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Flooved is an online education platform founded in 2011, that seeks to provide free education to a global audience by providing lecture notes, handouts, and study guides online, beginning with undergraduate mathematics and physics content.



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Flooved
by David Lippman;Jeff Eldridge;Mike Kenyon;Lawrence Morales;Melonie Rasmussen
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Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3501
Flooved
by Peter M. Neumann
texts

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These notes are intended as a rough guide to the eight-lecture course Introduction to Pure Mathematics which is a part of the Oxford 1st-year undergraduate course for the Preliminary Examination in Mathematics. Please do not expect a polished account. They are my personal lecture notes, not a carefully checked textbook. Nevertheless, I hope they may be of some help.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1056
Flooved
texts

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What is classical mechanics? Classical mechanics is the study of the motion of bodies (including the special case in which bodies remain at rest) in accordance with the general principles �rst enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), commonly known as the Principia. Classical mechanics was the �rst branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has...
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2725
Flooved
by Trench, William F., 1931-
texts

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Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems is written for students in science, engineering, and mathematics who have completed calculus through partial differentiation. In writing this book I have been guided by the these principles: 1. An elementary text should be written so the student can read it with comprehension without too much pain. I have tried to put myself in the student�s place, and have chosen to err on the side of too much detail rather than not enough. 2. An...
Topics: Maths, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs)|, Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), Linear...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3456
Flooved
by Prof. Michael Corral
texts

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This book covers elementary trigonometry. It is suitable for a one-semester course at the college level, though it could also be used in high schools
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3504
Flooved
by Prof. Michael Corral
texts

eye 3,858

favorite 11

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This book covers calculus in two and three variables. It is suitable for a one-semester course, normally known as �Vector Calculus�, �Multivariable Calculus�, or simply �Calculus III�. The prerequisites are the standard courses in single-variable calculus (a.k.a. Calculus I and II).
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3505
Flooved
by Barbara Illowsky;Susan Dean
texts

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The textbook was developed over several years and has been used in regular and honors-level classroom settings and in distance learning classes. This textbook is intended for introductory statistics courses being taken by students at two� and four�year colleges who are majoring in fields other than math or engineering. Intermediate algebra is the only prerequisite. The book focuses on applications of statistical knowledge rather than the theory behind it.
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3483
Flooved
by Richard Fitzpatrick
texts

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What is Plasma? The electromagnetic force is generally observed to create structure: e.g., stable atoms and molecules, crystalline solids. In fact, the most widely studied consequences of the electromagnetic force form the subject matter of Chemistry and Solid-State Physics, which are both disciplines developed to understand essentially static structures. Structured systems have binding energies larger than the ambient thermal energy. Placed in a suf�ciently hot environment, they decompose:...
Topics: Physics, Physics of Gases, Plasmas, and Electric Discharges, Physics of Plasmas and Electric...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3041
Flooved
by Frederique Oggier
texts

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These notes were written to suit the contents of the course �Algebraic methods� given at NTU from August to October 2009, 2010 and 2011. Exercises have been collected during these past years from di_erent sources.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3353
Flooved
texts

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These set of lecture notes are designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on computational physics. The purpose of this course is demonstrate to students how computers can enable us to both broaden and deepen our understanding of physics by vastly increasing the range of mathematical calculations which we can conveniently perform.
Topics: Physics, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3259
Flooved
texts

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Roughly speaking, a differential equation is an equation involving the derivatives of one or more unknown functions. In calculus (differential, integral and vector), you�ve studied ways of analyzing functions. You might even have been convinced that functions you meet in applications arise naturally from physical principles. As we shall see, differential equations arise naturally from general physical principles. In many cases, the functions you met in calculus in applications to physics were...
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3440
Flooved
texts

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This book begins with four special families of matrices�simple and useful, absolutely basic. We look �rst at the properties of these particular matrices Kn,Cn, Tn,and Bn. (Some properties are obvious, others are hidden.) It is terri�c to practice linear algebra by working with genuinely important matrices.
Topics: Maths, Linear Algebra and Geometry, Numerical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Linear Algebraic Systems,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1323
Flooved
by Richard Fitzpatrick
texts

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The purpose of this course is to present quantum mechanics in a systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical a manner as possible.
Topics: Physics, Quantum Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Measurement Theory,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3079
Flooved
by Peter Ouwehand
texts

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These notes are for a short course in set theory at the undergraduate level at Stellenbosch University. No pretense at orignality is claimed. Though ampli�ed by material from a number of additional sources, the debt to the �rst few chapters of the book Set Theory, by Thomas Jech, Springer 2003, should be easily discernible.
Topics: Maths, Logic, Numbers and Set Theory, Set Theory, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3368
Flooved
by F. J. Dyson;Michael J. Moravcsik
texts

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Detailed Program - We shall not develop straightaway a correct theory including many particles. Instead we follow the historicaldevelopment. We try to make a relativistic quantum theory of one particle, �nd out how far we can goand where we get into trouble. Then we shall see how to change the theory and get over the trouble byintroducing many particles. Incidentally, the one�particle theories are quite useful, being correct to a goodapproximation in many situations where creation of new...
Topics: Physics, Particle Physics and Fields, Quantum Physics, General Theory of Fields and Particles,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2629
Flooved
texts

eye 1,691

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The laws of physics are generally written down as differential equations. Therefore, all of science and engineering use differential equations to some degree. Understanding differential equations is essential to understanding almost anything you will study in your science and engineering classes. You can think of mathematics as the language of science, and differential equations are one of the most important parts of this language as far as science and engineering are concerned.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3442
Flooved
by Sergei Treil
texts

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Topics: Linear Algebra, Vectors, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Determinant and Trace, Dual of a...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3458
Flooved
by Prof. Carl Stitz;Prof. Jeff Zeager
texts

eye 3,378

favorite 7

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Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3486
Flooved
by Dr Thomas W. Judson
texts

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The first half of the book presents group theory, through the Sylow theorems, with enough material for a semester-long course. The second-half is suitable for a second semester and presents rings, integral domains, Boolean algebras, vector spaces, and fields, concluding with Galois Theory
Topics: Group Theory, Permutations, Cosets, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3494
Flooved
by Prof. Charles Grinstead;Prof. Laurie Snell
texts

eye 2,744

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This text is designed for an introductory probability course taken by sophomores, juniors, and seniors in mathematics, the physical and social sciences, engineering, and computer science. It presents a thorough treatment of probability ideas and techniques necessary for a �rm understanding of the subject. The text can be used in a variety of course lengths, levels, and areas of emphasis
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3489
Flooved
by David H. Collingwood;K. David Prince;Matthew M. Conroy
texts

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This book is full of worked out examples. We use the the notation �Soluttion.� to indicate where the reasoning for a problem begins; the symbol is used to indicate the end of the solution to a problem. There is a Table of Contents that is useful in helping you �nd a topic treated earlier in the course. It is also a good rough outline when it comes time to study for the �nal examination. The book also includes an index at the end. Finally, there is an appendix at the end of the text with...
Topic: Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3446
Flooved
texts

eye 1,150

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Topics: Physics, Quantum Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Formalism, Foundations of Quantum Mechanics,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3399
Flooved
texts

eye 333

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favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
Topics: Physics, Classical Mechanics, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3310
Flooved
by Keijo Ruohonen
texts

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The notes form the base text for the course �MAT-41196 Graph Theory�. They containan introduction to basic concepts and results in graph theory, with a special emphasis put onthe network-theoretic circuit-cut dualism. In many ways a model was the elegant and carefulpresentation of SWAMY & THULASIRAMAN, especially the older (and better) edition. There areof course many modern text-books with similar contents, e.g. the popular GROSS & YELLEN.
Topics: Graph Theory, Basics, Connectivity and Matchings, Graph Colouring, Planar Graphs, Matchings in...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3467
Flooved
by Benjamin McKay
texts

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These notes are drawn from lectures given at University College Cork in the spring of 2006, for a �rst year introduction to linear algebra. The course aims for a complete proof of the spectral theorem. Problems appear throughout the text, which you must learn to solve. They often provide vital results used in the course. Most of these problems have hints, particularly the more important ones. There are also review problems at the end of each section, and you should try to solve a few from...
Topics: Maths, Linear Algebra and Geometry, Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Vectors and Matrices, Linear...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3376
Flooved
texts

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The familiar order relations on numbers have an important additional property: given two different numbers, one will be bigger than the other. Partial orders with this property are said to be total orders.
Topics: Maths, Logic, Numbers and Set Theory, Posets and Zorn�s Lemma, Partially Ordered Sets, Hasse...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1724
Flooved
by James S. Milne
texts

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These notes give a concise exposition of the theory of �elds, including the Galois theory of �nite and in�nite extensions and the theory of transcendental extensions. The �rst six sections form a standard course. Chapters 7 and 8 are more advanced, and are required for algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry repspectively.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3415
Flooved
by Ji_� Lebl
texts

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This book is a one semester course in basic analysis
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3479
Flooved
by G.'t Hooft;S. Vandoren
texts

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Prologue General relativity is a beautiful scheme for describing the gravitational �eld and the equations it obeys. Nowadays this theory is often used as a prototype for other, more intricate constructions to describe forces between elementary particles or other branches of fundamental physics. This is why in an introduction to general relativity it is of importance to separate as clearly as possible the various ingredients that together give shape to this paradigm. After explaining the...
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2932
Flooved
texts

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One theme of this book is the relation of equations to minimum principles. To minimize P is to solve P' = 0. There may be more to it, but that is the main point. This section is also the opening to control theory � the modern form of the calculus of variations. Its constraints are di_erential equations, and Pontryagin�s maximum principle yields solutions.
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1687
Flooved
texts

eye 2,197

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This text discusses the theory of finite-dimensional vector spaces in sufficient detail to enable the reader to understand and solve most linear algebra problems in mathematics and physics likely to be encountered outside of specialized research.
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3535
Flooved
by Prof. Peter J. Cameron
texts

eye 477

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The original course was largely based on continued fractions: this technique is very amenable to hand calculation, and can be used to solve Pell�s equation, to write an integer as a sum of squares where this is possible, and to classify the inde�nite binary quadratic forms. This is still the centrepiece of the course, but I have given alternate treatment of sums of squares.
Topic: Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3516
Flooved
by Ted Sundstrom
texts

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This book may be different than other mathematics textbooks you have used since one of the main goals of this book is to help you to develop the ability to construct and write mathematical proofs. So this book is not just about mathematical content but is also about the process of doing mathematics. Along the way, you will also learn some important mathematical topics that will help you in your future study of mathematics.
Topic: Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3545
Flooved
texts

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We begin our discussion of optical pulse propagation 35 with a derivation of the nonlinear Schr�dinger (NLS) equation. To that end, we recall Equations [ VII-23 ] and [ VII-23 ] from the early lecture set entitled Nonlinear Optics I
Topics: Physics, Acoustics, Optics and Waves, Quantum Physics, Optics�, Quantum Optics�, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2997
Flooved
texts

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We�ll now move onto the next level in the formalism of classical mechanics, due initially to Hamilton around 1830. While we won�t use Hamilton�s approach to solve any further complicated problems, we will use it to reveal much more of the structure underlying classical dynamics. If you like, it will help us understands what questions we should ask.
Topics: Physics, Classical Mechanics, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2711
Flooved
by N.M.J. Woodhouse
texts

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This course has two aims. Aim 1 - To explain how Einstein�s theory models gravitation as the curvature of space-time. This involves setting up some new mathematical machinery, notably tensor calculus. The mathematical background will be developed in parallel with the theory. In textbooks, it is often done the other way: mathematics �rst, theory after. But the textbooks do not have to be read in linear order. The approach here should make it clearer at each stage where we are going. Aim 2 -...
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2919
Flooved
by Frederique Oggier;Alfred Bruckstein
texts

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These notes were designed to �t the syllabus of the course �Groups and Symmetries�, taught at Nanyang Technological University in autumn 2012, and 2013.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3394
Flooved
by Prof. Carl Stitz;Prof. Jeff Zeager
texts

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Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3503
Flooved
by Prof. Dave Witte Morris;Prof. Joy Morris
texts

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well as in the application of mathematics to the rest of the world involve many variables
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3499
Flooved
by Catherine Wilkins
texts

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The course will be in two parts: Part I in Michaelmas Term Weeks 3-8 and Hilary Term Weeks 1-2, and Part II in Hilary Term Weeks 3-8. For Part I you will be allocated a computer to yourself during scheduled sessions in the Statistics Department, and you may work collaboratively with others in these sessions. None of the work in Part I will be assessed, but instead will act as a foundation enabling you to work individually during Part II. This individual work will be assessed and will count...
Topics: Maths, Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Study Guides, Study Skills and Assignment Guidelines, Number...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1477
Flooved
texts

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Canonical Quantization: In quantum mechanics, canonical quantization is a recipe that takes us from the Hamiltonian formalism of classical dynamics to the quantum theory. The recipe tells us to take the generalized coordinates qa and their conjugate momenta pa and promote them to operators. The Poisson bracket structure of classical mechanics morphs into the structure of commutation relations between operators, so that, in units with _ = 1,...
Topics: Physics, Particle Physics and Fields, Quantum Physics, General Theory of Fields and Particles,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2962
Flooved
texts

eye 447

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Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3127
Flooved
texts

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Topics: Physics, Classical Mechanics, Classical Mechanics of Discrete Systems, Fundamental Concepts,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3306
Flooved
by Peter Dourmashkin
texts

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In this chapter we will investigate the relationship between forces and the time during which they are applied, and in the process learn about the quantity of momentum, the principle of conservation of momentum, and its use in solving a new set of problems in mechanics: collisions.
Topics: Maths, Physics, Dynamics and Relativity, Classical Mechanics, Dynamics and Relativity, Classical...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3295
Flooved
by Frederique Oggier
texts

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These are lecture notes for the class on introduction to algebraic number theory, given at NTU from January to April 2009 and 2010.
Topics: Maths, Number Theory, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3365
Flooved
texts

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Having studied the propagation mechanism of the Dirac �eld in the previous chapters using the chiral representation we can separate the most general form of the Dirac �eld in the following main components...
Topics: Physics, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2678
Flooved
by John Lewis;Arthur Mattuck;Haynes Miller;Jeremy Orloff
texts

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Introduction: The cover-up method was introduced by Oliver Heaviside as a fast way to do a decomposition into partial fractions. This is an essential step in using the Laplace transform to solve differential equations, and this was more or less Heaviside�s original motivation.
Topics: Maths, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs), Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1398
Flooved
texts

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So far we have considered quantum �eld theory with 0-dimensional spacetime (to make a joke, one may say that the dimension of the space is _1). In this section, we will move closer to actual physics: we will consider 1-dimensional spacetime, i.e. the dimension of the space is 0. This does not mean that we will study motion in a 0-dimensional space (which would be really a pity) but just means that we will consider only point-like quantum objects (particles) and not extended quantum objects...
Topics: Physics, Quantum Physics, Quantum Field Theory, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1530
Flooved
texts

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Definitions: A full-dimensional polyhedron is one that has an interior point (a point that satisfies all the half-spaces inequalities as strict inequalities rather than as inequalities).
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1316
Flooved
texts

eye 1,306

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Topics: Physics, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2724
Flooved
by David Tong
texts

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In this second lecture we describe the physics of �t Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles when embedded in supersymmetric SU(N) gauge theories. We cover properties of the solutions and the moduli spaces of monopoles and review how Nahm�s equations arise in their natural D-brane setting. We end with several applications, including S-duality, the dynamics of three-dimensional gauge theories and �eld theoretic D-branes.
Topics: Physics, Particle Physics and Fields, General Theory of Fields and Particles, Gauge Field Theories,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3120
Flooved
by Prof. Kiran S. Kedlaya
texts

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Aside from this introduction, the book is divided into four parts. The �rst part, �Rudiments�, is devoted to the foundations of Euclidean geometry and to some of the most pervasive ideas within the subject. The second part, �Special situations�, treats some common environments of classical synthetic geometry; it is here where one encounters many of the challenging Olympiad problems which helped inspire this book. The third part, �The roads to modern geometry�, consists of two 4...
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3488
Flooved
by Richard Fitzpatrick
texts

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This book presents a single semester course on Newtonian dynamics that is intended primarily for upper-division (i.e., junior and senior) undergraduate students majoring in physics. A thorough understanding of physics at the lower-division level, including a basic working knowledge of the laws of mechanics, is assumed. It is also taken for granted that students are familiar with the fundamentals of integral and differential calculus, complex analysis, ordinary differential equations, and linear...
Topics: Physics, Classical Mechanics, Classical Mechanics of Discrete Systems, Physics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3278
Flooved
texts

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Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3263
Flooved
texts

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It is extremely unusual to use eigenvectors to solve a linear system KU = F You need to know all the eigenvectors of K, and (much more than that) the eigenvector matrix S must be especially fast to work with.
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1690
Flooved
texts

eye 200

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Topics: Maths, Linear Algebra and Geometry, Differential Geometry, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1064
Flooved
by John Lewis;Arthur Mattuck;Haynes Miller;Jeremy Orloff
texts

eye 100

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To solve linear differential equations with constant coef�cients, we need to be able to �nd the real and complex roots of polynomial equations. Though a lot of this is done today with calculators and computers, one still has to know how to do an important special case by hand: �nding the roots of z^n = _, where _ is a complex number, i.e., �nding the n-th roots of _. Polar representation will be a big help in this.
Topics: Maths, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs), Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1387
Flooved
texts

eye 73

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The spring-mass system and the electric circuit. If a mass m is attached to one end of a sus_pended spring, it will produce an elongation, say y0, which, according to Hooke�s law, is propor_tional to the force of gravity ky0 = mg, where k > 0 is the stiffness constant of spring and g > 0 is the gravitational acceleration.
Topics: Maths, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs), Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1555
Flooved
texts

eye 1,820

favorite 2

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Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3361
Flooved
texts

eye 222

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Topics: Maths, Algebra, Number Theory, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1130
Flooved
by Eric Poisson
texts

eye 1,447

favorite 2

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This is a comprehensive book on all of the fundamental theory behind electromagnetism.
Topics: Physics, Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Radiation, Classical Electromagnetism�,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2715
Flooved
by David Joyner;Minh Van Nguyen;Dr Nathann Cohen
texts

eye 3,184

favorite 5

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This is an introductory book on algorithmic graph theory. Theory and algorithms are illustrated using the Sage open source mathematics software. To get an overview of the book, you can view the table of contents as shown below or download the complete book. This book is more commonly known as the "DaMN" book if you notice the first letter of the first name of each author. So feel free to call it the DaMN book :-)
Topics: Maths, Graph Theory, Statistics and Probability, Basics, Connectivity and Matchings, Probabilistic...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3435
Flooved
texts

eye 1,355

favorite 1

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This book is a one semester course in basic analysis. It should be possible to use the book for both a basic course for students who do not necessarily wish to go to graduate school, but also as a more advanced one-semester course that also covers topics such as metric spaces.
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3443
Flooved
texts

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The purpose of this chapter is to consider in more detail some of the geometrical properties of space-times that contain plane waves. Part of the discussion here follows naturally from that at the end of the previous chapter. Here, some more general results of a geometrical nature will be considered, and an intuitive approach to the collision of plane waves will also be developed.
Topics: Physics, Special Relativity, General Relativity and Gravitation, Classical General Relativity,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2800
Flooved
texts

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It has been seen that singularities inevitably occur in the solutions describing the interaction region of colliding plane waves. Using the line element (6.20), we have in this region...
Topic: Maths
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2803
Flooved
by Prof. Richard Hammack
texts

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such a function f, a single real number input x determines a unique single output value
Topics: Maths, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/3480
Flooved
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In this section we will make several connections between the Kantorovich-Rubinstein theorem and other classical objects. Let us start with the following classical inequality.
Topics: Maths, Analysis and Calculus, Statistics and Probability, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1038
Flooved
texts

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We will be discussing �compact operators� later, so we need some sort of idea of com_pactness. This is what the following theorem provides.
Topics: Maths, Topology and Metric Spaces, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs), Compact Spaces,...
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1481
Flooved
texts

eye 274

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Topics: Maths, Differential Equations (ODEs & PDEs), Methods, Fourier Analysis, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/1488
Flooved
texts

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Integral is additive for simple functions.
Topics: Maths, Analysis and Calculus, Analysis, Integration, Mathematics
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Topics: Maths, Mathematics
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In this unit, we describe a more intricate version of the sieve of Eratosthenes, introduced by Viggo Brun in order to study the Goldbach conjecture and the twin prime conjecture. It is most useful for providing lower bounds; for upper bounds, the Selberg sieve (to be introduced in the following unit) is much less painful.
Topics: Maths, Algebra, Number Theory, Mathematics
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A plasma is a gas in which an important fraction of the atoms is ionized, so that the electrons and ions are separately free. When does this ionization occur? When the temperature is hot enough. ...
Topics: Physics, Physics of Gases, Plasmas, and Electric Discharges, Physics of Plasmas and Electric...
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Topics: Maths, Statistics and Probability, Statistics, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2155
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Topics: Maths, Statistics and Probability, Statistics, Mathematics
Source: http://www.flooved.com/reader/2158