This research uses a historical comparative analysis to investigate the differences between two specific Muslim-majority regions of Thailand the province of Satun, along the western coast of southern Thailand, and provinces of Yala, Narathiwat, Pattani, and Songkhla, which border the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the Gulf of Thailand. The formation of ethnic identities in Satun and Patani has followed different paths over time, and these variations in development have produced dramatically divergent outcomes in relation to observable communal violence and terrorist attacks. Satun has virtually no problem with ethnic or religious conflict when compared to the four other southern provinces that have suffered from multiple rebellions against the state, numerous incidents of violence and terrorism, and a pervading sense of instability and fear. This pronounced difference in outcomes also reflects the degree to which various ethnic groups within the country have been able to integrate peacefully into the modern Thai state. Finally, an analysis of the Thai governments effectiveness in managing this integration process in both regions will provide insight into providing effective governance throughout the contested regions of southern Thailand, and what the potential is for a future resolution of this conflict.