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W A R N r N G 

This d'icu tiers), r it tains information atfeotine't . 
defense t!s the ■ n v I, within the mean: s 
IK, Sen).ions 7fl:i and 794 of the It S Corte, a. 
Us. I r ats tii.ssii > t or nr elation of ts oont« ; 
reccin' fov an nnauttinn red person t < prohibit"' 

■ tational 
s of Title 
s -tended, 
t to or 
1 bv law. 

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May 1951 


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I. Map Coverage of Turkish International Boundaries. 1 

II. The Inter-American Geodetic Survey... 22 

III. The Israel-Jordan Yarmuk Eeservoir Area Boundary Dispute.23 

IV. Unusual Territorial-Administrative Changes in the Tadzhik SSB. 31 

V. Brief Notices. ^4 

A. An Aerial Survey of Thailand... 34 

B. Soviet Map of a Coastal Area of Norway........ 35 

C. Transportation Map of Turkey. 36 


Following Page 

Map Coverage of Turkish Boundaries (CIA 11736)... 1 

Completed and Projected First- and Second-Order Geodetic 
Triangulation in Mexico and Caribbean Area. 11 

Completed and Projected First-Order Geodetic Triangulation 

in South America. H 

Israel-Jordan: Yarmuk Eeservoir Area Boundary Dispute 

(CIA 11817).. 

Note: This Bulletin has not been coordinated with the intelligence 
organizations of the Departments of State, the Army, the Navy, and ■ 
Air Force. 

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Turkey is of interest today less because of its resources than because 
of its strategic position. In the northwest, Turkey straddles the Bosporus 
and the Dardanelles, the only exit for the Soviet ports on the Black Sea. 

It also occupies a position between Europe and the rich oil fields of Iran, 
Iraq,, and Arabia. In spite of its long coastline on the north, west, and 
south, Turkey has land frontiers with six other countries. In the north¬ 
east, Turkey borders directly upon the USSR; in the northwest it has land 
boundaries in common with Bulgaria and Greece; and Iran, Iraq, and Syria 
lie to the east and south. 

Demarcation maps are not available for all of the boundaries. In some 
cases, several series of maps of uneven quality are required for adequate 
coverage. Some boundaries are completely described by treaties, protocols, 
or agreements but are plotted on old and inaccurate bases. The best medium- 
and large-scale maps of the land boundaries of Turkey have been selected 
and are discussed in this report on the basis of their relative merits. 


The boundary between Turkey and Greece is completely covered by an 
official boundary series at 1:25,000. 

1. Carte de la Frontikre Gre'co-Turque ; 1:25,000; Greek-Turkish 
Delimitation Commission of 1925-26; in French; marginal geographic coordinate 
divisions; CIA Call Wo. 24714. 

This is a 10-sheet monochrome series that shows detail for a strip 
approximately 6 miles wide along the border. No printed index is avail¬ 
able. The Greek-Bulgar boundary is not plotted on the map; it follows the 

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right hank of the Maritza Eiver arid Joins the Greek-Turkish and Bulgar-Turkish 
boundaries Just north of the point 320A on Sheet 1. 


An official boundary series covers the area immediately adjacent to 
the frontier but gives so little supporting data that four other series are 
recommended.. The very old map at 1:200,000, Item 2, which was used in 
writing the convention, agrees with the official 1921 boundary series. A 
aeries at 1:100,000 and two detailed series at 1 : 25,000 are more recent and 
accurate. On the three more recent sets, the boundary alignment differs 
slightly from that on the two older maps, but the alignment in relation to 
terrain, drainage, and population centers is shown consistently on all of 
the maps. 

2. /Austrian General Staff Map, 1:200,000/; Vienna Cartographic Institute 
reprints dated 1915 to 1936; in German; geographic coordinates with longitude 
based on Ferro; AMS Call No. 6 23--30.5-49005-200. 

This Is the official series used for boundary definition in the con¬ 
ventions of 1879, 1913, and 1915. The entire boundary is covered by sheets 
M idia (46° 42°) , Burgaz (45° 42°) , and Adrianopel (44° 42°) . Although the 
maps are cl.ear and detailed, boundary alignment is generalized. An index 
is available at AMS and in Notes on Maps of the Balkans , Directorate of 
Military Survey, War Office, London, 1944, Appendix H. 

The maps agree with the conventions except in two areas. In the area 


between Hills 130 (4l°49‘29"N-26°32'25"E) and 253 (4l°49’26"N-26°22'53"E), 
the convention signed at Sofia, 24 August 1915, states that the boundary 
"turns toward the west in a straight line," whereas on this series it dips 

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slightly to the south in order to pass "south of Hadji-keuy and R. Sukun." 
This part of the boundary is not shown as a due east-west line even on the 
official boundary series, Item 6. On Items 3, 4, and 5, also, the boundary 
is not a due east-west line but is parallel to the northing lines of the 
military grid; this is probably a coincidence. Near the Turkish village 
of Rodoslavci, the boundary alignment on Item 2 agrees fairly well with 
the convention but differs from that on larger-scale maps for a distsuice of 
about 6 kilometers. Some of these discrepancies may be the result of 
changes made by the delimitation commissions. 

3* Bulga-rien 1; 100.000: High Command, /German^ Army General Staff; 
second edition, 1944; in German and Bulgarian, with three separate legends 
for features in Greece, Turkey, and Bulgaria, and a translation of each 
legend into German; marginal geographic coordinate divisions and military 
grid; CIA Call No. 656IO. 

For general use, this is the most convenient map because it is 
recent, multicolored, and legible. The boundary is completely covered on 
five sheets; VII 7, VII 8, VII 9» VIII 8, VIII 9« An index is generally' 
available in Washington map libraries. Some of the place names in Greece 
and all those in Bulgaria have been romanized. Turkey is mapped in less 
detail than other countries, using blow-ups of the Turkish 1:200,000 maps. 

4. Bulgaria 1:25,000 ; Bulgarian War Ministry, after National 
Geographical Institute, Sofia; 1936; in Bulgarian; marginal 
geographic coordinate divisions and military grid; CIA Call No. 24724. 

This is a detailed, multicolor series, but no data for Turkey 
are plotted an It. The boundary is completely covered by 17 sheets 
numbered from west to east: 1951, 1907-09, 1865-1867, 1824-1828, 
and 1872-1876. Sheets 1866 and 1867 are missing from the CIA series,, 

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A printed index is generally available at map libraries. The series is not 
specifically a "boundary map" but is the most legible and nearly complete of 
the three detailed series recommended for the area of Bulgaria. It should 
be used in conjunction with the German series (item 5)- 

5. Bulgarien 1:25>000 ; German Army General Staff, Division of War 
Maps and Surveying; 1940; in German and Bulgarian; marginal geographic 
coordinate divisions and military grid; CIA Call No. 68920. 

This is an excellent monochrome copy of Bulgaria 1:25,000, with names 
of towns end many physical features ramanized. The area of Turkey has been 
filled in from blow-ups of Greek maps at 1:100,000 and Bulgarian maps at 
1:126,000, with corrections frcm smaller-scale maps. The series available 
includes sheets 1866 and 1867, which are missing from Item 4. 

6. ^Turk-Bulgar Boundary/; 1:25,000; Greek-Bulgar Boundary Delimitation 
Commission; 1921; in French, Sheet 10c in Russian; geographic coordinates, 
with longitude based on Paris; AMS Call No. 50M 23-30-55802-25. 

According to the terms of the Treaty of Sevres of 10 August 1920, 
the present area of Turkey immediately south of the Turk-Bulgar boundary 
was ceded to Greece. The area was returned to Turkey by the Treaty of 
Lausanne of 2b July 1923. The present Turk-Bulgar boundary was demarcated 
by the Greek-Bulgar Boundary Delimitation Ccmmissian in 1921 and was 
confirmed as the authentic Turk-Bulgar boundary by the Treaty of Lausanne. 

The boundary is shown on 14 sheets of this series (1-C through l4-C). 
Alignment as given follows the old Austrian 1:200,000 series (item 2) 
rather than the more recent Bulgarian and German maps (items 4 and 5)* 

This series is superior to others because of the combination of its 
official character and clarity, but it is not as detailed as Items 4 or 5. 

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Little is shown other than contours and the 320 numbered boundary cairns; 
in some places data are plotted for no more than 500 meters on each side 
of the boundary. On Sheet 4-C the longitude is marked 10' too far west. 

An index is included in the series. 


The boundary is completely covered by only one map, a mediocre series 
in old Turkish (Arabic) script. 

7. ^Turkish-Russian Border^; 1:25,000; authority in doubt, index 
sheet gives Council of Peoples CammisBariat of the SS Republics of the 
Caucasus; 1925; in Turkish script with place names romanized in manu¬ 
script; marginal geographic coordinate divisions; multicolor originals, 

AMS Call No. IX 23-30-57387-25; photostat copies, CIA Call No. 6o877- 

The boundary is completely covered by the 4-9 sheets of this official 
boundary series, which is based on the field work of the Turk-Soviet 
mixed boundary demarcation commission. An index is available at AMS' and 
CIA. Data are plotted for a strip about 2 miles wide along the border. 

The 450 boundary pillars are numbered, some in Turkish Bcript. The 
southern end of the boundary is located at the confluence of the Ninji- 
Kara Su and Aras rivers, but this point is not included on the map and, 
consequently, the Turkish boundaries with Iran and the USSR appear to 
end about 175 yards apart. The maps are moderately clear and the lack of 

a legend sheet is not a great handicap. 

Boundary alignment agrees with the detailed description in the protocol 
of the mixed Turkish-Soviet boundary demarcation commission signed 
9 September 1926. As far as is known, this protocol is available in the 

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United States only as enclosure 2 to despatch No. 1813 of 27 August 1947 
from the American Embassy, Ankara (CIA No. 110646). 


Three map series are necessary to cover the border adequately. The 
official boundary map (item 8 ) is out of date and incomplete, and two sheets 
of the only up-to-date large-scale series are missing from the Beries avail¬ 
able in Vfeshingtan. The largest-scale map that shows the entire boundary 
correctly is the Quarter Inch Se ries (1:253,44-0). 

Two of the well-known map series are not recommended. Neither is 
sufficiently detailed or accurate to permit more than a rough interpretation 
of the accords. The first, the 1:84,000 series issued by the General Staff 
of the Red Army, gives complete coverage. It is the source of the topo¬ 
graphic data on Item 8 , an official boundary series, but does not agree 
with it in all cases and is much less easy to read. The second, the Turkish 
1:200,000 that covers all of the Iran boundary, is clearer and the sheets 
were revised more recently than the Quarter Inch Series (Item 10). 

Revisions, however, were limited to cultural features end the series 
carries fewer of the place names mentioned in the accords than does the 
Quarter Inch Series . On seme sheets, no data for the area of Iran are 
plotted. The Mazbicho rectification area falls approximately at the edges 
of two adjacent sheets, but the boundaries do not match at the neat lines. 

8 * Jj lronti&re Turco-Persane: 1:21,000 to 1:84,000; Survey of India 
and Geographical Section, General Staff (GSGS 2806 ); 1915; in French; 
geographic coordinates; CIA Call No. 62422. ' 

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The complete series, which covers most of the Turklsh-Persian boundary 
of 1915, consists of 26 sheets. The present Turklsh-Iranlan boundary le 
almost completely covered by nine sheets (numbered will through XXV, and 
XXIIa), Including five Insets. The extreme northern part of the boundary 
north and east of 3 9°40'N-i,4°30'E Is not covered. The sheets show 111 
numbered cairns and considerable other detail for a strip approximately 
5 miles wide on each side of the border. In spite of being out of date, 
the series provides the most detailed Information available for about 

three-fourths of the present boundary. All 26 sheets of the set are 
indexed on CIA 10405< 

Stag's £ r “s S£i°fc?S2£ ? t T ral 

Nineteen sheets are required to cover the Turkey-Iran boundary com¬ 
pletely, but only 17 are available. The missing sheets cover the eastern 
and western parts of that portion of the boundary between 3701,5' N md 
38°00'N. Rectifications in the Ararat, Qutir, and Urmia (Eix'aiyeh) sectors, 
which were agreed to In the Turklsh-Iranlan Accord of 1932, are incor¬ 
porated on the map. It seems probable that the minor rectification In the 
Mazblcho sector (37°35'N-41,°39'30"E), as given in the Turklsh-Irsnlan 
agreement of May 1937, has been Included, but this cannot be verified. 

For this sector. Sheet XIX of Frontiers Turco-Persane (Item 8) is of value 
for orientation purposes. 

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Use of two or three colors Instead of monochrome would have made 
the series much easier to read. The sheet covering the junctions of the 
Ninji Kara Su and Aras rivers does not carry a boundary symbol. 

An index as well as the entire series is available at AMS under Call 

No. 5K 3-30.5-25205-50. 

in Quarter Inch Series; 1:253,^0; Survey of India and Geographical 

Ssctiin] ffi s£ff,"W 3919)1 c “ a 

marginal geographic coordinate divisions; CIA Call No. 23870 . 

Three sheets (J -38 C, J-38 I, J -38 0) of this series cover all of the 
border and include the three rectifications of 1932- The rectification 
of 1937 is too small to be shown at this scale. (See Item 9-) Although 
the sheets carry a large amount of detail and comprise the only series 
showing; the complete boundary correctly, the sheets themselves are not 
accurate, for instance, in a strip several miles long extending west from 
the bo undar y at 37°3T'B, it was impossible to adjust the topographic data. 


The boundary is covered completely by an official demarcation series. 

y. vurco-Irakienne; 1:50,000; /British/ Geographical 

Section] General Staff (08 1 * 355)7 1933, in French, with English 
equivalents of place-name spellings on four sheets; geographic 
coordinates; CIA Call No. 25589* 

Ten sheets cover the Turkey-Iraq boundary, and each sheet carries 
a complete index. Information is detailed but is plotted for a strip 
only about four miles wide on each side of the boundary. The 99 numbered 
cairns are located on Sheets 2 to 10, inclusive; throughout Sheet 1, the 
boundary follows the Habur and Hezil rivers. Although not so stated, the 

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map embodies the work of the demarcation commission during March-September 
1927. This frontier is discussed in League of Nations Publication 
C .400.M. 14-7.1925 .VII, which includes 11 maps that show physical, economic, 
and ethnographic features. 


Five sets are cited for coverage of the Turkey-Syria boundary. The 
pre-1939 boundary was defined by a convention of 30 May 1926 and by a 
protocol of 22 June 1929 according to three sectors: (l) Mediterranean to 
Choban Bey; (2) Choban Bey to Nusaybin; and (3) Nusaybin to the Tigris 
Elver. In the first sector, the boundary was changed by the establishment 
of the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta (20 May 1937) and its later 
incorporation into Turkey as the vilayet of Hatay (23 June 1939). An 
unofficial series at 1:50,000 shows the boundary from Choban Bey westward 
to the Mediterranean Sea and supplements the official boundary set at 
1:50,000 covering Hatay. There are official boundary series at 1:50,000 
for the entire second and third sectors, but the series available in 
Washington that covers the Tigris-Nusaybin sector has no boundary plotted 
on it. For this sector, the largest-scale boundary coverage is at the 
scale of 1 : 200 , 000 . 


12 • Carte au 1:50.000 du 3 e me Secteur de la frontiers Turco- 
Syrienne de Nissibin a D.leziret ibn Omar; /French/ Levant Army 
Topographic Bureau; 1928; in French; unnumbered grid; CIA Call 
No. 13856 . 

The map is printed in six sheets but indexed on each sheet as a 
seven-sheet series. In printing, Sheets Nissibin and Kertouin, which 

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cover the area from 4l°05'E to 4l°24'49"E, were combined. A Turkish-French 
boundary commission checked the maps in the field in 1927 , and the maps 
were probably used in preparing the final protocol describing this sector, 
signed at- Ankara 22 June 1929, but the boundary line is not plotted on 
the series available in Washington. Within scale limitations, all the 
places mentioned in the protocol can be found on the maps. The protocol 
is available in L'Europe Nouvelle , 12th year. No. 602, 24 August 1929> 

pp. 1143-1144, LC Call No. AP 20 E 88 . 

13 . Levant 1:200,000; Geographic Service of the Free French Levant 
Forces; November 1945 i in French; geographic coordinates in grads, 

Caucasus grid; AMS Call No. 2K 3“39-23601-200. 

Sheets Gamichliye SinnJar and Qaratchok Darh completely cover the 

third sector, Nusayb in-Tigris. Since Item 12 carries no boundary, these 

two sheets provide the largest-scale coverage on which the boundary of the 

third sector is plotted. 

14. Turklye-S uriye Hududunun, 2 Incl Kismi, Cobanb ey-Nusaybin; 

(Turkish-Syrian Boundary, Second Sector, Choban Be^-Nusaybin); 1:50,00 , 
Turkish-Syrian Boundary Delimitation Commission; April 1929 > n 
Turkish; no grid or coordinates; multicolor originals, AM3 Call No. 

IK 23-30-545-50; photostat copies, CIA Call No. 60876 . 

Fourteen sheets of this series cover the second sector of the boundary. 
The sheets are numbered from west to east and are indexed roughly on Sheet 3 
In the vicinity of 14 railroad stations, the boundary and railroad tracks 
are shown on insets at a larger scale. The 219 points plotted along the 

boundary have numbers between 48l and 1221. 

15 ,, H atay-Suriye Hududu (Hatay-Syrlan Boundary); 1:50,000; 

Hatay-Syrian Boundary Delimitation Cammisaicn and /Turkish/ General 
Map Directorate; April 1939; in Turkish; military grid; multicolor 
originals, AMS Call No. IK 23-30.5-5^9-50; photostat copies, CIA 
Call No. 60875 . 

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The entire Hatay "boundary is covered "by seven sheets, five of which 
carry an index. Information is plotted for only a narrow strip up to 
2 kilometers in width on each side of the border and cairns numbered 
1 to 462 are located, but the alignment of the boundary between Sheets IV 
and V does not match. In general, alignment agrees well with that on the 
Levant 1;50,000 series (item 16). The provisions of the French-Turkish 
agreement of 23 June 1939> rectifying the Hatay boundary in three places, 
have been incorporated on both sets, but the sets differ on the location 
of cairns 235-281 and 285 - 287 . 

16. Levant 1;50,000 ; /British/ Middle East Command (MDR 1510)* 
1942-46; in French and English; Levant Lambert grid and marginal 
geographic coordinate divisions; CIA Call No. 29418; AMS Call No. 

K 23-30-66402-50. 

The Turkish-Syrian border west of 38°45'E is completely covered 
by 19 sheets of this set. It is the only large-scale coverage of the 
border between Choban Bey and Meidan Ekbes (Sheets Tchobane Bey , Aazaz, 
Aafrine , Bulbul , and Meidane Ekbes ). The longitude lines on some copies 
of the Aazaz sheet are numbered 15'. too far east. Part of the area of 
Turkey has been left blank on the map. Indexes of the set are available 
at CIA and AMS. 

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The establishing of geodetic control for Latin America, an area 6,000 
miles in length and in places as much as 3>000 miles in width, is an enormous 
task. Yet this is the task that was undertaken five years ago by the 
Inter-American Geodetic Survey (TAGS) — an organization established in 
19^6 to fulfill one of the basic requirements in the solution of same of 
the mapping problems facing Latin America. 

The lack of adequate maps had long been a serious liandicap in the 
settlement of political disputes and in the economic development of the 
20 republics to the south. However, the strategic requirements of World 

War II brought into dramatic focus-from a hemispheric point of view -- 

the need for accurate knowledge of where things were. Where, precisely, 
were deposits of strategic minerals located? Over what kind of terrain 
did they have to be transported? Were there mountains to avoid, rivers 
to cross, towns with manpower available to expedite exploitation? What 
military approaches and defense sites were of immediate concern? Countless 
questions of this kind emphasized the fact that maps were few in number 
and that throughout Latin America, facilities for producing more or better 
maps were limited. It was estimated recently that one of the South 
toerican government agencies responsible for the official mapping of its 
country would require 250 years to complete a map series on whi-ch it had 
already worked for more than 30 years, provided no changes were made in 
the size of its staff or budget. In many countries no facilities were 

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available for training new technicians. Cartographic dilemmas of this sort 
had been studied, by the Pan American Institute of Geography and History 
(PAIGH) and had contributed to the establishment of its Cartography Com¬ 
mission -- an organization set up to stimulate surveying and mapping ac¬ 
tivities in each of the American Eepublics according to its individual 
mapping needs and following established international standards. However, 
not until 1946 did one of the member nations of the PAIGH set up an active, 
operating unit that could collaborate with other nations in achieving 
part of the over-all purposes of the Cartography Commission. At that time, 
the IAGS was established by the United States Department of Defense to 
implement a mapping and charting plan for Central and South America, and a 
definite long-range program was inaugurated. 

Scope of Activities 

By broadest definition, it is within the scope of the IAGS to tie 
together into a single integrated mapping effort all of the independent 
national programs that had existed previously. The numerous datums that 
had been established throughout Latin America not only required a tre¬ 
mendous amount of mathematical adjustment but also called for expenditures 
of effort and funds that would be greatly reduced in a coordinated program. 
The clearly recognized advantages to be gained from a datum of high and 
uniform accuracy for all of Latin America were (1) the establishment of 
continuous triangulation arcs across international boundaries as a result 
of collaborative endeavor --an essential feature of the program and one 
that would be impossible to achieve otherwise; (2) the creation of a 

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Bound foundation for all subsequent geodetic and topographic surveying, 
ultimately expediting the mapping programs of each country and of the 
area as a whole; and (3) the introduction of uniform geodetic control 
values for the entire Western Hemisphere complex through the adjustment 
of the new South American Datum to the already existing North American 

Currently IAGS activities include only first-order work, but some 
second-order triangulation has already been completed in Central America. 
There is a move at present, as the first-order work is completed, for the 
IAGS to assist the local agencies in undertaking lower-order control as 
well as in photamapping and map reproduction within the individual 
countries. Momentum could thus be gained toward making the "end product" 
become a reality. 


The negotiation of agreements with the individual countries through¬ 
out Latin America was a major problem in the early days of the IAGS. With 
the aid of the diplomatic channels of the Department of State, however, 
a series of bilateral agreements has been successfully executed. To date, 
diplomatic agreements have been signed, or operations based on informal 
agreements are in progress in .17 countries. Negotiations are underway with 
Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. In the case of Mexico, a diplomatic 
agreement was not signed because a program of limited cooperation in 
geodetic work has been cleared through the long-standing Joint US-Mexican 
Military Commission. Informal working arrangements with Chile and Brazil 

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have been in force for about three years, and extensive effort, funds, and 
equipment have already been expended in these countries. The Brazilian 
problem is great because of the size of the country (estimated as one-sixth 
larger than the US), and the length of the triangulation arcs required. 

The work in Brazil alone iB a large portion of the entire Latin American 

Agreements have also been established with the home governments of 
the British, French, and Netherlands territories in Central and South 
America, but no programs have been initiated in any of them, principally 
because priority has been given to countries to which no other aid is 

The negotiations have been general in nature, leaving details of the 
program to be worked out by the personnel concerned. In every country a 
specific agency is named to collaborate with the IAGS, and that agency 
is responsible for any coordination required within its own government. 
Several countries had no governmental cartographic agency prior to the 
signing of the agreements, but in all of these (except Panama) some sort 
of cartographic institute has subsequently been established to carry out 
the necessary collaboration. It is significant that in every country in 
which the IAGS has worked, government appropriations for cartographic work 
have been increased, in some cases as much as tenfold since 1945 , Al¬ 
though there are extreme variations in appropriations frcm country to 
country, the total Latin American contribution, computed on a dollar 
basiB, is three to four times that of the United States. 

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Organizati onal Framework 

The IAGS was created in 19*4-6 to carry oux the US Army's responsibilities 
in the "Caribbean, Central, and South American Mapping and Charting Program." 
This program, established by a directive of the Joint Cliiefs of Staff, 
implemented the broader objectives of JCS Memoranda of Policy, Nos. 60 and 65 , 
which respectively outline the coordination activities of the US Government 
in photographic and cartographic programs and the allocations of responsi¬ 
bilities among the military services. Although the JCS monitors the IAGS 
program, all directives resulting from the evolution or processing of policy 
are channelled through the Map and Photo Branch, G-2, of the Army. Besponsi- 
bility for the over-all program is delegated to the Caribbean Command, which 
maintains liaison for technical support with the Office of the Chief of 
Engineers,. IAGS Headquarters are in Panama, under the US Army, Caribbean 
(the army element of the Caribbean Command), and all technical personnel 
are ground-surveying forces. Of these, 26 are Army officers and 266 are 
civilians., the majority of whom are assigned to one of the 17 Project 
Headquarters located in an appropriate city in each of the countries partic¬ 

A typical Project Headquarters has an Qfficer-in-Charge, a secretary, 
a supply clerk, a chief geodetic engineer, and two or more Junior geodetic 
engineers. This pattern varies, however, from place to place, depending 
upon local requirements and support. Each Project Headquarters also main¬ 
tains military vehicles, radioB, and surveying equipment, which are lent to 
the local government for work previously agreed upon. To provide aid where 

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needed in the work carried on by each Project Headquarters, there is a Field 
Operations Division based in Panama. Its branches -- Training, Vertical 
Control, Horizontal Control, Data Collection, Photomapping, Geophysical, and 
Engineer Services -- are completely equipped. In the event that seme partic¬ 
ular operation is beyond the capabilities of the collaborative effort 
between any Project Headquarters and the local government, the appropriate 
task force from the Operations Division can be sent in to complete the work. 

Air support for ground forces and aerial photography are provided by 
the USAF, usually through the Caribbean Air Command (CAirC) -- the air arm 
of the Caribbean Command. Currently, no aerial photography is being flown 
by the CAirC because of the removal of its photographic component, but light 
aircraft are still being used to carry supplies and personnel to areas most 
difficult to reach on the ground. Helicopters, which were available for a 
short time, proved especially valuable, and it is hoped their use can be 
resumed at a later date. The naval component of the Caribbean Command 
cooperates fully in coordinating naval aerial photography and, on occasion, 
Hydrographic Office surveys. Three Coast and Geodetic Survey officers lent 
to the program as technical consultants have proved invaluable. 


The advances made by the program during the past five years are notable, 
especially in view of the many handicaps that arose at every step along the 
way. The basic first-order triangulation arc will be almost 20,000 miles 
long, not counting the many secondary arcs. Figures 1 and 2 show the completed 

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and projected first- and second-order geodetic triangulation networks (as of 
mid-1950) for all of Latin America, including areas where IAGS agreements are 
still pending. To date, first-order control along the main north-south arc 
has been completed throughout Central America and as far south as Turbo, Colombia. 
Additional chains of the national networks within El Salvador, Costa Rica, and 
Nicaragua have been completed. National networks in other countries are being 
extended; those in Honduras will be completed in July and in Panama in August. 

A. small sector in Guatemala will be completed soon, coincident with the ad¬ 
justment of the entire network to the already established control in Mexico. 

At that time, the completed Central American arc will become the southernmost 
extension of the North American Datum. IAGS has recently set up an office in 
Mexico City. 

First-order triangulation in Cuba is completed; in the Dominican Republic 
it will be finished during 1951. IAGS operations in Haiti are nearly complete, 
and the Haitian government is filling in the second- and third-order stations. 

The main arc of triangulation will be complete as far south as the 
northern boundary of Ecuador by July 1951- The same completion date is esti¬ 
mated for the stretch between Lima and the Chilean border. By July 1952, the 
entire arc from Mexico to southern Chile will probably be filled in, as well 
as the transcontinental arc which crosses Bolivia and Brazil. The latter is 
now completed frcm the main west coast arc as far east as central Bolivia, and 
i:3 currently being continued by the Corumba project to connect eventually 
with Brazilian surveying which is being extended westward. The Venezuelan 

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section of the main arc through northern South America will he tied to the 
Colombian network in the fiscal year 1952. 

All of the varied aspects of ground control have been a major part of 
the program from the outset. To date, 77 base lines have been measured. 

The basic astronomic determinations have been completed for the Caribbean 
and Central American areas, and work is in progress in South America. Thus 
far, 104 astronomical and La Place azimuth stations have been established. 
Sixty-three tide gauges are being operated, from which data are being 
collected to establish the mean sea level datum for Latin, American. Tide 
gauge stations are located at intervals along the entire Central and South 
American coast and through the Antilles. Magnetic surveying continues to 
be conducted by IAGS personnel; 88 stations have been observed, the data 
being submitted to the Coast and Geodetic Survey for computation. An 
extensive gravimetric survey is currently being undertaken on the plains 
of Central Venezuela from which to adjust the deflection of the vertical 
at the proposed point of origin for the South American Datum, so that it 
may be positioned correctly on the face of the geoid. Other surveys of this 
type may possibly be conducted later in Brazil and Argentina in order best 
to determine the final point of origin. 

A training program located in Panama is now an integral part of the 
IAGS operations and provides all new technical personnel with essential 
geodetic training. 

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The problems encountered in a program of the magnitude of that undertaken 
by the IAG£> are necessarily great and varied. Many administrative and logistic 
■problems that were an inherent part of the program have been effectively solved. 
In same coimtries, the refusal of free entry of essential equipment through 
Customs has interfered with progress. Diplomatic involvements have not been 
the least of the camplications encountered. 

Two primary difficulties of outstanding significance to the entire oper¬ 
ation have been and still are of major concern: 

1. Lack of trained personnel — Qualified geodetic personnel 
are in constant demand and are in extremely short supply. At present 
a full complement is at work, but the rigorous work requirements make 
the life far from easy and. Justifiably, frequent replacements are 

2. Lack of aerial photography — Original plans by the Caribbean 
Command for extensive aerial photography have been drastically curtailed. 
The agreement to provide prints to the countries photographed was a 
most persuasive factor during preliminary negotiations, and the obli¬ 
gation to fulfill this mission rests with the US Government. No time 
limit was set, however, and progress has been slow. As ground control 
progresses, the lack of aerial photography presents an increasing problem, 
since in many areas a return trip will be required in order to identify 
points on aerial photographs when they became available. 

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One of the obvious difficulties in carrying out the IAGS program is the nature 
of the country being surveyed. From Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, nearly every 
type of climatic and vegetative zone is encountered, and some IAGS engineer 
must make his way through each to observe, measure, and identify required 
locations. Adverse publicity from the Communist press in various areas does 
not mention that the "American imperialists" often sleep in hammocks under 
mosquito netting or fight stiff winds and altitude sickness for days in the 
Andean wastes (same triangulation stations are as high as 18,000 feet) in 
order to procure exact data that will contribute to the ultimate improvement 
of the cartography of the country being surveyed. 


Various estimates have been made as to the time required to complete 
the IAGS program. When first undertaken, 20 years was estimated for com¬ 
pletion. Within two or three more years, ground control will probably be 
well in hand for all areas in Central America and western South America, 
but the projected areas of activity in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and 
Brazil cover hundreds of thousands of square miles, and exact plans for their 
control have not yet been completed. 

Aerial photography by the Caribbean Command is currently at a standstill. 
It is estimated that five-years' intensive work could provide adequate photo¬ 
graphy if men and equipment sufficient to do the job were reassigned to the 
Caribbean Command. Strategic Reconnaissance Units (Strategic Air Command) of 
high-altitude photographic aircraft, recently stationed in Puerto Rico, are 
expected to accomplish a portion of the required aerial photography on training 

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missions in the near future. Some contract aerial photography is being flown 
for the Army in areas of vital military importance. An essential feature of 
the future collaborative operations with the Latin American governments will 
be the advising (and sometimes equipping) of local aerial photographic agencies, 
with the hope that much of the photography may be accomplished in this manner 
and that self-sufficiency in this respect will ultimately be attained. 

The program as it now stands has made remarkable progress. It is 
currently being revised, both as to areas to be covered and scope of activities, 
and it is hoped that the program can be broadened into a more balanced carto¬ 
graphic endeavor instead of a plan primarily for data collection, which it 
bas been thus far. An ultimate objective of the program is the creation of 
cartographic self-sufficiency within all Latin American countries, all using 
standard methods and equipment and supplying the results of their efforts to 
the United States. 

The success of the cooperation and collaboration between the IAGS personnel 
and the foreign agencies with which they have worked is an outstanding example 
of progress made possible by nations working together to achieve a common 
purpose. The consolidation of Latin American mapping data may well be the 
cornerstone for a Western Hemisphere solidarity which will be of immeasurable 
value in an expanding peacetime economy or in a unified defense in the event 
of war. 

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A. Introduction 

The Israel-Jordan Reservoir area boundary dispute provides an 
excellent example of the misuse of maps in conjunction with an international 
agreement. On the basis of a line drawn on a map , 1 Israel on 28 August 1950 
occupied an estimated 40 acres between the Jordan River and the Yarmuk 
Reservoir and claimed part of the reservoir itself (see accompanying map 
CIA 11817). Although the forces were later withdrawn, Israel still claims 
the area, and Jordan filed a protest with the United Nations on 12 Sep¬ 
tember 1950. This article emphasizes map aspects that are an integral 
part of the dispute. 

The Yarmuk Reservoir is located on El Yarmuk River near the point 
where it enters the Jordan River. Waters of the reservoir were used by 
the Rutenberg hydroelectric plant, which was formerly one of the most 
important in the Palestine-Jordan region. Although now out of commission, it 
is potentially important in future programs of hydroelectric development 
in the region. 

1. United Nations Map No. 200.1-X, May 19^9, attached as Annex 1, Map 1, 
to Part 1 of the Hashemite Jordan Kingdom-Israeli General Armistice A gree- 
ment concluded at Rhodes on 3 April 1949* The base for this map is - the 
North sheet of Palestine , 1:250,000, December I 9 A 6 , reprinted by the Middle 
East Co mman d from negatives supplied by Survey of Palestine. Hereafter In 
this article the UN map will be referred to as "the 1:250,000 map signed 
at Rhodes." 

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B. H istory of the Dispute 

1„ Pre-Armistice: 1922-48 

Insofar as this particular dispute is concerned, the Yarmuk Reservoir 
area is roughly defined as being within Jordan by Part 2 of a British 
Memorandum approved by the Council of the League of Nations.-^- The bound¬ 
ary between Palestine and Transjordan (now Jordan) was defined as extend¬ 
ing up the Jordan River to its Junction with El Yarmuk River, thence up 
the Yarmuk to the Syrian frontier. 

From 1922 until the outbreak of hostilities in Palestine in 19^8, 
there seems to have been no question that the Yarmuk Reservoir area 
now in dispute was part of Jordan; the international boundary in the 
disputed area was accepted. The Palestine conflict, however, produced 
rival claims regarding control of the Yarmuk Reservoir area, Jordan 
claimed that her ally, Iraq, occupied the area around the Yarmuk 
Reservoir. Israel claimed control over part of the area on the basis 
of a truce line established by the United Nations in August 19^8. The 
line, however, left the southern part of the disputed area as a "no 
man's land." 

2, Armistice Negotiations: 19^9 

Armistice negotiations between Israel and Jordan were held at Rhodes 
in the spring of 19^9 under the auspices of the United Nations Acting 

1. Memorandum by the British Representative approved by the Council 
of the League of Nations in a note by the Secretary General, Geneva, 

23 September 1922. British and Foreign State Papers 1922, London, 

1925, Vol. CXVI, p. 81+9. 

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restricted Israel-Jordan: Yarmuk Reservoir Area Boundary Dispute 

A AfJf>roved For Release 2000/04/17 : CIA-RDP79-01005A000100210003-9 

CIA Reproduction 

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Mediator, Dr. Balph Bunch©. L " ^ .'r-'-vi 


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Upon the resumption of negotiations at Rhodes, an armistice agree¬ 
ment between Israel and Jordan emerged.^ Among other provisions, the 
agreement defined lines within which each country was to maintain its 
military forces. Article II specifically states 

. . . that no military or political advantage should be 
gained under the truce . . . /and that/ no provision of 
this agreement shall in any way prejudice the rights, 
claims and positions of either party hereto In the ultimate 
peaceful settlement of the Palestine question . . . . 

According to Article VI, 

The Armistice Demarcation Lines defined . . . are agreed 
upon by the parties without prejudice to future territorial 
settlements or boundary lines or to claims of either party 
relating thereto.3 

The armistice agreement did not specifically define in words the 
armistice line in the Yarmuk Reservoir area, but Article VI, Part 2, 
did define it as the line delineated on Map 1, Annex 1, attached to 
the agreement (the 1:250,000 map signed at Rhodes) 

The 1:250,000 Rhodes armistice map, which was signed by Israeli 
and Jordanian representatives. Is a direct point of dispute. The 
armistice line shown on this map extends northward along the Jordan 

1. Hashemite Jordan Kingdom-Israeli General Armistice Agreement , US 
Department of State, Documents & State Papers, May 1949, Washington, 
D. C., 19^9, Vol. 1, No. 14, pp. 806-809. This agreement Is also 
contained in UN Document s/1302/, as corrected, 21 April 19^9* 

2. Ibid ., Article II, p. 807. 

3. Ibid ., Article VI, Part 9, p. 808. 
k. Ibid., Article VI, Part 2, p. 807. 

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to a point southwest of the reservoir and thence northeastward across 
the reservoir to El Yarmuk River, thus placing the 40 disputed acres 
within Israeli territory. The circumstances surrounding the emergence 
of the Rhodes map are the subject of many conflicting claims. 

cartographers used for depicting the armistice line from the point at 
which it Joined the Jordan south of the Yarmuk Reservoir, through 
the reservoir, to El Yarmuk River. The Rhodes armistice line apparently 
follows the truce Line established by the United Nations in August 1948. 
At any rate, both the scale and cartographic techniques used were most 
unfortunate choices. An examination of the 1:250,000 map signed at 
Rhodes reveals the following: 

a. The scale is entirely too small for portraying the boundary 
in small strategic areas such as the disputed reservoir area. Only the 

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most discerning eye could catch the distinctions in area control made 
by the armistice line drawn on the 1:250,000 map. It would be quite 
possible for someone to miss the significance of this line for small 

b. The representation of the armistice line itself is unneces¬ 
sarily wide, especially for the delineation of control over small areas. 
For example, the line practically covers the entire Yarmuk Reservoir. 

C. Contentions of Israel find Jordan 

Jordan claims that only Palestinian territory was involved in the 
Rhodes armistice negotiations; consequently Jordanian delegates at the 
negotiation were not empowered to give away any of the territory of 
Jordan. As the basis of this contention, Jordan cites the fact that its 
frontier, as defined roughly in .1922, included the Yarmuk Reservoir 
area. Some Jordanians claimed that the Rhodes 1:250,000 map was a 
forgery and that Jordanian negotiators were the victims of a fraud. 

This claim has not been pressed, however. 

Israel, on the other hand, claims that Jordanian territory was a 
subject of negotiation.As the main basis of its action in occupying 
the Yarmuk Reservoir area, Israel cites the line on the 1:250,000 map 
attached to the armistice agreement at Rhodes. Israel has not questioned 
the fact that the disputed area was originally part of Jordan. 

1. Army Attache'Israel R-A09-50, 3 November 1950 (Confidential). 
Reference is made to the testimony of Colonel Harkabi, Senior Israeli 
Mixed Armistice Commission representative, which appears on page 3 of 
the document. 

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The UN Acting Mediator was under the impression that the official 25X6 
armistice negotiation had intended to discuss only Palestinian territory. 

thought, had made a mistake in signing the disputed 1 : 250,000 map 
attached to the agreement at Rhodes, having been outbargained by the 
Israeli negotiators instead of being the victim of a fraudulent plot.^ 

Although the armistice agreement provided that the armistice demar¬ 
cation lines were not to be construed as definitive boundaries, such lines 
have, in fact, taken on the character of boundaries. For ezample, Jordan 
formally annexed that portion of Arab Palestine adjacent to the Jordan 
River, and Israel, in turn, informed the Palestine Conciliation Commis¬ 
sion on 27 October 1949 that it claimed title to all territory then 
under Israeli control . 2 The Israeli statement antedated the Israeli 
occupation of the Yarmuk Reservoir disputed area but presumably would 
apply to it also. The Master Plate at the scale of 1:250,000 attached 
to the Second Interim Report on Master Plan for Development of Irriga ¬ 
tion and Hydroelectric Power in State of Israel . Vol. 1 , October 1950 , 
indicates that Israel already has plans to control the entire Yarmuk 

1. A 16 October 13 , I 950 , to Jerusalem (Secret). 

2 * Prospec ts of Territorial Expansion by Israel. 0IR Report No. 5218, 
Department of State, Office of Intelligence Research. 12 .Teminr-o- TORI 

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D. Conclusions 

This "boundary dispute presents many legal and political issues out¬ 
side the scope of this article. The map attached to the armistice agree¬ 
ment has become the nominal cause of the dispute. Since the text of the 
armistice agreement did not describe in detail the armistice line in the 
Yarmuk Reservoir area but relied entirely upon the attached map fes the 
definitive part of the document, it would seem to have been imperative 
that the base map and cartographic techniques used should be adequate 
for delineation purposes. Larger scale maps (1:25,000 Palestine series) 
could have been used and greater care exercised in the insertion of the 
lines on the map. 

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A number of changes in the territorial-administrative organization 
of the Tadzhik SSE vere announced during the second half of 1950. Al¬ 
though most of them vere at village (kishlak) and rayon levels,! two 
were at oblast level. In Garm Oblast, the new oblast city of Novabad 
(39°04'N, 70°12'E) was created and the administration of the Oblast 
was shifted from the long-established center at Garm (39°03'N, 70°22'E) 
to the newly-designated city about 10 miles farther west. 

Novabad is the only "city " 2 in Garm Oblast and is one of eight in 
the entire Tadzhik SSE. The building of the city was initiated in I 9 I +9 
on the site of the "village" Shul'mak, the administrative center of 
Shul raak Bayon. In July 1950> It was decreed a city directly subordinate 
to the Oblast and its name changed to Novabad, which means "new city." 

The transfer of the Oblast government from Garm to Novabad was announced 
in December 1950. Thus, within less than 2 years, the city was built, 
elevated to the rank of oblast city, and designated as the Oblast center. 

1. The rayon changes were made In two widely separated areas, and indicate 
no general trend in economic development. 

2. The legal definition of a city as established in the Tadzhik SSE is 
not known. It may be the same as in the BSFSB, where a city Is a settle¬ 
ment having an adult population of not less than 1,000, of whom no more 
than 25 percent are engaged in rural pursuits. 

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The other changes, which occurred chiefly in the two oblasts immedi¬ 
ately to the west of Garm Oblast, were apparently made to further the 
centralization of administrative authority by reducing the number of 
village councils. Nine village councils near the northeastern boundary 
of Stalinabad Oblast were abolished, the lands of three of them being 
transferred to the State Land Fund. Six village councils in the Kulyab 
Oblast were abolished. 

Since Soviet announcements rarely give the reasons for such changes, 
only speculation on the subject is possible' at this time. The rapid 
transformation of a rural mountain village of Shul'mak into the oblaBt 
city of Novabad (without the customary progression through the rayon 
level), and its elevation to the rank of Oblast center suggests the 
presence of some economic activity that would warrant further investi¬ 

The principal rural activities of the Tadzhik SSR as a whole are 
agriculture and animal husbandry; the nonrural include mining, textile 
manufacture, food processing, and the production of consumer goods for 
local consumption. Of these, the main industry of "republic significance" 
is mining, chiefly nonferrous metals and fuels. In the past these 
included gold, uranium, wolfram, molybdenum, lead, copper, coal, and 
petroleum. In addition, the Soviet postwar Five-Year Plan specifically 
called for the exploitation within the Tadzhik SSR of tin and tungsten 
trioxide, as well as for large-scale exploration and surveying of coal, 
tungsten, antimony, and mercury deposits. 


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Information on the extent of mineral reserves and mining within 
Garm Oblast is not specific. Just before World War II, however, the 
Oblast is known to have produced molybdenum, copper, arsenic, coal, 
asbestos, and salt. Furthermore, the general region within which the 
territorial-administrative changes have been made was < described in a 
19^7 Soviet source as having geologic formations that would justify 
prospecting for "tin, berilium, lithium, rubidum, cesium, zircon, 
titanium, etc." In view of the increased interest in minerals, the 
unusual administrative changes in Garm Oblast could reflect a sub¬ 
stantial expansion in mining and perhaps in the concentration of 
nonferrous ores. The increased centralization of authority in the 
adjacent oblasts of Stalinabad and Kulyab could also be a part of 
this same regional economic expansion. 

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A. An Aerial Survey of Thailan d 

In December 1950> the Thai Government contracted with a commercial 
firm for aerial mapping surveys of part of the country. The British firm 
of Hunting Air Surveys, which was awarded the contract, had a plane in 
Thailand by the end of December and was ready to undertake the survey 
of an area 100 miles long by 60 mileB wide in the eastern part of the 
country near Nakhon Ratchashima (Khorat). Since the most favorable 
weather for aerial photography occurs in January and February at the 
height of the dry season, most of the area may now be photographed. In¬ 
formation as to the character of the survey is fragmentary but indicates 
that the photography was to be flown at an altitude of 19,000 feet above mean 
terrain, with a forward overlap of 60 percent; no Information is available 
regarding the focal length of the cameras. 

Aerial photography for most of Thailand was flown by the RAF out 
of Malaya in 19^5, 1946, an -d 19^7 • Although the Thai Government now has 
copies of this photography, the British have retained the original 
negatives. The lack of adequate ground control has precluded use of the 
photography for mapping. 

The Thai Royal Survey Department is believed to have a field staff 
capable of undertaking the ground surveys for the area involved in the 
new contract, and it therefore seems likely that completed maps are to 
be prepared. 

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B. Soviet Map of a Coastal Area of Norway 

A photostatic copy of a new map produced hy the USSR from readily 
available Norwegian sources is now on file at the CIA Map Library (Call 
No. 71632 -R)• The map might be usable for landings or for submarine 
navigation and is the first known example of what appears to be a lauding 
map prepared by the Soviets. It is not known whether this is a separate 
map or one of a series, nor can the originating agency be determined since 
only half of the sheet is available. 

The particular Soviet sheet is at 1:100,000 and covers portions of 
the islands of Seiland and KvalcSy and part of the mainland Just south of 
Hammerfest, Norway. It is a composite of the Norwegian topographic map 
9-t 1:100,000 ( Hammerfest and Rolfst? Sheets) and a Norwegian hydrographic 
chart at 1:50,000 (No. 98 , Den Norske Kyst -- Soroysund og Vargaund t il 
Hammerfest ). Where the two sources do not agree, the hydrographic chart 
has been followed. No additional data were added to those taken from the 
Norwegian sources. 

Evidence available at present is insufficient to Establish definitely 
the relationship between recent map purchases and compilation of large- 
scale maps by the Soviets. In Norway and Sweden, purchases have been 
made in such quantities or in such a furtive manner as to cause consid¬ 
erable concern in both countries. Newspaper reports indicate that in early 
1948 the Russians purchased between 400 and 500 map sheets of Norway, 
including detailed coverage of the entire coastal and border areas. A 
Polish Military Attache”" stationed in Stockholm is also reported to have 

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bought a great number of maps of Norway and Sweden at scales of 1:100,000 
and 1:200,000 in November 1950 and attempted to purchase maps at large 
scale. It Is also known that complete series of charts of the Skagerrak 
and Kattegat have recently been purchased for the USSR. Although these 
maps may be for normal peacetime use by the White Sea and Baltic fleets, 
25X1C the coincidence of the map purchases and the discovery of this new map 

C. Transportation Map of Turkey 

The 1950 edition of the 1:800,000 Turkish transportation map is now 
available for loan from the CIA Map Library, extension 2596 . Like the 
previous editions, dated 1948, 1945 > ^d 19^2, It consists of eight 
sheets printed in three colors. For all four editions, the CIA call 
number is 288l4. 

The 1950 edition reflects few of the changes that have taken place 
in Turkey in the last two years. Changes in the alignment or classifica¬ 
tion of a few dozen miles of road have been shown, existing railroads 
brought up to date, and all proposed railroads in Turkey deleted. Errors 
in the railroad pattern in the Balkans have been retained. LI and lice 
bou ndar y .j in the northwestern part of Turkey have been changed in several 
places, in a few instances by more than 5 miles. It is not known whether the 
newer boundaries were in force at the time of the census of 22 October 1950- 

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