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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  October 19, 2013 6:00pm-6:30pm EDT

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>> on this edition for saturday, october 19th. new efforts to end the war in syria. in our signature segment, young foreign entrepreneurs leaving the united states behind for a better deal. >> the u.s. government is not issuing visas, why don't you come to chile? you're very welcome. >> and the overtures by pope francis to the jewish community. next on pbs "news hour weekend." next on pbs "news hour weekend." pbs "news hour weekend" is made possible by lewis b. and louise, possible by judy and josh westin, joyce b. hale, the wallace family, in memory of
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miriam and ira d. wallach. the cheryl and phillip milstein family. bernard and irene schwartz. rosalyn p. walter. pacific islanders and communications, corporate funding provided by mutual of america, designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tish wnet studios in lincoln center, new york. hari sreenivasan. good evening. thanks for joining us. secretary of state john kerry traveling to europe early next week to explore ways to end the civil war in syria. international peace conference could be held in switzerland next month. just today, at least 30 people were killed near damascus, after a suicide bombing against syrian security forces and the clashes with rebels that followed. earlier this week, a senior
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syrian intelligence official was killed by rebels. estimated 100,000 syrians have been killed during the three-year long civil war but extent of the suffering is rarely seen because of the dangers of reporting the story. three arab journalists were abducted in syria just this week. tonight, a rare look inside the war zone by itn's bill neely. we should warn you, some of the images are difficult to watch. >> reporter: it's the soundtrack of a war that claims hundreds every week. hospitals at the heart of it, like the victims, caught in the middle. among the bodies brought here, a mother and her two children. syria's war, like so many, a slaughter of the innocence. this little boy's ribs were broken in the same explosion. nearby, a younger boy, who has been shot. his eyes tell the story of his struggle for life. tens of thousands of children have died in this war, among
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those trying to save many others, one of britain's top surgeons. david spent five weeks in one of syria's most dangerous areas. he worked 18 hours a day in breaks recording his thoughts and his exhaustion. >> i have been operating here today and under intense difficulty. we've had five gunshot wound patients in the last six to eight hours and we just heard heard there was an air strike not far away. it's all full-on. >> reporter: he rarely left the hospital. even outside, there was lit respite. there's a shortage of everything here, except casualties. sticky tape is used to hold down a patient. the diy drill is used in
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operations in a room whose window has been blown out by an explosion. >> it's a pure war zone, so people are trying to their very best but there are -- there's hardly any properly medically qualified people to do the job. it's very difficult. >> reporter: most of his patients were women and children by it's how the snipers targeted them that is his war's real horror. one he revealed back in britain. >> it seem to me it was a game they were having with each other, one day we'd have pregnant women being brought in with gunshot wounds to the uterus, not only one or two, but seven or eight which meant to me in they must be targeting pregnant women and the following day, we would get people coming in with chest wounds in the right side of their chest and then the following day, everybody would come in with a groin wound. so it seemed to me that there was a sort of like a death game going on with the snipers.
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>> reporter: very often, the snipers' game took children's lives. >> many children would die on the operating table because you just were a little too late to get to the blood vessel and it was -- it was very painful, a lot of the time. i mean, they die in front of your eyes. if you had a death on the table, you didn't have the time even to grieve over your patient that died. >> reporter: doctors have been targeted, too. a british colleague of david's was killed this year. another explosion, the hospital is on the front line. this little girl has been shot in face but she and all of the children you've seen in the report survive. syria's death toll, though, tells another story. despite the best efforts of doctors like david. bill neily, itv news. >> for a broader look, joined by washington from andrew tabler at
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the washington institute. so, first, let's start talking about this possible, tentative meeting in geneva secretary of state kerry and others have been hinting at. if there were peace toualks who sits at table between syria and the rebels. >> the syrian government seems leak it would show up on behalf of the rebels it's far from quleer syrian opposition coalition, the largest umbrella would be the party that would sit across from the assad government but it's unclear if x?u/
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>> i think that we still see thç back and forth between the assad regime and the rebel forces, assad regime pushing into areas where the rubbles carrying out spectacular attacks on check points, sometimes suicide bombings. also, a killing of a major intelligence official in the eastern city. so, they continue to duke it out throughout syria while those in
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geneva prepare for talks that might be. >> we also have indications now that turkey's getting involved. they're starting to fight some of the rebels but they have their own reasons. >> that's right. the problem in the north and the east extremists, al qaeda affiliates, have grown in stature and number because those borders are more or less open ?& and the problem is that it runs against a lot of turkish policies, specifically concerning the situation in the
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the company's said to be cooperating with that investigation. the united nations is calling on the united states to detail how many civilians it believes have been killed in drone attacks targeting islamic militants in yemen, afghanistan, pakistan. estimates vary widely from several hundred to more than 2,000. american drone attacks in
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pakistan are likely to be discussed when the prime minister travels to washington next week. into the east african nation of somalia, 16 people were killed in a suicide bombing. the explosion occurred at a cafe used by local and foreign soldiers fighting islamic militants. al shabaab claimed responsibility for the attack. in england today, a violin believed to have been played on the "titanic" to calm the passengers as the ship was sinking was auctioned off for 1.5 million. four times more than any item recovered from the doomed liner. they say the wood still contains salt deposits from the seawater. the instrument reportedly found in a leather case strapped to the body of the ship's band leader. his body recovered ten days after the ship went down. the violin was a gift to him from his fiancee. word of a final heroic act
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from one of the first grader killed during the massacrer at newtown last december. y jesse lewis shouted, run, when adam put a new clip into his rifle. several of the children did, and lived. but jesse was shot in the head seconds later. he was 6 years old. now to our signature segment. our in-depth reports from around the nation and around the world. almost as soon as congress voted this week to reopen the government and raise the debt ceiling, the obama administration renewed its push for immigration reform. the senate passed a comprehensive immigration bill in june, but the house has not taken it up. and its chance there's remain uncertain. one idea many democrats and republicans agree on is making it easier for highly skilled forrerns to work in the united states. but that hasn't been adopted because it's been caught up in
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the larger immigration debate. now, at least one other nation, chile, is capitalizing on america's immigration stalemate. a report is by our special correspondent peter eisner. >> reporter: what draws a high-tech furnituremaker from ireland to santiago chile? or convinces a neuroscientist from the university of michigan to set up business here? it all started with a devastating earthquake in chile in 20 so that killed more than 500 people. >> we lost two family members and when we got the e-mail, that e-mail immediately my wife and i, you know, just said, we're going back home. at the time of the earthquake, nicholas was a graduate student. he wanted to help his country rebuild but how could this budding entrepreneur help the recovery effort? inspiration, when he saw how foreign students attending stanford were forced to leave
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the united states after graduation because of difficulties getting a visa. >> there were hundreds and thousands of entrepreneurs that were not being and are not being welcomed in the u.s. i remember, you know, thinking, how much if i were president or i had -- i was in a position of power, how much would i pay each one of those individuals to come and spend some time in chile? >> reporter: thinking about people like james mcbennett of dublin, ireland. his company, fabzi, uses compute to control woodworking tools like this. the machine cuts a piece of furniture to exact specification so it could fit in, say, a small new york city apartment. >> what i want it to be is about downloadable files to make furniture and it's in a way a combination 0 between itunes and ikea. >> first thing that comes to mind, natural market in the united states. why not do this in the united states? >> for me to go there personally, i can't go for visa
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reasons. >> reporter: mcbennett would have liked to have start in brooklyn, new york. >> if you want to get inlpm the ideas that areqgi really early need to move to the best place to do that and still remain at low cost. >> reporter: that's where nicholas shea comes in. he realized chile could be that place. so the first thing he did was to conduct his own personal focus groups at stanford university. >> we asked them, what would vie to do for you to come to chile for a while? >> reporter: this young chilean entrepreneur came home from the united states with an idea. what if chilean business reinvented itself? why couldn't chile play with the big boys of technology? he went straight to the chilean government with a radical plan to attract prospective entrepreneurs. he proposed the government give them $40,000 each to develop their ideas. and the entrepreneurs wouldn't have to pay it back.
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in return, participant is giving back to society, giving lectures and mentoring would-be chilean entrepreneurs. as james mcbennett is doing here. >> what might fit in san francisco and new york just really might not suit latin american culture. >> reporter: nicholas called it start-up chile. from the beginning he had grand plans. >> we asked for $1 million to fund 25 start-ups and if that worked, i -- we would get $50 million more and we would fund the project for the next four years with the goal of bringing in 1,000 start-ups to chile. >> reporter: to his sprishurpri government brought into the plan. since the government started in 20 so, chile has given grants to 663 start-ups, worth more than $28 million. >> the culture in chile is if somebody fails in the business, he's a loser. we want to bring people from
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abroad that say, hey, don't be worried, if you fail, you can start up again. >> reporter: this man runs the chilean economic development agency. oversees start-up chile. >> what we want is that they get in touch with our local community of entrepreneurs, that they go and talk to the students. we want to change our culture. we want to be a country with a culture of entrepreneurs. >> reporter: but start-up chile only requires young innovators to stay in santiago six months. after that, they're free to move the company anywhere in in the world. how has chile benefitted from somebody leaving and not coming back? >> maybe not coming back but he's in touch with global network of global entrepreneurs and they know that chile is the place where they can start up a business. but the real effect of the program will be noticed in five, ten years, when we will notice
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how our young people have changed the mind-set. >> reporter: that cultural change is starting to take root. more than 20% of applications for start-up chile come from chile itself. like daniel, a couple of years ago he could only dream of start a multinational business. >> if you talk to someone that already made an internet company and was successful and stories from chile or stories from colombia or stories from mexico, you say, well, not only happens in the state, it can happen also in chile. >> reporter: he has designed a website called go places which helps renters and apartment buys map out and locate exactly where they'd like to live. it's been a big hit, and he's expanding around latin america. >> the first month we've got 10,000 users and right now we have 150,000 users. and we have raised in total $1.2 million. >> reporter: the question,
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though, is how chile measures the success of a program that gives seed money and support to its participants without asking for any stake in the company. the data's still being collected, and the numbers still imprecise, the investment has been net-positive. because the foreign entrepreneurs spend money in santiago, friends and family visit from abroad and 2 to 4 chileans are hired for every start-up funded. >> two or three years after the first group, i can tell you that the return on the chilean taxpayers' investment has been huge. >> reporter: beyond the numbers, start-up chile has put chilicon valley on the map in high-tech america. >> few countries of governments have put themselves in the shoes of preseentrepreneurs. it's a smart choice how they've organized the program. >> reporter: for irish entrepreneur james mcbennett,
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he's grateful to chile for the opportunity he's been given. but like most foreign entrepreneurs that have gone through the program, he'll probably hit the road when he graduates from start-up chile. what's the next stop for you in developing your idea after chile in. >> after chile, i'm still not sure. there's the option to8i0ñ take large machine and move into my parents' house and put it in the backyard and get costs down to zero. >> reporter:'-k possibly find y dream in brooklyn? >> i think to scale the company, brooklyn's very much needed. it's almost jumping through loopholes to get there. >> should the united states be doing more to retain entrepreneurial talent? visit since being elected seven months ago, pope francis has made a number of overtures to the jewish community including one public gesture this week. we're joined by kim lawton for
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the public television program religion and ethics "newsweenew. the pope said to catholic churches in rome, no one should be providing a funeral mass for the convicted nazi war criminal who just passed away. why is this signature? >> this was just another indication of the vastly improved relations between the jewish community and the cath catholic church. there have been a lot of questions about the catholic church's role in how much it did to help jews during the hollow cast, it's a sensitive issue between catholics and jews. it's a symbolic gesture to say the catholic church was supportive of the jewish community, understood the concerns and did not want to add to the concerns. symbolic gesture. >> last month the president of the world jewish council met with the pope and after the meeting he said, quote, in the past 2,000 years ties between the catholic church and jews had never been this good. this is a long process in the making, right?
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>> a very long process. i mean, for 2000 year that was a big issue of the catholic church blaming all jews for death of jes jesus, that led so persecution, violence. in the 1960s the vatican ii issued a document saying all jews should not be held responsible for the death of jesus and strongly denounced anti-semitism. that took a long time to filter down to the pews. so you know, it's been a gradual process. john paul ii very much improved relations with the jewish community. a lot of jews call him the first jewish pope. with pope francis, there's a lot of optimism that kind of improvement is going continue. >> the vatican says there's a possible trip in the works to israel. you've been on these trips, two previous popes have taken. why are they so significant? >> it was exciting to be on the visits. i was on the press corpser.
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visiting israel has become almost a required travel for a pope. john paul ii was the first pope to formally visit israel. pope paul vi visited briefly for a few hours, he went to jerusalem in 1960s. in 2000, when john paul ii went it was signaling a new era in jewish catholic relationships. so to see images of john paul ii, and later again, benedict, standing at western wall, praying at sacred site, visiting the holocaust memorial, and again, praying for forgiveness for acts that catholics committed against jews, those were powerful symbol for jews and catholic as like. any trip to israel poses a challenge in the relations because the catholic church has relationships with the palestinian community and palestinian christians. that's a challenge of visiting that part of the world but it's an important trip for popes to make. >> kim lawton, thanks so much.
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>> thank you. >> this pbs "news hour weekend" saturday. >> this tuesday, in hunting the nightmare bacteria front line, investigates the alarming rise of deadly, untreatable superbugs, including an outbreak at the national institutes of health clinical center. here's a preview. >> we have now gotten to the point where they were identifying a patient a week and it was not clear how these patients might be related to each other. >> julie and her colleague evan started to compare the examples of the kpc take friend patients. >> all dnas in. >> reporter: each patient had a number. >> this shows you, based on the dna sequences how the bacteria spread throughout the hospital? >> by matching the dna, they discovered something none of
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them knew. >> 3, 4, 8 all silent carriers, they can be transmitting to other patients without anyone knowing they have the bacteria themselves. this bacteria seemed to haven all over the hospital before they had come up positive. >> the hospital didn't know that? >> he didn't know, because the bacteria has capacity to live in the stomach of patients without causing infections. >> for me, the data were stunning. >> why? >> because it became very clear that we had missed the transmission sequence. >> the high-tech genomix revealed a disturbing truth, youth break would be much more difficult to contain. and to stop it, they needed to figure out exactly how the kpc was moving through the hospital. was it on the hands of workers or visitors or on hospital equipment? and then, as they urgently searched for silent carriers throughout the rest of the
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hospital, their worst nightmare came true. outbreak had spread beyond the icu. >> join us tomorrow on air and online. we report from hawaii where residents are taking on agriculture companies over the safety of pesticides used in the development of again knitically modified feed. that's it for this edition of "news hour weekend." i'm hari sreenivasan. thanks for watching.
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"pbs news hour weekend" is made possible by -- judy and josh westin, joyce b. hale, the wallach family in memory of miriam and ira d. wallach. the cheryl and phillip milstein family. bernard and irene schwartz. rosalyn p. walter. corporate funding provided by mutual of america, designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. -- captions by vitac --
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