest group of 



4 



7 



Intro duct ion 



observers was organised by the International Coun- 
cil of Scientific Unions (ICSU)* the co -sponsors of 
the UNISIST Study. 

7. Mr. Ren 6 Maheu , Director -General of 
TJneseo represented the Secretariat at the inaugural 
and closing sessions of the Conference. Professor A. 
Buzzati-Traverso, the Assistant Director “General 
for Science* and Professor I. Malecki* Director 
of the Department of Science Policy and Promotion of 



Basic Sciences* were in attendance throughout 
the plenary sessions. The Secretary of the Con- 
ference was Dr. Adam Wysocki, Director of the 
Division of Scientific Documentation and Informa- 
tion* and the Assistant Secretary was Mr, J. 
Tocatlian, Supporting the Secretary in the organ- 
ization and conduct of the Conference was the staff 
of the Division, supplemented by a small group of 
invited experts. 



o 

ERIC 



5 



L GENERAL, REPORT 



Inaugural session 



8* At th© first plenary session, the Director- 
General of Unesco welcomed the delegates and ex- 
pressed the hope that they would agree to endorse 
the principles of UNISIST to discuss the programme 
priorities, and to provide firm guidance on thede- 
sirability of establishing an organizational struc- 
ture within Unesco. He expressed the view that 
the further development of the UNISIST philosophy 
could only be maintained with the assistance of all 
sectors of the scientific and technological communi- 
ties, information specialists and doeumentalists. 
He addressed his appeal especially to the Member 
States j and asked them to give their support to the 
development of scientific and technical information 
not only at the national but also at the international 
level* He drew particular attention to the need for 
close and continuing co-operation between the in- 
ternational Council of Scientific Unions and Unesco, 

9. In responding, on behalf of the internation- 
al Council of Scientific Unions , to the Director- 
General's remarks. Professor Ambartsumian, 
President of IC3U, stressed the inseparability of 
science and scientific and technical information, 
and acknowledged the long and distinguished record 
of the International Council of Scientific Unions and 
its predecessor in organizing scientific bibliogra- 
phy and documentation internationally. 

10. The Romanian delegation stated that its 
Government considered that the only legitimate 
representative of the Chinese people was the Gov- 
ernment of the People's Republic of China. Similarly, 
the Romanian Government considered that the 
only legitimate representatives of South Viet -Nam 
and the Khmer Republic were, respectively, the 
Provisional Revolutionary Government of South 
Viet -Nam and the Royal Government of National 
Union of Norodom Sihanouk. The Romanian dele- 
gation also regretted that States such as the German 
Democratic Republic, the Democratic Republic of 
Viet -Nam and the Democratic People’s Republic of 
Korea had not been invited to the Conference and 
asked that his statement on this subject should 



appear in the Report of the Conference, This delega- 
tion was supported by the delegations from the Cuban 
Revolutionary Government, from the People's Re- 
public of Bulgaria, and from the Hungarian People's 
Republic, The delegation of the Union of Soviet 
Socialist Repxiblics noted that it was not possible to 
discuss a "World System" without representation 
from the German Democratic Republic, the Chinese 
People's Republic, the People's Democratic Republic 
of Korea and the Democratic Republic of Viet -Nam, 
and expressed its conviction of the urgent necessity 
to eliminate this historical injustice. 

11. The delegation of Viet -Nam asked for the 
report to mention that it represented the Govern- 
ment of the Republic of Viet -Nam which was effective 
and lawful because it was the outcome of normal 
elections, while the permanent delegation of the 
Republic of China requested in writing that the 
record reaffirm its sole right to participate in the 
UNISIST Conference. 

12. In reply to the intervention of the delegate 
from Romania, the delegate of the Khmer Republic 
wished the record to show that his country, rac = 
ognizedby 119 Member States of the United Nations, 
was making a considerable effort to develop its 
scientific potential, 

13. On the proposal of the delegation from 
the People's Republic of Poland seconded by the 
delegate from Japan, Professor Harrison Brown 
(United States of America) was elected President 
of the Conference by acclamation. 

14. In view of the importance of the issues 
to be discussed, it was agreed 5 that Rule 3 of the 
Rules of Procedure should be modified to provide 
f or an Assistant Rapporteur -General to help the 
Rapporteur -General of the Conference. 

15. Following the adoption of the Agenda and 
discussion on the number of vice-presidents appro- 
priate for the Conference, the following were elec- 
elected- 

Dr. Hermann Liebaers, Belgium 

General Arthur Mascarenhas Faganha, Brazil 



9 



General report 



Dr. Ahmad Abd-El Hamid Kabesh, Arab Republic 
of Egypt 

H. E , Professor F. Eeza, Iran 

Dr, Kanekuro Kaneshige, Japan 

Mrs. B.A.M* Okusanya, Nigeria 

H,E, Dr, Antonin Mr izek, Czechoslovakia 

Mr, J, M, Gvishiani, USSR 

16. Mr, H.h Hookway (United Kingdom) was 
elected Rapporteur -General and Mr. N. B. Arutyunov 
(USSR), Deputy Rapporteur-General* in each case 
by acclamation, 

17. The President then called upon Mr, Pierre 
P iganiol to present a paper to the Conference en- 
titled "Science and Information in Prospect", 
Mr* P iganiol called upon governments to waken 
to the needs and to the importance cf seien- 
tific and technical information, and upon scientists 
to understand its complexities and to assist in 
resolving them. 

18* The President then presented a paper, en- 
titled '’Scientific information today * a scientist 1 s 
view", in which he reviewed the attitude of an indi- 
vidual scientist towards the information he creates 
and uses; the history of the joint UNESCO/ICSU/ 
UNISIST Study; and, finally, an account of the basic 
lessons learned during the course of the feasibility 
inquiry. 

19. The Conference Steering Committee, 
consisting of the President, Vice-President and 
Rapporteur -General, together with the President 
of fCSU ex officio, met between the morning and 
the afternoon sessions of the first day to consider: 

(a) the work plan of the Conference; 

(b) its calendar; 

(c) the organisation of a drafting committee 
charged with the responsibility of merging 
the several resolutions submitted by the 
national delegations* 

20. On the recommendations of the Steering 
Committee the Conference agreed that discussion 
of the UNISIST Report should be in three sections 

(a) principles and goals; 

(b) programme objectives; 

(c) organization and management. 

The Conference also agreed that a drafting com- 
mittee should be formed and instructed to present 
for the Conference either three resolutions, one 
on the principles of UNISIST, one on its programme 
objectives and a third on the organization and man- 
agement of I, he UNISIST programme; ora single re - 
soltition which would combine these three. The 
Conference then appointed, on the recommendations 
of the Steering Committee, the members of a draft- 
ing committee composed of the Rapporteur -General 
( ex officio) , the Assistant Rapporteur -General, 

Dr. M* Cremer (Federal Republic of Germany), 
Dr. Ricardo Gietz (Argentina), Mr, J, Brown, 
(Canada), Mr* R* Harte (United States of America), 
Mr, J. d’Qlier (France), Mr, J, Dusz (Hungary), 



Miss W.Partaningrat (Indonesia), H. E. M. V* Lipatti 
(Romania), Mr. B. Tell (Sweden), Dr. V, Rybatchenkov 
(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Mr. M. Roche 
(Venezuela), 

21. The Cuban delegation stated that the elec - 

tion of the Vice-Presidents by acclamation rather 
thanby voting had not allowed delegations to express 
their views adequately. The Revolutionary Govern- 
ment of Cuba requested that the record show that 
it did not support the election of the Vice-President 
from Brazil. 

Principles of _ UNISIST 

22. All delegations expressed general sup- 
port for the principles of UNISIST, however, some 
countries were hesitant about giving unqualified 
support to all 22 recommendations cf the report 
without further careful study, 

2 3. In expressing support for the UNISIST 
principles, many countries expressed the viewthat 
future activities should be concentrated on cata- 
lysing and co-ordinating the development of bila- 
teral and multilateral arrangements for sharing 
resources and services. 

24. Great stress was placed on the need to 
continue the co-operatlonbetw r een ICSU and Unesco, 
and to maximize the involvement of United Nations 
Agencies, regional intergovernmental organizations, 
and international non-governmental organizations, 

25. All delegates who spoke assumed that 
UNISIST included technology, and that subsequently 
the social sciences and humanities would be in- 
cluded as soon as practicable; however, a number 
of delegations, while agreeing that the subject 
coverage should be expanded to cover these fields, 
nevertheless expressed the view that this should 
be an evolutionary process and not be included at 
the start of the programme. 

26. Most delegations contributing to the dis- 
cussion stressed the fact that national self- 
sufficiency in scientific and technical information 
could not be achieved and emphasized the necessity 
to develop international co-operation in order to 
ameliorate the problems of providing effective in- 
formation services. 

27* It was pointed out, therefore, that con- 
siderable attention should be paid to the need for 
internationally-agreed standards and rules to en- 
sure effective interconnexion of the large var ieties 
of information systems and services currently 
available or being developed, 

28* Several delegations observed that the 
UNISIST concept should take into account the need 
for multilingual information tools and procedures 
if a world -wide system was to be developed. 

2 9, A number of delegations stressed the 
need to ascertain user requirements before em- 
barking on extensive programmes to stimulate the 
development of new kinds of information services, 

30. The necessity for all Member States and 
particularly the developing countries, to provide 



o 

ERJC 



10 



7 



General report 



an appropriate infrastructure for scientific and 
technical information based on specific and known 
needs, was widely recognized, 

31, There was clear evidence of the need for 
better education and training of users in the use of 
information tools and services, and in particular, 
Poland offered to create an international training 
centre to meet the needs of UNISIST. The same 
country also proposed the establishment of a scholar - 
ship fund financed by countries participating in 
UNIS 1ST, 

32, Several countries and international orga- 
nizations offered to assist the UN IS 1ST programme 
by providing the results of their experience in the 
development of information systems, the results 
of research on information problems, and by co = 
operation in the initiation of co-oi'dinated pro- 
grammes, 

33, In the light of these general considerations 
most delegations made it clear that they considered 
the basic UNIS 1ST activities should be located with- 
in Unesco and financed mainly from the Regular 
budget of that Organization, 

34, One delegation stressed the desir ability 
that each government should ensure, as far as 
possible, the indexing of its scientific and technical 
literature in standardized form, so that the ox - 

changes of magnetic tapes (in standardized format) 

can be facilitated- 
Programme objectives 

35* The President invited delegations to sub- 
mit comments on Programme Objectives of UNISIST 
as proposed in the Synopsis of the UNISIST Report, 
namely: 

I. Tools of systems intercommunication 

(Rec. 1-6) 

II. Strengthening institutional rdles 

(Rec, 7 = 10) 

III. Strengthening human resources 

(Rec, 11-14) 

IV. Economic and political environment 

(Rec. 15-19) 

V. Scientific and technical information in 

developing countries 

(Rec. 20-21) 

36, In discussing Programme Objective I , a 
large number of delegates and observers requested 
that more reliance be placed on the competence of 
international bodies such as ISO, FID, IFLA, for 
the development of standards, in view of their 
sizeable experience and achievements in that field. 

A few suggested that a more appropriate title for 
this Group of Recommendations was "international 
^ mmunications Standards", 

37, The publication of a manual of communi- 
cation standards within the framework of UNISIST 
was felt to be a useful step, and it was pointed out 
that such was in course of preparation, 

38, The logical priority of Recommendationl 



was stressed by a number of delegates: a contiiiu- 
ing assessment of on-going activities in the field 
of scientific and technical information was felt to 
be a necessary basis for the development of the 
co-operative programmes to which UNISIST is de- 
dicated, The Yugoslav delegation indicated that 
its Government would be prepared to undertake 
the organization of an international referral centre 
in Yugoslavia, Other points were: 

(a) the need to develop proper standards or 
"statistical indicators" to facilitate the 
analysis of information activities; 

(b) the advisability of restricting for practical 
reasons the proposed referral system to 
the more significant information services, 

3 9 , A few delegates emphasized the high 
priority that should be given to Recommendation 2, 
on standards of bibliographic descriptions and trans ■ 
liter at ion rules. Such rules are of particular im- 
portance to countries such as Japan, where the 
romanization of proper names - among others - 
raised diffictill problems. As for the standard 
codes and formats mentioned in this Recommenda- 
tion, they should not be devised only for use in 
machine systems, but also in "manual" ones* 

40. The usefulness of the international regis- 
try of scientific periodicals proposed in Recom- 
mendation 3 was acknowledged by a number of 
delegates, as a means to overcome language bar- 
riers, Attention was called to the desirable exten- 
sion of its scope to cover the proceeedings of spe- 
cialized conferences, which are of particular 
interest to developing countries* The Conference 
noted with satisfaction that the French Government , 
in co-operation with Unesco, will establish an 
International Centre for the International Serials 
Data System. 

41. Am regards Recommendation 4 , it was 
suggested that a bettei* title would, be; "Termino- 
logies, thesauri and classifications". Delegates 
inferred to the need to study the integration of 
‘thesauri, the relation between standardisation 
in the field of thesauri terminology and classifi- 
cation, and the compatibility of scientific termino- 
logies with information languages, A delegate em- 
phasized the importance of subject specification 
among the different problems considered in the 
UNISIST study, and recalled the conclusion of an 
International Symposium held recently in Yugoslavia 
(Herceg Novi, 28 June - 1 July 1971) on the rdle 
of UDC as a universal switching language* 

42. The field of Recommendation 5 - for 
which the title "machine interface" was proposed - 
was also considered highly significant by one of 
the delegations; the setting up of a permanent ad- 
visory agency might be desirable, for the distribu- 
tion of current information on the subject. The 
reference to conversion programmes as a "tem- 
porary" alternative to full compatibility in this 
Recommendation was felt by another delegation 
to be improper, since wholly compatible codes 



General report 



and formats are still a distant goal, 

43, In order to study the advancement of tele- 
communications and teleprocessing networks for 
the transfer of scientific andtechnical information - 
Recommendation C - the convening of a conference 
was felt by severai delegations to be unnecessary] 
a working group would be more adequate. The eco- 
nomic and financial aspects of the subject in the 
case of developing countries should be highlighted, 
with a view to providing special facilities to the 
latter. One of the delegations stressed that the 
position taken by UNISIST on this subject might 
stimulate the readiness of commercial firms to 
develop special facilities for the remote transfer 
of scientific and technical information through ad- 
vanced media, 

44, A number of comments were expressed 
on the four Recommendations listed under Pro- 
granime Objective II. As to Recommendation 7, 
it was generally agreed by all delegates who spoke 
that adequate libraries and documentation services 
were essential. The importance of strengthening 
basic access services, as in Recommendation 8, 
was also acknowledged, with a special emphasis 
laid on translation services; new mechanisms might 
have to be sought in the case of languages such as 
Japanese, for the sharing of translation costs among 
producers and receivers of translated dociiments. 
The desirability of receiving the support of govern- 
ments and competent professional organisations 
for the imple mentation of this Recommendation was 
also stressed, 

45, Recommendations 9 and 10 were often dis - 
cussed inc on junction as several dele /rates argued 
that interrelations should be promoted between 
information analysis centres and data centres. A 
high priority was recommended by a number of 
delegations for the development of both, with the 
active co-operation of advanced scientists and 
competent international organizations, while ac- 
knowledgement was given to the need for more 
research and pilot studies to assess the functions 
which such centres should perform in relation to 
different categories of users. 

Several delegations agreed that the scope of 
Recommendation 10 was too narrow: it should be 
extended to cover fields outside those covered by 
existing activities, and should also cover nou- 
numerical data. 

46, The discussion of Programme Objective 
III revealed a broad consensus on the position taken 
in Recommendations 11 and 12 concerning the neees = 
s ary participation of scientists at various stages of 
information transfer* indeed, a number of delegations 
thought that this position might have been stated 
more firmly, and reaffirmed under other recom- 
mendations. 

47. The need to consider the training of users 
of scientific and technical information, as well as 
that of inf ormation scientists (Recommendation 13) 
was often mentioned in this connexion; and it was 
thought that existing programmes in this area should 



be encouraged. More generally, delegates agreed 
that the subject of education and training should be 
among the higher priorities of UNISIST, The offer 
by the Government of Poland to set up a UNISIST 
training centre in Katowice (see No, 31) was con- 
sequently welcomed by many delegations; a num- 
ber of them expressed their readiness to help in 
the operation of this centre, and possibly others 
if necessary. It was repeatedly stressed that the 
functions of such centres should be to provide 
educational assistance primarily, or ever exclu- 
sively, to information specialists from the de- 
veloping countries. Thl s generous offer was noted 
and it was agreed that Unesco would discuss the 
detailed management with the Polish Government. 

Another point of agreement between several 
delegations was the need to call on the experience 
of both international and national organisations 
with a competence in educational assistance for the 
implementation of the training programmes en- 
visaged in Rec ommendation 13 ; the timing and lo- 
cation of such programmes was to receive careful 
consideration. 

At a later stage in the discussion, the delega- 
tion of Poland indicated its desire to withdraw the 
draft resolution covering the establishment of a 
scholarship fund which it had submitted on this 
point (see No, 31), so as to have time to discuss 
with Unesco the possibilities for organization of 
the proposed fund, 

4 8, The proposal to establish a group on the 
evaluation of research in information science 
( Recommendation 14) was welcomed by a number 
of delegations. It was considered that the work of 
this group should be restricted to the collecting 
and evaluation of on-going research efforts, as 
stated in Recommendation 14: the elaboration of 
proposals for new R&D projects should however 
be considered as part of its evaluative function. 
Nevertheless, a few delegates indicated that fur- 
ther information on the proposed scope and orga- 
nization of this Group was needed before they could 
give them full support to Recommendation 14 , 

49. Among the four recommendations dis- 
cussed under Programme Objective IV , the first 
one ( Recommendation 15) was the most frequently 
mentioned: the existence of national scientific and 
technical information agencies was felt to be an 
essential requirement of UNISIST, and indeed, as 
one delegation put it, "a good investment 1 '. A few 
delegates insisted on the fact that such agencies 
should serve as co-ordination mechanisms, rather 
than operational bodies; in some cases, a given 
country might have to select one of several equally 
competent organizations to fulfil that function, and 
serve as a relay between UNISIST and other national 
agencies in the country. 

One delegate stressed that although it was de- 
sirable to align national informational policies, in 
accordance with the principles of international co- 
operation, nevertheless the development and im- 
plementation of such policies were the concern of 



o 12 

ERIC 



9 



General report 



the national governments themselves* Lastly, a 
number of delegations submitted that the rdle of 
the national agencies was to guide and stimulate 
but not to conduct the development of information 
resources, as indicated in Recommendation 15. 

50, Concerning Recommendations 16 and 17, 
on national information networks, one delegation 
drew attention to a number of practical obstacles 
to developing these networks, including, for ex- 
ample, the lack of adequate reprographic facilities* 
Assistance to developing countries should give con- 
sideration to simple matters of this kind, prior to 
the implementation of service networking in a more 
sophisticated sense, 

51, In the studies of pricing policies which 
form the subject of Recommendation 18 , several 
delegations drew attention to a number of factors 
that had been overlooked in the report: costs, sub- 
sidies, geographical conditions, administrative 
and economic barriers, etc, 

52, Similarly, it was thought that the scope 
of Recommendation 19 , on administrative barriers 
should be widened so as to include legal issues 
other than copyright , equally relevant to the matter 
of scientific communication. It was felt also that 
reference should be made to the existing interna- 
tional machinery for copyright arrangements; the 
findings of the international conferences held at 
Unesco in July 1971 on this subject should receive 
the attention of UNISIST, prior to further action. 

Two delegations felt that the wording of the 
recommendation was not acceptable in its present 
form and submitted alternatives for consideration 
by Unesco, 

53- Programme Objective V w as the subject 
of strong criticism by the delegations of a number 
of developing countries, as well as certain others. 
It was felt that the specific problems of developing 
countries had received far too little attention in 
the course of the UNISIST study, as well as in the 
UNISIST proceedings and report. 

54. The delegation of Cuba stated that the 
serious inadequacy of scientific and technical in- 
formation in the developing countries stemmed 
from the prolonged extortion of their wealth by 
certain powerful countries and for that reason the 
considerable difference in level could only be 
remedied by means of structural changes reflect- 
ing just reparation for the backwardness in which 
these countries remained, 

55. The President indicated that much re- 
mained to foe achieved even in the more industrial- 
ized countries, in the way of co-operation and 
standardization: the UNISIST study had therefore 
concentrated on the general problems which are 
not only of interest to developed nations, but which 
have to be solved in any case before UNISIST can 
become effective world wide. 

56. A number of delegates from developing 
countries, while agreeing that a strong scientific 
infrastructure was desirable, felt that Recom- 
mendation 20 was not particularly helpful to them 







and that, as for Recommendation 21, more prac- 
tical proposals were required, as well as a more 
explicit acknowledgement of the role which existing 
international organizations should play in their 
implementation. In particular, consideration 
should be given to the following suggestions: 

(a) the regrouping of information produced by 
United Nations Agencies into fields of 
special interest to developing countries; 

(b) the establishment of ad hoc information 
services tailored to the specific require- 
ments of given developing countries or 
regions - which, it was repeatedly stressed, 
were neither similar to those of developed 
countries, nor necessarily comparable 
with one another; 

(e) the development of appropriate mechan- 
ized informat ion facilities as well as more 
conventional media which the report seems 
to favour; 

(d) a marked increase inthe range and number 
of training programmes and scholarships 
offered to developing countries in the field 
of scientific and technical information, 

67. For all such measures , Unesco was called 
upon by a number of delegates to earmark appro- 
priate funds within the framework of UNISIST, and 
to take advantage of the experience gainedby other 
international organizations in handling similar 
programmes, 

58. As to the whole range of programme ob- 
jectives, varied opinions were expressed on over- 
all priorities. The need for surveys and co- 
ordination of existing co-operative schemes inthe 
field of scientific and technical information, fol- 
lowed by their evaluation, was mentioned several 
times in this context. However, the larger number 
of delegates expressed the view that Programme 
Objective I was the most urgent. Others considered 
Programme Objective IV to be more important 
and deemed that Recommendations IS and 19 were 
of considerable importance. It was clear that 
there was very strong support for the view that 
close attention should be given to the information 
needs of developing countries in general, and to 
their educational aspects in particular. 

59. Several international organizations, both 
governmental and professional, described their 
activities with reference to the various programmes 
under discussion and expressed their willingness 
to co-operate with UNISIST. The need to include 
technology, and eventually other sectors - such 
as social and economic sciences - in UNISIST was 
again stressed in this context. 

Organization and management 

60. The discussion was limited because a 
number of delegations had submitted draft resolu- 
tions. Subsequently the essential content of three 
resolutions was subsumed in a single composite 



10 



13 



General report 



resolution which was the basis of all subsequent 
discussions. The main arguments centred on the 
management structure as outlined in Recommen- 
dation 22 with the addition of a Steering Committee 
which, in the opinion of some delegates, should be 
substituted for the Intergovernmental Conference 
for reasons of efficiency and economy: 

(a) The T ntergovernmental Conference 

(b) Thu Steering Committee 

(e) The Advisory Committee 

(d) The Executive Office- 

In general it was felt that the management struc- 
ture, which must be a major priority, should be 
largely co -or dinative rather than building up a 
large operation system* 

Some delegations supported the view that this 
four=level management was unnecessarily heavy, 
and would have preferred the elimination of the 
Intergovernmental Conference. 

61, While some delegations were insistent 
that financing should be provided from the Unesco 
budget without any related increase in that budget, 
a fairly large number felt that the Unesco budget 
should be suitably enlarged to meet the important 
UNISIST developments, 

62, The Steering Committee elected by the 
Unesco General Conference with rotation of mem- 
bers should include information specialists with 
high professional qualifications. There was con- 
siderable divergence of views on the number of 
members (maximum of 10, 12-14 and 21=25), 

The Conference wanted at least half of the 
C o in rr n't tee 1 s members ^however, to be drawn from 
the developing countries ; there should be equitable 
geographical distribution- and the countries elected 
as officers of the present Conference should be in- 
cluded in the initial membership of the Steering 
Committee, 

63, Advisory Committee, Some delegations 
wished to keep this group as small as practicable 
and all delegates who spoke urged that it should be 
composed of scientists, engineers and information 
specialists. It was also suggested that the Commit- 
tee could use ad hoe working groups of experts for 
special questions, 

64, Executive Office, It was generally agreed 
that this office should be located in Unesco, that it 
Should be modest in size, staffed by highly quali- 
fied individuals and organised on the basis of exist- 
ing infer mat ion units in the various sectors of Unesco, 

Discussion on composite resolution 

65, The Drafting Committee finally succeeded 
in incorporating 14 single resolutions from indivi- 
dual and groups of delegations into one comprehen- 
sive resolution which was discussed paragraph by 
paragraph and finally accepted as a whole, 

66, There was a strong feeling among delega- 
tions from developing countries that long-term 
projects must be prepared within UNISIST to help 
these countries in their manpower and institutional 



development to enable them to benefit from in- 
formation sharing on a global scale. Also these 
countries requested a long-term plan for financial 
allocations so that they could play a full rOle in 
UNISIST. Special emphasis was laid on the need 
for effective training programmes, and for the 
development of an adequate infrastructure, 

67. Several delegations expressed their con- 
cern that information and documentation special s 
ists should be adequately represented in the main 
organs of UNISIST management. It was also sug- 
gested that such information specialists should be 
selected by consultation with the relevant interna- 
tional professional organisations, 

68. The subject scope led to much discussion 
due partly to the differing connotations of the 
terms used in different languages. The exten- 
sion of fundamental applied sciences and tech- 
nology must initially be to those disciplines that 
are the most developed and relevant (e, g, engineer- 
ing, medicine and agriculture are especially im- 
portant for developing countries), Thus the social 
sciences and humanities should be progressively 
covered as the development of their information 
activities permits their inclusion, 

6 9. The organizational structure of UNISIST 
management was the subject of a variety of views, 
in particular: 

(a) The relative competence and interrelation 
of the Intergovernmental Conference and 
the Steering Committee; 

(b) The optimal size of the Steering Committee. 

On the one hand the Intergovernmental Conference 
due to its infrequent meetings was not in a position 
to supervise actively the programme. On the other 
hand it was felt that policy making should be vested 
in the conference rather than the Steering Commit- 
tee, as well as the examination and evaluation of 
the progress of the UNISIST programme. 

In contrast a few delegations would have pre- 
ferred that the Unesco General Conference should 
entirely replace the proposed intergovernmental 
conference which could thus be dispensed with. 

70, As UNISIST is to be based on the voluntary 
co-operation of existing information systems and 
services, it was suggested that private as well as 
public institutions should be included. However, 
certain delegations accepted this on the under- 
standing that their participation should be on a non- 
profit basis. 

7 1 , Since the implementation of UNISIST must 
be co-ordinated with the biennial Unesco Conference, 
the question arose of how to meet the time lag be- 
fore the next conference. The Assistant Director- 
General for Science explained that Unesco would 
prepare a programme based on the results of the 
Conference, and would develop several projects, 
for example, the International Serials Data Sys- 
tem and training programmes, and would continue 
assistance for developing countries to the maximum 
extent possible within the Unesco budget. 




11 



General report 



CLOSING SESSION 



72, Before the voting on the draft resolution 
commenced, the President of the Conference wel- 
comed the Director-General and thanked him for 
agreeing to explain Unesco practice in relation to 
the draft resolution and to answer questions from 
delegates, 

73, The Director-General expressed his plea- 
sure at the constr uctive conclusions reached by the 
Conference which should now permit the implemen- 
tation of UNISIST by Unesco, 

His understanding of paragraph 5 of the draft 
resolution was that it concerned essentially that 
part of the whole programme which directly affec = 
ted the developing countries. 

He s tressed that the final part of paragraph 10 
was in fact not an addition but rather an amplifica- 
tion of the first part. 

In paragraph 12, strictly speaking, the Inter- 
governmental Conference could not approve the 
UN13IST programme, but could only recommend it 
to the Unesco General Conference, which was the 
ultimate authority. 

The same qualification must be understood as 
regards the r61e of the Steering Committee as pro- 
posed in paragraph 13, 

74 , In amplification of the Director -General* s 
comments on paragraph 10, the Assistant Director- 
General for Science explained that financial means 
would have to be found within the Regular budget 
of Unesco approved by the General Conference, 

75, Following the Director-General's state- 
ment, the delegate from Sudan welcomed the inter- 
pretation given by the Director-General, which 
provided a good basis for the acceptance of the 
draft resolution by the developing countries, 

76, The delegate of the U. 3. A. said that he 
accepted gratefully the clarification provided by 
the Director-General as the basis for his delega- 
tion's interpretation of the draft resolution, that 
his delegation would support it as an adequate basis 
for initiating UNISIST, Warning of the difficulty 
and complexity of the UN IS 1ST task and the dangers 



o 




of misinterpreting paragraph 5 as implying the pos- 
sibility of quick global realization of UN IS IT's long- 
range goals, his delegation believed that the reso- 
lution now permits practical first steps which can 
be made within the Unesco budget to co-ordinate 
and catalyze the more broadly -based international 
efforts that will be required, 

77, The delegation of the USSR acknowledged 
the helpful comments made by the Director -General 
which in their opinion enabled them to accept the 
draft resolution without reservation. 

78, However, the delegate from Canada ex- 
plained that although his Government entii~ely ap- 
proved of the UNISIST concept, it must reserve its 
decision on the UNISIST programme until that pro- 
gramme is presented for voting at the Unesco 
General Conference, 

79, The Chairman then put the draft resolu- 
tion (UNISIST/ DR . 1 5 /Rev,2) to the vote. The results 
were 69 for, 0 against and 1 abstention. The reso- 
lution was therefore accepted, 

SO. The Conference then considered the draft 
report. On the suggestion of the President, sup- 
ported by a number of delegates, it was agreed 
that only amendments of substance would be dis- 
cussed in the plenary session, and that minor 
amendments to the text would be submitted directly 
to the Secretariat, 

81* A general discus sion followed in which a 
number of delegates, while expressing appreciation 
of the report as a whole, suggested amendments 
to the text. None of these was objected to, and it 
was agreed that all of them should be incorporated 
at appropriate places in the final report, 

82, The President of the Conference then 
Invited the delegates to vote the adoption of the 
report. The results were 66 for, 0 against and 0 
abstentions. The report was accepted by acclamation, 

83, Thanks were expressed on behalf of the 
Conference to the President, the Rapporteur - 
General, the Officers of the Conference and the 
Secretariat, 



15 



12 



II, RESOLUTION 



1* The Intergovernmental Conference for the Establishment of a World Silence Information System 
(UN IS 1ST), 

2* Appreciating the great contribution made by Uncaco and ICSU in proposing the programme for UNIS 1ST 
and by the Convener of the UNIS 1ST feasibility study, the Central Committee, and the Secretariat of 
Uneseo which prepared this Conference and its working papers, 

3, E mphasizing that UNISIST will contribute to the establishment of conditions whereby the world -wide uti- 
lization of the achievements of science and technology will become possible, and accepting the main 
conclusions of the Unesco-ICSU Central Committee that a World Scientific and Technical Information 
System is feasible, 

4, Noting that science in modern society has become one of the decisive factors in economic and social 
development, in technical progress, and in the continuous growth of productive forces throughout the 
world, and that the rate of advance in scientific and technical achievement is to a large extent depend- 
ent upon the dissemination and utilization of scientific and technical information, and because science 
and technology are international there is vital need for improvement in the organization of international 
co-operation in these fields, 

5, Considering that the action of UNISIST concerning developing countries must give priority to their needs 
which are, according to the Report of the United Nations Advisory Committee on the Application of Sci- 
ence and Technology to Development*. 

(i) full access to the resources of scientific and technical information both in the developed and the 
developing countries; 

(ii) the necessary equipment for the evaluation, selection, transfer of the information most appropri- 
ate to their specific needs, particularly their economic development; 

(iii) the necessary means io enable them to adjust and absorb this information; 

6, Recognizing the need for the active co-operation of States and of international governmental and non- 
governmental organizations to bring about effective results in the field of scientific and technical infor- 
mation, in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter, 

7, Supporting the proposals made by the Unesco-ICSU Central Committee for the establishment of a UNISIST 
programme to advance a World Scientific and Technical Information System comprising a flexible net- 
work of existing and future information services, 

8, Acknowledges that , from the outset, UNISIST must ensure that adequate information for The utilization 
of accumulated knowledge in science and technology is available and fully accessible and that UNISIST 
must be based on voluntary co-operation between existing and future autonomous national, regional and 
international scientific and technical information services and systems, whether public or private, and 
that in this respect, the special needs of individual States must be taken into account, in particular those 



o 



17 





Resolution 



of developing countries; that initially, UNISIST must embrace the fundamental sciences, the applied sci- 
ences broadly conceived, technology, and subsequently, be extended to the social sciences and humani- 
ties as soon as possible; that such a World System must be multilingual, and must allow the use of na- 
tional languages; 

9. Recommends that the Director -General of Unesco study and take into consideration the recommenda- 
tions of the Unesco/ ICSU Central Committee, the comments and statements of Member States and inter- 
national organizations as reflected in the Report of the Conference, when a practical programme for 
the implementation of UNISIST is being prepared and the necessary budgetary appropriations are being 
decided; 

10* Invites the Director-General of Unesco to make adequate budgetary provision to enable Unesco to play 
its leading rdie in the rapid establishment of the first stages of UNISIST, taking into account the needs 
of developing countries., and providing the necessary funds in the Programme for 1973-1974, as well 
as in the long-term outline plan of the Organization; 

1 3 „ Calls upon other agencies of the family of the United Nations, and on other international organisations, 
both intergovernmental and non-governmental, including those responsible for technical assistance to 
developing countries, to lend their full support and co-operation in the implementation of these reeom = 
mendations; 

12* Requests the Director -General of Unesco to convene periodically an Intergovernmental Conference to 
approve a long-term p.ian for UNISIST, and to review and evaluate the progress of the UNISIST programme; 

13, Recommends that a Steering Committee of IB to 23 members be elected at the General Conference of 
Unesco from among its Member States; this Committee will supervise and, when necessary, revise 
the priorities of the programme within the framework of the long-term plan of action approved by the 
General Conference of Unesco and will report to the Intergovernmental Conference; 

!•«.» Requests the Director-General of Unesco, in consultation with ICSU and other organizations active in 
appropriate fields, to establish an Advisory Committee of scientists, engineers and information spe- 
cialists reflecting the Interests of both producers and users and those responsible for informationtrans - 
fer to assess periodically the ability of the UNISIST programme to meet the needs of, and provide 
services to, the world’s communities of scientists, engineers and technologists, and to report its find- 
ings to the Director-General and to give advice to the Steering Committee as deemed necessary; 

15* Recommends the creation within the Secretariat of Unesco of a unit of scientific and technical informa- 
tion which would act as a permanent secretariat of UNISIST and which would be responsible for the pre- 
paration and implementation of measures concerning the creation and the development of UNISIST; 

16* Recommends that, initially, the above proposed unit take measures for the compatibility of existing and 
future national, regional and international information systems; 

17, Recommends further that at the same time special attention be paid to the complex and urgent needs of 
the developing countries and in particular their need for scientific and technical, as well as economic 
and social information, for training (notably by scholarship programmes), and for provision cf adequate 
infrastructure, and for stimulating or initiating new systems when needed; 

18, Invites the Director-General of Unesco to call the attention of the governments of Member States on the 
general principles of UNISIST and the opportunity of developing a national information policy in support 
of such principles; 

19* Rec ommends to the Director “General of Unesco that he submit proposals based on this resolution to 
the next General Conference of Unesco, 



o IB 

ERIC 




Appendix A 



III. APPENDICES 



APPENDDC A 



AGENDA 



1. Opening of the Conference 
2* Election of the President 
3* Adoption of the Rules of Procedure 
4 # Adoption of the Agenda 

5, Election of the Vice-Presidents and of the Rapporteur of the Conference 
8. The case for a World Science Information System 

6* 1 The need for a World Science Information System 
6. 2 The ' visibility of a World Science Information System 
?. Adoption of the Report and Recommendations 
8, Close of the Conference 





19 



Appendix T 



APPENDDC B 

ADDRESSES AND SPEECHES DELIVERED AT THE INAUGURAL SESSION 



Address lay Mr, Rend Mahan 
Address by Mr, V* Ambartsumian 

Science and information in prospect by Pierre Piganiol 
Scientific information today - A scientist’s view by Mr, H, Brown 




21 



16 



Append be B 



Address by Mr, Ren6 Maheu, 

Director-General of tne United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 

(Unesoo) 



Your Excellencies, 

Mr. President of the International Council of 
Scientific Unions, 

Ladies and Gentlemen, 

First of all I should like to say how happy I am to 
welcome you to this Intergovernmental Conference 
for the Establishment of a World Science Informa- 
tion System - a system already well known, even 
before it has become a practice 1 reality, by its 
acronym, UNISI5T* The fact that so many partici- 
pants, representing some 80 States, are here to- 
day is eloquent testimony to the world =wide interest 
in the international transfer of scientific and tech = 
nical information. 

This should cause no surprise. The common 
heritage of knowledge is one of mankind's major 
resources. It determines the progress of science, 
which has been described as "collective thinking 
based upon collective memory". Every scientist 
should be able to draw on this collective memory. 
Or, in other words, to know what discoveries have 
been made by his colleagues so that he may, per- 
haps, make use of them and carry them further; 
and may also avoid doing over again what has al- 
ready been done elsewhere. That is not the situa- 
tion at present, as you know better than anyone 
else. But that is the goal towards which we are 
bending our efforts. 

The magnitude and complexity of the task, to 
be sure, cannot fail to impress us. For some time 
past, the numbers of research workers and the 
volume of scientific and technical documentation 
have been doubling approximately every fifteen 
years and there seems little likelihood that the 
pace will slow down in the coming years. Rather 
the reverse. 

While the extent of the problem is rapidly grow- 
ing, however, new facilities have, very fortunately, 
come into existence and are also developing very 
quickly, so that, with their help, a technical solu- 
tion to the problem can now be contemplated. Ad- 
vances in computer science are providing us with 
a tool making- it possible to process a considerable 



volume of information and to offer the scientific 
community a whole series of documentation and 
information services. Modern technology is thus 
enabling us to overcome what appears at first 
sight tobe the most formidable of all the obstacles, 
that is, the quantitative difficulty. 

However, there are still many other very 
serious difficulties awaiting practical solutions. 

It is these which call particularly for world =wide 
collaboration. I need only mention the manifold 
preliminary questions relating to the criteria gov= 
erning quality, selection and condensation, the 
choice of languages, terminology, organization 
and administration, costing and financing, the 
training of staff specialized in data -processing 
techniques, the development and adoption of inter- 
national standards and, of course, compatibility 
as between systems. 

‘Ilia list, which is not exhaustive, shows clear- 
ly that even for those countries which are in the best 
posii ; f' recourse to international co-operation 
and i iom nternational division of labour is ab- 

ir 1 vi y ry. 

This is even more true for the countries 
which are not so rich or which have smaller popu- 
lations and, above all, for the underdeveloped 
countries. There is no doubt that economic and 
social progress depends to a large extent on the 
transfer of scientific and technical information. 
The developing countries must therefore be helped 
to equip themselves with an infrastructure which 
will enable them to have access to the sources of 
this information and to make the best possible use 
of it, according to their needs. 

Broadly outlined, these, ladies and gentlemen, 
are the extremely important considerations which 
prompted the holding of the Conference that I have 
the pleasure of opening today. 

The beginning of the venture may be said to 
date back to April 1966, for it was at that time 
that Mr. J»M. HARRISON, then President of the 
International Council of Scientific Unions, aware 
of the obstacles impeding the circulation of science 
information between countries and of the dangers 



ERIC 




Appendix B 



of the situation with regard to the harmonious de- 
velopment of science, suggested that I study with 
his organization the possibility of getting up a 
world science information system. 

Towards the end of the same year, the Gen- 
eral Conference of Unesco, by resolution 2, 222, 
adopted at its fourteenth s egg ion, authorized me 
to undertake "in co-operation with the Internation- 
al Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) ... a critical 
and evaluative study of the needs of scientists for 
information, of the existing facilities and resources 
in the field of science Information, and of the eco- 
nomic aspects of a world -wide system of science 
information networks; and to make preparations 
for the organization of an international conference 
on the communication of science information 11 . 

This study was carried out by the Unesco/ 
ICSU Central Committee, specially set up for the 
purpose in January 1967, to whose Convener, Pro- 
fessor Harrison BROWN, I should like, on this 
occasion, to pay a warm tribute for his perseverance, 
clear-sightedness and constructive attitude in con- 
ducting the Committee's work. The Study Report 
on the feasibility of a World Science Information 
System - to give it its full title - was published last 
year, while an abridged version was issued this 
year to make its findings as widely known as pos - 
sible. The Study showed, as you are aware, that 
it is both possible and necessary to set up a world 
science information system. 

It was on the basis of this finding that the Gen- 
eral Conference of Unesco, at its sixteenth session, 
in 1970, authorized me, by its resolution 2. 141, to 
organize and followup this intergovernmental con- 
ference, jointly with the International Council of 
Scientific Unions, with the aim of establishing 
UNISIST and putting it into operation. 

The time has now come, therefore, to extend 
cordial greetings, and to express my gratitude, to 
Professor V.A. AMBARTSUMIAN, the President 
of the International Council of Scientific Unions, 
who has kindly consented to open this Conference 
with me, The exemplary co-operation between the 
Council and Uneseo in the launching of UNISIST is 
proof of the advantage to be derived by both sides 
from close co-operation between an intergovern- 
mental agency like Unesco and an international non* 
governmental organization like the International 
Council of Scientific Unions. 

So far as Unesco is concerned, the importance 
it attaches to scientific and technical information 
does not mark a new departure. Article I of its 
Constitution stipulates that the Organization shall 
’'maintain, increase and diffuse knowledge - - - by 
encouraging co-operation among the nations in all 
branches of intellectual activity, . . . the exchange 
of publications, ... and other materials of infor- 
mation; £and / by initiating methods of international 
co-operation calculated to give the people of all 
countries access to the printed and published 
materials produced by any of them”. 

In the contribution it plana to make to bringing 



UNISIST into operation, Unesco, true to the mis- 
sion entrusted to it by its founders, intends to dis- 
charge its obligation by means of the new facilities 
furnished by technical progress and necessary for 
meeting the needs of the countless existing and po- 
tential users. 

In considering means and needs, the first 
question that comes to mind is: what can and what 
cannot, what should and what should not be covered 
by UNISIST at present? 

In the initial phase of the study. It was thought 
advisable to limit the scope of the system contem- 
plated to the basic natural sciences, as represented 
by the disciplines with which ICSU and its consti- 
tuent Unions are concerned. This was regarded 
as a necessary precaution to avoid dispersion of 
effort. Subsequently, at the request of the World 
Federation of Engineering Organizations, it was 
decided to add the applied sciences and technology 
from the outset. 

In my view there are many good reasons for 
this decision. First of all, there Is the importance 
of the transfer of technology for the economic pro- 
gress of the developing countries. Next, there is 
the fact that most modern documentation services 
and the majority of the world's abstracting services 
do not distinguish between scientific information 
and technical information. For this reason, I should 
like to ask the Conference to take the term "science 
information" in its widest sense and to recognize 
that science and technology have such close organic 
links between them that it is hard to deal with them 
separately. 

There is , incidentally, no reason why UNISIST 
should not subsequently develop to take in other 
fields of knowledge. It is tempting, for instance, 
to include the social sciences, but it is obvious 
that, before any extension of that sort is contem- 
plated, it will be well to define the specific charac- 
teristics of these sciences and the exact nature of 
their specialists' information requirements. 

The creation of UNISIST offers a wide range 
of possibilities. While the long-term goal is to 
establish, within the various branches of science 
and technology, international networks of independ- 
ent information services both willing and able to 
co-operate, the short-term aims which appear 
desirable are essentially as follows* to improve 
the interconnexions between traditional -type and 
computer-based documentation services, to en= 
hance the efficiency of all these services, to ensure 
systems compatibility, to develop human resources 
as regards both quantity and quality, to enlist the 
support of governments, and to help the developing 
countries to equip themselves with scientific and 
technical information systems. These are urgent 
priorities in establishing the bases for information 
networks to operate on a world-wide scale. 

This is the substance of the recommendations 
contained in the report before you, aiming at the 
establishment of a world science information sys- 
tem. In this connexion, an important preliminary 



Appendix B 



warning should be sounded: the -world system as 
such should be regarded as the outcome of a very 
long-term operation which will initially take the 
form of an international programme for co- 
ordination, The programme will provide a frame- 
work for individual countries' efforts to improve 
and speed up the transfer of scientific information 
and to promote systems compatibility. It will also 
help to pinpoint the main deficiencies in the exist - 
ing situation and to stimulate action to remedy them. 
In this respect j I consider that the attitude of 
the Unesco/ICSU Central Committee in not pro- 
posing the establishment of a body which wouldtake 
in and process scientific information from all over 
the world , and provide services to each individual 
country,has been most commendably realistic and 
pragmatic, II or has the Committee suggested the 
creation of a body with sovereign powers to decide 
on all the measures to be taken. On the contrary, 
it has thought it better to recommend the develop - 
ment, within Unesco, of a service to be respon- 
sible for carrying out an international programme 
designed to harmonize existing activities and to 
act as a catalyst. This seems to me to be both wise 
and methodically sound. 

There are already, let us not forget, a great 
many undertakings in progress, many of them very 
fruitful, whether they involve collaboration between 
institutions and information services, bilateral or 
multilateral agreements between independent or 
State -subsidized institutions, or action by inter- 
national governmental or non-governmental orga- 
nizations, Many of these organizations, incidental- 
ly* are represented here today, and I sincerely 
thank them for coming* UNIS 1ST has no intention 
at all of setting up in competition with activities 
already under way* Its only purpose is to furnish 
a background for them and to take advantage of the 
energies they command to promote general pro- 
gress on all fronts* 

If the proposals submitted to you meet with 
your agreement, UNISIST would probably be launched 
on a relatively modest scale as regards the admin- 
istrative machinery involved, but it should, in my 
view, be done in such a way as to impart a vigorous 
impetus to the efforts already being made indiffer- 
ent parts of the world* 

I should therefore like to take this opportunity 
of asking the competent authorities to point the way 
by providing support to the many institutions con- 
cerned with producing, processing, circulating and 
using scientific and technical information* By 
"competent authorities" Imeannot only the govern- 
mental services responsible for formulating nation- 
al policies as regards documentation, but also 
international governmental and non-governmental 
organizations, as well as the various professional 
groups that produce or use documentation* Insome 
countries, most of the responsibilities involved 
are the exclusive prerogative of a State institution 
or a St at ©-approved body* In others, the transfer 



of information at national level brings in several 
different bodies, with the State Intervening mainly 
to plan, co-ordinate or finance activities in 
various ways and at various levels. 

Whatever the system obtaining, governments 
play an important and often a decisive part. I 
would therefore begin by addressing myself to them, 
to urge th m to lend their support to the develop- 
ment of scientific and technical Information, both 
nationally and internationally* 

In this connexion, it has given me great satis- 
faction to learn of two recent decisions. The French 
Government has informed me of its intention toco- 
Operate in establishing a periodicals registration 
centre with international coverage as part of the 
International Serials Data System, I am convinced 
that the establishment of such centres, which might 
be financed by several countries, is likely to be 
of great assistance in operating an international 
science information system* I have also been in- 
formed by the authorities of another country that 
they intend to finance the clearing house for infor- 
mation on standardized scientific and technological 
terminology. 

Without wishing to anticipate any recommen- 
dations that the Conference may draw up for gov= 
ernmerrts, I should like to emphasize the importance 
of the measures for which they are the responsible 
authorities, both at national level, as regards the 
establishment of networks of libraries and docu- 
mentation and information services, and the train- 
ing of specialists, and at international level, as 
regards the adoption of standards or the conclusion 
of international agreements. 

Next I shall turn to the scientists who carry 
out research and publish the results of their work. 
As creators and users of scientific knowledge, they 
will have to make a critical evaluation and selec- 
tion of publications, to analyse and to condense 
them, all these operations being essential prere- 
quisites for the working of the proposed system. 
Only if the information furnished by the system 
meets their needs will it develop further, while 
its improvement will depend on the critical obser- 
vations they may make. 

Lastly, I would address myself to the infor- 
mation specialists, on whom UNISIST will inevi = 
tably have to rely. I am thinking in particular of 
publishers, librarians, documentalists, special- 
ists in information processing, and all those con- 
cerned with the publication, classification, storage, 
retrieval and dissemination of scientific and tech- 
nical information* Without them, the future world 
science information system would never see the 
light of day, but as things are at present they are 
by no means in a position to meet all foreseeable 
needs* An enormous amount of training will have 
to be supplied. In this respect,, the specialists in 
the developed countries have a major obligation 
towards the rest of the world, which l am confident 
they will not shirk* 



24 



Appendix B 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

May I, before I end, again draw your attention 
to the importance of the conclusions you will 
reach. 

As I have already said, you are asked to con- 
sider the report drawn up by the Unesco/ICSU Cen- 
tral Committee, and more particularly, the 22 
recommendations it contains, with a view to ad- 
vising Unesco on the means whereby Member States 
may play an active part in carrying out the pro - 
posed programme. 

In view of the limited time at your disposal, it 
seems hardly possible for you to go into the details 
of the technical recommendations before you. But 
should you feel that you can approve the general 
conception of UNISIST and subscribe to its prin- 
ciples, I should very much like you, on the basis 
of a thorough study of recommendation 22, to put 
forward a resolution for the General Conference 



of Bneseoproposingthat machinery be set up with- 
in the Organization for the purpose of carrying out 
the UNISIST programme. 

In that case, your deliberations on the first 
21 recommendations, which will no doubt be re- 
corded in your report, would provide me with guide- 
lines both for the implementation of this programme 
and for the preparation of Unesco's Draft Pro- 
gramme and Budget for 1973-1974 and the Medium- 
Term Outline Plan for 1973-1978. 

In any case, I should like to thank you in ad- 
vance for your help in launching a programme 
which is marked alike by ambition and by caution; 
and to wish you all success in your work, A great 
scheme, whose approach and methods have been 
carefully studied, is submitted for your considera- 
tion. It is your deliberations which will determine 
whether it can be put into effect in the near future, 
for the advancement of science and the welfare 
of mankind. 



Appendix B 



Address by Mr. V, Ambartsumian, 
President, of the International Council 
of Scientific Unions 



SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION AND 
THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL 
OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS 

Science and scientific information are inseparable. 
The endless process of scientific discovery about 
the world consists in obtaining* new information and 
new knowledge about nature and society with the aim 
of obtaining a deeper understanding and trans- 
forming reality for the benefit of mankind, 

Using* information which has already been ob- 
tained is only possible if there is a system of sci = 
entitle communication. The more effectively such 
a system functions, the more rapidly does science 
develop and the more can people profit from its 
achievements. Constant improvement of the sys = 
tem of scientific communication, therefore, must 
be one of the most important tasks both for research 
workers and for those responsible for organizing 
scientific work. 

Of course, scientific information is not only 
necessary for the development of science itself. It 
is nowadays an important prerequisite for the further 
development of any branch of human activity, Sci- 
ence occupies a special position simply because it 
uses already existing scientific and technological 
information in order to obtain new scientific infor = 
mat ion of value. 

By its very nature, science is fundamentally 
international. The laws of science are in like 
measure proved and applied in the relevant branches 
of science in all countries of the world irrespective 
of their social and economic structure. Research 
workers and groups of scientists from various coun- 
tries also make their contribution to science. This 
means that science, for its own development, needs 
a broadly based and rapid exchange of scientific in- 
formation between scientists of various countries, 
together with ever-eloser international co-operation 
in this sphere. 

The need to perfect a system of scientific com- 
munication, which has been felt ever since science 
existed, began to make itself apparent even more 
markedly after the beginning of the present scientific 







and technological revolution. This is due partly to 
the enormous quantity of scientific information 
amassed through scientific research (each year, 
no less than 1 1/2 to 2 million articles on science 
and technology are published in journals alone} and 
partly to the ever greater economic and social im- 
portance attaching to the fastest possible introduc- 
tion of scientific discoveries into industry , Science 
has changed from being the personal occupation of 
a small group of workers to a broad sphere of human 
activity, organized and directed like the major 
branches of the economy. To increase the effec- 
tiveness of the scientific information system, there- 
fore, is to provide a great potential for increasing 
the productivity of research workers and an impor- 
tant means for speeding up the process of bringing 
the achievements of science to the consumer. 

A system of scientific communication and its 
constituent part, a system of scientific information, 
are, like science itself, international by their very 
nature. Research workers address their papers, 
articles and books to all other research workers 
in the world who are engaged on the same or similar 
problems . And they themselves obtain fresh scien- 
tific information from the reports of their colleagues 
working both In their own country and abroad. This 
international exchange of scientific Information is 
carried on by means of publications and literature. 
Over the last 25 to 30 years, however, scientific 
literature has played its communicating rble in a 
less and less satisfactory way, forcing research 
workers to spend an ever- greater part of their 
working time not in creative activity, not even in 
reading publications of interest to them, but in 
searching them out from the sea of world scientific 
literature. As a result, in all countries of the 
world, special bodies and national systems for 
scientific and technological information are being 
established with the aim of assisting research 
workers in tracing the information they need, 
More and more material resources are being 
devoted to the development of such bodies. But 
because national scientific information systems 
are not connected with each other, they are. 




Appendix R 



to an ever-increasing extent, unjustifiably dupli- 
cating each other's work and are becoming less and 
less effective in meeting the demands of contem- 
porary science. What is accordingly called for is 
the establishment of a world-wide system of scien- 
tific information consisting of national and regional 
information systems compatible and actively co- 
operating with each other. 

The first steps towards the establishment of a 
world-wide system of scientific information were 
taken as far back as the 18508. In 1858, the Royal 
Society of Great Britain began to publish an inter- 
national bibliography of books and articles on mathe- 
matics and the natural sciences which was published 
up to 1900 under the title "Catalogue of scientific 
papers" and from 1 901 to 1 914 under the title "inter- 
national Catalogue of Scientific Literature", Plans 
for the organization of a current bibliography of 
chemical literature were discussed in 1893 at a 
congress of chemists in Chicago and also at the 
first International Applied Chemistry Congress, 
held a year later in Brussels, In 1896, on the 
initiative of the International Zoological Congress 
in Zurich, a central bibliographical bureau was 
established, the Concilium Bibliographieum, This 
bureau began to issue a current bibliography of 
publications on zoology m the form of a journal and 
also on bibliographical cards indexed according to 
the Dewey Decimal classification. In 1893, the 
Belgian scientists, H, Lafontaine and P. Qtlet, 
founded the International Bureau of Sociological 
Bibliography in Brussels and, two years later, the 
International Institute of Bibliography, It was their 
intention that this institute should become the world 
centre for the collection, classification and dis- 
semination of bibliographical information. The 
executive body of this institute, the International 
Bibliographic Bureau, began to issue a universal 
bibliography on cards, known as the "Universal 
bibliographic directory". 

At the end of the First World War, when inter- 
national scientific links began to return to normal 
once again, the problem of perfecting a world sys- 
tem of scientific information once more became the 
focus of attention of the world scientific community , 
A proposal was put forward in 191 9 at the very first 
assembly of the International Research Council « 
the immediate ancestor of the International Council 
of Scientific Unions (ICSU) - to establish an inter- 
national council for bibliography and documentation. 
Although this proposal was not accepted at the time , 
the discussion regarding it certainly had a great in- 
fluence on the development of international co- 
operation in the field of scientific information. In 
1924, the International Institute of Bibliography was 
reorganized and changed from an association of 
specialists to a federation of national scientific in- 
formation bodies. This organization was later 
(1931) renamed the International Institute for Docu- 
mentation and in 1937 it became the International 
Federation for Documentation, 

In 1931, the International Research Council 



became the International Council of Scientific 
Unions, comprising the following international 
unions - the International Astronomical Union 
(founded in 1919), the International Unions of 
Goedesy and Geophysics (1919), Pure and Applied 
Chemistry (1919), Radio Science (1919), Pure and 
Applied Physics (1922), Biological Sciences (1 923) 
and the International Geographical Union (1923). 
The principal aims of these unions were: 

to facilitate discussions between sc a atists of vari- 
ous countries and find means of publishing the 
results of such discussions; 
to promote international congresses and measures 
to foster scientific co-operation bet ween various 
countries; 

to help in the preparation and publication of biblio- 
graphies and encourage the free exchange of 
scientific information, etc. 

Even at its foundation, ICSU was thus already giving 
serious consideration to the problems of improving 
the international exchange of scientific information. 

The Second World War interrupted ICSU f s ac- 
tivities for six years, but when the war was over 
the demand for the development of international co- 
operation in the field of scientific information be- 
gan to make itself felt even more acutely. The 
reason for this was that the war years coincided 
with the beginning of the scientific and technical 
revolution, when science became one of the deter- 
mining factors in the economic, politic it and cul- 
tural development of mankind. Furthermore, the 
end of the war saw the beginning of the world- wide 
historical process of national liberation from co*= 
lonial oppression. Following the victories of na- 
tional liberation movements in a number of Asian 
and African countries, dozens of new States ap- 
peared on the map and were faced, in all its stark- 
ness, with the problem of developing their national 
economy and culture in the fastest possible way. 
Solution of this problem in - historically speaking - 
record time is only on the basis of widespread use 
of the scientific and technical experience of more 
developed countries and skilful application of this 
experience in the conditions prevailing in each in- 
dividual developing country. As a result, these 
countries increasingly began to feel the need to 
train national scientists and specialists as rapidly 
as possible. 

In 1949, Unesco's Department of Exact and 
Natural Sciences headed at the time by Profes- 
sor F, Auger, called an International Conference 
on Science Abstracting in Paris, This conference 
declared itself in favour of organizing the publica- 
tion of a single international abstracting journal 
for physics. Representatives of nine out of the 
eleven Member States of ICSU took part in this 
conference. After the conference, ICSU established 
Its Joint Commission for Physics Abstracting which 
was dissolved two years later, and in its place, in 
1952, the ICSU Abstracting Board was established 
which, as is well known, has operated successfully 



Appendix B 



up to the present time and has played an important 
part in working out the proposals now being dis- 
eussecl for a World Science Information System, 
The Abstracting Board dealt at first only with ab- 
stracting journals relating to physic s, but later on 
extended its coverage to journals in the fields of 
chemistry, biology, geology and astronomy. 

In the middle sixties, ICSU took two important 
steps in regard to scientific information. In 1964, 
it established the Working Group on Tables of Critic 
cal Values, At the 11th General Assembly of ICSU 
(Bombay, January 1 966) this Working Group sub- 
mitted a resolution calling for establishment of a 
Committee on Data for Science and Technology on 
which the representatives of several international 
scientific unions would sit as well as one represen- 
tative from each ICSU Member State, This pro- 
posal was accepted, Atthe same General Assembly, 
it was decided to set up a special committee to study 
the feasibility of establishing a World Science Infor- 
mation System baaed on ensuring compatibility be- 
tween systems , both existing and in the process of 
establishment, for the collection, processing, stor- 
age and retrieval of scientific information. It was 
planned that the special committee should carry out 
its work in close contact with Uneseo and other inter- 
national organisations and also with the active par- 
ticipation of leading specialists in the field of scien- 
tific information. 

Uneseo was meanwhile engaged on a similar 
programme independently of ICSU and planned to 
hold an international conference in 1 967 on problems 
involved in the transfer of scientific and technical 
information. One of the tasks of this conference 
was to have been the "establishment of a mechanism 
which would provide for the improvement of inter- 
national exchange of scientific and technical docu- 
mentation". The Director-General of Uneseo was 
authorized to set up a special scientific committee 
to prepare for this conference. However, the con- 
siderable resemblance between the ICSU and Uneseo 
programmes, and also the close co-operation ex- 
isting between these organizations, made It possible 
for them to establish in 1967 the Joint ICSU- Uneseo 
Central Committee to study the feasibility of a World 
Science Information System. This committee has 
carried out an immense amount of organizational, 
scientific and methodological work in which hun- 
dreds of eminent scientists, engineers and scien- 
tific information specialists from various countries 
have played an active part. The results of this 
five-year work are presented in summary form in 
the "Study Report on the Feasibility of a World 
Science Information System" which you have in front 
of you. In this "Study Report", the conclusion is 
reached that the establishment of a World Science 
Information System is both possible and necessary. 
The report also indicates the general outlines of 
such a system and the principal ways by which it 
might be established. You have to decide to what 
extent these conclusions and recommendations are 
well -founded and rational. 




So ICSU has established two bodies, the Ab- 
stracting Board and the Committee on Data for 
Science and Technology, which deal exclusively 
with scientific information questions. However, 
this is far from being the only contribution which 
ICSU has made to solving current problems in this 
connexion. All scientific member unions of ICSU 
without exception are dealing to a greater or lesser 
extent with questions relating to improvement of 
the system for preparing and disseminating scien- 
tific information. For example, many scientific 
unions have set up special bodies for standardiza- 
tion of the symbols, units of measurement and ter- 
minology used in their respective sciences. The 
International Union of Biological Sciences has es- 
tablished permanent commissions for botanical and 
zoological nomenclature, and the International 
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the Inter- 
national Union of Biochemistry have established a 
commission on biochemical nomenclature . As well 
as this, a number of scientific member unions of 
ICSU are doing a great amount of important work 
on preparing tables of scientific data, maps and 
atlases. Thus, the International Union of Crystal- 
lography has established a commission on crystal - 
lographie data, the International Union of Geological 
Sciences a committee for the storage, analysis and 
retrieval of geological data, and also a commission 
for a geological map of the world, the International 
Geographical Union a standing committee on na- 
tional and regional atlases and the International 
Astronomical Union a commission for tracking the 
movements of the planets, a committee on satel- 
lites and so on. 

The scientific member unions of ICSU regularly 
hold congresses, conferences, symposia and other 
kinds of meetings by which they further the inter- 
national dissemination of scientific information 
through unofficial but, as special research has 
shown, singularly effective channels. In addition, 
most scientific unions make wide use of the formal 
channels of scientific communication. They pub- 
lish scientific journals and directories, the pro- 
ceedings of scientific meetings and other publica- 
tions. Furthermore, some scientific unions have 
special commissions dealing with publications, 
documentation or bibliographical work. For ex- 
ample, the International Union of Crystallography 
has a Journals Commission, the International 
Union of the History and Philosophy of Science 
publications and bibliography commissions, the 
International Union of Physiological. Sciences a 
publications commission, etc. 

In this way, scientific information work in its 
various aspects is a major ingredient of the ac- 
tivity of all scientific member unions of ICSU and 
is part of their very being. The world scientific 
community and, hence, ICSU, is deeply interested 
in improving the existing system of scientific com- 
munication. It is for this very reason that ICSU 
and Uneseo together have launched the project for 
establishing a World Science Information System. 




Appendix B 



Many very varied difficulties resulting from 
economic, historical and other circumstances will 
be met with as we move forward towards this sys- 
tem. But we should not fear these difficulties and 
should resolutely tread our intended path if we wish 
to make it possible for the achievements of science, 

combined with the growing social transformation of 
society, to create worthy conditions of life for man- 
kind, free from the threat of hunger and wars. 

In establishing the World Science Information 
System we should not base ourselves solely, or even 
mainly, on the interests of the most developed 
countries of the world* The economic and cultural 
backwardness of most Asian, African and Latin 
American countries is a heavy burden on the con* 
science of all nations of the world. The historical 
duty of all countries of the world is to assist devel- 
oping countries by all available means to eliminate 
in the shortest possible time the gap which separates 
them - in economics, science and culture * from 
the most developed countries. There is even less 
reason for complacency over the still evident trend 
towards a further widening of the gulf between rich 
and poor countries. All international projects, 
therefore, carried out under the auspices of such 
organisations as IC5U, Unesco, UNIDO, WHO, 
etc, , including the programme for establishment 
of a World Science Information System, must ac- 
cord a central place to comprehensive action to 
promote the economic and cultural progress of 
developing countries. This means that the World 
Science Information System must also cover in- 
dustry, agriculture, building, medicine and other 
sectors of paramount importance to developing 
countries . 

The representatives of international scientific 
unions taking part in this conference as specialists 
and experts , and also the representatives of national 
academies of sciences, will, I think, have many valu- 
able observations and suggestions to make on the or- 
ganization of UNISIST, For my part, I would par- 
ticularly like to emphasize the ever-growing need 
for ready-made digests and reviews of scientific 



information concerning separate branches, dis- 
ciplines and interdisciplinary problems = In the 
Study Report submitted to us by the UNI3IST Central 
Committee, it is stated that these reviews, which 
evaluate the primary data, cannot avoid being to a 
certain extent subjective. It is therefore all the 
more necessary that such reviews should appear 
regularly in various countries and that the reader 
should have an evaluation of one and the same data 
from scientists of various nations, various scien- 
tific schools and having various approaches to the 
problems * 

One can name only a small number of sustained 
attempts in this direction. Perhaps the most suc- 
cessful is the journal "Achievements of the Physical 
Sciences", published in the Soviet Union, and the 
annual reviews of various sciences published in the 
United States of America. It is obviously necessary, 
however, to find the most suitable form for pub- 
lishing such reviews, to spread this work sys- 
tematically among scientists of various countries, 
and, not least, to devote more money to it. 

The great progress which has been made over 
the last decade in the field of computer techniques 
and reprography gives us reason to hope that many 
difficult problems concerning the gathering, pro- 
cessing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of 
scientific information win be successfully solved 
in the very near future by recourse to the most 
recent technological methods. But maiiy such prob- 
lems will remain which, for the time being, no 
machines, not even the most sophisticated, can 
solve. These problems must be solved by people, 
scientists and specialists. It is therefore no good 
just sitting waiting for the time when computers 
and other technical equipment wlLX make it possible 
to establish an "information heaven" on t ,rth. 

Wo must strive resolutely further to improve 
the methods and machinery for scientific informa- 
tion work, particularly in regard to the manner in 
which it is organized on an international scale. 
The International Council of Scientific Unions will 
do its utmost to co-operate m this task. 




24 



29 



if* 



Appendix B 



Science and information in prospect 
by Pierre Piganiol 



The art of prospective studies is a difficult one. It 
is not enough to extrapolate trends and foresee the 
consequences of present tendencies. It is neces- 
sary to discover facts that T, contain the seeds of 
the future" and to imagine what their fruits will be. 
In other words, if the present situation may be re 
presented as a "dynamic system" with its own 
characteristic elements and between them, inter- 
actions, then the probable future states of this sys- 
tem must certainly be studied by extrapolating its 
dynamics, but the essential thing is to foresee its 
structural mutations. The approach in prospective 
studies is to try to imagine desirable futures and 
ways of allowing them to come into being. 

Consequently, a prospective study cannot be 
the work of one man alone* it calls for surveys and 
comparisons between the points of view of special- 
ists in many fields. This explains the limitations 
of the present account, which is much indebted to 
very well-informed outside opinion gathered, how- 
ever, from far too few sources* It has therefore 
but the modest ambition of lighting the way for sub- 
sequent discussions, 

I- LOOKING AHEAD AT THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF SCIENCE 

The industrially developed countries have been 
steadily increasing their efforts to create new know- 
ledge and to apply that knowledge. Research and 
development (R&D) expenditure is more or less 
everywhere moving towards the mark of 3% of the 
gross national product* Fundamental research, 
which is aimed at simply adding to the store of 
knowledge, is also growing in absolute terms and, 
depending on the country, accounts for between 
8 and 2 5% of the overall res ear eh effort. By 
simple extrapolation, one arrives at the conclusion 
that the total fundamental research effort may in- 
crease by between 30 and 50% in the next ten 
years, which will give rise to a corresponding in- 
crease in the volume of publications. In reality, 
this figure is an underestimate. It does not take 
into account the numerous countries, at present at 



an early stage of industrialization, which will en- 
ter the arena nor the pressure generated by the 
need for new knowledge necessary to control the 
technical developments occasioned by a population 
which has become denser, on account of urbaniza- 
tion, and more active, as a result of a higher 
standard of living. It also ignores the fact that the 
tools of research, which are numerous, accurate 
and often automated, make work speedier and more 
effective. This can be measured moreover by the 
increased cost of research workers, which in 
many fields has gone up by 50% in ten years. For 
all of these reasons, the graph of the fundamental 
research effort does not seem likely to level out 
for several decades. It will certainly happen one 
day, but it is becoming doubtful whether the limit 
will be higher than a level expressed by a fairly 
large multiple (approximately ten) of the present 
level. Without the proper methods, the "inventory 
management " of accummulated knowledge, already 
difficult today, will become well nigh impossible. 

To these quantitative considerations a few re- 
marks may be added concerning the content and 
strategy of research. Firstly, with the progress 
of knowledge, each field of science is becoming 
more and more dependent on the others; the term 
"multidisciplinary" often in fact refers only to the 
simple reality of the increasingly close interde- 
pendence of the various disciplines. Secondly, the 
structure of knowledge no longer lends itself to a 
linear representation (Auguste Comte’s classifica- 
tion) nor even to representation as a "tree". To 
give a formal representation of this structure now 
requires the employment of the notions of networks, 
grids and systems. We shall see further on that 
this trend has considerable implications for scien- 
tific and technical information. For the moment 
let us note simply that the strategy spontaneously 
adopted by scientists is based upon an intuitive 
vision of the structure of science which, sound as 
it maybe, may well prove inadequate as that struc- 
ture becomes more complex. The very structure 
of scientific information should help to give a 
clearer picture of the complex of Imowledge so 



O 30 

ERIC 




Appendix B 



that an optima] strategy can be deduced from it. 
Scientific information cannot be limited to a passive 
r51e: its rdle as a "heuristic aid M cannot but de- 
velop with time. 

From these remarks we shall subsequently de- 
duce the probable development of the r61es of docu- 
mentation and scientific and technical information. 
But it would be prudent to begin by putting the fore- 
going ideas to the test of actual circumstances by 
asking in what way scientists today experience the 
need for information. Surveys of this kind have re- 
cently been undertaken by scientific documentation 
services to enable them to satisfy their clients f 
requirements as well as possible. The results are 
often staggering* atypical reply, scarcely exaggera- 
ted, would be: "I don't need any information; in my 
advanced field I am in constant and direct relation- 
ship with my colleagues working in the same field; 

I am familiar with their projects and they commu- 
nicate their results to me long before they are 
officially published. , , and all the rest is of no 
importance 11 ! 

Faced with such an attitude one might wonder 
why these advanced research workers feel the need 
to publish! And yet there is a certain amount of 
truth to what they say. The research worker in 
advanced fields is very sensitive to the time factor. 

If his strategy were dependent on knowledge gleaned 
irorn published texts alone* he could be somewhere 
in the region of two years behind in relation to cur** 
rent research. And he would be much more behind 
if he had to go through the normal machinery of 
documentation in order to get hold of these texts. 
The first point to remember then is that it is neces- 
sary for the mechanisms of documentation to res- 
pond to demand very quickly, But the negative atti- 
tude of research workers towards documentation 
has a second origin which may be represented dia- 
gr a malic ally as follows: 

Research work of team A 
i 

^Results obtained by team A 

r 

Knowledge content of A 

1 

Publications of A 

i 

Documentation relating to the publications of A 

Putting into the form of scientific and 

technical information 

Transfer to team B 

Team B, in order to get at the knowledge 
acquired by A, must follow the sequence in reverse 
order, tracing the publications by means of the 
image created of them by the information service 
and then, by means of the publications, rediscover- 
ing the complete thoughts of A, If it is obvious that 
information is not equivalent to knowledge, it is 
also true that knowledge cannot be entirely reduced 




to publications. A therefore desires to meet B* 
The print to remember is that there is here a 
considerable problem that future documentation 
must resolve* 

We shall now point out the errors that the 
advanced researcher commits in adopting the atti- 
tude that we have - in a somewhat over-simplified 
form to facilitate comprehension - indicated above. 

He claims first of all that he can get directly 
in touch with his colleagues. This presupposes 
that there are few of them and that the cost of 
journeys to congresses or to make personal con- 
tacts is no object. This might be so for example 
in the case of very original experiments in the field 
of high energy physics but seems to me to be ex- 
cluded in the case of new reactions of organo- 
metallic compounds. 

This attitude also presupposes that the value 
of results obtained in the past is almost negligible. 
Such may be the case in certain fields in which 
work has only recently begun, but is otherwise 
rarely the case. Here is an example from my own 
recent experience. Certain recent and interesting 
findings in modern quantum physics suggest tome 
a hypothesis on how acetylenic compounds arise 
in plants. It is quite true that I have to carry out 
experiments which no amount of documentation 
will help me to set up, but it would be wrong to 
think that I can get by without drawing up a table 
of those natural acetylenic compounds which have 
already been catalogued or that I can ignore the 
hypotheses that have been advanced to explain their 
formation. The formulae of hundreds of compounds 
have been established by research workers, many 
of them now no more ! 

In short, although there may be some justifi- 
cation for the attitude that we a~oe complaining of, 
we still have no qualms in saying that it also stems 
from a certain snobbish scorn for the labours of 
those who have built up the files of data which 
serve as a basis for laboratory work, and that this 
same snobbery also overlooks the importance of 
synoptical works which could not exist without 
subtantial documentation. 

If we have dwelt at some length on the some- 
what exaggerated attitude of certain scientists, it 
is firstly because it constitutes an obstacle to pro- 
gress in the field of documentation, but mainly 
because it reveals the lines along which scientific 
information should develop. We believe in fact 
that this attitude will not survive the test of cir- 
cumstances, but we must make sure not to let it 
appear to have had some shred of justification by 
failing to resolve the problems to which it owes 
its existence, 

II. LOOKING AHEAD IN APPLIED RESEARCH 

Man digs down into the depths of his knowledge in 
order to solve the problems posed by his needs. 

It would be most surprising if the pattern of his 
needs coincided with the system of classification 



31 



Appendix B 



of the branches of knowledge. If would evenbe gur = 
prising if a problem of a practical nature could be 
solved with the help of only one single field of know- 
ledge, one single discipline. 

Applied research is therefore by nature multi- 
disciplinary. Furthermore, it is of no consequence 
to it whether the knowledge in question is new or 
©Id* We are dealing here with a sector in which 
information comes into its Own, and it is not sur- 
prising to learn that here at least the need for do- 
cumentation has never been denied. Let us examine 
two of its specific characteristics. 

The first relates to the multidisciplinary na- 
ture of information. It also concerns fundamental 
science and a part of what follows could have been 
stated in the previous paragraph. Communication 
channels use specialized languages. The complex- 
ity of modern knowledge makes these codes very 
accurate and very selective but scarcely capable of 
being used by those who are not familiar with them, 

To use an image from radio engineering, communi- 
cation channels have become considerably more num=- 
erous, but each of them is operating on a greatly re- 
duced wave -band. Translations of codes have become 
necessary, and a system of science inform at ion which 
does not take account of this fact is doomed to failure. 

My second remark concerns the exhaustive 
nature of information. Applied research is linked 
to a market, and it is often necessary* if only in 
connexion with patent rights, to be familiar with 
everything that has been written in a field, even if 
it has not been used, and even, in extreme cases* if 
there were mistakes in the article. Documentation for 
applied research must therefore also reflect the f, an- 
tecedents’ 1 . Whatever the problem, documentary re - 
search in this field is very broad and multidisciplinary, 
perfectly up to date and exhaustively retrospective. 

Pure scientists often consider that documenta- 
tion is essentially meant to serve applied research. 

We have stated why this idea appears to us to have 
little foundation] the future will demonstrate how 
fragile it is. 

Conversely* research workers in industrial 
laboratories sometimes* albeit more and more 
rarely* fall into the error of believing that the 
most advanced trends in fundamental research can 
be ignored. This is a very big risk to take so 
lightly; the optimization of applied research stra- 
tegy must take into consideration every develop- 
ment in the forefront of knowledge. The choice of 
topics and solutions in fact presupposes an extremely 
thorough analysis of what will one day be possible. 

But this is only one particular aspect of a more 
general problem; irrespective of whether or not 
they are scientists, do those who have certainde- 
eisions to make need scientific and technical infor- 
mation, and if so, which? 

III. THE USERS OF SCffiNTXFIC AND 

TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

We come now to the crux of the problem. Science 
has come to occupy a position of major importance 



in the life of the community today. Science is res- 
ponsible for all those innovations which have com- 
pletely changed our lives* affecting equally our 
life -expectancy, the speed of our vehicles, our 
means of communication and the processing of 
our information. After a period during which every 
new discovery was systematically exploited, since 
each one represented a further step forward* we 
have now amassed such an arsenal that we are 
faced with the necessity of choice* since there 
exist several ways, with different costs or differ- 
ent ,f side -effects", of attaining the same goal, 
DerekS. Price has stressed this fundamental dif- 
ference between science and technology: whereas 
every law of nature has a chance of being dis- 
covered one day, although we may not know when 
nor in what form* not every technique has the 
same chance of coming to light, and our ability to 
control progress depends on society's making the 
right choices. The mechanisms of the development 
of society have not always in the past taken into 
account the side -effects which make themselves 
increasingly felt as our civilizationbecomes more 
densely-populated and more active. We should 
therefore be witnessing a trend towards increased 
use of scientific and technical documentation in 
ali those sectors which are responsible for the 
future and, in particular* in company boardrooms, 
ministries and party headquarters. In fact* the 
opposite is happening, although this phenomenon 
has not been properly studied. It would appear 
that the people in these various positions of res- 
ponsibility consider that they have no need to think 
for themselves on the basis of assimilated infor- 
mation when they can refer to experts or even ad- 
visory committees. This situation is more clear- 
cut in some countries than in others, but there 
are probably very few which are not* to a greater 
or '-asser extent, affected by this crisis. This is 
the result of the excessively rigid division between 
scientific, literary and legal cultures. All the 
signs indicate that this phenomenon will last a 
good ten years more, but the tide cannot help but 
turn, and the increasing number of popular science 
magazines being published in certain countries 
indicates that the process is already under way, 
in spite of the fact that there have been no corres- 
ponding changes in secondary education 

Moreover* our modern societies will try to 
develop more rationally, with a more subtle aware- 
ness of the interactions between the various pro- 
cesses at work within them. Although methods of 
model-making or systems analysis may be sub- 
ject to constraints which, for the time being, pre- 
vent their results having any normative value, we 
can nevertheless be sure that they will have a 
major part to play in guiding and in providing a 
basis for our deliberations- and these methods de- 
mand and absorb a great deal of information* thus 
highlighting its importance. 





32 



Appendix B 



IV, On the basis of the foregoing we may perhaps 
be able to draw a rough outline of future needs 
in the field of scientific and technical informa- 
tion* 



■ * 11 Inventory management" of accumulated know- 
ledge will become an increasingly important 
task for our scientific civilization. 

2. Such management requires a permanent in- 
ventory, followed by a classification which will 
never be definitive; knowledge must be regu- 
le^A ly reclassified as new links are discovered 
between the various fields of science and 
technology* 

This reclassification must be accompanied by 
quality control, to ensure that errors are 
eliminated and only the most reliable data 
retained. 

4. Inventory management must also include the 
distribution of various items from stock to 
various users* The only difference between 
this and a stock of material objects is that 
distribution does not alter the stock in any way. 

5. Identification of users will be an increasingly 
important task* A scientific civilization is 
bound to be inefficient if information does not 
circulate in the correct manner amongst re- 
search workers and between research workers 
and all those who use or transform knowledge 
(teachers, engineers, etc.) 

8# Information should reach scientists in such a 
form that they can assimilate knowledge which 
does not relate to their specific field and are 
helped to approach their research from a new 
angle. 

7, As for other users, it is important that infor- 
mation should reach them in a code they can 
understand, which often means that a sort of 
translation into a suitable language will be 
necessary. 

8. Knowledge is by nature international. Any co- 
herent science information system must over- 
come language barriers* these barriers will 
become an increasing hindrance as more and 
more countries start playing an active rdle in 
the creation of knowledge. 



The above points express two equally funda- 
mental but very different truths. The first is that 
knowledge plays an essential r81e in the modern 
world but can no longer be easily kept under eon- 
trol unless it is continually classified, arranged 
and marshalled in order to facilitate the task of 
those who advance knowledge and those who use it. 
The second is that the natural languages and their 
various ad aptations constitute the medium - takiHg 
many forms - for the communication of knowledge. 

Inventory management" of the stock of knowledge 
is therefore inseparable from familiarity with the 
r61e and nature of the linguistic medium, or rather 
media which convey knowledge. It is remarkable 
that the problems of documentation should be so 
acute at the very time when everyone is discussing 



1 . 



2 . 



the interactions between science, technology and 
society and at a time when there is passionate 
interest in the problem of " languages ". 

V. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH 

In an of the foregoing, we have started off from 
an analysis of the various needs. A second possi- 
ble approach would be to see how the documenta- 
tion and science information system is functioning 
at the present time and to study its difficulties and 
trends. This exercise is complementary to the 
previous one. We shall restrict ourselves to a 
few important points: 

Faced with the growing mass of documents to 
be taken into consideration, scientific docu- 
mentation has turned to the rational use of 
computers. There is every reason to believe 
that this trend will become more and more 
pronounced, involving the increasingly fre - 
quent use of teleprocessing, time -sharing, 
visual display terminals, printer terminals or 
conversational terminals. 

Before computers can be used, a great deal 
of preparatory work must first be carried out; 
steps should be taken to prevent this work being' 
duplicated. 

This preparatory work comprises a great 
variety of features: analysis of the document- 
reduction of the contents to information that 
can be processed; preparation of the software 
needed to be able to converse with the machines 
etc. 

It is based on research which has not reached 
a very advanced stage and which concerns; 
the logic of analysis; the structure of knowledge- 
the rules governing establishment of thesauri,- 
the nature of an optimal documentary language. 

These last two points (3 and 4) will require 
more and more investigation. Research, in parti- 
cular, will help to identify a set of compatible or 
incompatible solutions. — “ 

5. There will be growing awareness that certain 
preliminary operations can be done more 
easily in the original language and that, on the 
other hand, the use of a documentary machine 
language should make it possible, throughout 
the course of processing, to escape from the 
diversity of natural languages, while using 
these languages for communicating with the 
computer* 

Observation of the way in which documentation 
systems function thus tends to bring out two essen- 
tiai points: the use of computers i s spreading; 
absolutely necessary research is developing at an 
increasing speed. 

The use of computers necessitates very sophis- 
ticated and therefore costly software. It would be 
more economical and more efficient to prepare this 
software by means of a co-operative effort, thus 



4. 



Appendix B 



effortlessly ensuring that the corresponding sub- 
systems will be compatible. 

On account of the complexity of the research 
involved - since it is always multidisciplinary - 
and because it always has to take into account the 
structure of the various natural languages, there 
would be every advantage in co-ordinating it at the 
international level. This would be both a guarantee 
of quality in that all aspects of the problem would 
be taken into account and it would be a guarantee 
of speed in a field in which the demands of action 
do not allow a long time to elapse before essential 
findings are made available. 

These, then, are two important aspects of the 
problem; both of them point to the need for concerted 
world action. 

The structure of the documentation network 

It is interesting to study the way in which na- 
tional and international networks are formed. We 
are living at an exciting time in this respect, a 
time of hectic activity and also of anarchy. 

Due to the pressure of needs and the difficul- 
ties of the tasks involved, numerous links are 
being established between documentation centres at 
national level. These are voluntary arrangements 
which seldom aim to distribute tasks more fairly 
and under which everyone seeks to do the maximum 
and to use to the maximum what the others are 
doing. This attitude has many advantages but it 
also has its dangers; courses of action are decided 
at the level of sub -systems without overall co- 
ordination; moreover, the time will inevitably 
come when the economic pros and cons have to he 
weighed, and courses adopted in the first flush of 
enthusiasm for new endeavours will prove to be 
impracticable once work is under way. Indeed, 
people are often lured into extra efforts by the at- 
tractive idea of apparently efficient, advantageous 
co-operation, without stopping to think where the 
resources are to come from. These efforts can- 
not go on for long without the necessary hacking, 
and often end with the bitter taste of failure. In 
short, the frequent lack of a national "centre 11 
where the problem of science information can be 
dealt with in its entirety may be sorely felt. 

In addition, under the pressure of needs, inter- 
national links are being formed between parts of 
the network in one country and those in another. 
This trend is bound to develop: it too brings with 
it many potential advantages, but it is also in 
danger of getting out of hand and leading to dis- 
order, It will be objected that this development, 
the result of a variety of separate initiatives, is 
a natural process like conception. This is to forget 
that every seed is programmed, whereas there is 
no programme inherent in disorder. It will be 
necessary therefore to give an increasing amount 
of thought to the ultimate end of our efforts and 
the adequacy of our means. 



o 




Awareness of the issues 

To the preceding remarks must be added an obser- 
vation: those most affected by the problems of do- 
cumentation have long been aware of the scale of 
the issues at stake. Unfortunately, their legitimate 
demands have often been felt by outsiders to be a 
campaign aimed at perpetuating and consolidating 
their r61e. There has even been talk of a "pres- 
sure group” of donum entail sts. These same d oe li- 
re entails ts are quite rightly convinced that their 
work can facilitate enlightened decision-making 
and consequently help to prevent disastrous mis- 
takes, They are inclined to think that the failure 
to recognize the importance of documentary work 
is but one aspect of a tendency to take the easy way 
out: it is easier to remain ignorant than it is to 
learn. There is a fallacious and dishonest intel- 
lectual comfort to be derived from refusing to 
familiarize oneself with all the facets of a complex 
problem* it is others who have to bear the conse- 
quences of such inexcusable irresponsibility. 

This conviction produces justified protests 
from documentalists, merging with the complaints 
they make concerning their statue, which is often 
subordinate. These two types of complaint should 
not be confused and it should not be thought that 
documentalists are making demands merely for the 
selfish - but legitimate - satisfaction of abetter 
condition in life. 

One simple and essential idea emerges from 
even the most elementary forecast, namely that 
as long as specialists are the only ones who are 
aware of what is at stake, the chances of success 
of rational and effective international action will 
remain slight. 

Conclusion 

It thus transpires that Uneseo has a vital r61e to 
play: from its vantage point it should shed light on 
the problem, catalogue the difficulties, suggest 
solutions and ways in which they might he carried 
out. This is the underlying reason for our coming 
together at this international congress of 1971, and 
this date should mark a decisive turning-point in 
the nature _of the efforts made by men to master 
the content of knowledge and to manage the aecu^ 
mulated stock of knowledge in the material and 
cultural interests of mankind. 

This turning-point in the history of documen- 
tation should be marked by the following new 
features: 

Firstly, there should be a fresh awareness , on 
the part of governments, of the importance of what 
is at stake. We can only rejoice in the fact that 
the most important international cultural organiza- 
tion has taken this problem in hand. This com- 
mitment has a symbolic value, and is almost cer- 
tain to be understood. 

Secondly, there should be established a 
solidarity amongst all those who work in the field 




34 



Appendix B 



of documentation and even between them as a body 
and their clients. This solidarity, if Interpreted 
aright, should make it possible for every line of 
development to be pursued not for its own sake but 
as part of a broader system. 

The complexity of the problem should also be 
recognized, and, as a corollary, over-simplified 
solutions with too much emphasis on centralization, 
or which are too authoritarian, should be rejected* 
a structure should be sought for the system which 
will be effective in terms of work without increase 
ing the number of new constraints, A "good" system 
is one which accepts reality in all its many shapes, 
and does not seek to over-simplify it the better to 
dominate it; between the elements of such a system 
should exist all the necessary relations - and the 



necessary constraints - and none but those. 

Such an approach suggests a great variety of 
new mechanisms; it necessitates research - dis- 
interested, objective and international. It is to be 
hoped that the conference will sketch out a picture 
of these mechanisms and that some of them will 
already at this stage be given a precise form. It 
is obvious that we are only at the beginning of a 
long job; it would have been wise to begin earlier, 
but the climate of opinion was not ripe. In any 
case, it is no use criticizing past sins of commis- 
sion and omission. The essential in a prospective 
study is not to analyse the facts of significance for 
the future, indispensable as that may be; but to 
affirm a lucid determination to give substance to 
choices freely and objectively arrived at. 





35 



Appendix B 



Scientific Information Today - A Scientist's View 
by Harrison Brown 



In view of the fact that the scientist is both the sole 
generator and the major consumer of scientific in- 
formation* it is only proper that we open this meeting 
with a discussion of scientific and technical inf or - 
mation from a scientist's point of view. What is 
it that a working scientist most wants from a scien- 
tific information system? What is it that he most 
needs ? 

The key to the answers to these questions is to 
realise that the scientist is impatient. When he dis- 
covers something he wants to toll the world about it 
immediately. When he has need for a piece of in- 
formation* he usually wants to be provided with it 
on the day before yesterday. Hi does not want to 
wait, and if forced to wait for too long a time he will 
often find some way of getting along without the piece 
of information he desires, sometimes to the detri- 
ment of his work. He cares little about the mecha- 
nism by which he gets his information as long as he 
gets it. He couldn't care less whether the meeh- 
anigiii is governmental or extra -governmental* 
whether it makes money or loses money, whether 
the information is printed* taped* computerized or 
given him by voice over the telephone or at a meeting. 
The important thing to the scientist is that he gets 
the information he needs. When compared with the 
total costs of doing research, costs of providing 
information are small, and the returns on the in- 
vestment can be very large. 

With respect to publication, the scientist views 
the final publication of a piece of research as a 
necessary formality. He has already informed his 
peers of his results many times in meetings, in 
correspondence* at seminars* in lectures and in 
'’Letter s to the Editor" , Having informed those per- 
sons who* in his mind, are the important ones , this 
last step of writing for publication is undertaken as 
a necessary part of the ritual. The artist signs his 
painting, when he has completed it to his own satis- 
faction. In like manner the scientist writes his 
paper and bequeaths it, for what it is worth* to pos- 
terity. In doing so, he recognizes that from a long- 
range point of view this is a necessary aspect of 
scientific communication. He recognizes as well 



that his publication wili permit others to replicate 
his work if they are so minded* to validate his 
findings* and to recognize the significance of his 
contribution. On a philosophic level* he has a 
pretty good idea of where his work fits into the ad- 
vancing front of knowledge* and is gratified when 
others agree and disappointed when they do not. 

However* from the short-range point of view* 
the scientist is usually satisfied that his responsibil- 
ity for communicating new information to his peers 
has already taken place by the time of publication. 
He has already informed the members of his peer 
group, both at home and abroad, by correspondence, 
by reporting at meetings and congresses* and in 
large measure they have already passed judgement. 

With respect to his obtaining needed informa- 
tion, the working scientist's needs fall into three 
broad categories. First* it is necessary for him 
to follow closely developments in his own field of 
research. For the most part he does this in a more 
or less personal way through correspondence, 
seminars* meetings and visits to laboratories. 
Most scientists supplement this by scanning tables 
of contents of journals in their field* by scanning 
appropriate sections of abstract journals and by 
securing and reading the full texts of those articles 
which seem important to them. 

Second, it is often necessary for a scientist to 
obtain information in an area of science quite re- 
moved from his own. In such instances he wants 
to find the information quickly and, equally impor- 
tant* he needs some indication of the reliability of 
the data, for often he is in no position himself to 
judge. In these circumstances he needs every aid 
he can obtain ranging from reliable indices and ab- 
stracts to critical reviews of high quality. 

Third, it is important that the working scien- 
tist follow in a broad way general developments in 
science* for not infrequently findings in one field 
have bearing upon another. Often he follows these 
general developments by reading review articles of 
the more popular types* such as those in the Scien - 
tific American and The New Scientist and by at- 
tending lectures and seminars. 



Appendix B 



Although the working scientist prefers not to 
have to worry about the mechanisms for storing, re- 
trieving! consolidating and evaluating scientific in- 
formation, the complexities of the problem have 
forced him to become involved in such matters in 
his own interests. There are, it seems to me, 
several reasons for this. First is his concern for 
the quality of the information and the reliability of 
the data offered him. Only scientists can maintain 
their discipline (or, if you prefer, their "inter- 
discipline”); others cannot do it for them. This is 
the reason, it seems to me, behind the growing 
popularity of information analysis centres. 

The second reason is in part concerned with 
the scientist’s self-interest, and in part with his 
public responsibility. As we invest sizable funds, 
both public and private, in the development of these 
large information retrieval systems in the sciences, 
we must ensure that they return benefits to science. 
Their design, their logic, their operation must be 
responsive to the needs of scientists, andnottothe 
preconceptions of others who would speak for them. 
Scientists must become involved if we are to build 
on rock, not sand. 

The third reason is that of self-preservation, 
or, if you prefer a less dramatic phrasing, the 
preservation of the orderly growth of scientific 
knowledge* Steadily increasing support of science 
and technology and steadily increasing numbers of 
scientists have resulted in an output of technical 
articles, books, abstracts, review articles and 
compendia of various sorts which has already 
reached avalanche proportions and which threatens 
to become unmanageable. 

Starting in 1665 with the publication of the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London, which is today the oldest surviving scien- 
tific journal, the number of journals reached ten by 
1750. Shortly thereafter growth took place more 
rapidly and by 1830 some 300 periodic scientific 
publications Wir-j listed. Realizing that no scientist 
could possibly ^ead or even scan all that was being 
printed, our German colleagues invented the ab- 
stract journal. Since that time abstract journals 
have proliferated as rapidly as have the regular 
journals. The number grew from 1 in 1830 to 300 
in 1950 at which time the situation with respect to 
abstracts had become as complicated as the situa- 
tion with respect to regular technical articles had 
been in 1830, 

Early in this period of proliferation, the Royal 
Society of London initiated its Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers , at the instigation of one of my predeces- 
sors, Joseph Henry, a comprehensive effort to index 
the international record of scientific publication. 
Later the Royal Society undertook a still more am- 
bitious effort known as The International Catalogue 
of Scientific Literature . National committees in 
17 disciplines of science working under a common 
classification scheme, contributed index records of 
their countries 1 publications. In the years 1901 = 
1913, the International Catalogue published author 







entries to 853,057 papers in the 17 fields, a most 
respectable co-operative accomplishment. Organi- 
zational and fiscal problems caused the Inter- 
national Catalogue to become a casualty of World 
War I. Incidentally, the total entries accumulated 
in the International Catalogue by 1913 amounts to 
three years 1 production of scientific and technical 
work at today’s rate of research activity. 

Immediately after World War II, the British 
again took the initiative by sponsoring The Royal 
Society Scientific Information Conference in 1948. 
Here, the concept of an international information 
council with national participants was advanced by 
Professor A. F. C. Pollard. Ten years later , 1958, 
at the International Conference on Scientific Infor- 
mation, held in Washington, W. Chamberlain of 
New York University and Paul Bouquet of the Institut 
Pasteur independently proposed the establishment 
of international centres or institutes. 

Today the scientific and technical worker is 
confronted by some 35,000 periodic scientific and 
technical journals which publish nearly two million 
articles each year, written by some 750 , 000 authors 
in as many as 50 languages. If the number of scien- 
tists and the publications they produce continue to 
grow and proliferation of publication takes place in 
the future as rapidly as it has during the past 250 
years, in another 50 years the working scientist 
might well have some eight million fellow scientists 
in the world with whom he can try to communicate 
and he might have a pool of 350,000 scientific and 
technical journals from which to make selections 
for his own working library. 

Are such numbers fantastic to contemplate? I 
think not, particularly when we realize that the 
technical problems which require solution in the 
world are enormous. As man has moved further 
and further away from the world of nature from 
which he emerged and into the artificial world of 
industrial-urban civilization, his problems have 
multiplied rather than diminished. He is constantly 
prese ited with problems of increasing magnitude 
which require new knowledge for their solution. As 
the problems multiply in numbers and seriousness , 
and as solutions become more urgent, our needs 
for research and consequently for scientists and 
technically -trained people will continue to increase 
on a world scale. 

These problems have not gone unnoted by scien- 
tists; indeed it was the recognition that communi- 
cation practices in world science were under in- 
creasing stress which led to UNIS1ST. In September 
1961 , a Fugwash Conference was held in the United 
States to discuss possible future areas of interna- 
tional scientific collaboration. Particular stress 
was placed upon those areas of co-operation in 
which scientists from the countries of Eastern 
Europe and those from the West might most effec- 
tively work together. The recommendations which 
emerged were numerous and embraced virtually all 
major areas of scientific activity. Today, almost 
exactly ten years later, it is exciting to note the 




37 



Appendix B 



large proportion of those recommendations which 
have been acted upon. 

One of the recommendations dealt with the 
problem of scientific information. Academician 
M. M. Dubinin from the USSR and Professor Bentley 
Glass from the United States, a chemist and a biol- 
ogist respectively, jointly presented a paper in 
which they viewed with alarm the exponential growth 
of the scientific literature. Stressing the near- 
impossibility for most research institutions to have 
direct access to all of the world ! s scientific litera- 
ture, they recommended the establishment of a 
world centre, a vast storehouse for the world's 
scientific literature , from which the working scien- 
tists could retrieve Information at will. 

In 1963 I had the privilege of introducing this 
subject to the General Assembly of the International 
Council of Scientific Unions in Vienna. In 1964 at 
yet another Pugwash Conference, held in Karlovy - 
Vary, Czechoslovakia, Dubinin and Glass again 
stressed the urgency of the problem and repeated 
their 1961 recommendation. The following year I 
discussed the need for a study of this problem with 
Professor Alexei Matveyev of the USSR, then 
Assistant Director-General of Unesco for Science 
and suggested that Unesco might wish to finance a 
study to be undertaken by ICSU. Later that year, 
at a Pugwash meeting in Addis Ababa, Matveyev 
and 1 agreed in principle that the study should be 
undertaken jointly by ICSU and Unesco, thus bringing 
to bear upon the problem the resources and exper- 
tise of the scientific community and of information 
specialists at both the governmental and non- 
governmental levels. Shortly thereafter at its 
eleventh General Assembly which was held in Bom^ 
bay in 1966, ICSU approved a proposal to study 
jointly with Unesco the feasibility of a world scien = 
tific information system based upon achieving com- 
patibility among existing and prospective pro- 
grammes related to the storage and retrieval of 
scientific information. This proposal was approved 
at the fourteenth General Conference of Unesco, and 
a joint working party was established to develop the 
terms of reference for the proposed study, 

The working party which met in Paris in January 
1967 recognized that the situation with respect to 
the prospects for international co-operation in sci- 
entific information had changed greatly since World 
War II. First, there appeared to be universal 
agreement that the organization of scientific infor- 
mation services solely by academic disciplines is 
anachronistic. The computer-based retrieval sys- 
tems under development or in. operation in large 
supra-disciplinary fields (physics, chemistry, bi- 
ology, medicine) had acquired the capability of 
generating products which can be repackaged in 
response to specified needs of an Interdisciplinary 
nature. The rigidity of the traditional publication 
systems of the past which inhibited imaginative re- 
sponse to contemporary needs was in great contrast 
to the flexibility of mechanized systems ofthe pres- 
ent and the future. 



A second consequence of computer-based solu- 
tions to scientific information processing was per- 
ceived to lie in the area of economics. Economic 
determinism was clearly driving some of the larger 
systems toward the internationalization of their in- 
put practices with resultant cost sharing. Each of 
the supra-disciplinary systems in its own way is 
resp mding to economic pressure to reduce its in- 
put costs through international agreements, 

A third consideration lies in the discipline of 
computer technology. It has been said that the 
computer will play in the twenty-first century a 
pacific rble comparable to that of the Catholic 
Church during the darkest of the Middle Ages, 
Certainly there is evidence that the need to sub- 
scribe to a common systems discipline is making 
academic many of the classic arguments which 
have plagued efforts at co= operation in past years. 

It is doubtless true that these same circum- 
stances contain in themselves the seeds of urgency. 
If we cannot seise the opportunity offered by this 
moment in history to eliminate some of these classic 
barriers to the free flow of scientific information, 
if we allow systems to develop in isolation one from 
another, and countries to persevere in their dif- 
ferences rather than to standardize their practices, 
we shall, be compounding the problem for future 
generations. 

Our study has been completed; our recommen- 
dations are before you, and you will be giving them 
your active consideration over the next few days. 
In placing them before you, I ask your indulgence 
while I make some personal observations. As I 
mentioned earlier, I have now been associated with 
questions of scientific information for some ten 
years, first as a Pugwash participant, next as an 
ICSU officer and lastly as Convener oftheUNISIST 
Central Committee. Yet by training and profession 
I am a chemist, not an information scientist. 

As a scientist, I have been exposed to a liberal 
education over these last ten years. Some of my 
preconceptions have been swept away by the floods 
of evidence; others have been confirmed. I have 
learned much that I had not known before, and re- 
learned a number of things I had forgotten. All in 
all, it has been a chastening educational experience. 

I do not expect in the future to remain as intimately 
involved in the complexities of scientific communi- 
cation as I have been during the past few years and 
I should like to leave with you, as a legacy of good 
counsel, a little of the knowledge and wisdom I be- 
lieve I have gained. 

First, I believe we should lay to rest now and 
for all time the concept of a gigantic monolithic re- 
pository and service station for the totality of the 
world's scientific knowledge. Derived possibly 
from the conception by the late JL G. Wells of a 
"World Brain", tbia concept is reproposed at ir- 
regular intervals as the solution of automatic 
choice. It was present in the first Pugwash con- 
siderations, and it is still being proposed today. 
By the time the UNISI5T study was being planned. 



o 



38 



Appendix B 



however* realism prevailed over fantasy, and in- 
stead of the monolithic institution or even the single 
centrally -managed system, we defined our objective 
as a "flexible network based on the voluntary co= 
operation of existing and future autonomous infor- 
mation services". 

Some reflection should convince anyone why 
this must be so, A single centralised world science 
information centre is today not a feasible political 
concept. No authority exists which could manage 
it. It is not an economically viable concept; the 
magnitude of its costs would terrify its supporters , 
It would constitute a logistic impossibility; the traf- 
fic patterns would be more complex even than those 
of my native metropolis, Los Angeles, And I sus- 
pect* on the basis of what I know of science and 
scientists, that it would probably constitute an in- 
tellectual impossibility. Although scientists under- 
stand each other across national boundaries better 
than do most groups , we are still far removed from 
a "One World" of concepts and classification in the 
universe of science. 

It is obvious, just as science is pluralistic , and 
must reflect the great variety of approaches to new 
knowledge, and as countries have differing economic 
and political backgrounds, so we must live with and 
accommodate to a great variety in the organization 
of information services for science. The truth of 
this came upon me, and, I think, to other members 
of the UNISIST Study Committee, as we reviewed 
the surveys which had been prepared, and heard 
reports from the representatives of the many non- 
governmental organizations which attended our 
meetings. We were astounded at the enormous num = 
her and variety of information services , within dis- 
ciplines, across disciplines* mission-oriented, 
literature -based, data-based, governmental, com- 
mercial which have grown up to serve science. And, 
we were equally surprised by the sheer number of 
profess ns involved in this service, all operating 
under the general rubric , "information scientists" , 
Editors, abstractors, indexers, librarians, sys- 
tems analysts and operators, linguists, documen- 
talists, publishers. The list is a long one. 

You will note, in our report, our concern for 
standardization. I do not wish this to be misinter- 
preted, We recognize the values to be found in 
variety; science has many faces and they must all 
be served. We do not propose, therefore, to 
standardize these services, but to standardize the 
conventions by which the services can interchange 
information. Because we succeeded in standard- 
izing the 26 letters of the Homan alphabet does not 
mean that we must standardize the uses to which 
they are put. And the fact that we wish to standard- 
ize the conventions by which the 26 Homan letters 
can be converted into the 32 Cyrillic letters {and 
vice versa) , does not mean that we propose stan- 
dardizing a science information service using either 
alphabet. 

I should like to observe (and this arises also 
from a consideration of the multiplicity of services 



o 




and of groups operating them) that our group 
quickly learned that the real problems underlying 
the improvement of science information services 
lie in organization and management, not in the 
promotion of technological innovation. This is not 
to say that a research and development frontier for 
information science is unnecessary, or that it has 
not already made significant contributions to the 
improved handling of scientific information. It is 
rather that the accomplishment of fundamental im- 
provements constitutes more a political than a 
technical problem. I use the word "political" here 
in its broadest sense. Were the public policy of 
the countries represented here to be committed to 
the improvement of services along the lines we 
proposed s we should have a start. We then have 
the problem of convincing people, and through them 
the communication institutions they control that the 
organisation and management of their work along 
the lines of increased co-operation will improve 
their service. We have the problem of educating 
the present and the future generations of scientists 
to use the improved services. 

Indeed, it has been said that there are no prob- 
lems but "people" problems, I am reminded that 
toward the end of our study, as we were discussing 
the possible extension of UNISIST to the Social 
Sciences, the distinguished representative of the 
principal non-governmental organisation*, the Inter- 
national Committee for Social Sciences Documen- 
tation* Profess or J, Meyriat, observed that he would 
be pleased to extend the definition of the Social 
Sciences so that they might contain UNISIST* 1 
should not proceed, either, without paying my re- 
spects to our East European colleagues for their 
definition of the area of "informatics" or "infor- 
mation science", with which we have been dealing* 
A report circulated by the representative of the 
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) 
at our last meeting contained these words; "Infor- 
mation science is a discipline belonging to social 
science, which studies the structure and general 
characteristics of scientific information, and also 
general laws governing all scientific communica- 
tion processes". 

We are agreed, then, that communication is 
a social function of science , The information scien- 
tists and technicians are responsible in large 
measure for the operations of the institutions and 
services which are ancillary to the performance of 
this function, and we, as scientists, owe them our 
gratitude. 

However, let me repeat my opening words: 
"The scientist Is both the sole generator and the 
major consumer of science informat ion". It be- 
came abundantly clear during the course of our 
study, as others have found before us, that the 
scientist divorces himself from responsibility for 
the planning and operation of his information ser^ 
vices at his peril. Repeatedly we discussed the 
need for scientist participation to maintain quality 
control of the information from the point of its 



-34 



39 



Appendix B 



generation to its consumption* Analysis, compac- 
tion, evaluation and the synthesis of new findings 
into coherent patterns which reveal the advancing 
frontiers of science; these are the functions which 
only scientists can perform. It is terribly import 
tant that they be performed; the quality of future 
science, and the successful application of science 
for the benefit of society depend on them, 

I should like to end on a note of optimism, I 
found it gratifying, as Convener of UNISIST, that 
scientists from different fields, that engineers and 
information scientists from different countries 
could work together so harmoniously, I was struck 
by the communality of awareness of the characteris- 
tics of the information problem and of our approach 
to it, despite the fact that we represented various 
national interests, and even differing economic 
systems* 

I am optimistic for the future, not because we, 
as an international committee, were able to discuss 
and resolve these issues successfully, and I hope 
productively, but because of more fundamental 
reasons . I have stated elsewhere that the economic 
tides are running in favour of co-operation* No 
one country can afford to go it alone. The task of 
organizing and retrieving the totality of the world *s 
science information is one which must be done, and 
one which must be shared as the only feasible 
approach* 

We have seen how the very large and highly - 
sophisticated systems in chemistry, physics, biol- 
ogy, medicine, and the space sciences are being 
internationalized by the industrialized countries 
which have created them. This is a trend which 



augurs well for the future. As we develop other 
systems i n fields such as agriculture or transpor- 
tation, they are certain to follow the same path, 1 
look forward to the opportunity of testing the utili- 
zation of these systems, heretofore of benefit almost 
exclusively to the industrialized countries, by the 
developing countries, as foreseen by one of our 
recommendations, I look forward also to the co- 
operative international development of systems 
under the sponsorship of the United Nations which 
will be devoted to those types of technical informa- 
tion which are directly applicable to the problems 
of economic development which many of the coun= 
tries assembled here are facing, 

I close in addressing a challenge to this audience 
as statesmen of science . Scientists and information 
scientists have collaborated successfully in pre- 
paring these recommendations for a programme of 
Increased co-operation among nations to the end 
that science may grow and produce further benefits 
for the countries of the world. The fruits of this 
effort are yours to realize . Speaking for the UNISIST 
Committee, we believe it desirable to have an or- 
ganizational focus perhaps within Uneaco to provide 
for coherence of the information networks we have 
In mind. But we believe it even more important 
that each individual country 6 represented here con- 
sider carefully its own policy, and dedicate itself 
to promoting in its own interest the interchange of 
information, of data, and of ac cumulated knowledge 
amongthe scientists of the world* The opportunities 
for constructive action which this meeting presents 
to all nations are enormous, It is my sincere hope 
that we will take advantage of them. 





I 



APPENDDC/APPENDICE/AFBNDlCE/,HOnOJIHEHHE C 

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS/LISTE DES PARTICIPANTS 
LISTA DE PARTICIPANTES/cnHCOK y HAC THHKOB 



Names and titles in the following lists are repro- 
duced as handed in to the Secretariat by the dele- 
gations concerned. Countries are shown in the 
French alphabetical order. 

Les noma et litres qui figurent dans les listes ci- 
aprfes sent reproduits dans la forme oil ils ont 4t4 
communiques au Secretariat par les delegations 
int4ress4es. Les pays sont mentionn4s dans I’ordre 
alphabetique frangais. 



Los nombres y tftulos que figuran en las listas 
siguientes se reproducen en la forma en que las 
delegaciones interesadas los han communicado a 
la Secretarfa. Los pafses se mencionan en el 
orden alfabetico frane4s, 

H 3 BHHHH, yKOSaHHbie D HH^enpHBt, 5 fHHOM 

cniicKe, socnpoHSBO^aTCH b tom BHne, b kskom ohh 
6m/!h npe^cTaBTieHbi CaKpeTapHaTy cooTBeTcTsy- 
ioiqhmh AeneraqHJiMH. CTpaHi! nepeHHCJieHbi b no- 
pH^Ke JpaHUyacKoro a/icpaBUTa. 



1. MEMBER STATES/ETATS MEMBRES 
ESTABOS MIEMBROS/ POCyflAPCTBA =HJIEHbI 



REPUBLIQUE FEDEHALI B’ALLEMAGNE/ 
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY/REPUBLICA 
FEDERAL DB ALEMANIA/ ^EAEPATHBH AH 
PECnyBMKA riPMAHHH 

D el a gates/ D4l4gu4s /Dele gad os/ JeneraTH 

Dr* Egon H Older 
Assistant Ministerial Director 
Federal Ministry of the Interior 
( Head of the Delegation ) 

Dr. Gerhard Kohnen 
Counsellor 

Press and Information Office of the Federal 
Government 

Dr. H.Q. Neuhoff 
Counsellor 

Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation 

Mr. Wolfgang Bergmann 
Director 

Ministry for Education and Culture of the Land 
Bavaria 

Mr* Helmut Bickelhaupt 

r^Yj^iior 

y of Culture of the Land Hessen 

cKJl 



Dr. Martin Cremer 
Director 

Institute for Documentation, Franltfurt 

Professor Dr. Helmut Arntz 
President 

German Society for Documentation, Bonn 

Dr. Heinz Leehmann, 

Counsellor 

Federal Ministry for Education and Science 

ARABffi SAOUDITE / SAUDI ARABIA/ARABIA 
SAUDITA / CAyAOBCKAH APABHH 

Delegates / D614gu6s / Delegados ,^.6^eraTH 

M, Hamad A lklio waiter 

D414gu4 permanent de 1 'Arable saoudite auprfes 
de l'Uneseo 

Dr. Abdul Aziz AI-Fadda 

Deputy Minister of Education for Technical Affa ‘/*s 
Dr. Salem A, Melibary 

Lecturer of Chemistry at Riyadh University 

Mr. Saud Dublan 
Yam am ah High School, 

Riyadh 4 1 




ARGENTINE/ ARGENTINA /APrEHTHH A 



Expert/Experto/SKcnepT 



Delegates/D6ligu6a/Delegados /Jjcjioro tw 

Dr, Werner Burghardt 
Ministro Consejero 
( Head of the Delegation ) 

Dr* Ricardo Gietz 

Chief of Department 

Centre of Scientific Documentation 

Consejo Nacional de Invesligaciones 

Cientffieas y T6cnicas 

AU8TRALEE /AUSTRALIA / ABCTP AJIHH 

Delegateg/P<§16gufeg /pelegadog J JfejieraTM 

Mr, G. Williams 
Assistant Secretary 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 
Research Organization 
(Leader of the Delegation ) 

Mr, A. Ellis 
Principal Librarian 
National Library of Australia 

Observer/Observateur/ObservadQr/ Ha6/[iQ.aaTena 
Mr. A. Horton 

Librarian, University of New South Wales 




Delegates/ D6l6gu6s/Delegados /AejieraTfci 
M* Hans Nowotny 

Directeur de Service au Ministers federal de la 
science et de la recherche 
( Chef de la dfelfegatlon) 

M, Gerhard Silvestri 

Directeur de Bibliothfeque au Minis tfere f federal de 
la science et de la recherche 

M. Friedrich Lang 

Vice -president de 1’ Association autrichienne pour 
la documentation et la bibliographie 

M. Otto Simmler 

Bibliotheca ire d’Etat k la Chancellerie ffedferale 
M. Rudolf Fiedler 

Directeur g§n#ral de la Bibliothfeque nationale Je 
1' Autriche 

Dr Gerhart Bruckmann 
Professeur 

Academic autrichienne de sciences 

M. Eugen WUster 
Professeur d ! University 

M, Alvin Westerhof 

Dfeifegufe permanent auprfes de l’Unesco 



M. Christian Festa 

Chsmbre ffedferale de commerce et d ! Industrie 
BELGIQUE/BE LGIUM/BELGICA/BEJIfcrHH 
Delegates /D416gu4s/Delegados/ JeneraTH 
M. P. Bulieu 

Chef de Cabinet adjoint de M, le ministre 
Th. Leffevre 

Minister# de la politique et de la programmation 

scientifique 

( Chef de la dfelfegation) 

S,Exc* le baron Fapeians de Morchoven 
Dfelfegufe permanent auprfes de I'Unesco 

M* H. Liebaers 

President du Comitfe de Coordination du 
Programme national de Plnformatique et 
Conservateur en chef de la Bibliothfeque royale 

M* M. Coulon 

Directeur d* administration k 1’ organisation des 
fetudes 

M, J, Defay 

Chargfe de recherche aux services de programma- 
tion de la politique scientifique 

M. L. Molitor 

Secretaire d 1 administration aux services du 
Premier Ministre 

Expert /Experto / OKcnepT 

M. J. Duchesne 

Professeur h l’Universitfe de Lifege 

RE PUB J^IQUE SOCIALISTE SOVIETIQUE DE 
BffiLORUSSlE /BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST 
RE PUB LIC /RE PUB LIC A SOCIAL1STA SO VIE TIC A 
DE BlELORRUSIA/BEJIOPyCCKAn COBETCKAH 
COIfHAJIHCTHHECKAH PECnyBJIHKA 

Delegate/ Deifegrufe/Delegado/ JeneraT 

Mr, V, Anitchouk 
Permanent Delegate at Uneseo 

BRESIL/BRAZIL/BRASIL/BPA3HJIHH 

Delegates /Dfelfegufes /Delegados/ JeaeraTbi 

G4n6ral Arthur Mascarenhas Faganha 
President du Conseil national de recherehes 
( Chef de la dfelfegatlon) 

S, Exc, M* Everaldo Dayrell de Lima 
D41fegufe permanent auprfes de PUnesco 
( Sous -chef de la dfelfegation ) 



o 

EBsLC 






42 



Professeur T. Oniga 

Attach^ au service technique d' analyse et du plan 
du M inis t fere dee affaires 6t rang feres 

Mme Celia Ribeiro Zaher 

President© de plnstitut brfesilten de bibliographic 
et de documentation 

Commandant Thomas The dim Lob© 

President de 1 ! Inst it ut national de la propriety 
indue trie lie 

Ministre -Conseiller Joao Frank da Costa 
Chef de la Division de cooperation intellectuelle 
et coordinateur du projet cone or nant la reunion et 
la repartition des informations scientifiques 

M, Francisco de Almeida Biato 

Coordinateur du Secteur industriel de Plnsatut de 
planification feconomieo-sociale du f, Miniplan n 

Adviser /Conseiller /Cons© j era/ Cobothhk 

M, Luiz Felipe de Maced© Soares Guimaraes 
Secritaire d'Ambassade 

Membre de la dfelfegation permanent© auprfes de 
1 ! Unesco 

BULGARIE /BULGARIA / BO JIF APHH 

Delegates/Dfelfegufes/Delegado/lteJieraTLi 

S. Exc, M. le professeur Trai'ko Petkov 
Ministre adjoint de 1 T information et des 
communications 
(Ch ef de la dfe legation) 

M. Luben Raikov 

Directeur de I s lnstitut central d' information 
scientifique et technique 

M. Tzoniou Kornajev 

Specialist© principal au Comitfe d’Elat pour la 
science, le progrfeK technique et les feludes 
supferieures 

Tchavdar Chekerdjnski 
Ingfenieur, chargfe des recherches lur les 
problfemes de l 1 information scientifique 



M. Cyprien Ngandjui 

Ingfenieur ehimiste, chargfe d'fitudes. 

Assistant au Secretariat permanent de la recherche 
scientifique et technique au Minister© du plan et 
de l^menagement du territoire 

CANADA / KAHAUA 



M. G, Sylvestre 

Directeur gfenferal de la Bibliothfeque nationale 
( Chef de la dfelfegatlan) 

S, Exc, M* Renfe Garneau 

Ambassadeur, d61©gu© permanent auprfes de 
I’Unesoo 

( Chef adjoint de la dfelfegafion) 

DrR.S. Rettie 

Directeur exfecutif des relations extdrieures au 
Conseil national de recherches 

Dr J, E. Brown 

Administrateur de la Bibliothfeone scientifique 
nationale 

M. H, Flynn 

Directeur du Service de planification technique ail 
Ministfere des communications 

Dr L* Gauvin 

Directeur de la Commission de recherche scienti- 
fique & la Direction gfenferale de 1'enseignement 
supferieur* Ministfere de 1 ? Education du Qufebec 

Adviser /Conseiller /Consejero/ Cojjgtiuik 

M. J, Woolston 

Centre de recherche pour le dfeveloppement 
international 

CHILI/ CHILE /U HUH 

Delegates /Dfelfegufes/Delegados / jQ^eraTM 

8. Exc, M, Pablo Neruda 

Dfelfegufe permanent auprfes de PUnese© 



BURUNDI/ BYPyHUH 



M. Jorge Huneeus 
D4],4gufe adjoint 



f Ha6/noj;aT©nB 



CHINE /CHINA/ KHTAH 



M. Salvator Ndabambalire 
Premier secretaire d’Ambassade 

CA MEROUN / CAME ROON / CA MERUN / KAMEFYH 
Delegates/Dfelfegufes/DelegadQg/UejieraTfci 



Delegate / Dfel fegufe / Polegado / ,7Io jio raT 

H.E. Mr, Jean T, C t Tchen 

Minister, Deputy Delegate of the Permanent 

Delegation to Unesco 

Secretary/gecrfetaire/Secretario/ CeKperapb 



M, Jean-Albert Ndongo 
Conseiller culturel, 

Paris 



Mr. Wang Chia-yu 

Attache Auxlli&ire of the Permanent Delegation to 
Unesco 




38 



43 



COLOMBIE / COLOMBIA/KO JIYMBI1H 



CUBA/ KYBA 



Dele gates /D#l#gu#g/Delegados/ He jieraTM 



Delegates/D416gu6s/Deleg;adog/ Je/ieraTM 



5* Exc. M. Gabriel Betaneur Mejfa 
Embajador, Dele gad o Permanente de Colombia 

M. Arturo Camacho Ramfrez 
Primer Secretario da la Delegacidn 

Mile Patricia Uribe 

Tercer Secretario de la Delegacidn 



HaSaioaaTe/iH 



Dr* J.R. Der#=Mountaigue 
Experto de la OEA 

Dr. L. Floren Lozano 

Director de la Escuela de Bibliote caries 



REFUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO/ 
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OP THE CONGO/ 
REPUBLICA DEMOCRATICA DEL CONGO/ 
ICEMOKPATHHECKAH PECnYBJIHKA KOHPO 



8, Exc* JVL Juan Marinelio 
Ambassadeur 

D#lCguC permanent auprfes de I'Uneseo 
( Chef do la delegation) 

Ing. Emilio Garcia Capote 

Vice-president de PAead6mio des sciences de 
Cuba ef Birecteur de 1‘Institut de documentation 
et d information seicntifique et technique 

Dr, Ldzaro Perez Tapanes 

Miembro de la Comisidn asesora del Institute de 
Documentacidn e Xnformacidn Cientificot#eniea de 
la Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 

M. Alejandro Rodriguez 

Primer Secretario de la misi6n permanente ante 
la Uneico 



Delegates /D41^gu§g/DeIegados /A^neraTbi 



Delegates/D614gu6g/Delegados/ jejieraTM 

M. TMophile Vuvu 

Attach# de recherche charg# de la politique 
seientifique 

M, Dominique Yansomwe 

D#14gu4 permanent auprfes de l'Unesco 

REFUBLIQUE DE COREE /REPUBLIC OF KOREA/ 
REPUBLICA DE COREA/ PECnyBJIHKA KOP1H 



Mrs. Vibeke Ammundsen 
Director, 

The Danish Techmeal University Library 

Mr, Holger Friis 
Deputy Librarian 

The University Library for Science and Medicine 

REFUBLIQUE DOMINICAINE/ DOMINICAN 
RE PUBLIC/ REPUBLICA DOMINICAN A / 
£OMHHHKAHCKAH PECnyBJIIIKA 



Delegate / D#l#gu4/ Dolegado/ JI&jiqtmt 



D elegates /D#14gu#s / Delegados/ Je-neram 



M* Won-Min Cha 

Coordination des recherches 

Minister e des sciences et de technologie 



COSTA RICA/ KOCTA PHKA 
Delegate/ D#l#gu#/Delegado/ Je jie raT 



S* Exc* le Dr Frederico-Mdximo Smester 
Ambassadeur 

D#l#gu# permanent auprbs de 1'Uneseo 
M. J, L. Meres -Plater o 

Secretaire de la delegation permanente auprfes de 
1'Uneseo 



S. Exc, le Dr Victor H, Roman 
Ambassadeur 

Deidgu# permanent aupres de PUnesc© 



REFUBLIQUE ARABE D'EGYPTE /ARAB 
REPUBLIC OF EGYPT/ REPUBLICA ARABE DE 
EGIPTO/ APABCKAH PECnyBJIHKA EFHnET 



COTE-DUVOmE/IVORY CQAST/COSTA DE 
MARFIL/BEPEr CJOHOBOH KOCTH 

Beiegate^/B#l#gu#s/Oelegado/ flejieraTbi 

M„ Vincent Bogui 

Professeur k la Facult# des sciences k Abidjan 
M. Christ ophe Nogbou 

Inspect our g#n#ral des Services techniques de 
1* information 



DeIegates/Dei#gu#s/Delegados l HeneraTM 

Dr, Mostafa Kama! Helmy 
Ambassador 

Permanent delegate of the Arab Republic of 
Egypt for UnescQ 

Dr, Ahmad Abd -El -Hamid Kabesh 
Director -General, 

National Information and Documentation Centre 
The Academy of Scientific Research and 
Technology 





EL SALVADOR/ CAUBBAHOF 

Observer /Qbservaieur/Qbgarvador/Ha6ji ip .aaTejiB 

8, Exc, M. R. Gallardo 
Ambassadeur 

D£X6gu6 permanent auprfes de I’Uneseo 
EQUATE UR/ECUADOR/ 3KBAHOF 
Delegates / D^ligubs/Belegados / fleaeraTBi 
M, Pence =Benavides 

D4l£gu<§ adjoint de PEquateur auprCe de PUnesco 
M, Gustavo Plaza “Olives 

Tsrcero seoretario de la delegacfon permanente 

E3FAGNE /SPAIN/ESPANA/ HCnAHHH 

Delegates / D41#gu6s / Dele gad os / JejieraTBi 

Dr Antonio Romani Fuy6 

President du Comite national de I'ICSU 

( Chef de la d416gation) 

Dr. Jos0-Ram6n Pirez Alvarez -Qssorio 
Director del Centro de InformaciOn y 
Documentacidn del Patronato ’ 1 Juan de la 
Cierva n del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones 
Cientificas 

Dr, Jos6 -Francisco de Castro y Calvo 
Secretario de Embajada 

Eneargado de la CooperaeiOn Ticniea con la 
Unesco, del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores 

M. R, Jerez Amador de los Rfos 

Director del Servieio Nacional de Inform aciun 

Cientffiea 

E TATS -UNIS D'AMERIQUE/ UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA/ESTAD03 UNIDOS DE AMERICA/ 

COE t 7T.HI I EH H M E ETTATBI AMEPHKH 

Delegates /Dei6gu6s/Delegados/ He JieraTbj^ 

Dr, William D, McElroy 
Director 

National Science Foundation 
Washington, D,C, 

( Delegation Chairman) 

Mr, Andrew A.Aines 

Office of Science Information Service 
National Science Foundation 
Washington, D, C. 

Dr, Lewis M, Branscomb 
Director 

National Bureau of Standards 
Department of Commerce 
Washington, D. C, 

Dr, Harrison S, Brown 

Foreign Secretary. National Academy of Sciences 
Washington, D. C. 

O 




Dr, Martin M. Cummings 
Director 

National Library of Medicine 
National Institute of Health 

Department of Health, Education &. Welfare 
Mr, Melvin S. Day 

Head, Office of Science Information Service 
National Science Foundation 
Washington, D. C* 

Mr, Pierre R, Graham 

United States Permanent Representative toUnesco 

Mr. Robert A, Ilarte 
Executive Officer 

American Society of Biological Chemists 
Bethesda, Maryland 

Mr, Arnold Kraxnish 

Office of the United States Permanent Representa- 
tive to Unesco 

ETHIOPIE /ETHIOPIA /ETIOPIA/S^HOIIHH 

Delegnte/D^l^gu^/Delegado/HeneraTbi 



Dr, Dawit Degefu 

Associate Dean of Science at the Haile 
Selassie I University 




Delegates /BOlOguis/Delegados / JIe;ieraTi.i 



Miss Elin Tbrnudd, M. Sc. 

Director, Helsinki University of Technology 

Mrs. Ritva Sievanen-Allen 
Librarian 

Miss Anja-Riita Ketokoski 

Deputy Permanent Delegate of Finland 

FRANCE /FRANC1A/ ^PAHRHH 

Delegates /D016gu0g/L)elegados / ffejieraTH 

M. P* Aigrain 

D410gu£ gOnCral a la Recherche scientifique et 
technique 

( Chef de la d4l4gatlon) 

M. P. Poind run 

Inspecteur g4n4ral des BibliotheQues de France 
Adjoint au Directeur des BibliothOques et de la 
lecture publique au Ministfere de l'iducation 
nation ale 

M* M. Delacquis 

Relations Internationales 

Minis tfere de 1* education rationale 

M. I. Renaud 

Membre du Comitb national frangais de 
documentation et president du groupe de 
travail conce nant P organisation du 
Bureau national de documentation 




45 



M. F. Figanlol 

Consultant aupres de l’Unesco 

M m J, d'Olier 

Directeur adjoint du Centre de documentation 

pour les sciences exactes du CNRS 

M. F. Richer 

Adjoint au d£16gu6 gdn^ral h la Recherche 
scientifique et technique pour les relations 
exterieures 

M. R. Jannot 

Charg# de mission li la Delegation general© a la 
Recherche scientifique et teehrr ue 

M* F, Grenier 

Deiegue permanent adjoint de la France 
auprfes de l'Unesco 

GHANA /FAHA 

Delegates /Deiegues/Delegados/^e^eraTM 

Mr, A mrnish add ui Adu 
Senior Assistant Secretary in charge of 
Publication and Scientific Information 
Council for Scientific and Industrial'Research 

Mr. S.E. Quarm 

Ghana’s Permanent Delegate to Unesco 
GRECH /GREECE /GRE CIA / TPEI1HH 



HONGRJE /HUNGARY /HUNGRIA /BEHFFHH 
DelegatQs/D^l^gueg/DeiegadQS /JIcneraTbi 



Mr, Jdnos Duzs 

Director for Scientific Technical Economic 
Information 

State Office of Technical Development 

Mr. Ldszld Mtiller 

Director of Department 

State Office of Technical Development 

Mr, G£za Sebesty^n 
Deputy Director-General 
National Library Sz^chenyi 

Mr. Rezs5 Falotds 
Chief of Division 

Secretariat for International Economic Relations 

Mrs. Zsuzsa Leva! 

Acting Director-General 

Hungarian Central Library and Documentation 
Centre 



INDE/ INDIA /HHftHH 

Delegates/D016gu4g/DelegadQg/ HQjieraTfei 



Mr, S. Parlhasarthi 

Scientist in charge of the Indian National Scientific 
Documentation Centre 



Observer /Obsei-vafeur/Observador/ HaGmojaTejife 
M. Metaxas 

du Bureau de press© a Paris 
GUATEMALA /rBATEMAJIA 



M. Oscar Bertholfn y Gilvez 
D£l£gu# permanent auprfes de l'Unesco 



HAITI/PAHTH 



Delegate / D41^gu4/JDelegado/ Jje MraT 
M. Nyll Calixte 

D#14gation permanent© auprfes de l’Unesco 



HONDURAS/ rOHay PAG 
Delegate/ D61§gu£/ Dele gad o/ Hejierax 



Dr, Va Kamath 

Head, Technical Information Section of Dhabha 
Atomic Research Centre, Bombay 

INDONESrE/TNDONESIA/HH^OHEaHH 



IenerarM 



H.E. Mr, R. Askari 

Ambassador Extraordinar3 f and Minister 
Plenipotentiary 

Permanent Delegate to Unesco 
( Head of the Delegation ) 

Miss W, Partaningr at , M. Sc. 

Director of the National Scientific and Technical 
Documentation Centre, 

Indonesian Institute of Sciences 

Mrs* S, Santhoso 
Cultural Attache 
Indonesian Embassy, Paris 

Mr. A. M- Zaini, M, Sc, 

Personal Assistant to the Permanent Delegate of 
Indonesia to Unesco 



S, Exc. le profess cur C, Deambrosis -Martins 
Ministre pl^nipotentiaire 

Chef de la delegation permanents auprfes de 
l 1 Unesco 



Mr* Daoed Joesoef 

Doctorandus en Sciences 4conomiques 
Lecturer at the Faculty of Economy of the 
University of Indonesia 





46