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VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM 


REVIEW OF THE 

PRINCIPAL ACQUISITIONS 

DURING THE YEAR 

i 92 1 

ILLUSTRATED 


LONDON: PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY 
OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 1925 



Portrait of an Englishman (Mr. Baker ?) ; bust in marble. 

BY GIAN LORENZO BERNINI (1598-1680). 


Frontispiece 



VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM 


REVIEW OF THE 

PRINCIPAL ACQUISITIONS 

DURING THE YEAR 

i 92 1 

ILLUSTRATED 


LONDON: PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY 
OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, 1925 


Crown copyright reserved. 


This Review may be obtained directly from the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, price 6s. net (by post 6s. 6 d.). It may also be obtained 
directly from H.M. Stationery Office at the following addresses : 
Adastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2 ; 28, Abingdon Street, 
London, S.W'.i ; York Street, Manchester ; 1, St. Andrew’s Crescent, 
Cardiff; or 120, George Street, Edinburgh ; or through any Bookseller. 

(17074) Wt. P.2444/1698 1250 7/25 Harrow G.45 


PREFATORY NOTE. 


I T is a pleasure once more to record a year of important 
acquisitions to all Departments of the Museum : the 
collections of Sculpture and Metalwork especially benefited 
by generous gifts or fortunate purchases. By the will of 
Mr. David M. Currie, the objects formerly on loan to the 
Museum became part of the permanent collections ; included 
in this bequest were many rare examples of Renaissance Art 
— Italian maiolica, Limoges enamels, illuminated manuscripts, 
arms and armour, and a bronze Cupid of the school of Donatello. 
The income which accrues under the terms of the bequests 
of Captain H. B. Murray and Mr. F. R. Bryan again provided 
the Museum with important objects; to the former collection 
was added, among other things, an exceptionally interesting 
Flemish tapestry panel of the middle of the 15th century, 
and to the latter the Godsfield Pyx, a rare example of English 
gilt bronze of the 14th century. The purchases made during 
the year included the magnificent bust of an Englishman by 
Bernini (a photograph of which forms a frontispiece to this 
volume), and the extremely rare and interesting Byzantine 
panel of cloisonne enamel, identified as part of the crown 
discovered in fragments in i860 at Nyitra-Ivanka, Hungary. 

As in previous years, the descriptive accounts appearing in 
the following pages have been written by the Officers of the 
various Departments. 

The Annual Report on the Museum is printed as an 
Appendix to this Review (see p. 117). 

February, 1925. ERIC MACLAGAN. 


iii 

A 2 


CONTENTS. 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

V 

LIST OF DONORS IN 

1921 ..... 

xi 

LIST OF BEQUESTS 

. 

xiii 

ACQUISITIONS— 

I. Department of 

Architecture and 



Sculpture 

1 

II. 

Ceramics .... 

13 

HI. 

Engraving, Illustration 



and Design . 

33 

iv. 

Paintings 

43 

v. 

Library .... 

52 

VI. 

Metalwork 

56 

VII. 

Textiles .... 

65 

VIII. 

Woodwork 

81 

IX. Indian Section 

• 

91 

X. Department of 

Circulation . . 

104 

LOANS . 

. 

107 

APPENDIX— 

A. — Report on the Museum for the Year 1921 

117 

B. — Report on the Bethnal Green Museum for 


the Year 1921 

120 


iv 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 


I.— PLATES. 

TO FACE 

PLATE NO. PAGE 

Frontispiece, Portrait of an Englishman (Mr. Baker ?) ; 
bust in marble by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) 

1. St. Christopher ; statuette in alabaster. English ; 

first half of the 15th century ..... 4 

St. Barbara ; statuette in alabaster. English ; first 

half of the 15th century ...... 4 

2. Cupid ; figure in bronze. School of Donatello , . 5 

3. The Miracle at Cana ; relief in ivory. Early Christian 

(Alexandrian ?) ; 6th century ..... 8 

4. Christ on the Cross ; statuette in ivory. English ; 

first half of the 14th century . . . ... 9 

5. Bottger Stoneware. German (Meissen) ; early 18th 

century ........ 20 

6. Two Leaves of a Triptych ; painted enamel on copper. 

The Annunciation. French (Limoges) ... 21 

7. Maiolica Painting ; the Assumption of the Virgin. 

Italian (Siena) ; early 16th century ... 24 

8. Porcelain Group, symbolical of Autumn, from a model 

by Handler. German (Meissen) ; about 1765 . . 25 

9. Glass-Painting, from a series illustrating the Story of 

Tobit. Swiss (Zurich) ; dated 1595 ... 28 

10. Figure of Enamelled Earthenware. Lucretia. 

Portuguese (Rato) ; 1770-1775 .... 29 

11. Hans Hirtz. Design for a dish. Engraving in the dotted 

manner ......... 36 


v 


TO FACE 


PLATE NO. PAGE 

12. Elizabeth Adela Forbes. “ Dorothy.” Dry-point . 37 

13. Claude Lovat Fraser. Design for Costume of the 

Beggar in “ The Beggar’s Opera ” . . . . 42 

14. Sir Henry Raeburn. Mr. William Hobson, of Markfield. 

Oil Painting ........ 43 

15. Francis Towne. The Source of the Arveiron. Water- 

colour Drawing ....... 44 

16. Peter de Wint. Gloucester. Water-colour Drawing . 45 


17. Book-cover ; embossed, painted and lacquered, with 

representation of a young prince hunting. Persian ; 

18th century ........ 5 2 

18. MS. Book of Hours. Miniature of St. Jerome. Italian. 

c . 1500 ••••••• •• 

19. Bookbinding of a Book of Hours. Italian ; c. 1500 

20. MS. Office of the Dead. Office of the Passion and 

the Gradual Psalms. Italian ; first half of the 
16th century ....... 53 

The Canonical Epistles. Miniature of St. James 

the Great. French ; first half of the 16th century . 53 

21. The Godfrey Cup. London hall-mark ; 1627-8 . 56 

22. Balustrade. English ; early 18th century 

23. Breastplate. Venetian ; 16th century . 

24. Breastplate. Milanese; about 1570. . . 57 

25. The Godsfield Pyx ; gilt bronze. English ; 14th 

century ........ 60 

26. Panel of Cloisonne Enamel on Gold (front and 

back). From a crown of the Emperor Constantine 
Monomachos (1042-1054) ..... 

27. Group of Silver Spoons. English ; 14th, 15th and 

16th centuries ....... 


vi 


TO 

PLATE NO. 

28. Iron Door, from Nuremberg; late 16th century. 

29. Tapestry. The Resurrection of Christ. Brussels ; first 

quarter of 16th century. ..... 

30. Embroidered Satin Hanging. St. Antony of Padua 

and the Infant Saviour. Chinese, for Christian use ; 
18th century ........ 

31. Resist Dyed Cotton. Altar Frontal. East Indies ; 

early 18th century ....... 

32. Knotted Pile Carpet. English ; 17th century . 

33. Sake Bottle. Japanese lacquer, in red and black ; 

late 17th century ....... 

34. Cover of Cabinet for Incense Ceremony Utensils. 

Japanese lacquer ; middle of the 18th century . 

35. Writing Box, interior and cover. Japanese lacquer, by 

Ritsuo (Haritsu) ; 18th century (a.d. 1746) 

36. Bedstead, of black and gold lacquer. From Badminton, 

Glos. English ; about 1760. .... 

37. Portrait of NadIr Shah, King of Persia. Mogul 

(Delhi School) ; 18th century ..... 

38. Relief Panel ; Kuvera ; sandstone. N. Indian (School 

of Mathura) ; 4th-6th century a.d.. 

39. Relief Panel ; The Varaha Avatara of Vishnu ; shale. 

N. Indian ; 8th~9th century a.d. .... 

40. Repouss£ Copper Panel. Krishna and Radha. N. 

Indian (Lucknow) ; second half of the 18th century 

41. MS. St. Chad’s Gospels. Page of text. Anglo-Irish 

School (Lindisfame Group) ; c. 700 .... 

42. MS. St. Chad’s Gospels. Decorated page. Anglo-Irish 

School (Lindisfame Group) ; c. 700 .... 


FACE 

PAGE 

61 

76 

77 

84 

85 

96 

97 
108 

vii 


TO FACE 

PLATE NO. PAGE 

43. MS. Book of the Gospels, written in gold. Miniature of 

St. Luke. Carolingian (School of Rheims) ; mid. 

9th century ... 

MS. Book of the Gospels, written in gold, opening page 
of St. Matthew. Carolingian (School of Rheims) ; mid. 

9th century ........ 

44. MS. Life of St. Edmund. English (Bury St. Edmunds) ; 

beginning of the 12th century. .... 109 

MS. Life of St. Edmund. English ; first half of the 

12th century ........ 109 


II.— IN TEXT. 

FIG. PAGE 

1. Marble Door Jamb. Visigothic ; 6th-8th century . 2 

2. Plaster Cast. Bust of Madame du Barry. . . 3 

3. Base of a Candelabrum, bronze. Italian ; early 16th 

century ......... 4 

4. Amphitrite ; marble statuette. Perhaps by Germain 

Pilon (1535-1590) 5 

5. Head of a Young Hero ; relief in stucco. Florentine ; 

2nd half of the 15th century. .... 6 

6. Statuette, in box-wood. Probably by a Fleming ; late 

16th or early 17th century ..... 7 

7. Relief of the Crucifixion ; morse ivory. English ; 

nth century ........ 8 

8. Five Joys of the Virgin ; stone altarpiece. English ; 

2nd half of the 14th century ..... 9 

9. Dr. Salmon ; bust in lead. English ; 18th century . 10 

10. Mary Salmon ; bust in lead. English ; 18th century . 11 

11. An Emperor and his Son ; figures in painted wood. 

Chinese ; 15th century ...... 12 


vm 


FIG. PAGE 

12. Bowl; blue and white porcelain. Ming dynasty. . 14 

13. Fragments of unglazed ware, from Fostat. . . 15 

14. Valencian Drug-Pot ; blue and white earthenware. 

15th century ........ 16 

15. Figure of a Dancing Youth ; porcelain. English . 17 

16. Bowl ; blue and white earthenware. Kutahia ; 16th 

century ......... 19 

17. Soup Tureen ; faience. Marseilles .... 20 

18. Jug ; earthenware. Hamburg ; 17th century . . 21 

19. Opaque Bristol Glass 27 

20. Plate, with a marbled decoration. Sung dynasty . . 29 

21. Stained Glass Figure of King Joash. English ; 

14th century ........ 31 

22. Design, one of the spandrels of the Choir, St. Paul’s 

Cathedral, by the late Sir W. B. Richmond, B.A. . 33 

23. Proof of Woodcut. By Albrecht Altdorfer . . 34 

24. Poster, “ Hamlet.” By Wm. Nicholson and James 

Pryde ......... 37 

25. Drawing, by Sir E. Burne Jones .... 39 

26. Rochard. Georgiana Caroline, second daughter of Sir 

Henry Watkin Dashwood, Bart., afterwards Lady 
Astley. Miniature ....... 49 

27. Sir William Ross, R.A. Mrs. Bacon. Miniature . 50 

28. Mace ; silver gilt. English ; 1663 .... 56 

29. Goblet ; silver. Zurich mark for 1627 .... 60 

30. Lock ; wrought iron ; from Beddington House, Surrey. 

English ......... 62 

31. Cream Jug ; silver. English ; 18th century . . 63 

32. Burgonet ; repousse and damascened with gold and 

silver, in the later manner of Lucio Picinino, of Milan ; 
about 1570 ........ 64 


IX 


FIG. PAGE 

33. Woven Linen Cloth. From Egypt ; 18th dynasty . 71 

34. Silk Velvet. Persian (Kashan) ; 17th century. . 77 

35. Front of a Chasuble ; Italian silk brocade. 15th 

century ........ 78 

36. Purse ; embroidered. English ; late 16th or early 17th 

century 79 

37. Chest, from a Surrey Church. English ; 13th century . 81 

38. Box for Incense, Cover ; Japanese lacquer. 18th 

century (early) ....... 85 

39. Box for Incense, Cover ; Japanese lacquer. 18th 

century (middle) ....... 85 

40. Misericord, from St. Nicholas Chapel, King’s Lynn. 

15th century ........ 87 

41. Misericord, from St. Nicholas Chapel, King’s Lynn. 

15th century ........ 88 

42. Arm Chair; oak. Dated 1689. .... 89 

43. “ Picture Dummys,” from East Sutton Park, Kent, in 

costume of about 1630 ...... 90 

44. End of Man’s Girdle ; “ Ikat ” woven silk and cotton. 

I. of Bali ; 19th century. ..... 91 

45. Relief Figure, Uma, volcanic rock. E. Javanese ; 

early 15th century ....... 98 

46. Writer’s Box (Qalamdan ivory, N. Indian, Benares) ; 

17th century ........ 99 

47. Repousse Copper Panel ; Nur Jahan Begam. N. Indian 

(Lucknow) ; 2nd half of 18th century . . . 100 

48. Man’s Robe ; hand painted cotton. Mogul (Masulipatam) ; 

late 17th century ....... 101 

49. End of Ceremonial Girdle (Patka) ; hand painted 

cotton. Mogul (Masulipatam) ; late 17th century . 102 

50. Chair; walnut. English ; late 17th century . . 105 


x 


List of Donors in 1921. 


h.m. the queen. 

Mrs. Abbey. 

Mrs. Oswald L. Addison. 

Sir Charles and Lady Allom. 

A. E. Anderson, Esq. 

Miss Mary A. R. Anderson. 

Lieut. -Col. R. G. Gayer-Anderson. 
F. E. Andrews, Esq. 

Victor Ames, Esq. 

C. R. Ashbee, Esq. 

Miss E. M. Balguy. 

Anthony Raine-Barker, Esq. 

Miss Kathleen M. Barrow. 

C. H. Baskett, Esq., A.R.E. 
Algernon Bathurst, Esq. 

Hallet G. Batten, Esq. 

T. Batterbury, Esq. 

R. P. Bedford, Esq. 

George Belcher, Esq. 

Edward Benjamin, Esq. 

Evelyn Bergne, Esq. 

The late Frank Bergne, Esq. 

The late Lady Bergne. 

Harvey Bloom, Esq. 

Messrs. Bluett and Son. 

Walter Bonwick, Esq. 

Trustees of British Museum. 

Miss Rosalind H. Brooke. 

Misses Buckingham. 

Martin A. Buckmaster, Esq. 

Miss L. Holland Bullock. 

C. T. Burke, Esq. 

Mrs. J. Percy Callard. 

J. Percy Callard, Esq. 

Mrs. B. Calmar. 

C. H. Campbell, Esq. 

Arthur du Cane, Esq. 

Mrs. Carew. 

Richard Carline, Esq. 

K. Camig, Esq. 

The Hon. Mrs. Carpenter. 
Howard Carter, Esq. 

Miss Cazenove. 


Miss A. J. Challinor. 

Miss Chamberlin. 

T. Charbonnier, Esq. 

Mrs. Chichester. 

Mrs. Clarke. 

Louis C. G. Clarke, Esq. 

Miss E. Close. 

Alan S. Cole, Esq., C.B. 

The Governors of the College of Estate 
Management. 

H. O. Collyer, Esq. 

Messrs. Colnaghi. 

Miss Compton. 

Miss Emily Connor. 

Miss Venetia Cooper. 

E. R. T. Corbett, Esq. 

Lady Cory. 

Colonel R. C. Cottell. 

Mrs. Crabb. 

The Dowager Countess of Crawford. 
Harold Curwen, Esq. 

Mrs. Cushion. 

Mrs. A. E. Dallas. 

Alfred Darby, Esq. 

H. B. Darby, Esq. 

Edmund Davis, Esq. 

Stuart Davis, Esq. 

Mukul Dey, Esq. 

Lieut. -Col. Kenneth Dingwall, D.S.O. 
Mrs. Dodgshon. 

The late Maurice Drake, Esq. 

Miss Emily Druitt. 

Miss Edith Durham. 

Will Dyson, Esq. 

Herbert Eccles, Esq. 

F. C. Eeles, Esq. 

General Sir Raleigh Egerton, K.C.B., 
K.C.I.E. 

Miss Isabella Emerson. 

Mrs. A. E. England. 

Miss Erskine. 

Mervyn Eustace, Esq. 

Lady Evans. 


XI 


Miss Falcke. 

A. H. Fass, Esq. 

Messrs. Faulkner & Son. 

Signor Nino Ferrari. 

Miss Louise M. Festing. 

Frank Findlay, Esq. 

Stanhope Alexander Forbes, Esq., R.A. 
Mrs. Furze. 

A. Garabed, Esq. 

Dr. and Mrs. Bellamy Gardner. 

F. Garrett, Esq., senr. 

J. Burnet Geake, Esq. 

Miss M. R. Gloag. 

Messrs. Goodall & Co. 

The late the Right Hon. Earl of Gosford. 
Mrs. Gordon Gratrix. 

Edward Grindlay, Esq. 

Mrs. Grove. 

C. Reginald Grundy, Esq. 

Mrs. Guest. 

O. C. H. Gutekunst, Esq. 

Martin Hardie, Esq., R.E. 

Mrs. F. D. Harford. 

Mrs. Hargreaves. 

W. H. Hammond, Esq. 

E. Harris, Esq., I.S.O. 

Lionel Harris, Esq. 

Edward Hart, Esq. 

S. Hart, Esq. 

F. N. Haward, Esq. 

Gerald Hayes, Esq. 

Mrs. Hemming. 

Miss E. H. Henderson. 

Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A. 

Miss Edith J. Hipkins. 

Mrs. Hollway. 

The Honorable Bedford Level 
Corporation. 

Rene de l’Hopital, Esq. 

G. D. Homblower, Esq. 

Miss Phyllis M. Home. 

The late Alick G. Horsnell, Esq., A. R.E. 

(Executors of). 

Mrs. Hulburd. 

Alfred E. Hutton, Esq. 

R. Ihlee, Esq. 

Secretary of State for India. 

Basil Ionides, Esq. 

Augustus John, Esq. 

xii 


E. Borough Johnson, Esq. 

Alfred Jones, Esq. 

H. H. Joseph, Esq. 

Captain Cyril Joynson. 

The Hon. Rachel Kay. 

Miss E. G. Kemp. 

Joseph Keyes, Esq. 

Mrs. King. 

Johannes Kragh, Esq. 
Brigadier-General Lake. 

F. A. Lart, Esq. 

The Hon. Mrs. Leaf. 

The London Underground Electric 
Railways Company. 

Mrs. Isabella Low. 

E. V. Lucas, Esq. 

The Directors of the Lyric Theatre, 
Hammersmith. 

Mrs. Donald MacAlister. 

John McEwan, Esq. 

Miss E. P. McGhee. 

Robert Holland Martin, Esq., C.B. 

Miss Matthey. 

Brigadier-General Sir Gilbert Mellor, 
K.B.E. 

Miss M. Melvill. 

Professor Gyula Mihalik. 

Robert Mond, Esq. 

H. C. Mossop, Esq. 

H. A. Murrey, Esq. 

The late Sir Robert Nathan, K.C.S.I., 
C.I.E. 

The National Art-Collections Fund. 
Major L. V. Neame. 

Mrs. Nettlefold. 

Mrs. Horace Nevill. 

Miss F. M. Norton. 

Mrs. Lin torn- Orman. 

Lieut.-Col. F. C. S. Sambome-Palmer, 
C.B.E. 

Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Railway 
Company. 

E. A. Patten, Esq. 

C. P. Peak, Esq. 

Dyson Perrins, Esq. 

Playhouse Syndicate, Uxbridge. 

Dame Una Pope-Hennessy, D.B.E, 
William J. Pountney, Esq. 

Mrs. Atherton Powell. 


Mrs. Press. 

Leonard Charles Price, Esq. 

Mrs. Hope Proctor. 

Mrs. Prossor. 

E. G. Raphael, Esq. 

Messrs. Restall Brown & Clennell. 
Charles Ricketts, Esq. 

Victor Rienaecker, Esq. 

W. P. Robins, Esq., R.E. 

Lady Rolleston. 

Professor W. Rothenstein. 

The Royal Commissioners of the 1851 
Exhibition. 

Archibald G. B. Russell, Esq., 
Lancaster Herald. 

C. L. Rutherston, Esq. 

Miss J. Z. Ryan. 

Sir Michael Sadler, C.B., K.C.S.I. 

Mrs. Lilian Sage. 

G. Saville Seligman, Esq. 

Lieut. -Col. C. H. Sheppard. 

The late J. Sherlock, Esq. 

Miss Rose Shipman. 

T. A. Simonson, Esq. 

A. D. Howell Smith, Esq. 

Arthur Myers Smith, Esq. 

Hugh V. Smith, Esq. 

Collier T. Smithers, Esq. 

Major R. H. Raymond Smythies. 

Miss R. F. Speid. 

The late Julius Spier, Esq. 

Miss Helen Squire. 


W. Barclay Squire, Esq. 

Mrs. C. Staniforth. 

Mill Stephenson, Esq. 

H. M. Philipson-Stow, Esq. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland. 
Thomas Sutton, Esq. 

George Swift, Esq., J.P. 

Misses Alma-Tadema. 

The Venerable Donald Tate. 

Mrs. Taylor. 

Frederick Tessier, Esq. 

The late Michael Tomkinson, Esq. 

(Family of). 

Mrs. Thompson. 

H. Stuart Thompson, Esq. 

Mrs. Alec Tweedie. 

Sydney Vacher, Esq. 

Mrs. Ward. 

Captain Victor A. Ward. 

Major E. A. Weinholt. 

Lord Gerald Wellesley. 

Major T. B. Weston. 

Miss Frances E. White. 

Konsul Hjalmar Wicander. 

Mrs. Bevan Williams. 

Frederick Ernest Williams, Esq. 

J. Williams, Esq. 

Miss E. Wilson. 

Leslie J. Wood, Esq. 

Percy Woods, Esq., C.B. 

H.M. Office of Works. 

George W. Younger, Esq. 


List of Bequests in 1921. 


Mrs. Clara Boulnois. 

S. J. A. Churchill, Esq., M.V.O. 
Edward William Colt, Esq. 
David M. Currie, Esq. 

Henry Pulsford Hobson, Esq 
Miss Hannah A. Irving. 

Mile Antoinette Legat. 


Sir Douglas William Owen, K.B.E. 
Lady Pilkington. 

Sir William Blake Richmond, R.A. 
Miss H. H. Tatlock. 

Lady Wantage. 

H. P. I. Warburton, Esq. 


Erratum. 

Pages XII. and 74. The Hon. Rachel Kay should read 
The Hon. Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth. 


xiii 



















■ 
























































. 

, 


. 










ACQUISITIONS. 


I.— DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND 
SCULPTURE. 

T HE year 1921 was a singularly fortunate one for the 
Department of Architecture and Sculpture. By gift, 
bequest, and purchase important additions were made 
to every branch of its collections. The most outstanding 
acquisition was the bust of an Englishman (Mr. Baker ?) 
by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), purchased at the 
Beaudesert sale in July. Three ivories of the first importance 
were purchased ; a relief of the filling of the water-pots at 
the Marriage of Cana, Alexandrian work of the 6th century, 
an English pectoral cross of the nth century and a crucifix 
figure, probably English work of the 14th century. 

From the Engel-Gros sale in June the Department acquired 
a stucco relief, possibly a cast from the lost bronze relief of 
Alexander the Great, by Andrea Verrocchio (1435-1488). 
Other important additions to the Italian Collections included 
a bronze Cupid of the school of Donatello, part of the David M. 
Currie Bequest, and a fine boxwood statuette of Epictetus 
of the late 16th or early 17th century. 

Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A., gave an important Romanesque 
head, a Visigothic door-jamb and other details of Spanish 
architectural work. 

A body of friends presented a fine alabaster figure of 
St. Christopher, of the 15th century, in memory of the late 
Cecil Duncan Jones. A gap in the French Collections was 
filled by the bequest by Mile Antoinette Legat, of a marble 
statue of Amphitrite, perhaps by Germain Pilon (i 535 _i 59 0 )* 


1 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture (Gifts). 

(i) GIFTS. 

DR. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A., added to the group of Spanish 
work he had already presented to the Museum a fine marble 

door- j amb (Fig. i ) , 
which, by com- 
parison with close- 
ly similar jambs 
in the Museum at 
Merida, can per- 
haps be described 
as Visigothic work 
of the 6th-8th 
century. An in- 
teresting Spanish 
Romanesque 
head, betraying 
strong French in- 
fluence, which had 
previously been 
on loan, was also 
presented by him, 
as well as aCatalan 
capital of the 14th 
century and three 
gravestones ; one 
complete and 
dated 982 a.d., 
two fragmentary. 
Apart from this 
group Dr. Hildburgh gave a charming little bronze Siamese 
head of the 14th century. Miss E. Wilson gave, in the name of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson, a very fine early plaster cast of the bust 
of Madame du Barry, by Augustin Pajou (1730-1828), the 



2 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture (Gifts). 

original of which is now in the Louvre (Fig. 2). The German 
side of the collections was enriched by the gift by Mrs. Abbey 
of a wood relief, painted and gilded, of a Dominican saint, 
a palm-branch in his 
right hand, a book in 
his left. This relief, 
which was probably 
part of an altar-piece, 
is by a South German 
sculptor of the late 
15th or early 16th 
century. 

To the Italian 
bronzes was added a 
fine base, probably 
part of a candelabrum, 
decorated in high relief 
with heavy swags of 
fruit suspended from 
three ox-skulls, given 
by Mr. E. G. Raphael ; 
it is Venetian work of 
the early 16th century 
(Fig- 3 )- 

An important addi- 
tion to the growing 
collection of English 
mediaeval alabasters 
was made by the 
presentation of a large figure of St. Christopher of the 
15th century, standing upon a base of contemporary work- 
manship. This figure was given by a body of his friends in 
memory of Cecil Duncan Jones, “ who, after full three years 

3 



(17074) 


B 



Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture (Gifts). 


devotion to his fellow-captives in Ruhleben, died in England 
on the eve of the Armistice ” ( Plate i, Fig. a). 

A typical example of 18th-century English relief work — 
a portrait of Sir Cloudesley Shovel — was presented by 



Mr. O. C. H. 
Gutekunst. A 
fine double 
doorway of 
pine , with 
fluted pilasters 
and a Gothic 
Chippendale 
fanlight, from 
a house in 
Eltham, was 
given by Mr. 
T. Batterbury. 
Mr. A. E. 
Anderson gave 
a bronze cast 
of the “ Fallen 
Workman," 
by the late 
H . Gaudier 
Brzeska. 


Fig- 3 - 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

BY the will of Mr. David M. Currie, the collection formerly 
on loan in the Museum passed into its permanent possession. 
The most important object thus acquired by the Department 
was the large bronze Cupid of the school of Donatello, another 


4 



I 



St. Christopher ; statuette in 

ALABASTER. ENGLISH; FIRST HALF 
OF THE 15TH CENTURY. 

GIVEN IN MEMORY OF DUNCAN JONES, ESQ. 


St. Barbara; statuette in 

ALABASTER. ENGLISH FIRST HALF 
OF THE I 5 TH CENTURY. 




Plate 2 



Cupid ; figure in bronze. 

School of Donatello. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture [Bequests). 

example of which is in the Este Collection, formerly at Vienna, 
and now at Modena ( Plate 2). 

In addition to this statuette, 
there is a bronze figure repre- 
senting Apollo, imitated from 
the Apollo Belvedere, which 
is possibly the work of Antico 
(1460-1528), and a bronze 
group of Silenus with the 
infant Bacchus, 16th-century 
Italian work. With these came 
a small but choice collection 
of plaquettes by Enzola, 

Moderno, Giovanni Bemardi 
and other artists. 

An important gap in the 
French Collections was filled 
by the bequest by Mile. 

Antoinette Legat of a 16th- 
century marble statuette of 
Amphitrite, perhaps the work 
of Germain Pilon (1535-1590) . 

The nymph is naked, holding 
a light drapery in her left 
hand ; at her feet are three 
dolphins {Fig. 4). 

Lady Pilkington bequeathed 
five Japanese ivory carvings. 

Fig. 4. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

IN July the Department purchased one of the most important 
acquisitions of recent years at the Beaudesert sale in the marble 

5 



B 2 




Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture [Purchases). 


bust of an Englishman, most probably to be identified as 
Mr. Baker, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680). This 
bust, which is the only authenticated marble bust by the 

sculptor in a 
museum outside 
Italy, hardly falls 
short of the 
artist’s highest 
level, and must 
rank with any of 
the masterpieces 
of sculpture in the 
Museum Collec- 
tions. The blank 
pupil-less eyes are 
rare in Bernini’s 
work, but the 
subtle modelling 
of the face and the 
treatment of the 
natural growth of 
loose hair are 
characteristic. 
The bust, which 
is mounted on a 
painted wood 
pedestal of Enghsh 
Fig. 5. workmanship of 

about 1730, was 

formerly in the cohections of Sir Peter Lely, the Duke of 
Kent, the Earl of Hardwicke, Earl Cowper and the Marquis 
of Anglesey [Frontispiece ). 1 It stood for many years on the 

1 This bust has been published in the Burlington Magazine, Vol. XI, February 1922. 

6 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture ( Purchases ). 


staircase at No. 4, St. James’s Square, whence it was removed 
to Beaudesert, and there the Museum 
was fortunate enough to acquire it. 

At the Engel-Gros sale in Paris in 
June a stucco relief was purchased of 
a warrior wearing a helmet, at the 
back of which is a coiling dragon. This 
relief, which resembles the marble 
Scipio in the Louvre, was perhaps 
moulded from the lost bronze profile 
of Alexander the Great, by Andrea 
Verrochio (1435-1488) (Fig. 5). Other 
purchases included a wax model for a 
monument of Pope Alexander VII, by 
Dorastante D’Osio, dated 1660, 
formerly in the possession of George 
Richmond and his son Sir William 
(so long associated with the work of 
the Museum), and a portrait medallion 
in marble of King Alfonso V, of 
Naples, of the 15th century. A fine 
boxwood statuette of a naked man, 
representing Epictetus, probably by a 
Fleming working in the late 16th or 
early 17th century, was also bought 
(Fig. 6). 

The collection of ivories was enriched 
by the' addition of three carvings of 
the highest quality purchased from an 
English private collection. The first 
and most important of these was the 
relief 1 of the filling of the water-pots at the Marriage of 

1 This relief is discussed at length in the Burlington Magazine, Vol. XXXVIII, April 1921. 



Fig. 6. 


7 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture ( Purchases ). 


Cana (Plate 3). The upper part of the panel, which has 
been lost, represented the Wedding Feast, and the central 
figure was offering a cup to Christ ; this may be seen by 
comparison with the relief of the same subject on the 
Salerno i>aliotto . which appears to be imitated from it. This 

relief and others of the 
series in the Museo Archeo- 
logico at Milan, the Musee 
de Cluny in Paris, the 
British Museum and this 
Museum in all probability 
formed part of the lost 
ivory “ Chair of St. Mark ” 
at Grado. The provenance 
is likely to be Alexandria, 
the date 6th century. 

An interesting acquisi- 
tion for the Bryan Bequest 
is the relief of the Cruci- 
fixion, with the symbols 
of the Four Evangelists 
in morse ivory (Fig. 7), 1 
arranged as a pectoral cross 
with cavities at the back 
for relics, which is probably 
English work of the nth 
century. It is said to have 
been found in Gloucester- 
shire, and may be compared with a much smaller pectoral 
cross in the British Museum found at Lewes. The arrangement 
of the crucifix figure, with the Dextera Dei above, may be 
paralleled in the undoubtedly English Roods at Romney 
and elsewhere. Thirdly, the Museum acquired a very fine 

1 This relief is described in the Burlington Magazine, Vol. XLVI, February 1925. 

8 



Fig. 7. 



Plate 3 



The Miracle at Cana ; relief in ivory. Early Christian 
(Alexandrian ?) ; 6th century. 



Plate 4 



Christ on the Cross ; statuette in ivory. English , 

CHRIST ON HALf QF THE I4TH CENTURY. 

(The arms and feet are restorations.) 


FIRST 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture (Purchases). 

figure of Christ on the Cross (Plate 4). The figure, the hands 
and feet of which have been restored, is rather different in 
style from the contemporary French statuettes. The arrange- 
ment of the legs, the modelling of the torso and the treatment 



Fig. 8. 

of the drapery are distinctive, and it is probable that this 
ivory is of English workmanship of the 14th century. 

The English side of the mediaeval collection was further 
added to by a small group of architectural details of the 


9 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture ( Purchases ). 

13th and 14th centuries acquired from the Architectural 
Association. With these details came two alabaster reliefs 
of the 15th century, representing the Martyrdom of St. 

Catherine and the 
Coronation of the 
Virgin. These were 
exhibited at the 
Society of Anti- 
quaries in 1910 
(Catalogue Nos. 43 
and 13). Later in 
the year a statuette 
of St. Barbara, of 
very fine quality, 
was purchased, the 
robe retaining much 
of the original blue 
colouring ( Plate 1, 
Fig. b). A stone 
altar-piece of the 
14th century, from 
Sutton Valence 
Church, was also 
bought. The altar 
originally had five 
panels carved with 
the Five Joys of 
the Virgin, but the 
two outside reliefs are missing 1 {Fig. 8). Two lead 
busts, in singularly good condition, of Dr. Salmon and his 
wife Mary, were purchased, which are almost certainly 

1 See Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. XXXVI, p. 149, 1923. 

10 





Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture (Purchases). 

the work of the sculptor, Francois Roubiliac (1695-1762) 
(Figs. 9 and 10). 

For the collection of Chinese sculpture were bought a small 
figure of Kuanyin in 
painted and gilded 
wood and a colossal 
head of a Bodhisatva, 
also in wood, but 
painted over a 
coating of gesso, both 
of the Sung dynasty 
(960-1260) ; also two 
fine statuettes of 
an emperor and his 
son, holding votive 
tablets, in wood, 
painted and gilded 
over gesso (Fig. 11), 
and a small por- 
trait statuette of a 
bearded man in 
marble, the former 
probably 15 th cen- 
tury in date, the 
latter 17th century. 

A little Canton 
ivory relief of fine 
quality, of a peasant 
woman and her baby, was also acquired. 

Finally a sardonyx cameo of a mythological subject, 
formerly in the Arundel, Marlborough and Heseltine Collec- 
tions, in a moulded frame of gilt metal, which was 



11 


Dept, of Architecture and Sculpture [Purchases). 

exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of 
Italian Art, 1 was bought at a sale. This exceedingly 
beautiful cameo is Italian work of the first half of the 
16th century. 

1 1912. Catalogue, p. 139, No. 8. 



Fig. 11. 


12 




II.— DEPARTMENT OF CERAMICS. 


T HE year 1921 was marked for the Department by three 
important benefactions. The Currie Bequest brought in 
additions of first rank to the series of Limoges enamels, 
Italian maiolica and European porcelain. The Murray Bequest 
funds served for the acquisition of fine examples of Swiss 
stained glass and German porcelain. A generous gift from 
Mr. C. H. Campbell included valuable specimens of pottery 
of widely various dates and origin, helping to fill several 
conspicuous gaps in the collections. These accessions, with 
a large number of minor gifts and some important purchases, 
mark the year as one in which notable progress was made in 
the growth of the Department. 

(1) GIFTS. 

AMONGST Chinese wares acquired by gift in this year the only 
pre-Ming piece was an unglazed pottery disc from the late 
Mr. Julius Spier. It is similar in character to that illustrated 
by Dr. Berthold Laufer, Chinese Pottery of the Han Dynasty 
[Plate 54), and may be ascribed to the Han dynasty (218 b.c.- 
a.d. 220 ). These objects were intended as symbolical weights 
for grave-clothes. 1 

Of Ming dynasty wares, the Museum received several 
interesting specimens, the most unusual being a blue-and-white 
porcelain bowl (Fig- 12), presented by Mr. Herbert Eccles. 
Intended for holding hot food, it has a double body to be filled 
with hot water, with a hole in the base for the insertion of a 
stopper ; it is painted with equestrian figures in landscapes 
in the free style which is associated with the 15th century. 
Five other specimens of blue-and-white, probably the output 

1 See Laufer, Jade, p. 306. 


13 


Dept, of Ceramics ( Gifts ). 

of provincial Chinese kilns, were given through the National 
Art-Collections Fund by Lt.-Col. K. Dingwall, D.S.O., as well 
as a small bowl, painted in red, green and lavender-blue 
enamels, which may also be assigned to some small private 

factory. A fine 
covered bowl 
of plain white 
porcelain of 
the reign of 
Wan Li (1573- 
1619) was re- 
ceived in the 
gift ofMr. C.H. 
Campbell (see 
p. 19); it be- 
longs to the 
class with 
decoration 
partly per- 
forated and 
partly in 
high relief, in 
biscuit, the 
ground only 
being glazed. 
Sir Michael 

Sadler, K.C.S.I., C.B., gave a cylindrical vase of glazed cream- 
coloured porcelain, with incised decoration in panels, which 
probably represents the continuation during the Ming period of 
the Ting type of Sung times. Sixteen pieces of blue-and-white, 
mostly of the reign of K‘ang Hsi (1662-1722), were given 
from the collection of the late Sir Henry Bergne, K.C.B. 

A most important collection of pottery fragments from 






Dept, of Ceramics ( Gifts ). 


Egypt, comprising over a thousand specimens, was given by 
Mr. G. D. Homblower. The collection was formed on the spot 
by the donor, and includes a number of lustre pieces excavated 
at Behnesa in Upper Egypt, and similar in type to those found 
at Samarra, in 
Mesopotamia, 
during the 
excavations 
of Professor 
Sarre and 
Dr. Herzfeld. 1 
Samarra was 
founded about 
a.d. 838, and 
was the capital 
of the Cali- 
phate until 
about 883, 
when it was 
completely 
abandoned ; 
whether the 
Behnesa frag- 
ments were 
made in Egypt 
or Mesopota- 
mia, they may Fig. 13. 

therefore 

probably be dated to the 9th century. They offer, however, 
close analogies to wares found in Spain at Medina-az-Zahra, 
the residence for a short period in the 10th century of 
the Caliphs of Cordova. The majority of Mr. Homblower’s 

1 See Sarre in Der Islam, Vol. V, 1914, p. 180. and in Berliner Museen, Benchte, Vol. XLIII, 
pp. 49-60. 


15 




Dept, of Ceramics ( Gifts ). 


pieces came from the rubbish heaps of Fostat (Old Cairo), 
and range in date from the ioth century to the 16th, in which 

latter the city was sacked. 
It seems probable that the 
larger number are of local 
manufacture, although the 
collection includes a quan- 
tity of obviously foreign 
pieces, such as Chinese 
porcelain and lustre ware 
from Spain. The pre- 
sumed local productions 
exhibit varying tech- 
niques, including lustre 
painting, incised decoration 
under coloured glazes, 
painting in blue and other 
colours under a clear glaze, 
as well as the familiar 
sgraffiato and slip wares of 
the Mameluke potteries ; 
amongst them are also 
representatives of the 
pottery in unglazed clay, 
both stamps with relief 
designs for ornamenting 
cakes and pierced strainers 
from the necks of jugs for 
cooling water. A fragment 
of this unglazed ware 
similarly pierced with an 



Fig. 14. 


exceptional design of figures, from a vessel of uncertain form and 
intention, is illustrated, with other selected fragments, in (Fig. 13). 

16 


Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts). 

A fine Valencian drug-pot (Fig. 14) of blue-and-white 
earthenware was given in the name of the late Mr. Frank 
Bergne, to whom it had belonged ; this rare piece, dating from 
the 15th century, is 
painted on both sides 
with the eagle of St. John 
the Evangelist, the device 
of the city of Valencia. 

Gifts of English porce- 
lain included an interesting 
little figure of a dancing 
youth (Fig. 15) .* It was 
given by Mr. Alfred E. 

Hutton, and bears the 
hitherto unrecorded mark 
of a Y within a triangle, 
enclosed by a circle. It 
shows close analogies in 
colouring and modelling 
with certain figures that 
have commonly been 
ascribed to Longton Hall, 
and was doubtless made 
in the same factory as 
they. Evidence is on 
the whole against a 
recent suggestion that 
these figures are to be 
regarded as early produc- 
tions of Derby. Mr. Dyson 
Perrins gave a Liverpool punch-bowl, which passed for many 
years as Worcester and was illustrated by Mr. R. L. Hobson, 

1 Reproduced in E. Hannover, Pottery and Porcelain, Vol. Ill, Fig. 854. 



17 


Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts). 

Worcester Porcelain (Plate 5), as possibly an example of the 
painting of Dr. Wall, the founder of the Worcester factory. 
The recent discoveries of Mr. P. Entwistle, in excavations on 
a site occupied by various Liverpool porcelain makers, establish 
that this bowl was really made at Liverpool, and with it go 
two jugs in the Schreiber Collection, No. 787. 1 A glazed 
white figure of a seated hound, given by Colonel Dingwall, 
appears to belong to a small group of figures that may be 
assigned to the earliest years of the Chelsea factory. 2 Dr. and 
Mrs. Bellamy Gardner gave a Bow cup, as well as a dish 
painted with feathers and with relief moulding identical with 
that on a waster fragment discovered recently in excavations 
on the site of the Bow factory ; a similar dish, however, in 
Dr. Gardner’s collection, which was published by him in 
The Connoisseur , Vol. LXV, p. 150, is marked with the red 
anchor of Chelsea. 

Mr. Alfred Darby gave a representative collection of over 
150 pieces of Salopian china. This ware was made between the 
years 1772 and 1799 at Caughley, in Shropshire. The earlier 
pieces are decorated with printing, or, less often, painting, 
in underglaze blue ; on later examples gilding .was commonly 
added to the blue, whilst enamel painting in colours was also 
employed. Several of the pieces in Mr. Darby’s Collection 
bear dates. Thirty-seven miscellaneous pieces of porcelain 
and earthenware were received from Mr. Arthur Myers Smith. 
They include good representatives of the simple patterns in 
use in several Staffordshire factories at the beginning of the 
19th century, which have never been surpassed in their 
appropriateness for the decoration of ordinary tea-table 
porcelain. Lt.-Col. Dingwall added to the small series in the 

1 These jugs were ascribed by Lady Charlotte Schreiber to Liverpool, but had latterly been 

assigned to Worcester on account of their similarity to the punch-bowl in question. 
a Others, in the Museum and elsewhere, are illustrated and discussed by William King, Chelsea 

Porcelain, Plate 11 and p. 22. 

18 


Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts). 

Museum of early Venice porcelain (from the Vezzi factory) 
a tea-pot with flower-painting in red and green. 

A large gift of miscellaneous wares was received from 
Mr. C. H. Campbell, including many pieces of great importance. 
Amongst Eastern wares, we may mention, besides the Wan Li 



Fig. 16. 

covered bowl already described on p. 14, a large blue-and-white 
Kutahia bowl of the 16th century (Fig. 16) and three other 
pieces of Turkish earthenware. The gift includes, further, 
four pieces of the red stoneware made by Bottger at Meissen. 
These exhibit various types of decoration employed by him. 
A tea-pot has facetted decoration cut on the lapidary s wheel, 
and, like a small pilgrim-bottle of late Renaissance form, is 
finished by polishing on the lathe ; a coffee-pot shows panels 

*9 


(17074) 


C 



Dept, of Ceramics ( Gifts ). 

alternately polished and moulded in relief ; the fourth piece, 
a small square bottle, is moulded in slight relief with charming 
chinoiseries. .Still another, and rare, method of decorating 
Bottger ware is exemplified by a square tray, the gift of Mr. 
Algernon Bathurst ; this tray, illustrated (Plate 5) with three 



Fig. 17. 

of the pieces from Mr. Campbell, is of chocolate-brown, 
not the usual red, body, and is painted with decoration in 
white and other enamel colours, thickly laid on. Mr. Campbell’s 
gift included several soup-tureens in faience and porcelain, 
illustrating the extraordinary richness and distinction of form 
achieved in Continental pottery of the baroque and rococo 
periods. Amongst them we may name specimens in Meissen, 
Sevres, Niderviller, Clignancourt, Copenhagen and Oude Loos- 
drecht porcelain, and a particularly fine example (Fig. 17) 
in faience from one of the factories at Marseilles. Other pieces 
calling for special mention in Mr. Campbell’s gift are a porcelain 


20 


Plate 5 



Bottger Stoneware. German (Meissen) ; early i8th century . 

GIVEN BY C. H. CAMPBELL, ESQ., AND ALGERNON BATHURST, ESQ. 


Plate 6 



Two LEAVES OF A TRIPTYCH ; PAINTED ENAMEL ON COPPER. 

Annunciation. French (Limoges) ; late 15TH century. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 



Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts ) , 


cream-jug, with painting in the Kakiemon style, made at 
Chelsea in the earliest days of the factory, a model of a cradle, 
decorated with the letters 
of the alphabet, in Stafford- 
shire slip ware of the 17th 
century, and specimens of 
various French wares of the 
iqth century. 

Mr. Alfred Darby gave 
with his collection of 
Salopian porcelain a speci- 
men of the rare enamelled 
earthenware made at 
Hamburg in the 17th 
century. This is a jug 
(Fig. 18) painted in blue 
with the arms of the city 
of Hamburg and the date 
1643. 1 Continental pottery 
is also represented by an 
interesting 16th - century 
maiolica tile from Liguria 
(Genoa or Savona), given 
by Signor Nino Ferrari, 
and by several examples 
of French and Spanish 
pottery, given by Mr. Stuart 
Davis, including specimens 
of Douay, Rambervillers, Fig. 18. 

Tavernes and Marans 

faience. Mr. Davis also gave some English pieces, including 

1 See Bernard Rackham, " Ein Hamburger Wappenkrug,” Der Cicerone, Heft 23, December 
1923, where the jug is fully described, 



Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts). 

a Liverpool delft char-pot, two pieces of Bristol delft, 
and a milk-jug of the red earthenware reputed to have 
been made by the Brothers Elers at Bradwell Wood, in 
Staffordshire, towards the end of the 17th century. Other 
gifts of English earthenware were a punch-bowl from 
Brigadier-General Sir Gilbert Mellor, K.B.E., painted on 
the outside with flowers and foliage in blue, olive-green, yellow, 
reddish-orange and purple, colours typical of a class of delft 
ware the origin of which, as between Liverpool and Bristol, is 
a matter of doubt ; and three tiles, from Mr. T. Charbonnier, 
painted in similar colours with figure subjects, which belong 
to the same disputed class. 

Miscellaneous gifts included those from Mr. F. E. Andrews 
(four pieces of Swansea and Nantgarw porcelain and a Sevres 
plate) ; Mr. R. P. Bedford (fragment of Chinese porcelain) ; 
The Bedford Level Corporation (cut-glass decanter) ; Messrs. 
Bluett and Son (modem porcelain jar of Chun type) ; Mrs. 
Carew (Meissen snuff-box) ; Mr. K. Carnig (Rhages fragment) ; 
Miss Cazenove (Clignancourt inkstand) ; Mr. Rene de 
l’Hopital (Talavera earthenware dish) ; Lt.-Col. K. Dingwall, 
D.S.O. (model of a Japanese travelling-chest of Ninsei ware, 
pair of Ludwigsburg figures of Apollo and Hebe, Bristol delft 
plate, bust of Napoleon from the Herculaneum Pottery, 
Liverpool, and several pieces of modem pottery) ; the late 
Mr. Maurice Drake (several fragments of stained glass) ; 
Mr. Herbert Eccles (Worcester leaf-shaped dish, with a copy 
of the red anchor mark of Chelsea, and two other pieces of 
English porcelain) ; Lady Evans (Canton enamel pipe, Leeds 
bowl and two Copenhagen plates) ; Mr. Frank Findlay (five 
specimens of Castle Hedingham ware) ; Mr. J. Burnet Geake 
(Mason’s ironstone china mantelpiece) ; Mr. A. Garabed 
(Persian bowl and earthenware hand-grenade from Rakka) ; 
Mr. Edward Hart (Japanese 17th-century porcelain drinking 


22 


Dept, of Ceramics (Gifts). 


vessel of the form often used as a hookah-base) ; Dr. W. L. 
Hildburgh (modem bowl made at Patema, near Valencia) ; 
Miss Edith J. Hipkins (two panels of Dutch heraldic enamel- 
painted glass) ; Mr. Basil Ionides (two printed Liverpool tiles) ; 
Mr. F. A. Lart (three decanters of coloured Bristol glass) ; 
Mrs. Donald MacAlister (a Liverpool stone-china char-pot) ; 
Mr. H. C. Mossop (five De Morgan tiles) ; Mr. H. A. Murrey 
(collection of cut-glass chandelier drops) ; Mr. William J. 
Pountney (fragments of pottery found on the site of the kiln 
at Railshead Creek, Isleworth) ; Mr. Hugh V. Smith (Stafford- 
shire earthenware bust of Milton) ; Major R. H. Raymond 
Smythies (two pieces of Russian porcelain) ; the late Mr. 
Julius Spier (Japanese earthenware model of a fan) ; 
Mr. H. M. Philipson-Stow (Worcester or Salopian saucer) ; 
Mr. George W. Younger (Spanish earthenware water-vessel) ; 
Mr. Leslie J. Wood (Chinese saucer of “ aster pattern,” with 
yellow ground). 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

THE bequest received during the year from the late Mr. 
David M. Currie brought many important accessions to the 
Department. These are of two main classes : Limoges painted 
enamels and Italian maiolica of the Renaissance period, and 
18th-century European porcelain. The enamels are seven 
in number. First in date come two wings of a triptych, 1 
painted with figures of the Archangel Gabriel and the Madonna 
(Plate 6), composing together the subject of the Annunciation. 
The figures, unsurpassed in richness of colouring, show the 
distinctive manner, apparent especially in the treatment of 
the faces, of the painter working about the end of the 15th 
century, who has been given from his principal work (in the 
Museum Collection, No. $$2— 1877) the name of the Master of 

1 This important enamel has been fully discussed and described by J. J. Marquet de Vasselot, 
Lcs Emcmx Limousins, 1921, pp. 158, 297-298. 


23 


Dept, of Ceramics {Bequests). 

the Louis XII Triptych. The remaining Limoges enamels are : 
Four plates painted by the artist signing “ I. C. ” (perhaps 
to be identified with Jean de Court), two from series repre- 
senting the labours of the months (one of them after an engraving 
by Etienne Delaune), another showing Joseph interpreting 
Pharaoh’s dream, after an engraving by Bernard Salomon of 
Lyons, and the fourth representing Aeneas carrying Anchises 
from the burning city of Troy ; lastly, two plates, painted 
by Suzanne de Court, with scriptural subjects, after Bernard 

Salomon. . , _ 

The Italian maiolica includes four pieces by h rancesco 
Xanto, painted at Urbino and lustred by Maestro Giorgio at 
Gubbio ; one represents Ascanius conducting Achates to Dido, 
and is adapted from an engraving of Alexander and Roxana 
by Caraglio after Raphael. Among the remaining maiolica 
pieces, three are of first-rate importance. A panel {Plate 7), 
with the Assumption of the Virgin, is a work of extraordinary 
beauty, in the manner of the Umbrian School ; it is by the 
same hand as the plate in the Museum (No. 11—1867), with 
a figure of St. James the Greater, and other well-known pieces, 
which were convincingly assigned by C. D. Fortnum to the 
workshop of Maestro Benedetto of Siena. An early Gubbio 
lustred plate is of interest from its subject, a group of suppliants 
at the tomb of St. Ubaldus, the patron of the city. Lastly, 
a bowl, with decoration of putti and early Renaissance 
ornament, may be identified as the work of the artist who 
signed his name Zona Mavia vyo (Giovanni Maria vasaro) on 
a celebrated bowl of 1508, which passed to America after the 
sale of the collection of the Duke of Newcastle in 1921. 

The porcelain in the Currie Bequest includes, firstly, a senes 
of over eighty fine specimens of Sevres, representing the 
development of the royal factory from its inception at 
Vincennes to the period of the Revolution. All the important 


24 


Plate 7 



Maiolica painting : The Assumption of the Virgin. Italian 

(Siena) ; early i6th century. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 


Plate 8 



Porcelain group, symbolical of Autumn, from a model by Kandler. 
German (Meissen) ; about 1765. 

PURCHASED UNDER THE TERMS OF THE BEQUEST OF CAPT. H. B. MURRAY. 



Dept, of Ceramics [Bequests). 

ground colours, which were the chief feature of Sevres 
decoration, are here represented, especially the bleu-de-roi, 
the turquoise blue, the green and the rose Pompadour . Two 
pieces of the rare yellow [jaune jonquille) and two of “ jewel 
decoration ” in applied enamels are also in the collection, 
while the figure-painting includes signed examples of military 
and marine subjects by Morin and pastoral groups by Dodin. 
An undoubted work of the latter artist, although unsigned, 
is a plate from a celebrated service in the Royal Collection, 1 
with mythological subjects in panels reserved on a bleu-de-roi 
ground. The middle subject is adapted from an engraving 
after Les Bacchantes Endormies, by Boucher ; the four panels 
on the rim are taken from illustrations in the edition of Ovid’s 
Metamorphoses published in Paris in 1768-1771, and from 
other sources. We may mention, lastly, a plate dated 1778 
from the service with classical cameos on a turquoise-blue 
ground made for the Empress Catherine II of Russia, and 
one made in 1773 for Madame du Barry, whose monogram 
it bears. English porcelain is represented in the bequest by 
part of a Worcester tea-service, with Chinese figures on a 
scale-blue ground, and five pieces of Chelsea of the gold 
anchor period ; there is also a fine Capodimonte figure of 
a youth. 2 

The funds of the Murray Bequest afforded the Museum 
opportunities of filling up deficiencies in the section of 
German porcelain. The most important of these acquisitions 
was a Meissen dinner-service, formerly in the Wilamowitz, 
Massey-Mainwaring and H. J. King Collections. 3 The service 
includes a centre-piece and two dessert-baskets, modelled in 
full relief, with figures of satyrs and Silenus on an ass, as well 

1 Other pieces of the service are illustrated in Guy Francis Laking, S&vres Porcelain of Buckingham 

Palace and Windsor Castle, pi. 59. 

2 Illustrated in Hannover, Pottery and Porcelain, Vol. Ill, Fig. 591. 

3 Sold at Christie’s as Lot 162 in the King Sale of May 6, 19141 and again as Lot 15 in the Sale 

of February 17, 1921. 


25 


Dept, of Ceramics {Bequests). 


as four tureens, each surmounted by a mythological figure. 
The pieces have a border of scale-pattern in salmon-red and 
relief moulding of the pattern known as “ Prussian musical 
designs” ; they are also painted with Oriental flowers in red and 
gold. The date is probably about 1770 ; the satyrs correspond 
in modelling with work known to have been executed by 
Johann Joachim Handler in 1771, while the relief pattern did 
not originate till 1765 } The scale-pattern is probably in 
imitation of contemporary Berlin porcelain, an influence 
which would naturally show itself after the victory of Frederick 
the Great in the Seven Years’ War. 

Another noteworthy specimen of Meissen porcelain is a 
centre-piece in three parts {Plate 8), representing Autumn in 
the guise of Bacchus carousing with a nymph and two infant 
fauns. The model is Handler's work of about 1750, but the 
present example cannot be earlier than 1763, for it bears the 
Meissen factory number impressed, and the system of 
numbering was only introduced in the latter year. 2 

The third acquisition is a group, in white Nymphenburg 
porcelain, of two lovers amongst rococo mins. This group, 
perhaps symbolical of Touch, from a set of the Five Senses, is 
the work of Franz Anton Bustelli, one of the most individual 
masters of his time. He was of Ticinese Swiss birth and 
worked at Nymphenburg from 1754 until his death in 1763. 3 

The funds of the Murray Bequest also enabled us to add to 
the collection of Swiss and South German glass paintings. 
A series of ten panels, latterly at Bamingham Hall, near 
Cromer, illustrating the story of Tobit {Plate 9), were painted 
in South Germany, probably at Ulm, from designs by Christoph 
Murer, of Zurich (b. 1558, d. 1614). A panel, with the story 

1 See Festive Publication , 1910, pp. 31, 65, 175. 

* A similar group in the Schlossmuseum, Berlin, is illustrated by L. Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 

Porzellan, 4th edition, Abb. 56, 57. 

8 A coloured version of this group, in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, is illustrated 

by F. H. Hofmann, Porzellan-Manufaktur Nymphenburg, Vol. II, Plate 10. 

26 


Dept, of Ceramics [Bequests). 


of the Clemency of Trajan and the arms of Hans Ulrich 
Dumeisen of Rapperschwyl, bears the signature of Johannes 
Kachler of Uri (b. 1597, d. 1628) ; another panel, with the 
same arms, and a painting of the Emperor Conrad at 
the siege of Weinsberg, is signed “ H.R.” and dated 1619. 



Fig. 19. 

The remaining purchases were two smaller heraldic panels, 
one Swiss, signed “ B.W.” and dated 1617, the other from 
Ulm, dated 1602. 

Another important bequest was that of nearly forty pieces 
of opaque Bristol glass from the late Mr. Edward William Colt. 
Before this accession this interesting development of the craft 
of glass-making was very poorly represented in the Museum 
collection. The Colt Bequest includes several pieces (such 
as those illustrated in Fig. 19), perhaps painted by Michael 
Edkins, whose work may also be recognised on porcelain 

27 


< 1 7074) 


D 



Dept, of Ceramics [Bequests). 


made about 1750 at Lowdin’s Glasshouse at Bristol. 1 Other 
bequests were several pieces of cut glass, mostly of French 
origin, from the Lady Bergne Collection, a set of chessmen in 
Martin ware from Mrs. Clara Boulnois, and a collection of 
seventeen Staffordshire enamelled boxes from Mr. H. P. I. 
Warburton. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

THE purchases of Chinese pottery in this year included two 
early specimens of figure-modelling which may be ascribed 
to the Northern Wei dynasty (386-549). Both are of unglazed 
earthenware with traces of painting. One has a black body 
and represents a man on a horse ; the other 2 seems to be 
a coolie running between the shafts of a litter or cart, of which 
doubtless there existed an accompanying model. Of Pang 
pottery (618-906) there should be mentioned a small pillow, 
with incised decoration filled in with green, brown and blue 
glazes, and a little cup with ring handle, of a form borrowed 
from contemporary silver. The Sung dynasty (960-1279) is 
represented, firstly, by a bottle of porcelain covered with a 
thick celadon-green glaze ; it is a product of the Lung-ch'iian 
factory, and belongs to the type known as kinuta celadon, 
kinuta being the Japanese word for mallet, in allusion to a 
certain famous mallet-shaped vase preserved in the temple of 
Bishamon at Kioto. Other celadons of the Sung dynasty 
are a small plate with marbled decoration (Fig. 20), and a little 
openwork vase with a pattern of dragons in relief, m which it 
has been suggested that Scytho-Siberian influences may be 
recognised. Ting wares of the same period include a large 
plate with a floral pattern in relief and a small hexagonal vase 
of delicate quality with a relief design of cloud-scrolls. A small 
white bowl, with relief decoration surrounding an unglazed 

1 Some of these glasses are illustrated in The Connoisseur , Vol. LXX, 1924. p. 76 (‘ Michael 
Edkins,” by Sir Gilbert Mellor). . QV 

51 Illustrated in “Chinese Art,” Burlington Magazine Monographs, 1925 (Ceramics, Plate 8 ). 

28 


Plate 9 



a uma^tuite uuntbir f*m 
u t»on flt’tt £lr«n uur 


f ten Mbit pm non iVtt £lt«n (hr 

ju«tJi)3U()ci imwatwfjjTfU 


: £&?z 


inu)p:3uiw 


Glass-Painting, from a series illustrating the story of 
Tobit. Swiss (Zurich) ; dated 1595. 

PURCHASED UNDER THE TERMS OF THE BEQUEST OF CAPT. H. B. MURRAY. 




Plate io 



Figure of enamelled earthenware. Lucretia. 
Portuguese (Rato) ; 1770-1775. 



Dept, of Ceramics {Purchases). 



ring, is probably a Ting piece of the Ming dynasty (1368- 
1643). Tz'u-chou pottery of the Sung period includes a tall 
ribbed oviform vase, with chocolate-brown glaze, a two- 
handled jar with foliated patterns reserved in the coating of 
white slip by the use of cut paper instead of the customary 
viscous “resist”; 
a flower-pot, with 
a fruit design, 
executed by cut- 
ting through a 
coating of slip 
and painting with 
spots of brown, 
and a covered 
bowl, with paint- 
ing in red, green 
and yellow. 

Among other 
Sung pieces may 
be named a 
crackled white- 
glazed bowl from 
the newly dis- 
covered Chi-chou 
factory, and a 


Fig. 20. 


somewhat similar jar of lobed form. Amongst the purchases 
of Ming porcelain are a few pieces of special interest. To 
the blue-and- white class belong a small jar with pencilled 
decoration, perhaps of the 15th century, 1 and a bowl with 
Mohammedan blue painting, which bears the mark of Ch'eng 
Hua (1465-1487), but was more probably made in the reign 
of Wan Li (1573-1619). The enamel-painted pieces are a 

1 Illustrated by R. L. Hobson, Wares of the Ming Dynasty, Plate 16. 


29 


(*7074) 


E 



Dept, of Ceramics {Purchases). 


saucer-dish, with floral decoration in blue on a yellow ground, 1 
of the reign of Hung-chih (1488-1505), a large early 16th- 
century jar, painted with a figure-subject in underglaze blue, 
with cherry-red enamel as a background, 2 and two small jars, 
decorated respectively with boys at play and fish among 
weeds, and including in their colour-scheme the turquoise-green 
enamel that seems to have passed out of use after the reign of 
Chia Ching (d. 1566). Amongst other miscellaneous specimens 
of Ming date is a covered box of white-glazed porcelain made 
from a mould similar to one given by Lady Lister in 1919. 
Of Corean porcelain two specimens were acquired, a wine-cup 
and stand with celadon glaze and a jar painted with flowers 
in red and green. A small figure of an elephant carrying a 
large basket, with brownish-purple glaze, is a rare piece of 
porcelain from the site of the ancient kilns at Sawankalok 
in Siam. Three pieces of early Chinese jade were also acquired. 

Ten pieces of Persian pottery were added by purchase 
during this year. Three of these are bowls of various types 
of the so-called “ Gabri ” ware, ascribed to the 9th or 10th 
centuries and decorated by the sgraffiato process, or by painting 
in brown and green. A fourth is painted in dark brown 
with stylised inscription. 

Thirty-seven fragments of pottery, found in excavations 
at Constantinople, appear to be Byzantine, of some period 
preceding the Turkish conquest in 1453. 

Other purchases of earthenware included thirteen fragments 
of Dutch enamelled earthenware of the Italian type, dug up 
in Amsterdam and Rotterdam ; a large blue-and- white Delft 
dish, 3 painted with semi-naturalistic flowers and marked with 

1 Illustrated by Hobson, op. cit., Plate 25. 

■ Illustrated in colours by R. L. Hobson and A. L. Hetherington, The Art of the Old Chinese 
Potter, Plate 130. 

* Illustrated in E. Neurdenburg, Old Dutch Pottery and Tiles, Fig. 44. 

30 


Dept, of Ceramics [Purchases). 



the monogram “ L.V.E.” (factory of Louwijs Fictoor, or 
of Lambertus van 
Eenhoom) a plain white 
faience figure of Lucretia 
[Plate io), made at the 
royal factory of Rato, 

Portugal, between 1770 
and 1775 1 ,‘ a large dish 
of uncertain origin, 
painted in blue, with a 
Chinese lady, marked 
“T.v.B.” and dated 
1753 ; a figure of a 
shepherd with a dog in 
hard red ware, unglazed, 
presumably made in 
Staffordshire in the 
early 18th century, and 
copied from a known 
original in bronze. 

Purchases of German 
porcelain included a cup 
and saucer with poly- 
chrome decoration of 
the Bottger period, 
another of blue-and- 
white with figure sub- 
jects added in colours 
outside the factory,^ 'a 
blue-and-white baroque 
flower-pot, and a plate 
with the arms of Ernst Johann Biron, Count of Livonia, 

1 See J. Queiroz, Ceramica Portugueza, Lisbon, 1907, Fig. 50, and p. 65. 


31 


Dept, of Ceramics (Purchases). 

Esthonia and Courland between 1730 and 1 737, all from the 
Meissen factory, and two of the figures of children modelled 
for the Hochst factory by Johann Peter Melchior. 

An important purchase of stained glass was a late 14th- 
century figure of King Joash (Fig. 21). This was formerly 
part of the Tree of Jesse in the East window of the chapel 
of Winchester College, from which it was removed when the 
windows of the chapel were restored in 1821, and had latterly 
been with five other figures, now in an American private 
collection, at Parham, Sussex. 


32 



Fig. 22. 


III.— DEPARTMENT OF ENGRAVING, ILLUSTRATION 

AND DESIGN. 

I T is pleasant to record that the list of donors to the 
Department of Engraving, Illustration and Design during 
1921 comprises 125 names. Their generosity has been of 
great value in strengthening the resources of the Department. 

In this Review, however, it is impossible to record the many 
thousands of drawings, prints, designs, etc., that have been 
given or purchased in the course of the year. They are 
catalogued in detail in the Departmental printed volume, 
Accessions, 1921, at the beginning of which a list of donors’ 
names is given. 

(1) ENGRAVING. 

THE most important individual addition to the collection of 
Engraved Ornament was a design for a dish ( Plate 11), by 
Hans Hirtz, who was working at Strassburg, c. 1590. The 
design is about 21 in. in diameter, executed in the “ dotted 

33 


Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design ( Engraving ). 



manner.” The subject is Neptune in a chariot drawn by three 
sea-horses, with surrounding pictures of centaurs, tritons, 
river-gods, etc. The style of the work, the vivacity of the 

composition and 
the expressive 
movements of the 
figures are, as has 
been confirmed 
by Dr. Jessen, of 
the Kunstgewerbe 
Museum, Berlin, 
all characteristic 
of the work of 
Hirtz. If the 
print is an original 
engraving, and 
not produced by 
rubbing from an 
actual dish, which 
for technical 
reasons seems 
unlikely, it would 
appear to be 
unique, and also 
to be the largest 
known print of 
this particular 
period and man- 
ner. 

Under the terms of Captain H. B. Murray’s Bequest, 
examples of engraved design for cups, jewellery, etc., of the 
16th century were bought, including work by H. Aldegrever, 
B. Beham, J. Binck and Alaert Claesz. Special attention 


34 



Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design ( Engraving ). 

may be drawn to a fine proof (from the Liphart Collection) 
of Albrecht Altdorfer’s woodcut (B. 59) of “ The Holy Family, 
with three angels, at a font ” (Fig. 23). Other purchases in 
this section filled gaps in the work of Delaune, Virgil Solis, 
P. Nolin, A. Muntinck, and other artists. 

The Museum has some brilliant proofs of Meryon’s etchings, 
and, to commemorate the centenary of his birth, these were 
publicly exhibited. The opportunity was taken of buying 
eight of his earlier works as an addition to the series, and four 
more were presented by Messrs. Colnaghi. Seventeen etchings 
by D. C. Read (1790-1851) were bought, and two by James 
Stark (1794-1859) were given by Mr. Sydney Vacher. The 
representation of the more modem school was greatly increased 
by many generous gifts. 

Mr. Stanhope Forbes, R.A., presented a series of proofs, 
forming an almost complete collection of the etched work of 
his late wife, formerly Miss Elizabeth A. Armstrong. Mrs. 
Forbes’s drypoints (Plate 12), made mainly between 1883 and 
1888, possess a sensitiveness and charm that demand much 
wider appreciation than they have received ; but, unfortu- 
nately, there are very few proofs from her plates in existence. 
To his kind gift, Mr. Stanhope Forbes added three water-colour 
drawings on which drypoints were based. A catalogue raisonnd 
of “ The Drypoints of Elizabeth Adela Forbes,” by A. K. Sabin, 
was published in The Print Collector’s Quarterly, Vol. IX, 
p. 75, 1922. A somewhat similar gift comprised twenty-one 
etchings by Alick G. Horsnell, given by Mrs. Furze, in memory 
of her brother, the artist, a young and talented etcher, who 
was killed in action on the French front on July 1, 1916. 
Mr. Sydney Vacher gave six drypoints by the late Claude 
Shepperson, A.R.A. ; Miss McGhee, three etchings by 
Beaufrere ; and Messrs Colnaghi, six drypoints by W. P. 
Robins, R.E. Work by other modem etchers added to the 

35 


Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design {Engraving). 

collection, mostly in the form of gifts, included three etchings 
by James McBey, one by Muirhead Bone, seven by Malcolm 
Osborne, A.R.A., R.E., nine by Percy Smith (including his 
series of “ The Dance of Death ”), and one by E. Blampied, 
R.E. Mr. George Belcher kindly gave a series of eleven of his 
etchings, coloured by hand, representing notable characters 
at the National Sporting Club and elsewhere. Two mezzotints 
and two etchings, by Sir Frank Short, R.A., P.R.E., were bought 
as an addition to the large collection of his work presented by 
the artist, in 1919, in memory of his son. 

There has been a growing interest in the modem revival of 
wood-engraving as a method of personal artistic expression, 
as distinct from its more mechanical use for reproductive 
purposes, exemplified by the book illustrations of the 'sixties. 
Among woodcuts acquired during the year are eighteen by 
Eric Gill, twelve by Sydney Lee, A.R.A., R.E., twelve by 
Roger Fry, five by Mrs. Gwendolen Raverat, two by Noel 
Rooke, two by J. F. Greenwood, and three by W. G. Raffe. 
Among woodcuts printed in colour, in the Japanese method, 
may be mentioned three by Miss E. Kirkpatrick and three 
by Urushibara, a Japanese artist working in London. 

To the section of Lithography additions were made by gift 
or bequest of original lithographs by E. Borough Johnson, 
Augustus John, Professor W. Rothenstein, Anthony Raine- 
Barker, Miss E. H. Henderson, Will Dyson and R. Ihlee. 

In this section Posters may be conveniently included, 
and to the Museum Collection of these an important addition 
was made during the year by a generous gift from Mrs. Clarke. 
This comprised 276 examples belonging to a collection formed 
by her late husband from about 1885 onwards, and containing 
examples of the work of many of the leading British and 
French designers, who helped to popularise and set a high 
standard for poster work. The main part of the collection, 

36 


Plate ii 



Hans Hirtz 

Design for a dish. Engraving in the dotted manner. 


Plate 12 



Elizabeth Adela Forbes, 
“ Dorothy.” Dry - point . 






Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design [Engraving). 

which was shown at the Royal Aquarium in the first recorded 
Poster Exhibition, 1894-1895, 
consists of work by French 
artists, such as Steinlen (in- 
cluding his memorable “Yvette 
Guilbert ”), Cheret, Toulouse- 
Lautrec, and Forain, who were 
pre-eminent in poster art. 

Fifty posters, showing the gay, 
frivolous, but charming, art of 
Cheret, were bought at the same 
time, so that French posters 
of the last years of the 19th 
century are now adequately 
represented. 

Among the British posters 
given by Mrs. Clarke are many 
of special importance. One 
may draw attention to the 
rare (stencilled) poster for 
“Hamlet" (Fig. 24), designed 
by the “ Beggarstaff Brothers ” 

(William Nicholson and James 
Pryde). The poster gives the 
“ counterfeit presentment " of 
Mr. Gordon Craig, and was 
executed for him, some thirty 
years ago, when he was touring 
the provinces in the part of 
Hamlet. 

The Underground Electric 
Railways Company, which 











HAMLET 


Fig. 24. 


thanks to the enterprise of Mr. Frank Pick, has done notable 


37 


(17074) 


F 



Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design ( Engraving ). 

work in the encouragement and development of poster art, 
were very generous donors. They presented original drawings 
or proofs of all their own posters (among them work by 
Spencer Pryse, J. Hassall, Ethel Gabain, Lovat Fraser, C. W. R. 
Nevinson, Laura Knight, F. Gregory Brown, E. A. Cox, 
F. Herrick, F. Taylor, E. McKnight Kauffer, etc.), and also 
numerous other posters, including a large series of Danish 
examples. A series of their posters was also given by the 
Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway Company. 

A very valuable addition was made to the section which 
illustrates the technique of various processes of engraving on 
wood and metal by a complete collection showing the process 
of Music Engraving. This exhibit was specially formed for 
the Museum, and presented by the late Mr. J. Sherlock, whose 
descriptive notes add great interest to the various tools and 
materials which have been arranged for exhibition. A plate 
and proofs were given by Mr. Harold Curwen to illustrate the 
materials and process of offset lithography. 

(2) ILLUSTRATION AND BOOK ORNAMENT. 

THE principal purchase of the year was a large collection of 
about 50,000 initial letters and title-pages from early printed 
books of the 15th and 16th centuries. The collection belonged 
formerly to Dr. Oscar Jennings, and supplied the material 
on which he based his book on “ Early Woodcut Initials, 
published in 1908. When the work of classification and 
arrangement is completed, this collection should prove of 
great value to students of typography and book-ornament. 

The existing collection, already large, representing the work 
of the Kelmscott Press, was strengthened by the addition of 
an original drawing (Fig. 25) and several proof illustrations 
by Sir E. Burne-Jones, some of them for projected, but 

38 


Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design 
[Illustration and Book Ornament). 

unpublished, volumes ; together with proofs of various initial 
letters and borders. Mr. C. R. Ashbee gave a collection of 
trial pages, proof sheets, woodcuts, etc., belonging to 
publications of the Essex House Press from 1900 to 1906. 



Fig- 25. 

A collection of one hundred and fifty-six illustrated title- 
pages and covers for Music was acquired to illustrate the 
historical development of a specialised section of book- 
ornament. 

Several original drawings for book-illustration were presented. 
Drawings, by J. Mahoney for “ Little Dorrit ” (1873) and 
“Our Mutual Friend” (1874), were given by Mr. A. E. 
Anderson, who also added seven drawings by Henry Ospovat 


39 



Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design 
[Illustration and Book Ornament). 

to his previous gift of work by this artist. Four drawings, by 
R. Anning Bell, R.A., were presented by Mr. Sydney Vacher ; 
and Mr. Gerald Hayes gave an illustration by Howard Pyle 
for the poems of Oliver Wendel Holmes (1892). 

(3) DESIGN. 

AS an addition to their previous gift of books, drawings and 
prints, comprising the Alma-Tadema Memorial Library, the 
Misses Alma-Tadema presented forty-three additional studies 
of figures, drapery and other details of pictures by the late Sir 
L. Alma-Tadema, R.A. 

Ten sheets of sea and cloud studies made in North Wales, 
c. 1874, by the late F. W. Hayes, were presented by his son, 
Gerald Hayes. 

Five portrait studies in pencil by Legros came as a supplement 
to the Constantine Ionides Bequest. Fine draughtsmanship 
of another type will be seen in a large study of a head by 
Frederick Sandys, dated 1899. 

Mr. W. P. Robins, R.E., gave twelve spirited drawings, 
in water colour and pencil, in memory of the artist, Mabel L. 
Robins, who died in 1917 ; and also three interesting studies 
made by W. P. Roberts at the age of fourteen. From 
Brigadier-General Lake came two drawings by Rowlandson, 
made in 1791, for a series entitled “ Dreadful Deaths,” 
gruesome in subject, but showing the artist’s brilliant fluency 
of draughtsmanship. 

The collection of Wall-Papers, which is becoming of growing 
importance as an historical record of interior decoration in 
Great Britain, was increased by a gift from Mr. E. R. T. 
Corbett of a panel of 18th-century paper, painted in the 
Chinese manner, from Longnor Hall, Shrewsbury. Three 


40 


Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design (Design). 

panels of 18th-century Chinese paper, painted with hunting, 
boating and festival scenes, being part of a continuous design 
for a room, were given by Mr. H. B. Darby. Colonel R. C. 
Cottell gave a similar panel showing an outdoor theatrical 
performance. Other gifts were received, and an interesting 
panel of early 18th-century flock paper from Hurlcote Manor, 
Towcester, was bought. We may take this opportunity of again 
begging friends of the Museum to send any portions of old 
wall-papers which may be discovered when houses are being 
altered or redecorated. 

Mr. Mill Stephenson gave fourteen sheets of tracings of 12th- 
I4th-century frescoes in English churches. Two drawings, 
by Mr. E. W. Tristram, of domestic wall-paintings of the 
17th century— one in a farmhouse at Westerham, and the 
other at Eastbury Manor House, Essex, were bought. 

The late Sir William Blake Richmond, R.A., who for many 
years was closely connected with the work of the Museum, 
placed at its disposal by his will the original studies and 
cartoons for his mosaic decorations and stained-glass windows 
in St. Paul’s Cathedral. Forty-two designs were selected as 
representative of different phases of this work. One of the 
spandrels of the choir is reproduced as an illustration (Fig. 22). 

The Department already contains rubbings of about four- 
fifths of the known Monumental Brasses in Great Britain, 
and a catalogue of the collection was published in 1915. Among 
donors this year, who have helped in filling some of the gaps, 
are Mr. F. C. Eeles, Mr. Mervyn Eustace and Mr. Evelyn 
Bergne. 

By gifts and purchases, too numerous to mention in detail, 
came large numbers of drawings for architecture, architectural 
details, textiles and furniture, etc., of the 18th and 19th 
centuries. 


4i 


Dept, of Engraving, Illustration and Design (Design). 


Various additions were made to the steadily growing 
collection representing the Art of the Theatre. Mr. W. 
Barclay Squire presented, through the National Art-Collections 
Fund, a design for scenery in the last act of “ Armide,” by 
G. B. Lully, produced in 1686. To Jean Berain, who was 
stage-decorator to the Paris Opera House at that date, this 
drawing may safely be attributed. 

The late Claud Lovat Fraser, who was always in close touch 
with the Department and its work, took a keen personal 
interest only a few months before his death in the presentation 
to the Museum, by the Directors of the Lyric Theatre, 
Hammersmith, of a complete working model of his scenery 
for the “ Beggar’s Opera.” Later in the year, after his death, 
his design for the costume of the “ Beggar ” (Plate 13), and 
a design for the stage-setting of “ King Henry IV ” were 
bought. The Museum is fortunate in possessing these and 
several other drawings to commemorate an artist whose death 
meant a real loss, not only to the Art of the Theatre, but to the 
arts of decoration and design. 

Mr. C. L. Rutherston presented a large design, by Albert 
Rutherston, for a scenic cloth made for Madame Anna Pavlova. 
A typical drawing, by the late Claude Shepperson, A.R.A., 
of a scene in the Russian Ballet, “The Good-Humoured 
Ladies,” was bought. By gift and purchase were acquired 
three theatre designs by Herman Rosse. 


42 


Plate 13 



TVct TXS^CSE 1 

icp-O. 


‘riem^R 


rue ope/s/«»: 


Claude Lovat Fraser. 

Design for costume of the Beggar in “ The Beggar’s Opera. 



Plate 14 



Sir Henry Raeburn. 

Mr. William Hobson, of Markfield. Oil Painting, 
bequeathed by the late henry pulsford 


HOBSON, ESQ. 



IV.— DEPARTMENT OF PAINTINGS. 


(i) OIL PAINTINGS. 

T HE year 1921 was noteworthy for the addition to the 
Museum Collections by gift or bequest of nineteen oil 
paintings. Of these the most important were two 
three-quarter length life-size portraits, by Sir Henry Raeburn, 
of Mr. William Hobson, of Markfield, Tottenham (Plate 14), 
and his wife Ann, nee Rickman, of Selbome, Hants. Mr. 
Hobson was a contractor who constructed some, if not all, 
of the martello towers which were built round our southern 
coast in preparation for Napoleon’s invasion. The pictures 
belong to about 1815 and are typical examples of Raeburn’s 
art, which was previously represented in the Museum Collection 
only by a portrait of the Rev. Alexander Dyce when a boy. 
They were bequeathed by the late Mr. Henry Pulsford Hobson, 
but it is due to the generosity of his widow that the Museum 
has entered into possession of them during her lifetime. 

The late Miss H. H. Tatlock, to whom the Museum had 
long been indebted for her valuable loans, referred to in previous 
volumes of this review, bequeathed three oil paintings and 
six water-colour drawings by her grandfather, Peter de Wint, 
an artist whose reputation, though long since established, seems 
once more to be in the ascendant. The largest of the pictures 
is a Landscape with Waggon. The view is taken from 
high ground. In the foreground is a rough track traversing 
a stretch of broken ground, and a waggon is just descending 
into the valley ; a distant prospect is partly screened by some 
clumps of trees at a short distance from the spectator. The 
painting must rank with his Woody Landscape, already in 
the Museum Collection, as one of De Wint’s most successful 
compositions in oil, and one of the best illustrations of his 

43 


Dept, of Paintings {Oil Paintings ). 

technique in that medium. The sense it conveys of atmosphere 
and breadth, combined with careful finish and a skilful 
arrangement of masses and contrasts, show De Wint to have 
been one of our greatest masters of landscape in oil. The other 
pictures were his Greenwich Park, a broadly painted sketch 
of some Scotch firs, with the Hospital in the distance, and his 
Old Houses on the High Bridge, Lincoln, a subject which he 
treated more than once in water-colour. 1 

The Misses Alma-Tadema presented a painting of Cleopatra 
at Philce, by the late Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, O.M., R.A., 
which had remained unfinished at their father’s death. With 
his usual scrupulous archaeological exactitude, he had made at 
Philae a small finished sketch of the columns which were to 
appear in the picture, and this study, entitled Columns at 
Philce, was also presented by the Misses Alma-Tadema and 
has been hung near the larger work. 

The famous Constantine Alexander Ionides Bequest of 
pictures, drawings and engravings was further enriched on 
the death of the testator’s widow by the addition of ten family 
portraits by G. F. Watts, R.A., and a group painted in 1869 
by Georges Bellenger, besides some drawings referred to below. 
Watts painted the portraits of members of no less than five 
generations of the Ionides family, who were among his first 
patrons. The earliest of the series, a copy by Watts of a 
painting by Samuel Lane, dates from about 1842, as does an 
original portrait by Watts ; the last of them was painted 
in 1893. One of the series represents the late Mr. Constantine 
Alexander Ionides, who formed the collection which bears his 
name and bequeathed it to the nation. 

Mr. Alfred Jones, of Bath, presented a small oil portrait of 
William Hunt (b. 1790, d. 1864), the painter of genre and still 
life, by the artist himself. There are other portraits of Hunt 

1 Compare the water-colour drawing, No. 179 — 1898, in the Museum Collection. 

44 


Plate 15 



Francis Towne. The Source of the Arveiron. 
Water-colour Drawing. 



Plate 16 



Peter de Wint. Gloucester. 
Water-colour Drawing. 


Dept, of Paintings {Oil Paintings). 

in London, notably at the Old Water Colour Society and the 
National Portrait Gallery, but it is fitting that this Museum, 
where the various phases of his work are so well represented, 
should also possess a “ counterfeit presentment ” of the artist 
himself. 


(2) WATER-COLOURS, PAINTINGS, ETC. 

THE collection of water-colour drawings received fifty 
additions, about half of which may be described as modern. 
Among the earlier drawings were good examples by Charles 
Catton, R.A. (b. 1728, d. 1798) — a view of Hawick ; S. H. 
Grimm (b. 1733 ?, d. 1794) — Fair lop Oak and Fair lop Fair, 
1774 ; Michael Angelo Rooker, A.R.A. (b. 1743, d. 1801) — 
Wookey Hole, near Wells, given by Mr. Victor Rienaecker ; 
Francis Towne (b. 1740, d. 1816) — a small drawing of Rydal 
Water, 1786, “ taken at the going off of a storm,” presented 
by the Misses Buckingham, and The Source of the Arveiron : 
Mont Blanc in the Background, 1781 {Plate 15). Towne is an 
artist who, long represented in the Museum Collection of water- 
colour drawings, leapt into prominence a few years ago through 
the publication of an article 1 by Mr. A. P. Oppe, drawing 
attention to unknown examples of his work, and particularly 
to its finest phase as represented in the larger of the two 
recently acquired landscapes. Several provincial galleries, 
notably that of Birmingham, have now secured specimens of 
his work. 

An important series of twenty-four sketch-books of Joseph 
Farington, R.A. (b. 1747, d. 1821), now famous as a diarist, 
was purchased, together with a memorandum-book of Richard 
Wilson, which had belonged to his pupil Farington. The 
sketch-books cover the period 1763-1811, and some of the 
earlier ones contain corrections and suggestions by Wilson. 

1 See the VUIth Annual Volume of the Walpole Society, 1920, pp. 95-126. 


45 


Dept, of Paintings ( Water-Colours , Paintings, etc.). 


Several of the new acquisitions date from the ’twenties and 
’thirties of the last century. Among these are an interesting 
study of trees by an artist of the Norwich School, perhaps 
John Sell Cotman (b. 1782, d. 1842) ; a view of Canterbury 
by John Marten, a forgotten artist who resided in that 
city ; a small view of Windsor 1 by Charles Marshall (b. 1806, 
d. 1890), a topographical artist ; a view of the Hall of 
Columns, Kamak, Thebes, by William Muller (b. 1812, d. 1845) ; 
and a street scene in Paris by John Burgess (b. 1814, d. 1874), 
who was a member of the Old Water-Colour Society, and 
deserves more recognition than is usually accorded to him. 
Street scenes, more especially in Continental towns, were 
successfully treated by many of the English water-colour 
painters of this period, and the Museum Collection contains 
specimens of the kind by Bonington, T. S. Boys, Callow, Cox, 
Edridge, Scarlett Davis, and others. The drawing by Burgess 
was given from the collection of the late Mr. Robert Low by 
the late Mrs. Isabella Low ; she also presented from the same 
source a mountainous landscape by William Hull (d. 1880), a 
view in Scotland by David Hall McKewan (b. 1816, d. 1873). 
a view of Spoleto by Arthur Glennie, R. W.S. (b. 1803, d. 1890), 
a mountain scene by T. L. Rowbotham, jun. (b. 1823, d. 1875), 
and a drawing of Cannes by the late Bernard Evans, R.I. 
(b. 1848, d. 1922). 

To the mid-portion of the 19th century belong a drawing of 
a Swiss chalet by William Collingwood, R. W.S. (b. 1819, d. 1903)* 
one of three drawings presented by Mr. H. Stuart Thompson, 
and a view of Zermatt by John Ruskin (b. 1819, d. 1900). 
A Landscape with Rocky Stream, by Sir William Fettes Douglas, 
P.R.S.A. (b. 1822, d. 1891), was purchased as an example of his 
work in water-colour. He is best known for his figure subjects 
in oil, such as The Alchemist in this Museum, but is said to have 

1 Engraved in Henshall's Illustrated Topography of Twenty- Five Miles Around London. 

46 


Dept, of Paintings (Water-Colours, Paintings, etc.). 

taken to landscape painting in water-colour in 1879. Miss E. P. 
McGhee gave a view near Maidstone, painted fifty-six years 
earlier by the now veteran artist, Albert Goodwin, R.W.S. 

The most important addition to the Historical Collection of 
water-colours was, however, the six works by Peter De Wint, 
bequeathed by the late Miss H. H. Tatlock. They had always 
remained in the possession of the artist’s family. De Wint's 
work was already well represented in the Museum, largely 
through the Ellison and other gifts and the donation from the 
testator’s mother, Mrs. Tatlock, who presented several works, 
both in oil and water-colour, by her father in 1872. The 
collection of De Wint’s works now in the Museum is undoubtedly 
the finest in existence, and one of which the nation may justly 
feel proud. Of the six drawings now acquired, the noblest is 
the Gloucester, 1840 ( Plate 16) ; the view is taken from the 
meadows ; on the right is a row of old willows ; in the centre 
cattle are resting in their shade ; on the left in the background 
the cathedral rises from a hazy mass of foliage and buildings. 
The picture conveys a sense of the atmosphere of calm and 
dignity, which is so often associated with our old cathedral 
cities. Almost equally impressive is the wilder landscape of 
Conisborough Castle, of which the late A. W. Rich gives an 
able appreciation in his book on water-colour painting. A 
view of Westminster, taken from the bridge, showing the old 
Houses of Parliament and the landing-stairs, is an excellent 
example of De Wint’s earlier manner and his treatment of 
architectural landscape. At Minehead and Potter Gate, Lincoln, 
are more homely views of buildings. A Landscape with Cliff 
and Pool is a study of limestone crags, foliage and greensward 
executed with great freedom in a quiet scheme of colour ; 
it is a late work, unconventional and modern in its outlook, 
and was painted probably for the satisfaction of the artist 
himself rather than that of a patron. 


47 


Dept, of Paintings [Water-Colours, Paintings, etc.). 

For the modem water-colours the Museum is indebted to 
many donors. Mr. E. Borough Johnson gave an Evening on the 
Arun, by William Charles Estall (b. 1857, d. 1897), an artist who 
fell short of greatness, but was one of the earlier practitioners 
of impressionist methods in this country. Miss M. R. Gloag 
presented a brilliantly coloured study of a Polish cornfield 
by the Miss Isobel Gloag, R.O.I. (b. 1865, d. 1917), and a large 
and powerful picture. The Bride and Bridegroom, by the same 
artist, showing two figures in the costume of Lowicz. The late 
Miss Gloag’s painting displays a boldness and vigour which 
is unusual in the work of women artists. A drawing, entitled 
Across Mount’s Bay, by the late Mrs. Stanhope Alexander 
Forbes, nie Elizabeth Armstrong (b. 1859, d. 1912), was given 
by her husband. Mr. Richard Carline presented a drawing 
of yew trees by the late George Carline, R.B.A. (b. 1855, 
d. 1920). A view of Knaresborough, by the late Alfred W. Rich 
(b. 1856, d. 1921), was purchased as a good example of his 
technique. Mr. J. Williams gave a large, highly finished study 
of a poor woman in church, called Meditation, by the late 
Benjamin Williams (b. 1868, d. 1920), a Birmingham artist 
and teacher of art. 

The gifts of water-colours by living artists included specimens 
of work by J. S. Sargent, W. G. de Glehn, Herbert J. Finn, 
W. Rothenstein, A. R. Smith and H. A. Trier. Miss Kathleen M. 
Barrow presented a drawing by E. Barnard Lintott, Mr. C. T. 
Burke one by Charles Harrington, Miss E. P. McGhee one by 
Henry Rushbury, Mr. Martin Hardie one by E. Borough 
Johnson and one by Stafford Leake, and Mr. W. P. Robins 
another by the last-named artist. 

Two foreign water-colours were acquired : a small seascape 
by Eugene Boudin was purchased, and Mr. Johannes Kragh, 
a Danish painter, gave a bold Western Storm, Danish Coast, 
by himself. 

48 


Dept, of Paintings ( Water-Colours , Paintings, etc.). 

Three crayon drawings were received among the additions 
to the Constantine Alexander Ionides Bequest, viz., two 
portrait heads by Rossetti and one by Benwell Clark. 

(3) MINIATURES. 

THE main collection of miniatures was augmented by the 
acquisition of thirteen 
examples. One of these 
is a curious 17th-century 
portrait of a lady in oil 
on copper, presented by 
Mr. E. V. Lucas. It is 
preserved in its old case, 
which also contained 
twenty talc overlays, 
each painted with a 
different costume, to be 
placed upon the por- 
trait. It is difficult to 
imagine what can have 
been the purpose of this 
miniature and its talcs, 
unless they were in- 
tended for use as a toy. 

Several other similar 
sets, all apparently by 
the same hand, are in 
existence. The miniature has been mounted with twenty 
photographs of it, one talc being exhibited over each photograph 
so as to display the entire series without the necessity for 
manipulation. 

The earliest of the remaining miniatures dates from 1699. 
It is a portrait in plumbago on vellum by T. Forster of a 

49 



Fig. 26. 


Dept, of Paintings ( Miniatures ). 

clergyman, a member of the Bulteel family, and was acquired 
from a descendant of the same family. Concerning Forster, 
who was one of the most expert portrait draughtsmen in 

plumbago, no bio- 
graphical information 
appears to be recorded. 
It can be deduced, 
however, from his 
existing portraits, that 
he flourished about 
1695-1712, and that 
he had a distinguished 
clientele. In accordance 
with the policy of 
representing lesser- 
known, but often 
meritorious, exponents 
of the art, so as to 
render the national 
collection of minia- 
tures as comprehensive 
as possible, a portrait 
of a man by J. Skinner, 
1774, and another by 
Peter Paillou, 1803, 
were purchased. 
Beyond the informa- 
tion in exhibition 
catalogues, little, if 
anything, is known about these artists. Thomas Hazlehurst, 
who flourished about 1760-1818, is less obscure. He worked 
at Liverpool, and his miniatures are sometimes confused with 
those of his contemporary, Thomas Hargreaves. A pair of 

50 




Dept, of Paintings [Miniatures). 

miniatures by Hazlehurst, rather tight in manner, were 
purchased in order to represent his work ; they are signed 
with his initials. 

A portrait of Dr. Donald Mackinnon, painted in 1815 by 
Andrew Robertson (b. 1777, d. 1845), was bought. It is an 
excellent specimen of his style, thoroughly Scotch and full of 
character. Another acquisition, a portrait of a lady by John 
Wright (d. 1820), was painted in the same year. An example 
of brilliant French technique, is afforded by a portrait of 
Georgiana Caroline, second daughter of Sir Henry Watkin 
Dashwood, Bart., afterwards Lady Astley (Fig. 26), painted 
in 1827 by one of the brothers Rochard, probably Francois 
Theodore Rochard (b. 1798, d. 1858), who worked in England. 
A portrait of Mrs. T. B. Balguy, presented by Miss E. M. 
Balguy, in fulfilment of the wishes of the late Miss Gertrude 
Balguy, was executed in the same year by an obscure artist, 
named Janet Ross. A fine example of the work of her better- 
known namesake and contemporary, Sir William Ross, R.A. 
(b. 1794, d. i860), was presented by Mrs. B. Calmar. It is 
a large and attractive three-quarter length miniature of 
Mrs. Bacon (Fig. 27) ; it dates from 1841, and displays the 
brilliant colour and draughtsmanship which distinguished 
the work of that famous miniaturist. To the same donor 
the Museum is indebted for another large miniature, a portrait 
of Mrs. Bacon by William Barclay, who was also one of the 
Early Victorian practitioners. 


5i 


V.— LIBRARY. 

(i) GIFTS. 

H ER Majesty the Queen graciously presented to the 
Library a copy of the privately printed Catalogue of 
bibelots, miniatures and other valuables in Her Majesty’s 
possession. The Catalogue is illustrated with photographs 
of the objects, and only five copies of it were printed. 

In accordance with the wish of the late Sir Robert Nathan, 
K.C.S.I., C.I.E., his executors presented to the Museum a side 
of a Persian book-cover, of papier mache, embossed and painted 
under a lacquered surface of dark shellac varnish. On a back- 
ground of dark olive green, within a dark crimson border with 
a running foliated pattern in gold, is the figure of a youthful 
prince on horseback, in hunting attire, with a hawk on his 
wrist and accompanied by two dogs. The panel is of rather 
large size, measuring about 18-g in. by 12 J in., and is a work of 
the Ispahan School of the 18th century ( Plate 17). 

A document of great interest in connection with the history 
of the collections of casts in this and other Museums was given 
by Mr. Alan S. Cole, C.B. It is the original manuscript draft 
of the “ Convention for promoting universally Reproductions of 
works of art, for the benefit of Museums of all countries,” 
signed in 1867. It, and the printed copies given with it, bear 
the autograph signatures of the Prince of Wales, the Crown 
Prince of Prussia, and Princes of most of the other reigning 
houses of Europe. 

With its mace, and other objects of artistic interest, the 
Honorable Bedford Level Corporation presented to the Museum 
two very interesting documents, the first being the illuminated 
grant of arms to the Corporation, as the “ Governor, Bailiffs 
and Commonalty, Conservators of the Fennes,” by Sir William 


52 


Plate 17 



Bookcover; embossed, painted and lacquered, with repre- 
sentation OF A YOUNG PRINCE HUNTING. PERSIAN ; l8TH CENTURY. 


BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE SIR ROBERT NATHAN, K.C.S.I. 


Plate 18 



MS. Book of Hours, with arms and badges of the Serristori 
family of Florence. Miniature of St. Jerome. Italian; c. 1500. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE D. M. CURRIE, ESQ. 


Plate 19 



Bookbinding of a Book of Hours, written for a member of the 
Serristori family, of Florence. Italian ; c. 1500. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE D. M. CURRIE, ESQ. 





Plate 20 




A.COBV 5 DEI ET 
Donum rtofin ieju iJ 
jit jhum .Juad^tx 
tnknktu rjux ft*nt i 


im fnttrt'mn rutin ifirt 

• itwnu wtruifi»citUnln,fcirnrt$ j 
ypmkanofiAtivtifntfiati'jiaamc 
prratmr fcboMM aunm cbm jitrft 
rlumhaketu vtfttv btrftehfrmtt 
>rr mnulii acfictaint.it 


7 nw« , ect 

}tiMibmi^<t0i>fHter(TiWtim 
’•r*bmr,(r<isiLrt*rii. tsafnla etutt 
tnftdt mini Qm tmmhtfi 

ruf ffwittMiMAM jtuarrt! 

tombttrtxt (fcirat/h'fu r Nohow* 

. trmrr bematUt f 4ccifi*talujui4*i 


(i) MS. Office of the Dead, Office of the Passion and the Gradual 

Psalms. Miniature of the Presentation of the Virgin at the 
Temple. Italian ; first half of the i6th century. 

(ii) The Canonical Epistles. The clasps bear outside the arms of 
the Olivier family. Miniature of St. James the Great. 
French ; first half of i6th century. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 


Library (Gifts). 

Le Neve, Clarencieux King of Arms, in 1636, and the other, the 
certificate (June 1636) of the drainage of the “ Great Levell 
. . . according to the purport and intent of Lynne Lawe,” 

with twenty-one seals attached. 

Of newly-issued books presented to the Library during the 
year, the two most important were the five volumes of Sir M. 
Aurel Stein’s “ Serindia,” given by the Secretary of State for 
India, and the privately printed catalogue by Mr. Karl 
Asplund of the Collection of Miniatures of Konsul Hjalmar 
Wicander, of Stockholm, given by the owner of the collection. 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

THE works of art bequeathed to the Museum by the late 
Mr. David Currie include three Illuminated Manuscripts, of 
very fine quality, but unfortunately all of the late period 
when the arts of the calligrapher and illuminator had lost 
some of the simplicity of earlier work. The bindings of all 
three are also interesting. 

The first of the manuscripts is a Book of Hours, of Roman 
Use, written in North Italy about 1500 for a member of the 
Serristori family of Florence, very possibly for Averardo 
Serristori, who was Ambassador to the Pope in 1498. Badges 
of the owner and the Serristori coat-of-arms occur several 
times in the illuminations. It contains four fully decorated 
pages, with miniatures in circular frames in the centre and the 
surrounding space filled with ornament in a rather unusual 
way (Plate 18). The subjects of these four miniatures are 
“ Les trois morts et les trois vifs,” David with the head of 
Goliath, The Visitation, and St. Jerome in the Wilderness. 
The decorations of the text include one full border, five 
three-side borders, a number of one-side borders and smaller 
marginal decorations, and many painted initials, some with 
miniatures. The size of the pages is about 8£ in. by 5f in. 

53 


( r 7°74) 


G 


Library {Bequests). 

The binding is a contemporary one in brown leather, richly 
gold tooled {Plate 19). 

The second manuscript is also North Italian, dating from 
about 1520. Its contents are the Office of the Dead, the Office 
of the Passion and the Gradual Psalms. Facing the first page 
of each of the three sections of the book is a full-page miniature 
within a border, and a corresponding border surrounds the 
opening lines of the text on the opposite page, written in gold 
on grounds of deep red, green or blue {Plate 20, Fig. {i ) ). The 
subjects of the miniatures are : “ Les trois morts et les trois 
vifs,” the Crucifixion with the Virgin and St. John, and the 
Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple. The borders are 
of arabesques, with medallions, some of which contain cameo 
heads with letters beside them on a black ground. The pages 
of this little book measure about 4J in. by 2f in. The binding 
is an early 18th-century one of red morocco, decorated with 
black and white strapwork and with gold tooling. 

The third manuscript contains the Epistles of St. Paul and 
the Canonical Epistles, in Latin, with St. Jerome’s preface to 
each group. It was written in France in the first half of the 
16th century, and is remarkable for the excellence of its 
calligraphy. Though the writing, in roman and italic 
minuscules, is very small, it is astonishingly regular, clear 
and legible. The book contains six miniatures, in architectural 
frameworks, of St. Jerome, St. Paul, St. James, St. Peter, 
St. John and St. Jude. The pages of text opposite them have 
full borders, either of arabesques in gold on coloured grounds, 
or of natural plants and flowers on a gold ground {Plate 20, 
Fig. {ii) ). The size of the pages is about 4J in. by 2I in., and 
the binding is of green velvet with richly chased, gilt clasps, 
which bear on their outer sides the coat-of-arms, enamelled, 
of the French family of Olivier, and, engraved on the other 
sides, the motto “ Spes mea Deus a juventute mea.” 


54 


Library (Purchases). 

(3) PURCHASES. 

AMONG the new books bought complete, or of which the 
opening parts were acquired during the year, the following 
merit special mention on account of the fine illustrations in 
colour or in collotype which they contain : — 

G. P. Baker. Calico painting and printing in the East 
Indies in the 17th and 18th centuries. With reproductions 
in colours. 

N. J. Krom and T. van Erp. Beschrijving van Barabudur. 
This work, published as a section of the Archaeologisch 
onderzoek in Nederlandsch Indie by the Koninklijk 
Instituut voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Neder- 
landsch Indie, includes an extensive series of large collo- 
type plates illustrating the buildings and their sculpture. 

H. Riviire. La Ceramique dans Part de l’Extreme 

Orient. Recueil . . . reproduisant les plus belles 

pieces originales, choisies dans les musees et les collections 
privees frangaises et etrangeres. Preface de C. Vignier. 
With plates, in colours, of exceptionally fine quality. 

J. Demotte. La Tapisserie gothique . . . Preface de 

S. Reinach. With fine plates (including some of full-size 
details) in colours. 

(4) PHOTOGRAPHS. 

A VERY important acquisition by purchase was that of a 
collection of 2,610 photographs, by Captain K. A. C. Cresswell, 
Hon. A.R.I.B.A., of Muhammadan Architecture in Egypt, 
Syria, Palestine and Constantinople. Captain Cresswell had 
exceptional facilities for taking these photographs, and he is 
an authority on the subject. The series, which includes 
many illustrations of structural and decorative details, is 
consequently very valuable for students of Islamic Art in the 
Near East. 


55 



Fig. 28. 


VI.— DEPARTMENT OF METALWORK. 

(1) GIFTS. 

T HE collections were enriched during the year by several 
gifts of considerable interest. Among the most important 
is a fine silver-gilt mace, decorated with coats-of-arms 
and floral emblems, presented in 1663 by the Earl of Bedford 
to the Honourable Bedford Level Corporation, and now trans- 
ferred to the Museum by the Corporation as a gift (Fig. 28), 
together with its seal, illuminated Grant of Arms, a certificate 
of the year 1636, and three cut-glass decanters. The Bedford 
Level Corporation, otherwise known as Conservators of the 
Fens, was responsible for supervising drainage works in 
the Fens, as is shown by their certificate recording that the 
works have been carried out “ according to the purport and 
intent of Lynne Lawe.” The decanters were part of the 
furnishing of their state barge. 

The Ven. Donald Tait, Archdeacon of Rochester, gave a 
very handsome steeple-cup of the year 1627, presented in that 
year to Mr. Richard Godfrey, member for Romney in three 
Parliaments. The cup is appropriately decorated with 
dolphins swimming in the sea, and with representations of 
the seals of the mayor and barons of Romney (Plate 21). 
An interesting group of English silver of the 18th century, 
including a pair of tea-caddies of 1729, with kingwood case, 
a sugar-bowl of 1742* a pair of sauce-boats, candlesticks, 
salt-cellars, and sugar-tongs of George III date, was given 

56 


Plate 2t 



The Godfrey Cup; London hall-mark 1627-8. 

GIVEN BV THE VEN. ARCHDEACON TAIT. 




Plate 22 



Balustrade, formerly at 35, Lincoln’s Inn Fields. 
Early i8th century. 

GIVEN BY THE COLLEGE OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT. 

( Reproduced from “ The English Staircase ” by W. H. Godfrey ; 
by permission of Messrs. B. T. Batsford, Ltd.) 



Plate 23 



Breastplate. Venetian; i6th century. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 


Plate 24 



Breastplate. Milanese ; about 1570. 

BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ 


Dept, of Metalwork {Gifts). 


by Mrs. Hollway, in memory of her son Charles Robin Hollway. 
Mrs. Carew gave from the Farquhar Matheson Collection 
twenty-five snuff-boxes in gold, enamel, and other materials, 
and a group of objects of silversmiths’ work, including a richly 
nielloed bowl and cover, probably Transylvanian, of the 
18th century. The Governors of the College of Estate 
Management, with a regard for the interests of art worthy 
to be commended to owners of property, gave the staircase 
removed from 35, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, with wrought-iron 
balustrade and landing-panel, remarkably beautiful examples 
of work of the first quarter of the 18th century {Plate 22). 
The Dowager Countess of Crawford presented a necklace, 
tiara, and pair of ear-rings, of gold and pearls, made by 
Castellani of Rome, with suggestions for the design by 
Michelangelo, Duke of Sermoneta. 

Mrs. F. D. Harford gave an interesting 14th-century sword 
found in 1861 at the Beacon Hill, Holme-on-Spalding Moor, 
East Riding of Yorkshire ; Mr. Percy Woods, C.B., an English 
silver wine-taster of 1^51 ; Mr. Frederick Tessier, a silver box 
with portrait of Charles I, containing eighteen silver counters 
from the Van de Passe workshop ; Mr. Louis C. G. Clarke, 
an engraved silver snuff-box of early 18th-century date, and 
a two-handled cup of Sheffield plate ; Miss Phyllis M. Home, 
through the National Art-Collections Fund, a snuff-box of 
silver and tortoiseshell with a portrait in relief of Charles I 
by John Obrisset, early 18th century ; Mr. Alfred Jones 
(of Bath), an early 18th-century silver watch by Samuel 
Aldworth ; Mr. Robert Holland Martin, C.B., an iron staff- 
head chiselled with Jonah and the Whale, German work of 
the 16th century ; and Mrs. Lintorn-Orman, a group of Berlin 
iron jewellery. Other gifts included a number of salt-cellars 
and other small objects in pewter, from the Frank 
Bergne Collection ; a cameo brooch, mounted in gold, from 

* 57 


Dept, of Metalwork ( Gifts ). 


Miss Louise M. Festing; a miniature brass table from Miss 
Cazenove ; a silver toothpick-case with implements from Mr. 
John McEwan ; a pair of pewter candlesticks and a silver seal 
from Mr. Leonard Charles Price ; an iron padlock and key, 
Italian, 17th century, from Mr. F. N. Haward ; a brass 
seal-matrix with the arms of Sulkowski, and a wrought-iron 
gate-stop and hasp, from Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A. ; a 
Spanish iron knocker of the 17th century from Mr. Charles 
Ricketts ; a 16th-century paring-chisel found in demolishing 
an old house at Uxbridge, from the Playhouse Syndicate, 
Uxbridge ; and a pair of woven hair ear-rings, mounted in 
gold, from Mrs. Atherton Powell. 

The gifts to the Oriental branches of the collections included 
six bronze mirrors and two bronze spoons from ancient burials 
in Korea, given by Dame Una Pope-Hennessy, D.B.E. 
Lt.-Col. K. Dingwall, D.S.O., gave a group of twenty tsuba 
and other Japanese sword-mounts of high quality, chiefly 
from the collection of the late Mr. Wilson Crewdson ; Mrs. 
Guest a pierced-iron tsuba and a shinzame or specially 
selected ray-skin for a Japanese sword-hilt, decoratively 
mounted for presentation ; Mr. H. H. Joseph a Japanese 
warrior’s camp-stool, mounted in engraved copper ; and Miss 
Matthey a group of three Boys’ Festival models, illustrating 
the decoration and method of wearing Japanese armour. 
Mr. G. D. Homblower gave a stone mould for casting metal 
and a portion of a bronze plaque from el Fostat (Old Cairo), 
and an early Saracenic bronze bowl from Atfih, Egypt ; and 
Major T. B. Weston a Turkish sabre, in sheath damascened 
with gold and silver, said to have belonged to the Sultan Drusa 
of Damascus. Other gifts included a black-lacquered Japanese 
helmet from Mrs. Sage ; a West African gold ring from Mr. 
Victor Ames ; a pierced-iron tsuba from Mr. C. P. Peak ; 
and four pieces of modern Japanese work in metal and a group 

58 


Dept, of Metalwork (Gifts). 

of Chinese peasant jewellery, from the Commissioners of the 
1851 Exhibition. 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

THE Department received by bequest from the late Mr. 
David M. Currie the collection exhibited by him on loan for 
many years past. It includes fine examples of arms and armour 
of the Renaissance, among them an extremely good peascod 
breastplate, with etched and gilt decoration, Venetian work of 
the second half of the 16th century (Plate 23) ; the back of a 
gorget, russeted and embossed with a figure of Fortitude, 
Milanese, 16th century, from the Londesborough Collection ; 
a breastplate and gauntlets, said to have belonged to Philip III 
of Spain, repousse and damascened with gold and silver in the 
later manner of Lucio Picinino of Milan, about 1570, from the 
Bernal and Londesborough Collections (Plate 24) ; a superb 
burgonet of similar work by the same artist, from the Forman 
Collection (Fig. 32) ; a triple-combed burgonet of the Guard 
of Cosimo de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1569—1574), 
embossed with a fleur : de-lys on either side, from the Londes- 
borough Collection ; several fine rapiers with chiselled hilts, 
of the 16th and 17th century, among them one with hilt of 
chain-pattern, probably French, of the third quarter of the 
16th century ; a left-hand dagger, with steel hilt magnificently 
pierced and chiselled, Neapolitan work of the early 17th 
century ; a group of keys and other small works in steel, 
including the celebrated Strozzi key, said to have admitted to 
the private apartments of Henri III of France (1574-1589) ; 
and various minor works in ormolu, bronze, and silver. 

Miss Hannah A. Irving, in fulfilment of the wishes of Mr. John 
Irving, bequeathed a group of English silver of George II and 
George III date, including cream-jugs, salt-cellars, a teapot, 
a cruet-stand, a sugar-basin, a pair of Irish candlesticks of 
1726, and a Swiss goblet with the Zurich mark for 1627 (Fig. 29). 

59 



Dept, of Metalwork [Bequests). 


The Godsfield Pyx, an English example of the 14th century 
in gilt bronze, engraved with foliage, was purchased under the 

bequest of Mr. Francis Reubell 
Bryan. It was found in 1870 
in removing a hedge near the 
Preceptory of the Knights 
Hospitallers at Godsfield, 
near Alresford, Hants, and, 
as the only known English 
example of so early a date, 
is an object of exceptional 
interest [Plate 25). 

A bequest from Sir Douglas 
William Owen, K.B.E., con- 
sisted of eleven Chinese and 
Japanese bronzes, chiefly of 
the 18th and 19th centuries. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

THE purchases for the year 
included a panel of Byzantine 
cloisonne enamel on gold, of 
extreme interest both for its 
subject and its history. It 
has been shown to be the 
missing panel from a crown 
discovered in fragments in 
i860 at Nyitra-Ivanka, 
Hungary, now in the National Museum, Budapest. The 
panel represents a dancing-girl in the act of stepping over 
a long scarf held in her hands, surrounded by parrots and 
foliage, and forms one of a group of three such panels in the 



Plate 25 



The Godsfield Pyx ; gilt bronze. 
English ; 14TH century (the finial restored). 


Plate 26 




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Plate 27 



English ; 14TH, 15™, and i6th centuries. 


Plate 28 



Ikon door, from Nuremberg ; late 15TH century 


Dept, of Metalwork {Purchases). 

crown {Plate 26). Three other panels represent the Emperor 
Constantine Monomachos (1042-1054), and the Empresses 
Zoe and Theodora. It is surmised that the crown was a 
complimentary gift from the Emperor to Andrew I, King of 
Hungary (1046-1061). 1 

A group of seven English silver spoons of unusual interest, 
acquired from the H. D. Ellis Collection, includes a unique 
example of great beauty, with long stem ending in the figure of 
a woodwose, or hairy savage. It comes from an East Anglian 
source, and is perhaps one of a set recorded to have been made 
by Deryk Knyff at Coggeshall, Essex, in 1468, in substitution 
for a set made of silver below the standard, which he was 
ordered to destroy. The circumstances of the visit of the 
Wardens to Coggeshall on this errand, recorded in the archives 
of the Goldsmiths’ Company, afford a useful example of the 
salutary control exercised by a mediaeval craftsmen’s guild 
over members of the craft. 2 Among the others are a slender 
spoon with a woman’s head (“ maidenhead ”) on the stem, 
marked with the arms of -the mediaeval See of Coventry, late 
14th century ; another, with a similar head issuing from a 
flower, first half of 16th century ; a spoon with lion-sejant 
finial, second half of 15th century ; a “ slip-ended ” spoon of 
t 5 2 5 6 (?) ; an apostle-spoon, St. John the Evangelist, of 
I 5 I 4 _ 5 > and another with an unusually well-modelled figure 
of St. James the Great, second half of 15th century. These 
seven spoons form an important addition to the series in the 
Museum {Plate 27). 

Another piece of English work of unusual interest is a large 
lock of wrought iron, decorated with open tracery and the 
royal arms and supporters as used by Henry VII and 
Henry VIII, from Beddington House, Surrey, the manor-house 

1 See the Burlington Magazine, February 1922. 

2 See Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archeology, Vol. XIV, 1912. 

6l 


(17074) 


H 


Dept, of Metalwork [Purchases). 

of the Carews of Beddington, now occupied by the Royal 
Female Orphanage (Fig. 30). 

An interesting group of lead rain-water pipe-heads of the 
17th and 18th century, and of wrought-iron hinges, door 
fittings, and locks, from the Royal Architectural Museum, 



Fig. 30. 

Westminster, was acquired from the Architectural Association ; 
and the fine lead pipe, pipe-head, and gutter from Bramhall, 
Cheshire, from a private owner. A door completely covered 
with iron stamped in relief with eagles, lions, and the arms of 
Nuremberg, is an interesting piece of late Gothic work 
acquired by the late Mr. Ewan Christian, the architect, in 
Nuremberg, about 1882 ( Plate 28). 

62 




Dept, of Metalwork [Purchases). 



Among other purchases of interest is a massive gold thumb- 
ring set with a pyramidal diamond and two cabochon rubies, 
inscribed inside in black letter “ for a cause,” and outside with 
the initials “ r ” and “ v,” a fine example of English jewellery 
of the 15th century, from the Ashbumham Collection ; a 
silver cream- jug, cast 
and chased in superb 
style and heavily gilt, 

English work of the 
middle of the 18th cen- 
tury (Fig. 31) ; a casket 
covered with silver 
pierced and repousse in 
a design of foliated 
scrollwork, masks, and 
grotesques, perhaps 
Flemish work of the 
middle of the 16th 
century ; and a gilt . 
brass pocket dial and 
compass, signed by 
Christopher Schissler of 
Augsburg and dated 
1581, beautifully etched 
with strapwork and 
foliage and the arms 
of Fugger-Kirchberg- 
Weissenhom. 


Fig. 31. 


The chief Oriental purchases during the year included forty- 
five tsuba and other objects connected with the Japanese 
sword, acquired from the very important collection formed by 
the late Mr. Henri L. Joly, one of the greatest experts on 
Japanese art of his day. The pieces selected illustrate many of 

63 



Dept, of Metalwork [Purchases). 

the rarer and more unusual types which were wanting from 
the Museum series of Japanese sword-mounts. Two interesting 
seated figures of Buddhist divinities in cast iron, almost 
life-size, are Chinese work of the 15th or 16th century. 



Fig. 32. 




64 



VII.— DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILES. 


(i) GIFTS. 

M ANY embroideries were given during the year. Miss 
Edith Durham gave a number of embroideries from 
dresses worn by peasants in the Balkan States, and 
acquired during her travels there. The complete skirt of a 
Montenegrin woman is among these gifts. Miss Emily Conner 
was the donor of a Chinese imperial robe of dark blue silk, 
chiefly embroidered with gold thread ; it dates from the 
19th century. Miss Rose Shipman gave a Chinese embroidered 
shawl of white silk, made for the Western market, and dating 
from the early 19th century. An interesting collection of 
embroideries was given by Miss E. G. Kemp ; these are the 
work of members of the Miao tribes, aborigines of Western 
China. Mr. G. D. Hornblower gave four samplers of 
embroidered linen acquired by him in Cairo, but said to have 
come from Constantinople ; all of them probably date from 
the 1 8th century. Captain Cyril Joynson gave three cotton 
belts, worked with coloured silks — typical examples of modern 
Egyptian embroidery. Mrs. Gordon Gratrix gave a panel of 
embroidered white satin, set between two bands of woollen 
Utrecht velvet of early 18th-century date ; it was taken from 
a bedstead at Ixworth Abbey, Bury St. Edmunds. Dr. W. L. 
Hildburgh, F.S.A., who has frequently shown his generosity 
to the Museum, gave some Spanish embroideries of the 18th 
century, in black wool on linen, acquired at Avila ; these 
include an example of the tomb-covers, on which offerings, 
candles, etc., are placed in honour of the deceased. Dr. 
Hildburgh presented a few other types of embroidery, and a 
Spanish sampler, probably of 18th-century date. Mr. Sydney 
Vacher, another generous friend of the Museum, gave, among 

65 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

other embroideries, two canvas panels, one worked in petit 
point and the other in gros point with coloured wools ; both 
Italian work of the first half of the 19th century. Besides 
these he gave a band of Italian white embroidery and cutwork 
of the late 16th or early 17th century, and a robe of embroidered 
silk damask, probably from Tunis. Lady Rolleston presented 
a long border or valance of hand-woven linen, with a floral 
pattern in drawn work and linen thread embroidery. It is 
Russian work of the 19th century. 1 

Miss Chamberlin gave an Italian linen cushion cover of the 
17th century, embroidered with red silk. A piece of white 
cotton embroidery upon black tulle, probably from a cap, 
was received from Professor Gyula Mihalik. It was made at 
Sarkos in Eastern Hungary during the latter part of the 19th 
century. A handkerchief of fine drawn work and cotton 
embroidery upon vegetable fibre, produced at Manila, 
Philippine Islands, in the first half of the 19th century, was 
given by Mrs. J. Percy Collard. A curtain of linen and cotton 
material, embroidered with coloured wools, English needlework 
of the second half of 17th century, was given by Mrs. Thompson, 
who presented a four-post bedstead, with other hangings, to 
the Department of Woodwork. 

Mrs. Nettlefold gave a needle-case of embroidered satin, 
English work of the late 18th century, and Miss A. J. ChaUinor 
a work-bag embroidered both back and front with coloured 
silks in chain stitch on cotton. The latter bears the worker s 
name “ Hopwell ” and the date 1807. An English sampler, 
with the inscription " Sophia Starling wrought this sampler in 
the year 1833,” was received from Mrs. Cushion. Two foreign 
samplers were presented by Mrs. Grove. One, of silk embroidery 
on canvas, is partly in petit point, and has a landscape and other 
subjects and the date 1798- It was acquired in Copenhagen 

1 See Lie Embroideress, No. i, pp. 13-17 and Fi S- 1 5- 
66 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

and is probably Danish work. The other is embroidered 
chiefly in darning stitches of various diaper patterns. This is 
of Dutch origin, and it bears the name and date “ Gerarda 
Gerritsen, Anno 1763.” Both samplers filled gaps in the 
Museum Collection, and were therefore specially welcome. 

Two very noteworthy additions were made to the English 
ecclesiastical embroideries. The first was perhaps originally 
the central panel of an arcade forming an upper frontal for an 
altar. It is worked in coloured silks, silver-gilt and silver 
thread, and seed-pearls upon purple silk, to represent Christ 
enthroned beneath a gothic arch. Above is the inscription 
“ IOHANNIS DE THANETO” in Lombardic characters, 
and in a miniature arcade at "the top the Annunciation is 
represented. The name embroidered on this panel occurs in 
an inventory of Canterbury Cathedral of the year 1321. This 
unique example of English needlework of the late 13th or early 
14th century had been long preserved at St. Dominic’s Priory, 
Haverstock Hill, and it was presented to the Museum by the 
National Art-Collections Fund. The second object was 
an early 14th-century s'tole, embroidered on linen with 
nineteen shields of arms of English families upon alternate 
squares of red and green, formerly the property of Lord 
Willoughby de Broke. Some of the shields are the same as 
those on the Syon cope. It was the gift of Monsieur G. Saville 
Seligman. Both these important objects had been included 
in the Exhibition of English Embroidery held at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club in 1905. Lord Gerald Wellesley gave, through 
the National Art-Collections Fund, a chasuble with a bold 
counterchange pattern in satin and velvet. It is probably 
of North Italian origin of the 17th century. Another Italian 
chasuble (probably Roman) in rose-coloured silk brocade, 
trimmed with gold lace, belonged to the third quarter of the 
18th century ; it was received from Mrs. Prossor. Amongst 

67 


Dept, of Textiles ( Gifts ). 

the textiles brought from Spain and presented by Dr. 
Hildburgh were a silk brocade chasuble of the middle of the 
18th century, an amice-apparel woven in silk, dating from 
about 1700, and a stole of silk brocade of the late 17th century. 
The chasuble came from Toledo and the other objects from 
Cordova. Mr. Lionel Harris gave an Italian stole of velvet 
brocade woven in the 16th century. Four French chasubles, 
of the middle of the 19th century, in silk damask, silk brocade 
and cotton velvet with woven orphreys, were presented 
by Mr. Frederick Ernest Williams, who acquired them at 
Amiens. The back orphreys of cross-quadrate shape are a 
characteristically Parisian feature, and two have been woven 
to the required form. With these four vestments were given 
two silk brocade panels of the same period, probably intended 
for the front of an altar. 

The additions to the collection of costumes were of the 
18th and 19th centuries. The chief gift was from the late 
Earl of Gosford, and it consisted of three complete English 
suits in purple silk and buff-coloured velvet of the middle of 
the 18th century, six waistcoats of brocade or embroidered 
silk (English work about 1770-1785), and another waistcoat 
and a sleeved coat of silk brocade of the middle of the 18th 
century. Mrs. Hargreaves gave a coaching-cape of box 
cloth with velvet collar, which had belonged to the late Mr. C. 
Reginald Hargreaves, who wore the cape on the Portsmouth 
and London coach in 1882. A waistcoat of English silk 
weaving of about 1850-1860 was received from Mr. E. A. 
Patten. Two smock frocks were acquired, the gifts of Miss 
Edith Durham and Mr. Harvey Bloom respectively. The 
first was obtained at the village of Chideock, near Bridport, 
Dorset, and the second was made for the wedding of William 
Morris, of Wimpstone, parish of Whitchurch, Warwickshire, 
by his bride about 1840. There were several head-coverings 

68 


Dept, of Textiles { Gifts ). 


amongst the gifts. Miss M. Melvill sent a boy’s hat of light 
brown beaver and a girl’s bonnet of plaited straw, both 
dating from the middle of the 19th century. Mrs. Dodgshon 
gave a black silk beaver hat, with tall “ chimney pot ” crown 
and broad, flat brim, obtained by her from an old cottager 
at Llechryd, Cardiganshire. Miss Falcke was the donor of 
a child’s hood-shaped cap, knitted in cotton, threaded with 
coloured glass beads, work of the first half of the 19th century. 
Mr. S. Hart gave a pair of shoes in embroidered red velvet, 
stamped “ Ducros ” on the insteps, and probably made in 
France in the third quarter of the 18th century. Mrs. Crabb 
presented a printed English shawl of the first half of the 
19th century in wool and silk, and the Misses Alma-Tadema 
a pelerine of the middle of the 19th century, made from the 
feathers of peacocks and other birds. A shade for a bonnet 
(known as an “ Ugly ”), of grey pleated silk, worn at about 
1850-1855, was given by Miss Emily Druitt ; Miss Isabella 
Emerson gave a parasol of lilac silk damask, with wooden stick 
and whalebone ribs, English work of the third quarter of the 
19th century. From Mr. Robert Holland-Martin, C.B., were 
received three stay busks, one acquired in Worcester and dated 
1796 of lance-wood with chip carving, the others of bone with 
scratched landscape patterns of the same period. Messrs. 
Faulkner & Son presented a leather shoe upon a last, sectioned 
at sole and heel, made for the Museum to show the construction. 

Mr. Sydney Vacher gave an apron of embroidered red 
woollen cloth from the Campagna. Miss L. Holland Bullock 
presented a folding fan of holly, with paper mount printed 
with music ; it is entitled “ The New Caricature Dance Fan 
for 1794.” Mr. Alfred Jones gave the following accessories of 
English costume : eight embroidered buttons on a silver foil 
ground from late 18th-century costumes ; a horsehair bracelet 
of the early 19th century ; and a flat leather case decorated 

69 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

with beachvork, dating from the second quarter of the 19th 
century. Miss Rosalind H. Brooke gave an embroidered satin 
dress and a petticoat made in the last quarter of the 19th 
century from a Chinese embroidery, probably dating about 
50 years earlier. Miss Frances E. White gave a dress of 
buff-coloured silk crepe ; it was made up in England from 
Chinese (Canton) material in the reign of George IV (1820- 
1830). Miss Matthey presented five Japanese models, dressed 
to represent a nobleman of the Emperor’s court, a male 
coolie or jinrikisha man (kurumaya) and three womeji ; these 
models were brought from Japan about 60 years ago. 

A few additions were made to the collection of dyed and 
printed fabrics. Mr. W. H. Hammond gave a panel of glazed 
cotton, roller-printed in colours in England early in the 
19th century. Mr. Sydney Vacher gave a 19th-century panel 
of cotton, printed, and dyed by the “ resist ” process, prepared 
in England for the Eastern market. By Mr. Louis C. G. Clarke, 
who has been the benefactor of the Museum on several 
occasions, was given a specimen of French ( Jouy ) cotton 
printing of the first half of the 19th century, representing a 
battle scene. Mrs. King gave a piece of chintz, printed by 
Thomas Clarkson, Bannister Hall Print Works, near Preston, 
Lancashire, about 1830-1840. 

A quantity of woven fabrics were presented to the Museum 
during the year. Mr. Howard Carter gave a panel of coloured 
linen threads, interwoven with shreds of feathers, from an 
Egyptian tomb of the 18th dynasty (Fig. 33). This rare 
example was shown at the exhibition of Egyptian art at 
the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1921. An important silk 
weaving from Egypt was received from Lieut.-Col. R. G. 
Gayer- Anderson. It has an inscription signifying “ Glory 
to our lord the Sultan, en Nasir,” most probably referring to the 
Egyptian Sultan of that name who ruled from 1293 to 


70 


Dept, of Textiles ( Gifts ). 


1341 a.d. A cap with a pattern of sprays, also of the Muham- 
madan period, was given by Mr. G. D. Homblower. Mr. 
Sydney Vacher gave a number of pieces both European and 
Oriental, including 
a fragment of a 
Persian silk shawl 
(“Husain Kuli 
Khani ” weaving) 
of the 19th cen- 
tury, two Flemish 
tapestry borders, 
dating from the 
17th century, and 
many specimens of 
Italian and Spanish 
weaving, ranging 
in date from the 
16th to the 19th 
century. The last 
were acquired by 
the donor in Italy 
during the winter 
of 1919-1920. He 
also presented 
several fragments 
of carpets — 

Spanish, Persian, 

Caucasian and 
Aubusson, and 
three specimens of shawl-weaving. Dr. Hildburgh gave, 
besides the embroideries previously mentioned, some frag- 
ments of early Spanish carpets, and an extensive collection 
of woven fabrics acquired by him in Spain, and largely 

7i 



Fig. 33- 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 


of Spanish origin ; the fabrics date from the 17th century 
to the first half of the 19th century. By Mr. Collier T. 
Smithers were presented two pieces of silk damask, one 
watered, possibly of French origin, which date from about 
1840, four ribbons of silk and cotton, French weaving of the 
early 19th century, and eleven large tassels for use in upholstery, 
made in England about the middle of the 19th century. 
Mr. Louis C. G. Clarke gave two Persian silk brocade borders 
of the 18th century, Mr. Arthur du Cane a cover of silk brocade, 
woven in Italy at the end of the 17th century, and Mrs. Bevan 
Williams a silk brocade, of Lyons weaving, said to have formed 
part of the coronation robe of Napoleon I. Miss Edith Durham, 
reference to whose gift of embroideries from the Balkan States 
has already been made, also gave a bag and an apron, both 
tapestry-woven in coloured wools, which she acquired in 
Bosnia in 1906. A rare panel, woven in silk velvet by the 
process known as “ Velours Gregoire,” was presented by 
Mr. T. A. Simonson through the National Art-Collections Fund. 
The subject is adapted from Pierre Mignard’s picture, “ La 
Vierge a la grappe,” in the Louvre. The process, invented 
by Gaspard Gregoire (1751-1846), consisted of tinting, 
preparatory to weaving, the warp threads that were to form 
the pile. 

Messrs. Restall Brown & Clennell gave two small pictures 
representing peasants and children. They are made by a 
process invented in England about the middle of the 19th 
century, which involved sticking a woollen pile on to a fabric 
backing. Mrs. Grove gave, in addition to the samplers 
mentioned elsewhere, a piece of Spanish braid in uncut silk 
pile with shields of arms, woven about the middle of the 
19th century. 

The most important addition to the collection of lace in the 
year was a Point d’Argentan flounce, 27 in. deep, dating from 


72 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

about the middle of the 18th century. The pattern of large 
bunches of flowers, tied by ribbons with interlacing bands 
between, is a graceful one. The flounce was formerly the 
property of Mrs. Charlotte Maria Cooper, of Markree, Co. 
Sligo, Ireland, and it was presented by her daughter, Miss 
Venetia Cooper. It makes a pendant to the rich flounce of 
similar lace, but of somewhat earlier date, given by her sister, 
Miss Kathleen Cooper, in 1922. 

Some specimens of Italian lacis were given. They consist 
of a valance of the 16th or 17th century, darned on a brown 
linen net ground, from Mrs. Oswald L. Addison ; two panels, 
said to have been acquired in Naples about 1834-1844, from 
Mrs. Hulburd ; a woman’s linen shift with insertions and 
trimming of lacis, reticella and bobbin lace, probably Abruzzi 
peasant work of the 18th century, from Miss Helen Squire ; 
and a piece of “ Lecce work ” (named from the capital of the 
Apulia Province) of the 19th century, following an earlier 
traditional design, from Mr. Sydney Vacher. A scalloped 
collar of reticella and punto-in-aria, Italian work in the style 
of the 17th century, was given by Mrs. J. Percy Callard. From 
Mrs. Horace Nevill were received a lappet and border of 
Valenciennes bobbin lace of the first half of the 18th century, 
and another lappet, about 50 years later in date, of Binche 
bobbin lace. A border of Brussels bobbin lace of the late 
18th century was given by Mrs. Chichester ; the pattern is 
applied to a ground of “ vrai reseau ” ; and Miss Chamberlain 
gave a Dutch hood-shaped linen cap, trimmed with bobbin 
lace of late 17th or early 18th century date. From Mr. A. D. 
Howell Smith was received an oval panel of modern bobbin 
lace with a figure of Cupid, acquired in Bruges in 1921. 

A collection of baby-clothes and costume accessories 
belonging to the first half of the 19th century, presented by 
Miss Mary A. R. Anderson, included four head-coverings 

73 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

trimmed with French silk blonde, Devon guipure, Chantilly 
black bobbin lace and Calais black machine lace, a hood- 
shaped linen cap trimmed with English bobbin lace, a tie 
trimmed with English (Midland Counties) and Valenciennes 
bobbin laces, a baby’s cap and bodice with bobbin lace 
insertions and trimmings, other caps, a knitted bag, and a 
panel of tatting, all of English work. Mrs. Alec Tweedie gave 
a border of Midland Counties bobbin lace of early 19th-century 
date, in the style of Lille lace. Mrs. Taylor presented a pin- 
cushion cover in fine crochet work, about i860, probably of 
English origin, and Mrs. Cushion a veil of black machine lace 
in the style of Chantilly, probably made at Nottingham about 
the middle of the 19th century. An addition to the collection 
of implements connected with the lace industry in England 
was a lacemaker’s pillow of bolster shape from Buckingham, 
of the middle of the 19th century, upon a “ pillow horse ” 
of beechwood. It was presented by Mr. C. Reginald Grundy. 
Some useful specimens of peasant laces from Hungary and 
North Africa were obtained for the collection. Professor 
Gyula Mihalik gave a small panel with a figure subject and 
floral devices, in which the pattern is of bobbin work with 
needle-point fillings. They were made about 1900 at the 
small town of Halas, near Budapest. The lace was the invention 
of a drawing teacher, Aspad Dekani, and the work was 
promoted by the Hungarian House-Industry Federation, but 
the output has been small. The same donor sent a piece of 
bobbin lace in brightly coloured silks and silver-gilt thread, 
made at Shovar, Upper Hungary, in the latter part of the 
19th century. The Hon. Rachel Kay and the Hon. Mrs. Leaf 
gave four insertions of netted lace of geometrical pattern, 
acquired by them in Tunis in 1920. 

A remarkable knitted panel, dating from about 1840-1850, 
was given by Mr. Martin A. Buckmaster. The middle is filled 

74 


Dept, of Textiles (Gifts). 

with the Prayer for the High Court of Parliament from the 
Book of Common Prayer. 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

FROM the funds of the Murray Bequest an important purchase 
was made of a Flemish tapestry panel of the middle of the 
15th century ; it represents the Descent from the Cross, the 
Entombment and the Resurrection. This tapestry was 
formerly in the possession of Lord Willoughby de Broke. In 
the collection bequeathed by the late Mr. David M. Currie 
was a Brussels tapestry, representing the Resurrection of our 
Lord, dating from the first quarter of the 16th century (lent 
to the Museum since 1887) (Plate 29), and an Indo-Persian 
carpet, with a floral pattern, dating from the early part of the 
17th century. 

The late Mr. S. J. A. Churchill, M.V.O., bequeathed a small 
piece of Persian silk brocade of the 16th century, with a 
representation of two turbaned figures in a garden. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

AMONG the purchases during the year were two embroidered 
satin hangings, one with the figure of St. Sebastian and the 
other with a figure of St. Antony of Padua holding the Infant 
Christ (Plate 30) ; they were both worked early in the 18th 
century by a Chinese craftsman for a Christian community. 
A large Japanese embroidered hanging, with dragons, birds 
and other subjects, which dates from the 18th century, was 
also acquired ; it had been for many years on loan in the 
Museum. The pendant brocade panels and the drum introduced 
into the design refer to the ceremony connected with the ancient 
Japanese sword-dance, known as the Bugaku, in which a drum 
is beaten. Two examples of early 18th-century Indian dyed 
cottons, drawn by hand, were bought. One is an altar-frontal, 

75 


Dept, of Textiles ( Purchases ). 

produced for an Armenian church ; it has the stamp of the 
United East India Company. On it is represented Christ 
or the Eternal Father giving the Benediction (Plate 31). 
The other was made for the French market ; it has a scene 
from La Fontaine’s fable, “ The lion, the monkey and the two 
asses.” A small collection of embroideries in coloured wools 
on linen, from the garments of Bosnian peasant women, 
belongs to the 19th century. Another important addition to 
the collection of costumes from South-eastern Europe is one 
from Montenegro. Three specimens of Russian weaving and 
embroidery were bought. A woven cape and a cap of lamb s 
wool were brought from Rikossicha, near Archangel, North 
Russia. The third is an embroidered linen towel of the second 
half of the 19th century. On it is worked a carriage drawn by 
three horses. The scene is explained by a Russian inscription, 
which has been translated, “ The steeds galop all the quickei, 
so that it will be gayer for us.” Other purchases are a French 
(Lyons) brocade, woven in silk, and metal threads, dating 
probably from about 1840-1850, but in the style of the middle 
of the 18th century ; a striped dress of silk and cotton (non- 
European material, probably North African, made up in 
Europe in the first quarter of the 19th century) ; an 
embroidered linen hanging of the late 17th century (Spanish or 
Portuguese) ; a Persian sleeved coat of silk brocade, dating 
from the 18th century ; a Chinese embroidered silk damask of 
the first half of the 19th century ; six 18th-century Persian 
covers of silk brocade ; a Chinese silk brocade of the 17th 
century; a cotton coverlet (possibly Persian), with silk 
embroidery and quilting, dating from the 17th or 1 8th century ; 
an 18th-century Persian cover of embroidered silk ; a Persian 
cover, woven in silk (“Husain Kuli Khani ” weaving), 
belonging to the 18th century ; two lengths of Persian 
(Kashan) silk velvet of the 17th century, with a pattern of 

76 


Plate 29 



Tapestry. The Resurrection of Christ. Brussels ; first quarter 

of 1 6th century. 


BEQUEATHED BY THE LATE DAVID M. CURRIE, ESQ. 



Plate 30 



Embroidered satin hanging. St. Antony of Padua and the 
Infant Saviour. Chinese, for Christian use ; early i8th century. 



Plate 31 



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Plate 32 



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NEm&L JL , ■ Jal* 


. V V . L crvijra.-^, tfSSStf 


KNOTTED PILE CARPET. ENGLISH •; I7TII CENTURY 


Dept, of Textiles (Purchases). 



large rosettes in colours on a white ground (Fig. 34) ; and 
a silk velvet cover, also of Kashan weaving, with lozenge- 
shaped arabesque panels. 

An important English carpet has been added during the 
year to the collection. It was made in the latter half of the 
17th century 
(Plate 32). The .. 
pattern con- 
sists of baskets 
of flowers and 
fruit, plumes 
tied with bows 
of ribbon, 
birds and de- 
tached blos- 
soms on a green 
ground. An- 
other English 
pile-carpet is 
recorded to 
have been 
made atWilton 
during the 
second quarter 
of the 19th cen- 
tury.Other car- 
pets acquired 


Fig. 34- 


are a long runner (kanara) from Asia Minor, of 17th-century 
date. A Ladik prayer-rug of the 18th century ; and a part of 
a pile-carpet from Eastern Turkestan, woven entirely of silk. 
Another noteworthy purchase was the front of a chasuble in 
Italian silk brocade, dating from about 1400, woven with a 
pattern of lions, peacocks, palm trees and flowers. It has a 


77 


(17074) 


I 


Dept, of Textiles [Purchases). 



pillar orphrey of 15th-century Cologne weaving, with the names 

‘ Thesus” and “Maria,” 
and also plants and 
cross devices. This 
vestment came from 
the district of the 
Lower Rhine (Fig. 35). 
Another interesting 
object was a Spanish 
amice apparel of the 
1 6th century, in black 
velvet, with an 
applique pattern in 
embroidered yellow 
satin. 

A French embroid- 
ered sampler, dated 
1847, represents an 
Altar at Exposition of 
the Blessed Sacrament, 
surrounded by various 
ornaments of the 
Sanctuary. The 
inscription records 
that it was worked in 
a convent school, 
probably at Langon, 
in Provence. Two 
Italian Valances, of 
yellow satin, have a 
flowering-stem pattern 
in applique knotted silk cord. They date from about the end 
of the 17th century. A purse of English embroidery of the 


78 


Dept, of Textiles (Purchases). 

late Elizabethan period is in the form of a bunch of grapes. 
It is closely worked over padding with coloured silks, silver- 
gilt and silver thread and pearls (Fig. 36). Other examples 
of English needlework were two linen panels, with slender 
interlacing flowering stems, birds and butterflies in coloured 
silks. They belong to the 
first quarter of the 18th 
century, and probably 
once formed part of a 
valance. Among other 
purchases was a whip for 
ceremonial use, with shaft 
covered with embroidered 
crimson velvet, and the 
pommel of silver-gilt 
chased and engraved. The 
latter bears a Dutch hall- 
mark, but an Edinburgh 
mark is on a silver band 
used for repair to the shaft. 

The date is early in the 
18th century. 

To the collection of linen 
damasks was added a 
napkin, woven with a king on horseback (probably Frederick IV 
of Denmark, 1699-1730), the united Arms of Norway and 
Denmark, and a view of the City of Copenhagen. It was 
woven in Saxony in the first half of the 18th century. 

Some useful examples of the application of lace to Italian 
costumes of the 16th and 17th centuries were acquired. They 
consisted of a linen shirt with reticella bands and bobbin lace 
insertions and edgings, a child's swaddling-band of linen with 
cut work, needle-point fillings and joinings of bobbin lace, and 

79 



Fig. 36. 


Dept, of Textiles {Purchases). 

a linen hood-shaped cap with fine cutwork and point fillings 
trimmed with Genoese bobbin lace. With the same collection 
was a long band of lacis, with a pattern of vine-stems, and a 
linen pillow-slip with borders of reticella and joinings of 
bobbin lace. The latter was from Catania, Sicily, and it was 
intended for use at a christening. Other specimens included 
a rare border of needlepoint lace of naturally treated plants, 
probably English work of the late 16th or early 17th century, 
copied from Italian designs ; a scalloped border of Dutch 
17th-century bobbin lace ; three pieces of bobbin lace and 
a pair of linen cuffs with white embroidery and cutwork, 
Italian work of the late 16th and 17th centuries ; and two 
tassels in knotted and plaited thread, 17th-century in date, and 
also of Italian origin. 


80 



Fig- 37 - 


VIII.— DEPARTMENT OF WOODWORK. 

I N the Department of Woodwork, during the year 1921, 
many important additions were made to the collections 
by gift and purchase. 

(1) GIFTS. 

HER Majesty Queen Mary was graciously pleased to present 
a doll’s house, filled with furniture made by wounded soldiers. 

A gift of great value and interest was that of a collection 
of woodcarvings, presented by Sir Charles and Lady Allom, 
in memory of their only son, Lieut. Cedric Allom, R.F.A., 
who was wounded in the Ypres Salient on October 9 and died 
on October 20, 1917. This collection of carvings, which is 
exhibited in the West Hall of the Museum, numbers over 
three hundred pieces and includes examples of the woodcarver s 
craft in Europe from the Middle Ages to the 18th century. 
In this varied display the brilliant work of the French School 
of the time of Louis XIV is perhaps most strongly represented, 
but English work is also seen to advantage. Not only are 

81 


Dept, of Woodwork ( Gifts ). 

found individual carvings which will be of great value to 
woodcarvers from the point of view of design and technique, 
but complete panels and architectural details are also shown, 
such as should be of practical usefulness to students of architec- 
ture and interior decoration. These carvings were collected 
by Sir Charles Allom during the course of many years when 
opportunities for securing woodwork of this type was easier 
than it is at the present day ; in fact, there is little doubt that 
it would not now be possible to get together such a remarkable 
series of examples of decorative woodwork. Another famous 
collection of woodcarvings, the Hoentschel Collection, has now 
been acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of New York. 

Several interesting additions were made by Mr. A. H. Fass 
to his former gift of English Gothic woodwork. Amongst 
them was a rare example of mediaeval furniture an oak 
stool with broad supports and buttressed ends, united in front 
by a deep rail pierced with openings. The present gift also 
included a number of specimens of church woodwork. One of 
these was a 15th-century oak panel painted with the 
Annunciation, evidently from a reredos, which was purchased 
in Bury St. Edmunds, and came in all probability from a 
church in that neighbourhood. This panel is of special value 
as an example of English mediaeval figure painting, as well as 
on account of the details represented upon it. Another 
object consisted of a section of panelling, being the lower part 
of the 15th-century chancel screen of the church of West Stow 
in Suffolk, painted in colours and stencilled with conventional 
floral patterns. Most of these designs were obscured by modem 
paint, which, after treatment at the Museum, was successfully 
removed and revealed most of the original colour decoration. 
The remaining objects were mainly fragments of carved tracery 
from screenwork, some of them still retaining traces of their 
mediaeval colouring. 

8 2 


Dept, of Woodwork ( Gifts ). 


A 13th-century oak chest, probably from a church in 
Surrey, was presented by Mr. Edmund Davis (Fig. 37). 
It is fitted with three locks, and has in the lid a slot, made 
at a later date, to adapt it for use as a money-box. Another 
chest, dating from the early 16th century, the front carved 
with two panels of linen-fold pattern, was purchased by Mr. 
Robert Mond from the St. Donat's Castle sale and presented 
by him to the Museum. 

Among gifts of English furniture of later date the Museum is 
indebted to Mrs. Thompson for an 18th-century bedstead with 
moulded cornice and needlework curtains ; to Miss R. F. Speid 
for a small mahogany cabinet with folding doors, enclosing 
drawers ; and to Lady Evans for a high-back chair of the 
middle of the 19th century, covered with floral needlework. 

Specimens of English structural woodwork consist of a spiral 
oak baluster from Mr. R. P. Bedford ; an early 18th-century 
internal doorway of carved pinewood from Queenhithe, 
Upper Thames Street, City of London, from Mr. F. E. Williams ; 
and a baluster and bracket of the same date from Stoke House, 
Guildford, from H.M. Office of Works. 

Miscellaneous gifts of English origin include a pair of inlaid 
wig or cap-stands of the period of Queen Anne, from Mr. 
A. H. Fass ; two 17th-century plasterers’ moulds from 
Miss Erskine ; a bead-work box of about 1800 from Mrs. 
Hemming ; a straw-work box of French prisoners' work 
made at Norman Cross, near Peterborough, in 1811, from 
Major R. H. Raymond Smythies ; a satinwood tea-caddy in 
the form of an urn from Mr. Thomas Sutton ; a miniature 
table of inlaid woods made by Mr. Joseph Keyes in 1851 
and given by him in his eighty-sixth year. Lady Cory added 
to her former gifts a collection of early 19th-century miniature 
objects, mostly in the form of dolls’ furniture in carved and 
pierced bone. 


83 


Dept, of Woodwork (Gifts). 

Messrs. Goodall & Co. presented a pair of large Spanish 
doorways, painted and elaborately moulded. Other gifts 
consisted of a French Empire mahogany chair with ormolu 
mounts, from Mr. Edward Grindlay ; a pair of 18th-century 
Venetian candelabra, painted and gilt, in the form of negroes, 
from Miss Compton ; an Hispano-Mauresque cabinet from 
Captain Victor A. Ward ; a small Spanish cabinet from Mrs. 
Ward ; a piece of carved, gilt and painted cornice, Spanish, 
1 6th century, from Mr. Edward Benjamin ; a pair of painted 
Turkish mirrors from Lord Gerald Wellesley (through the 
National Art-Collections Fund) ; a Norwegian ewer from 
Mrs. Hope Proctor ; six Norwegian vessels, etc., from Miss E. 
Close ; three pieces of Norwegian harness, a whip-stock and 
a flute of cut glass with silver mounts, made by Laurent, of 
Paris, in 1815, from Mr. Alfred Jones ; an Italian 18th-century 
zither from Mr. F. Garrett, senr. ; an Italian viola d’amore 
from Mrs. Press ; an early 16th-century carved French group 
from Dr. W. L. Hildburgh ; a Flemish figure of St. John the 
Evangelist of the same date, from Mr. A. G. B. Russell, 
Lancaster Herald ; an 18th-century French spinning-wheel, 
decorated with tortoiseshell and mother-of-pearl, from the 
Honourable Mrs. Carpenter; a Chinese necklace of carved 
wood beads from Mrs. C. Staniforth ; a Japanese mask from 
Mr. Walter Bonwick ; and three small Coptic and Saracenic 
vessels discovered in the neighbourhood of old Cairo, from 
Mr. G. D. Hornblower. 

The Section of Oriental Lacquer was enriched during the 
year with a number of remarkable additions, due to the 
generosity of donors. Among these special attention may be 
given to the extremely interesting series of thirty-six Japanese 
drinking vessels and utensils in lacquer (Plate 33), presented 
by Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland, and including not only 
a series of vases and cups valuable for their design and form, 

84 


Plate 33 



Sake bottle, for ceremonial use at Bugaku dances. Japanese 

LACQUER, IN RED AND BLACK. I7TH CENTURY (LATE) 


SUTHERLAND GIFT. 


Plate 34 



Cover of cabinet for incense ceremony utensils. Japanese lacquer 

i8th century (middle). 


Plate 35 



Plate 36 



ih 


Bedstead of black 
From Badminton, 


and gold lacquer. 

Gloucestershire. 


Style of Chippendale. 
English ; about 1760. 


Dept, of Woodwork (Gifts). 

but a set of carved and lacquered bottles in the shape of the 
deity Hotei and other personages, dating from the 13th to 
the 18th century. These are exhibited together in Room 41 
of the Museum. Mrs. Lilian Sage also presented a collection of 
175 examples of Japanese and Chinese lacquer (Figs. 38 and 39), 



Fig. 38. Fig. 39. 

in memory of her husband, the late Mr. Edward Mears Sage, 
of Edgbaston. This includes 107 inro (medicine cases), 
as well as specimens of writing-boxes, picnic-sets, poetry-game 
sets, incense boxes, etc. ; and forms a particularly valuable 
addition to the collection, inasmuch as the donor kindly allowed 
a selection to be made from this special point of view. The 
writing-box and writing-table (Nos. W. 305 and 306 — 1921), 
decorated with shells illustrative of the shell-game, are excep- 
tionally fine examples of their period — the latter part of the 
18th century. On the occasion of the dispersal of the 
well-known collections formed by the late Mr. Michael 
Tomkinson, J.P., of Franche Hall, near Kidderminster, it 

85 


t I 7°74) 


K 


Dept, of Woodwork (Gifts). 

was felt that a special effort should be made to fill up the gaps 
in the Museum Collections of this important and highly 
artistic handicraft. It is most satisfactory to be able to record 
that great progress in this direction was rendered possible by 
the generosity of members of his family, who provided a fund 
for the purchase of specimens of outstanding merit at the sale 
by auction of the first part of the Tomkinson Collection. By 
this means the Museum acquired a most important series of 
utensils used in the Incense Ceremony — a ritual game which 
inspired the production of much of the best lacquer produced 
in Japan during the 18th century ; as well as fine examples of 
early writing-boxes by Ritsu 5 , Hanzan and other notable artists 
and other illustrations of lacquer-ware ( Plates 34 and 35). 
These are all exhibited in Room 41, as a memorial of the interest 
taken in Japanese Art by the late Mr. Michael Tomkinson. At 
the same saleMr. GeorgeSwift, J.P., purchased two writing-boxes 
of unusual quality and three other examples of lacquer-ware, 
which he generously presented to the Museum without conditions. 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

OBJECTS in woodwork which formed part of the bequest of 
Mr. David M. Currie consisted of three pieces of 16th-century 
Italian work — a small oval frame carved with cherubs’ heads, 
festoons and scrolls, a larger frame, also of walnut and 
elaborately carved and gilt, and a pair of richly carved bellows ; 
also a French hand-mirror, finely carved in boxwood and dating 
from the middle of the 16th century. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

AN important purchase was that of a four-post bedstead in 
the style commonly known as Chinese-Chippendale, and 
brought from Badminton, in Gloucestershire, the seat of the 
Duke of Beaufort. The bedstead is lacquered black and gilt, 

86 


Dept, of Woodwork (Purchases). 

and has a pagoda-shaped roof, surmounted by a vase of 
acanthus in gilt metal, with a dragon in carved wood projecting 
from each angle (Plate 36). The back is filled in with lattice 
work. In its original position at Badminton the bedstead 
formed the central feature of a bedroom, which had a Chinese 



Fig. 40. 

wall-paper and dressing table, mirrors and chairs all designed 
in the same style. This Chinese fashion, which had a short 
vogue in the mid-i8th century in England, was at its height 
about 1754, the year when Edwards and Darley published a 
book of Chinese designs and when Chippendale published the 
first edition of the Gentleman and Cabinet-maker’ s Director. 
The bedstead can therefore be safely put down to about this 
date. The Duke of Beaufort was one of the original subscribers 
to the Director, and evidently had some interest in the author, 
so that it is possible that the furniture and decoration of the 
Chinese bedroom at Badminton may have been the work 
of the firm of Chippendale. The bedstead is exhibited in 
Room 56 of the Woodwork Galleries. 


87 


Dept, of Woodwork {Purchases). 

The Museum was enabled to strengthen considerably the 
section devoted to English Gothic woodwork by the purchase 
fi om the Architectural Association of the remainder of the 
collection originally belonging to the Royal Architectural 
Museum, Westminster, a portion of which had already been 



Fig. 41. 

given by the Association in 1917. The most important 
group of objects thus purchased consisted of a series of 
misericords and fragments of bench-ends dating from the early 

S th \r T t l lry '^ hlCh ori & inall y formed part of the seating of 
bt. Nicholas Chapel, Kings Lynn, Norfolk, from which they 

uere removed in 1842. The misericords, ten in number, are 
elaborately carved with figure subjects. On one an ecclesiastic 
( t S- 4 °). apparently the donor, is represented kneeling at 
prayer ; on another is a master carver working at his bench 
with two apprentices beside him {Fig. 41) ; three others have 
subjects connected with harvesting. Of the bench-ends some 
have poppy-head firnals ; others have as elbow rests figures of 
88 



Dept, of Woodwork [Purchases) . 

grotesque animals. The collection also included two large 
15th-century oak doors from St. Mary’s Church, Beverley, 
\orks, each divided by ribs into panels, the upper of which 
are richly carved with varieties of geometrical tracery. The 
remainder of the col- 
lection was largely 
composed of fragments 
of tracery heads from 
the openings of chancel 
screens. 

From Barningham 
Hall, Norfolk, came a 
rare oak form of early 
15th-century date, the 
framing below the seat 
carved in front with a 
series of ogee arches. 

A later example of oak 
furniture consisted of 
an arm-chair from 
Thorpearch Hall, 

Yorkshire, elaborately 
carved, and bearing the 
initials of various former 
owners and the date 
1689 {Fig- 42). Two 
interesting screens were 
purchased, which came Fig. 42. 

originally from East 

Sutton Park, Kent. Each is finely painted with a female figure, 
nearly life size, in costume of about 1630, and said to represent 
members of the family of Sir Robert Filmer, a prominent 
Royalist, who died in 1653 [Fig. 43). These so-called 

89 



07074) 


L 



Dept, of Woodwork [Purchases). 

picture dummys ” appear to have been employed in the 
17th and 1 8th centuries for interior decoration, but their 
actual purpose or position in the house is not precisely known. 



Fig- 43- 


90 









Fig. 44. 


IX.— INDIAN SECTION. 

O F the 323 acquisitions received in the Indian Section 
during the year 1921, more than half of that number 
(180) was contributed by friends of the Museum either 
by gift or bequest. Foremost among these was the magnificent 
bequest of Mogul 17th-century paintings of the school of 
Jahangir, by Lady Wantage ; the collection of later Mogul 
and Rajput paintings from the series gathered together by the 
late Sir Robert Nathan, and presented by his Executors ; 
and the group of Indonesian woven and Batik-dyed garments, 
given by Sir M. E. Sadler. Several Asokan Buddhist relic- 
caskets of steatite and crystal, from the Topes at Sanchi 
and the neighbourhood, were acquired by purchase, and also 
an interesting collection of Graeco-Buddhist and mediaeval 
Hindu stone-carvings, mostly from the Panjab and the 
North-West Frontier Province. The representative display 
of Malay brassware, lent by Mr. R. J. Wilkinson, is noticed 
on p. 114. 


Qi 

L 2 



Indian Section (Gifts). 


(i) GIFTS. 

TILL the present year, 1921, the advanced or fully developed 
schools of Mogul painting of the reigns of the Emperors 
Jahangir and Shah Jahan (1605-1658) had been represented 
in the Indian Section Collection by only a few isolated examples 
of moderate attainment, whereas the earlier phases, i.e., the 
16th-century schools of Humayun and of Akbar — schools still 
to a very great degree under the influence of the Persian- 
Mongol convention of the late 15th century — had long been 
well illustrated, both in our Amir Hamzah pictures and in the 
Akbarnamah series. Consequently, the great need of the 
Museum for really first-class 17th-century paintings has been 
more than partly satisfied by the accession of the remarkable 
series bequeathed by Lady Wantage. (For the formal notice 
of this Donation, see under “ Bequest.”) Of importance also, 
as serving to bridge the gap in the later Mogul School, was the 
collection presented by the Executors of the late Sir Robert 
Nathan, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., by his express verbal directions. This 
small but choice selection of Indian paintings also included 
several works of the so-called Rajput School of the 18th and 
19th century, with their inclination toward “ subject ” studies 
in contradistinction to the purely portrait preoccupation of the 
Mogul School. The most striking example of this latter school 
is probably the strongly rendered portrait of Nadir Shah 
(1736-1747), King of Persia, by a contemporary artist, 
Muhammad Panah, attached to the Royal Court at Delhi. 
It will be remembered that during the disturbed reign of the 
weak Emperor Muhammad Shah (1719-1748), his warlike 
neighbour seized the opportunity to invade the Panjab, 
captured Delhi, the Mogul capital (1739), massacred the 
populace, and carried away booty of enormous value — 
including the famous “ Peacock-Throne,” details of which 
have been so minutely and quaintly recorded by the French 


92 


Indian Section (Gifts). 


traveller Bernier. This characteristic painting has accordingly 
been selected for illustration here (Plate 37). As an addition 
to our earlier examples, two Mogul tempera paintings of the 
school of Humayun (16th century) were given by General 
Sir Raleigh Egerton, K.C.B., K.C.I.E. 

To the collection of Textiles, Sir Michael E. Sadler, K.C.S.I., 
LL.D., contributed twenty-nine Indonesian garments from 
the different provinces of Java. This accession has proved 
of special use ; partly as a means of satisfying some of the 
numerous applications made to the Section for examples of 
the Batik-dyed fabrics used for sarongs, slendangs and ikets, 
and partly in view of the fact that previously the Museum was 
almost destitute of specimens illustrating the laborious method 
of “ wax-resist ” dyeing. It is with considerable satisfaction 
we now claim to show at least one complete case of patterns 
produced by this effective process of dyeing. Beside the Batiks, 
Sir M. Sadler’s gift included several fine specimens of the native 
loom- woven sarongs and slendangs from Java, Sumatra and 
the Celebes ; and also four characteristic girdles of silk and 
silk-and-cotton Ikat work, all exhibiting patterns in which 
the design is stained on the warp threads before weaving. 
The latter came from the little Island of Bali, east of Java, 
and the end-pattern of one of them has been selected to form 
the head-piece of this Chapter on the Indian Section (Fig. 44, 
p. 91). With but few exceptions, all of these Malayan and 
other weavings are of 19th-century date. 

The remaining gifts, although of smaller proportions, have 
all been accepted either as filling some important gap, or as 
showing some feature new to the division in which they fall. 
Lt.-Col. F. C. S. Samborne-Palmer, C.B.E., gave a water- 
bottle, basin and jug of unomamented light red earthenware, 
which were found when digging the foundations of a house at 
Ayun, in the Chitral District of the North West Frontier 

93 


Indian Section (Gifts). 

Province. They are, doubtless, of early period, the basin 
being of a shape found even in the megalithic graves of the 
Indian iron-age, but the actual date is, so far, problematical. 
Major J. B. Weston gave three figures of Hindu deities in 
copper or bronze, and two lustration-spoons of copper and 
brass from Tan j ore, Madras ; and also a Moradabad lacquered 
brass tray, all of 19th-century manufacture. Lt.-Col. C. H. 
Sheppard contributed a collection of thirty- three objects 
acquired by him in Burma about 1887. They include 
Marionettes (dolls partly of painted clay, clad in Burmese 
fabrics) used in the native Puppet-plays, painted-wood chess- 
men found in an entrenchment after the capture of Pagan in 
1885, and incised palm-leaf horoscopes of five of the wives of 
Thibaw Min, found in the apartments of his chief queen, 
Supaya Lat, in the Palace at Mandalay in 1885. Mrs. A. E. 
England gave some interesting cult objects in metal, clay 
and stone used in the Lamaist Monasteries of Leh in the Ladakh 
District of North Kashmir. Miss J. Z. Ryan gave three 
examples of North Indian arms of the 18th century. Mr. E. 
Harris, made a further addition to our “ Relics of the East 
India Company ” — a collection which the Section has been 
steadily developing in recent years — presenting a shoulder- 
belt plate of gilt-copper and silver, formerly worn on the 
uniform of Edward Woodruffe, an officer of the Company. 
To Mr. Hallet G. Batten, who has benefited the Section on 
many former occasions, we are further indebted for his gift 
of four carved and painted teak figures of Burmese men and 
women, from Myan-aung, which, apart from their excellent 
modelling, serve to illustrate the costume worn by the 
middle-class Burman about the year 1880. Mrs. A. E. Dallas 
gave a magnificent needlework panel of ivory satin, 
embroidered in silver thread and coloured silks, which was made 
at Delhi in 1906 by Kishen Chand. This well-known Panjabi 


94 


Indian Section ( Gifts ). 


embroiderer had previously designed and executed a dress 
of similar materials for the Princess of Wales (now H.M. 
Queen Mary) during her visit to India in 1905-1906. Major 
L. V. Neame gave a circular box and cover of painted and 
lacquered basket-work, of a type hitherto unrepresented in 
the Indian Collections. It was made at Sipri, Gwalior State, 
Central India, in the second half of the 19th century, and is 
decorated in a distinctive style with the Avataras of Vishnu. 
From the Farquhar Matheson Collection, Mrs. Carew gave 
a finely wrought casket of blued-steel damascened in gold 
(Koftgari work), with arabesque and floral motives, made 
at Sialkote in the Panjab about i860. Mr. Mukul Dey, 
contributed further interest to our copies of the frescoes in 
the Buddhist Caves at Ajanta, Haidarabad, by giving a genuine 
fragment of the composition — a mixture of plaster, clay and 
cow-dung — used for the ground. of one of the frescoes in the 
Vihara Cave XVI, painted in the first half of the 6th 
century a.d. Upon this prepared facing, taken from the 
rock-hewn wall, the surface of chunam slip and the remains 
of the gouache painting are both clearly distinguishable. 
Mr. Dey furthermore gave a spirited drawing of a girl s head, 
copied from a fresco in one of the 6th-century Buddhist Caves 
at Bagh, Gwalior State, C.I., and also a 19th-century drawing 
of the Rajput School. We are indebted to Miss F. M. Norton 
for her gift of drawings from the small British State of Coorg 
in South India, a modern school not previously represented in 
the Indian Section. They consist of portraits on paper, 
both in water-colours and pencil, of the wife and two sons of 
Vira Rajendra Wodeyar, the last Raja of Coorg, who was 
deposed in 1834. Lt.-Col. K. Dingwall, D.S.O., gave a finely 
shaped water-ewer (Aftaba) of chased and engraved bronze, 
made either in the late 17th or early 18th century at Khagra, 
Murshidabad District, Bengal. This ewer is of better period 

95 


Indian Section { Gifts ). 

and form than any of the specimens yet exhibited in the 
collections. Mr. H. O. Collyer, presented the upper part of 
a baked-clay plaque, unearthed at Akra in the Bannu District 
of the North-West Frontier Province, upon which appears a 
moulded low-relief figure representing the goddess Astarte, 
or some allied form of the Great Mother of the Ephesian Diana 
type. Furthermore, the object is of interest as indicating the 
wide extent of the West Asian nature cults, and, whilst it is 
certainly not less than 2,000 years old, it may eventually be 
traced back to still earlier period. Major E. A. Weinholt gave 
a fine sandstone relief of the god of wealth, Kuvera, carved in 
the style of the best Gupta period, i.e., 4th to 6th century a.d. 
It was found at Kaman, Rajputana, close to Muttra, and depicts 
the god as a youth of gross proportions, holding a wine-bowl 
and the leathern-bag full of money {Plate 38). Included with 
this gift was another sandstone relief, which, although from a 
Jain Temple near Muttra, is doubtless a later product of the 
same school of sculpture, executed probably in the 8th century. 
It is carved with a representation of Vishnu in his form as 
Vasudeva, facing full to the front, originally four-armed, 
but only the arm holding the Mace (gada) remains, whilst the 
limbs which usually hold the Shell and the Discus, and the one 
posed in the gesture of Bestowing {varada), are missing. At the 
top are the two other persons of the Hindu Trinity {Trimurti), 
Brahma and Siva, and at the bottom are four attendant- 
figures, but the latter, unfortunately, are far too weathered 
and flaked to render possible their identification. 

(2) BEQUESTS. 

A PARTICULARLY notable bequest was that made by the 
late Lady Wantage to the Indian Section of a collection of 
thirty-six Mogul paintings of the school of Jahangir (17th 
century) and thirty panels of Calligraphy, formerly in the 

96 


Plate 37 



Portrait of NadIr Shah, King of Persia. Mogul (Delhi 
school); i8th century. 


Plate 38 



Relief panel; Kuvera; sandstone. N. Indian (School of 
Mathura) ; 4TH-6TH century a.d. 


Plate 39 



Relief panel; the Varaha Avatara of Vishnu, shale 
N. Indian ; 8TH-9TH century a.d. 



Plate 40 



Repousse copper panel ; Krishna and Radha. N. Indian (Lucknow) ; 

SECOND HALF OF THE l8TH CENTURY. 



Indian Section [Bequests). 

Imperial Collection at Delhi, ranging from the late 15th to 
17th century. The paintings, many of which are referred to 
in the Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri (The Memoirs of Jahangir) and 
bear the Imperial Seal Mark, had been previously lent to the 
Section by Lady Wantage between the years 1916 and 1918. 
They have already been noticed at some length in the Review 
of Principal Acquisitions for the Year 1917, pp. 88-91, Plates 
28-30, and are fully described and illustrated in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum Portfolio of Indian Drawings, “ Thirty 
Mogul Paintings of the School of Jahangir (17th century) 
and four Panels of Calligraphy in the Wantage Bequest,” 
published in 1922. 

(3) PURCHASES. 

THE principal additions by purchase were made in the 
Sub-section of Indian Sculpture. Except for a somewhat 
repulsive relief of the Devi as Kali, the destructive form of 
Siva’s Consort, the Museum had hitherto lacked examples of 
Javanese sculpture, a defect now partly made good by the 
'acquisition of an image carved in greystone (volcanic rock), 
showing the opposite or comely form assumed by Siva s 
Consort, Parvati, when she appears as the youthful Uma. 
She stands between two vases of lotus-flowers, with two of 
her four hands in mystic gesture, the others holding a lotus 
and a fly-whisk. This relief, obtained at Wlingi in the Blitar 
district of East Java, was carved during the period of the 
Madjapahit dynasty in the early 15th century (I ig- 45)* 
Since 1866, the Museum has retained on loan a rare and, from 
the point of view of Buddhist archaeology, important set of 
eight small relic-caskets excavated, about 1850, from the 
early Buddhist Topes at Sanchl and the neighbouring sites in 
the Bhopal State, Central India. These have now passed into 
the possession of the Museum. The majority of them are 

97 


Indian Section ( Purchases ). 


turned and carved in steatite, and two are of crystal. Of the 
latter, one, which is in the form of a stupa, appears to have 

been made for some unusually 
sacred relic, inasmuch as the 
“ seven precious things,” the 
emblems usually placed with 
the relics of an eminent person, 
were found with it. In period, 
this casket may be dated 
between the years b.c. 240 and 
180. Several of the caskets are 
incised in Brahm! characters, 
either with the names of well- 
known Buddhist saints, or with 
those of certain Missionaries 
who are known to have been 
sent by the Emperor Asoka to 
convert the savage races then 
inhabitating the Himalyan foot- 
hills. From Sanchi came also 
a life-size sandstone head of a 
Buddha, carved in the style of 
the Gupta period, 5th or 6th 
century a.d. ; but, so far, we 
have still to ascertain from 
which of the many sites in that 
district it was procured. The 
growing collection of Graeco- 
Buddhist stone sculptures was 
further strengthened by the 



Fig- 45 - 


addition of several excellent greystone (talcose schist) panels 
from the Swat Valley district of the North-West Frontier 
Province, carved about the 3rd century a.d. Included with 

98 


Indian Section [Purchases). 


these was an architectural detail, new to this class of 
sculpture in the Museum, 
consisting of a square pillar- 
socket, upon each side of which 
is depicted one of the four 
principal events in the life of 
Gautama the Buddha, i.e., his 
Birth, the Renunciation, the 
First Sermon and the Parinir- 
vana. A very beautiful panel 
of blackstone (carboniferous- 
shale) was added to the Hindu 
sculptures of the mediaeval 
period. It represents the god 
Vishnu in his third Avatara 
as the Man-Boar (Varaha) 
upholding Bhumi, the Earth- 
Goddess, in one of his two left 
arms. With him are the two 
other members of theTrimurti, 

Brahma and Siva, and three 
charmingly rendered figures of 
Nagas. The panel was found 
at Fathabad, South-East 
Panjab, and was probably 
carved in the 8th~9th century 
[Plate 39). At Phalodi, in the 
Jodhpur district, Rajputana, 
is an almost identical panel, 
said to date from the early 
years of the Chalukya-Pallava 
period (8th century a.d.). The Courtenay Ilbert Collection 
of 101 pieces of modem pottery, glazed, painted and 

99 





Indian Section [Purchases). 


slip-decorated, made about 1885 at Bombay, Delhi, Khurja, 
etc., went far to fill the previous gaps here in this period of 

Indian ceramic art. 
The examples had 
been specially selected 
from the points of 
view of shape, colour 
and decoration by 
that great expert in 
Indian handicrafts, 
the late John Lock- 
wood Kipling, C.I.E., 
during his dual- 
directorship of the 
Mayo School of Art 
and of the Govern- 
ment Museum at 
Lahore. A Writer’s 
Box ( qalamdan ), of 
carved ivory, was 
acquired for our col- 
lection on account of 
the unusual treatment 
of its 17th-century 
decorative motives. 
Although of Benares 
origin, its design is 
obviously partly 
influenced by Muham- 
madan convention. The Hindu element appears in the 
subject on the lid, where, carved in very low relief, is the 
figure of Krishna (Vishnu) as Gana-gopala playing on his 
magic flute beneath a Kadamba tree. The sides, however, 


100 



Indian Section {Purchases). 


which are decorated with animal and tree motives beneath 
arcades, most certainly betray Islamic influence {Fig. 46). 

In Indian Metalwork, an im- 
portant gap was filled by the 
purchase of four large architectural 
panels in repoussd copper, partly 
gilt and partly blackened, which 
are stated to have been made by 
a craftsman of Lucknow, Oudh, 

United Provinces, some time in 
the later 18th century, for one of 
the Royal Residences at Lucknow 
used by the Nawab-Wazirs of 
Oudh. Two of the panels repre- 
sent picture-subjects drawn from 
Indian mythology, one showing 
Krishna and Radha on the banks 
of the River Jumna at Brindaban 
{Plate 40), and the other depicting 
Rama and Sita resting in the 
hermitage of the sage Agastya ; 
whilst on the remaining panels are 
portraits of the Emperor Jahangir’s 
wife, Nur Jahan Begam (b. 1575, 
d. 1645), and of his granddaughter, 

Nadira Begam (d. 1659) {Fig. 47). 

Two important products of the 
Mogul period were obtained in 
costumes of hand-painted cotton, 
discovered some years ago in the 
wardrobe-store ( Tosha-khana ) of 
H.H. The Nizam of Haidarabad. One of them is a Man s 
Robe {Takauchiyah), covered with a delicate floral diaper 

101 




Indian Section {Purchases). 

design {Fig. 48), and the other is a ceremonial Girdle {Patka) 
with end-panels richly decorated with delightful flowering- 

plant repeti- 
tions derived 
from [an’fin- 
digenous plant, 
the Celosia 
Cristata, or 
“ Cockscomb ” 
(Fig. 49). It is 
probable that 
the designing of 
the patterns — 
using working- 
drawings, 
tracings and 
stencils for the 
outline — was 
done in one of 
the East India 
Company’s 
factories at 
Masulipatam, 
Madras Presi- 
dency, late in 
the 17th cen- 
tury, whereas 
the robe may 
afterwards 
have been 

made up at Haidarabad. Hitherto, as the Department has 
been unable to exhibit examples of this rare variety of 
Mogul garment, students have been compelled to content 



Fig. 49. 


102 




Indian Section (Purchases). 


themselves with the limited rendering of such things as 
portrayed in the paintings of the period. These acquisitions, 
together with several other loan specimens of the same date, 
can now be seen in the Indian Costumes Collection (Room XI), 
where they constitute an authoritative cross-reference from 
our Mogul paintings (Room IV). 


103 


X.— DEPARTMENT OF CIRCULATION. 

T HE sections of Silversmiths’ work and Jewellery were 
strengthened in the course of the year by the accession 
of the objects from the Hannah Irving Bequest noted 
below, and by the purchase of several pieces of modem 
jewellery ; but these two sections are still the weakest in the 
Department and the most in need of additions. Gifts of 
English silver of the first half of the 18th century, and of 
jewellery of simple form and fine execution, would therefore 
be most acceptable. 


(i) GIFTS. 

NOTEWORTHY gifts in the section of Ceramics were those 
made by Mr. Alfred Darby, who presented forty-six specimens 
of Salopian porcelain, and by Mr. Arthur Myers Smith, who 
gave fifteen specimens of English earthenware and porcelain 
of the 1 8th and 19th centuries. 

In connection with the work done in the classes for painters 
and decorators in the Schools of Art, there is a considerable 
demand for suitable examples of mural decoration, and the 
twenty-nine studies for the decoration of St. Paul s Cathedral, 
by Sir William Richmond, R.A., given by his executors, will 
be of great use in this direction. Other interesting additions 
in the Section of Designs and Prints were two aquatints by 
C. H. Baskett, A.R.E., given by the artist, and seven etchings 
by Alick G. Horsnell, A.R.E., given by the artist’s executors. 
A gift by the Trustees of the British Museum of 158 repro- 
ductions of illuminated manuscripts in that Museum were a 
most acceptable addition to a section upon which Secondary 
Schools and Schools of Art make a heavy and a steadily 
increasing demand. 


104 


Dept, of Circulation ( Gifts ). 



The Hannah Irving Bequest of silver, of which mention has 
• been made above, included an English porringer of 1697, a 
waiter of 1773-1774, a pair of salt-cellars of 1790-1791, and other 
specimens, dating from the 
end of the 18th century. 

It is to be regretted that 
this is the only bequest or 
gift of silver to be recorded 
during the year. 

On the other hand, a 
number of gifts of textiles 
may be noted. A panel of 
Italian lacis of the late 18th 
or early 19th century was 
given by Mrs. Hulburd. 

Several lace borders of 
Valenciennes and Point de 
Venise were received from 
Mrs. Horace Nevill; two 
pieces of Brussels lace of the 
late 18th century from 
Mrs. Chichester ; and eight 
pieces of English lace and 
white embroidery of the 
early 19th century from 
Miss Mary Anderson. 

Mr. Sydney Vacher gave 
ten pieces of Italian woven 
fabrics, chiefly of the 17th century, and Mr. Louis C. G. Clarke, 
four pieces of Persian brocade of the 18th century. 

Mr. W. H. Hammond presented an English walnut chair of 
the late 17th century (Fig. 50), in memory of his son, Lieut. 
R. M. Hammond, R.F.A. 

105 


Fig. 50. 


(17074) 


M 


Dept, of Circulation [Purchases). 

(2) PURCHASES. 

THE purchases during the year do not include any pieces of 
outstanding importance, but a number of useful specimens were 
acquired. These included two Persian bowls of the 13th 
century ; twenty-eight leaves and cuttings from illuminated 
manuscripts, chiefly English and Netherlandish of the 15th 
century ; two plaques of Limoges enamel of the 13th century ; 
and portions of English ivory crucifixes of the 15th and later 
centuries ; an embroidered English book-cover of the 17th 
century ; several English embroideries of the 18th and 
19th centuries ; eleven pieces of lace, chiefly Italian needle- 
point, of the 17th century ; and, lastly, six English chairs, 
two dating from the 17th century, the remainder from the 
middle of the 18th. A few specimens of modem craft work 
were purchased, notably seven specimens of jewellery by 
Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Gaskin. A jewelled pendant, silversmiths’ 
work, and wrought-iron hinges by Mr. Nelson Dawson were 
also acquired. 


106 


LOANS. 


Architecture and Sculpture . 

M R. Henry B. Harris lent a relief in ivory of the two 
Maries at the Sepulchre. This panel belongs to the 
class of ivories, decorated with large figures, which 
were used on altar-pieces. Carved from one piece of ivory, 
of a warm orange tone, this relief is remarkable for the 
quality of design and execution. It is French work of the 
first half of the 14th century. 

Mr. George Eumorfopoulos lent a group of Chinese figures 
in wood. The most important of these, a figure of Kuan-yin 
seated in the attitude of kingly repose, is an extraordinary 
example of the brilliance of wood sculpture under the Sung 
Emperors (960—1280 a.d.). The figure has been painted in 
colours over a coating of gesso, and in this case the pigment 
seems to be original. On the other two figures, statues of 
Bodhisatvas, the colouring has been renewed. These latter 
are probably a little later in date, possibly of the Yuan dynasty 
(1280-1367). Lord Lee of Fareham lent an interesting 
terra-cotta bust of Charles I. The most important of Dr. 
W. L. Hildburgh’s loans during the year were four English 
alabaster panels, with various scenes, and two ivory statuettes 
of St. Dominic and St. Catherine of Siena, Spanish work of the 
first half of the 17th century. 

Ceramics. 

IN the section of Chinese pottery, the Department received 
from Mr. George Eumorfopoulos a miscellaneous loan of early 
wares, including many pieces of great beauty, chiefly of the 
T'ang period, and from a body of friends of the Museum 

107 


M 2 


Loans [Ceramics). 

two series in succession, illustrating Lung-ch'iian celadon 
wares and Chien wares and related types. The London County 
Council deposited a maiolica dish of the end of the 16th 
century found in London, of a type either made in the Low 
Countries, or perhaps by Netherlandish potters of Italian 
extraction settled in England. Mr. E. F. Broderip and 
Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A., added to their respective loans 
already on exhibition. The Vicar and Churchwardens of 
Clavering, Essex, permitted the exhibition in the Museum of 
a series of 15th-century windows from their church, which had 
been sent to London for repair ; the subjects of the paintings 
are scenes from the story of St. Catherine. 

Library. 

AT the beginning of the year three important manuscripts 
were lent for exhibition with those from Durham and 
Winchester Cathedrals and from Stonyhurst, described in the 
Review for 1920. The first of these was the Gospels of 
St. Chad, lent by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield. This 
famous manuscript is of the Anglo-Irish school, and belongs 
to the Lindisfarne group of these MSS. The relationship was 
made plain by exhibiting the fine page of cruciform decoration 
in St. Chad’s Gospels, and showing near it a coloured drawing 
by Henry Shaw of a very similar page in the still finer 
Lindisfarne Gospels in the British Museum. The date of 
St. Chad’s Gospels is about 700. 

Some of its early history is recorded in MS. entries made 
in the book itself. One, apparently of the late 8th or early 
9th century, records that it was bought by Gelhi son of 
Arihtiud from Cingal for a “ best horse,” and given by him 
to God and Saint Teliau (or Teilo), that is to the Monastery 
of Llandaff. There is a later 9th century entry showing it 
still at Llandaff, but it must have found its way soon to 

108 


Plate 41 


tbs ilifi'n du^^miGTJcdcmjrxu puiuapcrn 
sccca^doruin ubi sa^ibcrB-^smiowes- 
eouueueRiJiTG pea^s aiicxin sequeba. 
*cup> cum ccLoiJi> c ’ usqueiuuxjuumpraii 
Cipcs S CDCCRd CKIl 1 n @mJ£I^eSSUS lUCXTlilO 
sedebccuTxim miuiyuas tig uidcREGpiic 

ccuirni scifB^du cu 1 1 > 
omiCe^ coiialium q u eurh t uioy crls u in 
‘UBsamouium CXnia*£GiIiin ucTeuin ttioiot 
CK fxdaTCUcydJioi 1 1 u u a i ckij itg cu t n (gtmin 
muta podLsrcBsces ccccesseKa ig 1 ^ ou i ssi 
me cartel n uaio^uuo duo pnrLsTTesGes(*L 
cl ycxTm irci 11 g d tyo G pocsui n duwHCR£" 
xwnpliim di ^pObH/ckiduinn cxcdiyicu;. 
Re-rUnd suRgnis puiwceps socceRdatu 
cut/iUi uibil rarspoudes ctdeceqiKte-is 
TixesririCTBCLiu.CTd'LieRSUiiiu^ibs cnrcein 
Tjraxb cccr CUpu 1 xj exp s suxtuderunn aro 
i(Ij cxxlnmcrm - p eRdi r» umuin ucTdiccrs 
Uobis srxxi es/rps pbus di dicrcnUj iHs 


MS. St. Chad’s Gospels. Page of text. Anglo-Irish school 
(Lindisfarne group) ; c . 700. 

LENT BY THE DEAN AND CHAPTER OF LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 


Plate 42 



MS. St. Chad’s Gospels. Decorated page, St. Matthew I., 18. Christi 
autem generatio. Anglo-Irish school (Lindisfarne group); c. 700. 



Plate 43 



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Loans {Library). 


Lichfield, if the entry added on the first page is rightly read 
as “ Wynsige presul.” Winsy was Bishop of Lichfield from 
974 to 992. The entry indicates that it came to Lichfield 
Cathedral during those years, and, except for a short period 
during the Civil War and the early part of Charles II’s reign, 
it has remained in its possession since. The manuscript 
is imperfect, containing now only St. Matthew’s, St. Mark’s, 
and the first part of St. Luke’s Gospel. It is written in 
a very fine semi-uncial hand {Plate 41). The opening pages 
of the Gospels and the “ XPI autem generatio” page in 
St. Matthew’s {Plate 42) are fully decorated, and in addition 
there are full-page miniatures of St. Mark and St. Luke, the 
page with a Cross to which reference has already been made, 
and on the other side of the same leaf outline drawings of the 
symbols of the four Evangelists. 

The other two manuscripts were lent by Lieut.-Col. Sir 
George Holford, K.C.V.O., C.I.E., C.B.E. The earlier in 
date is a Carolingian manuscript, a Book of the Gospels, 
written throughout in a fine minuscule in gold. It is of 
the Rheims school and of the middle of the 9th century. 
Additions of the 15th century on three leaves at the end 
include the lection for St. Remigius’ Day. From this we may 
conjecture that the MS. was then still at Rheims, and from its 
18th-century binding that it probably remained there until the 
Revolution. Each of the twelve pages given to the Eusebian 
Canons has them set out between two columns, supporting a 
classical pediment. At the beginning of each Gospel a full-page 
miniature of the Evangelist is faced by a fully decorated 
opening page {Plate 43), three out of four of them on a purple 
ground. The other manuscript is a Bury St. Edmund’s one 
of the first half of the 12th century. At the beginning is 
a series of 32 full-page miniatures illustrating the Life and 
Martyrdom of St. Edmund {Plate 44, Fig. i), and miracles that 

109 


Loans [Library). 

followed his death. These miniatures date from the opening 
of the century, and the lives of St. Edmund which follow, 
adorned with illuminated initials, some containing miniatures 
[Plate 44, Fig. ii), must apparently have been finished before 
1135, as a later entry refers to Henry I as alive and he died 
in that year. 

Metalwork. 

LOANS to the Department included a silver mug, with 
London hall-mark for 1683, from Major Thorold ; a Sheffield- 
plate cruet-epergne, and a cut-glass centre-piece for a table 
with Sheffield-plate mounts, from Miss M. B. Hudson ; a 
silver badge of a Crossbowman’s Guild, from Miss Grace 
Withall ; a wrought-iron gate and railing, formerly at the Old 
Rectory, Enfield, from the Master and Fellows of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; a group of six fragments of Elizabethan 
jewellery found in the City of London, lent by the Trustees 
of the London Museum ; five pieces of English silver of the 
16th and 17th centuries, lent by the Worshipful Company 
of Goldsmiths ; a silver cream-jug of 1737-8, and a bedroom 
candlestick by Paul Lamerie, of 1741-2, from Mr. G. C. 
Bower ; a Dutch silver coffee-pot with wooden handle, from 
Mrs. Winifred C. Soames ; a casket with three keys, of chiselled 
steel, signed Johann Balthaser Weis, given to the Archduchess 
Maria Theresa (d. 1780) by her father the Emperor Charles VI, 
formerly in the Magniac Collection, from Lady Younghusband ; 
a Chinese silver cup and hand-warmer, from Mr. George 
Eumorfopoulos ; and a cover of a circular box in Chinese 
cloisonne enamel, from Mr. E. W. Littlewood. 

Paintings. 

THE loan of water-colour drawings by J. M. W. Turner, R.A., 
from the National Gallery was augmented by six examples. 
Mrs. R. M. F. Huddart lent two small water-colour drawings, 

no 


Loans (Paintings). 


How They Met Themselves and The Meeting at Arthur’s 
Tomb, by Rossetti, and one by Burae- Jones of a girl sitting in 
a meadow. The Misses Alma-Tadema contributed seven oil 
paintings by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, R.A., including a 
self-portrait executed when he was a youth. Mr. Burton Vivian 
lent four oil paintings : a portrait of a lady attributed to 
Thomas Hudson, a view in Venice in the manner of Guardi, 
a Temptation of St. Jerome, by the younger Teniers, and a 
picture of Herodias with the Head of St. John the Baptist, by 
Carlo Dolci. This last-named work resembles in its general 
lines the painting by Carlo Dolci at Dresden, but it is larger 
and the composition is improved ; the heads are differently 
posed, the lighting has been altered, and there are variations 
of detail. It is probably that Mr. Burton’s picture is a later 
version than the picture at Dresden. 

Mr. Thomas Bodkin contributed two drawings, one of which 
was a vigorous view of a boat and water at Stockholm by 
Anders Zorn, the celebrated etcher. 

The Right Honourable Viscount Bertie, of Thame, lent three 
miniatures by French artists of the igth century, viz., a portrait 
of Napoleon by J. B. J. Duchesne (b. I77°> d. I ^ 55 )> a replica 
of a miniature in the Museum Collection ; a portrait of the 
Shah of Persia by P. P. de Pommayrac (b. 1818, d. 1880) , 
and a portrait of Napoleon III, which that monarch presented 
to Lord Cowley at Paris in 1856. These miniatures were 
welcome additions, as the French School of Miniature Painting 
is inadequately represented in the Museum. 

Mrs. Joan Corlett lent a miniature portrait of Sir Biian 
Broughton, Bart., which was painted about 1660. Dr. 
Stuart Tidey lent one of the best-known miniatures by his 
late father, Alfred Tidey (b. 1808, d. 1892), viz., White Mice, 
showing a street Arab and his pets. Mr. W. B. Brodnck lent a 

in 


Loans {Paintings). 

miniature-painter’s box, which belonged to Richard Crosse 
(b. 1742, d. 1810), a deaf-and-dumb artist. 

T extiles. 

A LARGE collection of samplers and needlework pictures and 
embroideries was lent by Lady St. John Hope. There are over 
150 items, including specimens of purses, pin-cushions and 
beadwork. The dates are from the 17th to the 19th century, 
and they are chiefly of English origin. Miss Alice M. Lindsay 
lent a christening cover of red velvet, trimmed with silver lace, 
and two linen cushions with silk embroidery. All are English 
work of the late 17th or early 18th century. A large lacis 
cover, worked with a representation of the Five Senses, 
English inscriptions and the date 1633, and a piece of Persian 
brocade weaving (probably of the 16th century), with pattern 
of ships, ducks and fish, were lent by Sir William Lawrence, 
Bart. 

An embroidered English carpet of the 18th century was 
lent by Sir Hubert Medlycott, Bart., and exhibited, with his 
consent, in one of the panelled rooms of contemporary date in 
the Department of Woodwork. Lieut.-Col. G. B. Croft Lyons 
added a Spanish pile carpet of 17th or 18th century date to 
his collection of textiles already on loan to the Museum. Mr. 
Harold Wallis lent a portion of a Persian carpet, some 
fragments of Egyptian linen mummy-cloths, and some 
European costumes, chiefly belonging to the second half of 
the 18th century. Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A., lent a large 
Asia Minor pile carpet of the 17th century, and made many 
additions to his loan collection of textiles obtained in Spain. 

A Turkish brocade, woven with inscriptions and floral 
ornament, was lent by Sir Charles Marling, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Further embroideries were added to Mr. A. J. B. Wace’s 
large loan collection of needlework from the Greek Islands. 


112 


Loans {Textiles). 


Sir Michael Sadler lent a number of embroidered covers 
from Persia and Western Turkestan, and a small pile rug 
from Chinese Turkestan. 

An important collection of cotton prints and painted fabrics 
from the Near East, Persia and India, was lent by Mr. G. P. 
Baker. Many of the specimens have been illustrated in his 
recent book “ Cotton Painting and Printing in the East Indies .” 

The National Lace Association lent a collection of modern 
English bobbin lace (chiefly Devon and Bucks) and tambour 
work on net from Coggeshall. It is an instructive record of 
a native industry which is passing through difficult times at 
the present day. 

In addition to the above, an important selection of tapestries, 
carpets, and embroideries was lent to the Franco-British 
Exhibition by the French Government. They were supple- 
mented by loans from many English collectors. Illustrated 
catalogues of the Exhibition were published. 

Woodwork. 

DURING this year an important loan of Adam furniture was 
made by Sir Leicester Harmsworth. This consists of a pair 
of side-tables and two pairs of torcheres, designed by Robert 
Adam for Sir Watkin Williams- Wynne’s house, No. 20, 
St. James’s Square, London. The side-tables are of carved 
mahogany with marble slabs ; the torcheres are carved, 
painted and gilt with rams’ heads and festoons and othei 
ornament characteristic of this style. Records exist to show 
that this house was built and furnished by Robert Adam during 
the years 1772 and 1773, so that the furniture is of considerable 
historical value and of great importance in the study of t e 

evolution of English furniture. . 

Another loan of no little interest was that of a pair of English 
lacquered chairs of the time of William and Mary, ent y 

113 


Loans (Woodwork). 

Lieut.-Col. G. R. Heathcote. These chairs have the tall backs 
characteristic of the period, and are lacquered with landscape 
designs in the Chinese style, with the arms of Heathcote and 
Parker on the back. 


Indian Section. 

IN the Review for 1919 (p. 98) notice was made of a large 
collection of Malay gold and silversmiths’ work, niello-work 
and weapons, lent by Mr. R. J. Wilkinson, C.M.G. During 
the present year, 1921, Mr. Wilkinson added still further to 
this interesting class of Indonesian craftsmanship by lending 
thirty-two examples of domestic brassware, made in the 
Malay Peninsula and in Sumatra. These included a perfect 
model in brass of a Sumatran Royal Dwelling-house ( Rumah 
gajah maharam), with its adjoining Mosque ( Sursu ) and rice- 
barn ( Rengkiang ) ; also three coats-of-mail fashioned in brass, 
copper and steel respectively. The latter were wrought 
probably by the Bugis of the Celebes Island, although they 
belonged at one time to the Rajas of Rhio (Riau), a little 
island south of Singapore. 

Mr. R. W. Prentice lent some excellently carved woodwork 
of modem date, chiefly from Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. 
Perhaps the most noticeable piece is the small reproduction of 
the North Gateway of the Sanchi Tope, carved in “ Bombay 
black wood," which has been placed beside the great cast of 
the East Gateway, at the top of the South Staircase in this 
Department. Next, the front of a Jain Shrine, of the same 
wood, closely carved with divine figures in the style of the 
temple-architecture of North Gujrat of the nth century, of 
which the Surya-temple at Modhera is the characteristic type. 
Lastly, also from Kathiawar, a fine treasure-chest on wheels, 
made of shisham- wood, covered with perforated brass and 
tinsel. His remaining loans included an elaborate mantelpiece 


Loans [Indian Section ). 

with mirror of carved teak, and a gong-stand of the same wood, 
formed of a Nat and a Bilu. Both objects are typical 
examples of modem Burmese (Mandalay) workmanship. 

Mr. J. A. P. Stuart, of the Burmese Education Department, 
lent four teak-carvings from the Thayet-Myo District of 
Lower Burma. One, a sculpture in wood, represents the 
recumbent Buddha, almost life-size, as he lay in the repose of 
death [Parinirvdna) ; two are images of standing Nats, 
or Celestial Lords, roughly but effectively carved, from the 
base of a Buddhist flag-staff ( Tagundaing ) ; and, finally, 
a pair of doors of gilt teak from an abandoned Buddhist 
Monastery, each also carved with a standing Nat, one holding 
an open book and the other a shell. These carvings all fall 
within the I7th-i8th century. Mr. Stuart, furthermore, lent 
three bronze figures, obtained from deserted pagodas at 
Myothit in the Magwe District of Upper Burma. The earliest 
in period is the beautiful but severely modelled figure of 
Gautama the Buddha, seated with the right hand pointing to 
the ground, whence he summoned the goddess of the Earth to 
witness to his inviolable virtue. This work quite maintains the 
tradition of the Mathura School of the Gupta period, and may 
have been cast about the 12th century. Rather later is the 
bronze of the Bodhisattva Gautama, in the same attitude as 
the preceding, but clad in the apparel of a Prince, and possibly 
dating from the 15th century. The third image, a Bodhisattva 
holding a small fruit (? a fig) seen so frequently in the right hand 
of Burmese figures of Gautama, is not earlier than the I7t 1 
century. In its modelling, this figure displays very strong 

Chinese influences. . , 

The loan from Miss Cecilia Dav comprised a small but 
carefully chosen coflection of stringed musical instruments 
of 19th-century make, mainly from South India. Oi these, 
a large Bin-Sitar, with its two gourd resonators (sound-boxes) 

no 


Loans ( Indian Section). 

painted in bright colours, a Sitar to match, and a finely 
executed Rudra V ina of carved wood with overlaid ivory-work, 
require particular notice. These instruments were collected 
by the late Major C. R. Day, and are all figured and described 
in his book on The Music and Musical Instruments of Southern 
India, of which the MS. is now in the National Art Library. 
It may be of interest to musicians and others, who have visited 
the Museum of the Royal College of Music at South Kensington, 
t° mention that these instruments were transferred from 
exhibition in that Institution. 

Miss Dorothy Saward lent eight Marionettes of wood, painted 
in very bright colours, representing grotesquely carved figures 
of a mountebank, a wrestler, horses, rabbits, birds and a most 
realistic tiger. They are quite modem and come from 
Mandalay, in Central Burma, where they are used either in 
the Puppet-shows (Y ottU-pw£) or as toys for the children. 
The humorous structure of these Marionettes, and the 
ingenious arrangement of their manipulating-strings, are full 
of suggestion for our own toy-makers. 

Major W. R. Creighton contributed a strange and rare 
silken hanging, which he acquired during the British Mission to 
Lhasa in 1904- It formed the canopy-flounce of a principal altar 
in the Lamaist Temple— possibly of one dedicated to the terrible 
goddess Lhamo — and may have constituted an important 
feature of the equipment for the Temple of a Black-Hat 
( Nag-po ) Oracle. This Tibetan monastic work of the 19th 
century is painted with flayed human-skins, gouged eyes, viscera, 
demons, animals and carnivorous birds ; repulsive subjects! 
which recall the horrible practices of the Indian Aghoris! 
who eat human corpses, mutilate their bodies and worship the 
blood-thirsty Kali. Similar ideas, visualised in painting, may 
be studied in several of the Hanging Temple-Pictures (T'ankus) 
exhibited in Room V on the Upper Floor of the Indian Section. 
116 


APPENDIX A. — Report on the Museum 
for the year 1921. 

D URING the year the galleries of the Department of Metal- 
work, which had been in the occupation of the Board of 
Education during the war, were partially redecorated, and 
the collections were replaced in them. 

Various special exhibitions were held during the year. For two 
months in the spring of 1921 an exceedingly important Franco-British 
Exhibition of Textiles was held in the North and South Courts and 
the Central Court. Preliminaries had been arranged on the advent 
of peace by French and British Committees both in Paris and 
London. It included three tapestries from the famous series of 
the History of the Virgin, belonging to the Cathedral of Rheims , 
Gobelin tapestries, Savonnerie carpets and Lyonese silk fabrics and 
embroideries from the Mobilier National ; and a number of carpets, 
tapestries and embroideries, together with examples of French 
furniture and screens from various French and English collections. 
Special catalogues of the Exhibition were issued. The works sent 
in for the Owen Jones’ Competition, organised by the Society of Arts, 
were on view during July and August in the Class Room of the 
Department. In the Department of Engraving, Illustration and 
Design, a collection of drawings by Mr. Fetvadjian was exhibited, 
giving a revelation of the extraordinary power and resource of 
Armenian architecture from the 6th to the 13th centuries, particulaily 

in regard to architectural detail. . 

In June the Department of Engraving, Illustration and Design 
held an Exhibition of Models and Drawings relating to the Art of 
the Theatre in Past and Modem Times. In July, the same 
Department arranged an Exhibition of Wall-Papers and Posters. 
Publications . — During the course of the year the following publications 

were issued or reissued : — 

Catalogues. 

Works by William De Morgan. 

Works of J. A. McNeil Whistler. (Fourth edition.) 

Drawings of Old London. (Revised edition.) 

Selection of Drawings by Old Masters. 

Armenian Architecture. _ . . , . . 

Circulating Collection of Water-Colour Paintings. (Third senes.) 

117 


Appendix. 


Handbook. 

Chinese Art. Vol. I. (Reprinted.) 

Guides. 

Notes on Printing and Book-Binding. 

Fran co-British Exhibition of Textiles. 

The Bayeux Tapestry. (Reprinted.) 

Chinese Embroideries. 

Portfolios. 

Indian Drawings. 12 Illustrations from the Romance of Amir 
Hamzah. 

Lists of Photographs. 

Part VIII. Woodwork and Furniture. 

Section A. — English. 

„ B. — French. 

Photographs. — 5,790 photographs were sold, as against 5,820 in 1920. 

Visitors and Students . — The total number of visitors to the Museum, 
including the Indian Section, was 1,082,414 on weekdays and 194,134 
on Sundays, giving a total of 1,276,548. In 1920 the total number 
was 941,186, of whom 129,403 came on Sundays. There was thus 
an increase of 335,362 over the total of attendance of the previous 
year ; the weekly average of attendance rose from 18,099 * n I 9 20 
to 24,549. The total number of visitors to the Indian Section was 
138,768 in 1921 and 168,733 in 1920. 

There was also an increase in the number of students working 
in the galleries, in the Library, and in the Students’ Rooms attached 
to each Department. 

The childrens’ holiday classes, under the guidance of Miss E. M. 
Spiller, were held as in previous years. The total number of visitors 
conducted by the Official Guide in the daily toms in 1921 was 10,011, 
and a further 516 persons were conducted in special parties, giving 
a total of 10,527, as against a total of 8,443 in 1920. 

Circulation . — The number of works of art, books and lantern slides 
issued on loan to Provincial Museums, Schools of Art, Art Classes, 

118 


Appendix 


Secondary Schools and Training Colleges, etc., during the year is 
shown in the following table : — 


Type of Institution. 

Number. 

Objects. 

Paintings, 
Drawings 
and Designs. 

Books. 

Lantern 

Slides. 

Museums.. 

Temporary Exhibitions 
Schools of Art, etc. 
Secondary Schools 
Training Colleges 
Other Institutions 

88 

3 

222 

176 

22 

23 

8,904 

203 

7,019 

883 

332 

125 

2,184 
72 
5.157 
3.012 J 
5 i 5 / 

225 

520 

Not eligible 
for books. 
6 

>35 

7,281 

/ >.>°3 
\ 170 

1.617 

Total 

534 

17,466 

11,165 

526 

10,306 


This shows a slight increase in the number of institutions receiving 
loans with a corresponding increase in the number of specimens, books 
and lantern slides issued, as compared with the preceding year. 


STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF VISITORS 
IN THE YEARS 1921, 1920 and 1919. 


Month. 

Weekdays. 

Sundays. 


1919. 

1920. 

1921. 

1919. 

1920. 

1921. 

January 

February 

March . . 

April 

May 

June 

July .. 

August . . 

September 

October 

November 

December 

45.559 

34.647 

43.264 

55.872 

40,130 

42.677 

56.321 

73.776 

49,826 

48,913 

39.571 

43.399 

52,622 

43.845 

51.685 

94,801 

60,356 

6 i ,599 

81,710 

101,400 

63,217 

67,167 

62,615 

70,766 

78.045 

96,670 

157.395 

122,137 

8o,335 

75.635 

81.133 

125,158 

81,817 

7>.24° 

53.490 

59.359 

5.721 

6.386 

U.173 

7.878 

7.040 

9,128 

8,462 

9,668 

8,494 

7.506 

H.574 

9.005 

10,529 

I3.3>7 

io.54> 

12,108 

9.479 

10,103 

11,008 

10,758 

9.77<> 

12,346 

10,388 

9.050 

13.9.8 

19.285 

23.564 

23.099 

15.100 
12.192 
15.292 
15.4°. 
15.098 
16.793 

M. 5«6 

9.156 

Total . . 

573.955 

811.783 

1,082,414 

102,035 

129.403 

>94. >34 


APPENDIX B. — Report on the Bethnal Green 
Museum, 1921. 

T HE total number of visitors to the Bethnal Green Museum 
during 1921 was 319,378, the attendance on weekdays 
being 222,302 and on Sundays 97,076. Sixty school parties, 
with a total number of 1,236 scholars, and representing 46 schools in 
the district, visited the Museum for purposes of study. 


tV 


Printed by H.M.S.O. Press, Harrow. 


120