tv [untitled] June 27, 2011 7:30am-8:00am PDT
vacancies like this. it certainly worked during aftermath of mayor mosconi and harvey milk. >> so we may be seeing more of these successor issues coming up, certainly something we do not want to legislate. i hope that we can trust people to be grown up about it, but if that is not the case, we can spell that out. >> going through the first time with little knowledge and information was difficult. now that we have got our record of how to do this, i think the next clerk and the city will be much informed with having our process and having our archives to look too. >> and that is how san francisco government worked out the kinks, twists and turns, bombs in the road, to select its new interim mayor, ed lee. san francisco's first asian- american mayor. >> this has been an unprecedented and historic transition of power here in san
francisco. i am so happy the board of supervisors came together to select an outstanding choice along many outstanding candidates to lead us over the next several years. >> over the past several months when this issue has come up, it had been agonizing. the board has been put into a difficult situation. there are a lot of differences of opinion on how to run the city, how to mass make a decision, who should be in place, 11 people to agree on that is a challenging thing. i think we have done the best we can do in the process, considering the difference of opinions. >> the people of san francisco can now choose their mayor, the direction they want to go. that is why this decision was so appropriate. >> the other big shock is that the moderates seem to have won this round. people thought, progressives have themselves on the board. there is no reason that they will not get together and take a noted leader who is a
progressive to be interim mayor, and then stayed there for another term. the great thing about being in term mayor is to get to run as an incumbent. the fact that the progressives could not get together to get somebody into office as interim mayor in their own self-interest was very surprising for a lot of us. >> what happened in the last month in city hall was an incredible show of democracy that was part policy, part politics, and it all came together, and more than anything -- not just from a reporter's perspective, often was this? but there was a public interest as well on what was going on in san francisco government. we take it for granted a law that there is a city government here. this was something that brought people together. you heard people talking about it at the cafes, park playground, people who do not always pay attention. in that $0.10, it was the best thing we could have done for city government, even though it
and then having one child which is brought up with care and attention. [different woman] to have another child now would be nothing more than selfishness because we wouldn't have sufficient time or means. i'm virtually on the point of regretting having a child already. the popular conception of italy is as a country of large families and of immigration, but in fact, the opposite is now true. italy has experienced the fastest and most extreme decline in fertility ever recorded. [man] italy will be the first country in the world in which the number of people aged 60 and over will become greater than people aged 20 and less, so the first country in the history of mankind in which we have this crossing over
with people aged 60 and over which is increasing and people less than 20 who... um, who are decreasing. fertility rates have dropped throughout europe, but in southern europe, the rates are lowest, with italy averaging 1.3 children per woman. low birth rates are brought about by a combination of factors. some are common to many countries, and this program will look at how italy in particular has been affected by these. we'll also look at some factors that are specific to the very low fertility rates in italy. probably the most significant factor that has influenced fertility rates in europe has been industrialization. industrialization has brought more people into urban areas and encouraged more materialistic life styles. in northern european countries, this process took place over a long period. the important difference for italy was that industrialization came later and much faster.
[man] in some countries, the urbanization process had been following the first stages of industrialization during even the 18th century. in italy, the industrialization started at the beginning of the present century, but real intensive industrialization, real diffused industrialization was only possible after the second world war. industrialization in the north of italy meant that fertility rates fell earlier than in the south. [man] if you look at the generation of 1920, so generation who completed its fertility in 1970, you may observe that in two northern regions, namely liguria and piedmont, the completed fertility of this generation is 1.5 respectively, and 1.7. while for the same generation in the south,
the majority of southern regions had a completed fertility of 3.5, so more than a double. the effects of low fertility in the north did not become apparent at first because the availability of industrial jobs drew in large numbers of migrants from the south. many of the jobs created in the industrial north of italy brought opportunities for women. [golini] in italy 20 or 30 years ago, women are in a backward position. so women improved very, very rapidly their position, and we have two indicators in my opinion are very important. the first one is that in the last year, the graduates in the university were more women than men. on the side of labor in the last 15 years in italy, we created three millions new full-time jobs for women
and about 300,000 new full-time jobs for men. this means this is really a tangible indicator of the "revolution" we observed both in education and in labor. another feature of industrialization is the large movement of population to urban areas. [montanari] we can list various problems. for instance, we can list the housing problem, the difficulties of finding housing, of moving in these areas. the necessity of earning more in order to survive in these cities require to the wives in the families also to be employed and then less time to be devoted to the family. susanne carella sigra lives in rome with her husband alessio and her son orso maria.
[translator] i work because i was brought up to do so. my mother always taught me that independence is a fundamental, even for a woman, so when i finished studying, i started to work immediately. [speaking italian] women now do lots of things. they take responsibility for a lot of things, always according to the family problems that they may have. undoubtedly, women without children get around more easily and get involved in more things. also, they have more time available, and therefore they can produce more and commit themselves to more-- both to their own job and to their different interests. [speaking italian] probably women like that can have a career
and have more interesting jobs. but people with children who are tied to the family with one or more child-- they're always limited because they have someone else to think about, another type of duty, and so they can't do more than that. [speaking italian] i work until 2:00 in the afternoon, and then i help my husband, family commitments allowing. unfortunately, i also work on saturdays, and this creates yet another problem. above all, i've had to ask for flexitime because my son goes to a state school until midday, and there's no lunch provided. there isn't any public transport to get him to the school. where possle, i have to leave my husband
to look after him. i work flexible hours, which means that i start in the office at 7:00 in the morning. i leave home at 6:30 so that i can leave work early in order to collect my son and allow my husband to go to work. my son broke his arm at the beginning of the summer, and i had to p p for a child minder. i paid her by the hour for a month. i had to do this because i wasn't using her on a regular basis, and i had to pay her 1,006,000 lira when i earn only 1,003,000 lira, so you can see that there are problems. i always have to take into account my family commitments, especially as my son is an only child, and so i have to organize some sort of games for him or, in any case, arrange for him to be with the children of his own age. this means i have to make special arrangements,
as he doesn't have any brothers or sisters. otherwise, he would often have to spend the afternoon on his own. i would have liked and would still like more children because i like children and i believe that the more children there are in a family, the better their upbringing, providing the conditions are right. but to have another child now would be nothing more than selfishness on our part because we wouldn't have sufficient time or means. i am virtually on the point of regretting having a child already. the lowest fertility rates in italy are to be found in the region of emilia-romagna. the capital of emilia-romagna is the city of bologna. rapid industrialization has brought considerable prosperity to a region where the fertility rate is now less than one child per woman.
industrialization came later in this region than in the northwest and had a distinctive form. there were many small and medium-sized firms. many of them produced consumer goods with a strong emphasis on quality and style. [baby crying] [montanari] emilia-romagna was always a rich region. after the second world war, because the most of the cities in the region was always, let's say, controlled, politically speaking-- the administration was always controlled by the communist party, and the communist party used emilia-romagna as an example of good governing. [speaking italian] [translator] it's well-known that the culture in emilia-romagna is traditionally leftist,
and especially so after the liberation, as the region has been ruled by the communist party, which is communism with a humanitarian face, and has organized many useful things to improve the quality of life and of the population. [different man speaking italian] [translator] first of all, we have to bear in mind that immediately after the second world war, emilia-romagna, unlike other northern italian regions, was a strongly agricultural region. at the beginning of the 1950s, more than half of the work force was still employed in agriculture. from this starting point, we have arrived at the situation today in which, as in all other parts in italy, the service industry now prevails. as well as services to business, emilia-romagna provides some of the best social and health services in italy. statistics show the highest percentage of working women in italy, though they've not yet reached the same levels as in northern europe.
but, as in the rest of italy, child benefit payments are low, and this presents parents with difficult choices. antonia patuelli works in the quality control department of a fruit drinks company and lives with her husband giorgio in bologna. [speaking italian] [translator] i need to work. otherwise, i would not be able to support myself, but even if i was in a position to support myself in some other way, i would still work-- fewer hours, maybe, but i would definitely like to carry on the same work. i can't stay at home. i must have my own job. it's very important to me. there is probably still some inequality. there is still a bit of a difference, but undoubtedly, everyone now has the opportunity to work in virtually all sectors. i have even seen women in the tollbooths on the motorways, for example. this is something which only a few years ago didn't happen.
i think that virtually all the women that work in italy do so because they want to. perhaps many work because they have to, but i think most women work because they are happy to do so. but there is the problem that italian women feel that it is right to dedicate a lot of time to their children and to bring theheup, to be near them when they are growing up, and this becomes a very big problem of conscience for italian women. [speaking italian] [translator] i have a lot of friends who have just one child, but they are very sad to have not been able to see their child's first steps, to have not been able to follow their early stages of life, to see them grow up. because as long as they are growing, children need the presence of their mother. it gives them security. it creates people who are more secure in life. [man speaking italian] [translator] to think about having children today
means it is something you really want to do. it is a decision, a choice. when you have decided that you want a child, work and other conditions become relative. having the child becomes the principal objective. if, on the other hand, you are not entirely sure that you want children, then you will find all the excuses in the world. you only need a problem at work, a financial problem, or one of many other little things which then become justification for not making the choice. in the end, they are just excuses. [patuelli speaking italian] [translator] let's say that we would like one child, the normal. undoubtedly, the time after work would be much more occupied by the child and by the desire to want to be with him
as much as possible, which i believe is the right thing to do. it would, however, be the time that i would dedicate to myself... for example, when i go to the gym or swim or when we see friends or often, we go away. obviously, we wouldn't be able to do these things so much. [bonoli speaking italian] [translator] young couples today are probably interested in many more things than our parents would have been. so in the end, certain aspects and pleasures of life become a privilege compared to having children or compared to the sacrifice of bringing up children.
obviously, at the moment, the number of children in families is decreasing, even in our area. to give an example, all our friends have a maximum of one child. amongst those that i know, no mother has more, and they were all married fairly late in life. this is another common factor which i find amongst the people i know-- getting married fairly late in life and then having one child, which is brought up with great care and attention. the pope's encyclical on the moral teaching of the roman catholic church has been officially published by the vatican. veritatis splendor, which had been widely leaked, argues for absbsute standards and against more liberal moral views. italy is the physical center of the catholic church, which condemns contraception and abortion. how, then, can italians equate
a low birth rate with religious practice? [bonoli speaking italian] [translator] yes, i think that catholic couples and even young italian catholics have for some time now made a distinction between their religious conscience and what might be considered as a dictate from the church. therefore, they don't feel bound within their conscience to take notice of the rules which they probably don't agree with, but this doesn't mean that they feel any less catholic. [speaking italian] [translator] i believe, and i'm a catholic, et cetera, but life has to be practical. you have to try and act according to your various needs, according to your personal problems, the type of family, and the type of work you do. don mario picchi lives in rome and has been a catholic priest for the last 36 years. [picchi speaking italian]
[translator] undoubtedly, religious faith has weakened. i think it is probably partly due to the fact that it has been a very superficial faith. we probably have less worshippers today, but i would say that the ones who remain are a little more convinced. years ago, faith was often something you wore like a sunday outfit, your sunday best, you often wore more to please others than because of your conviction. so what would happen at the very moment that as a catholic you are called to be true to your faith and afford to observe certain teachings because of something specific that has come up? then undoubtedly, the outfit is not worn,
and the superficial faith can no longer be counted upon. i would say, however, that for many, it's a moment of great reflection, especially when it comes to the question of contraception and the birth of children. religion is, however, still a strong traditional influence over italians. one factor which helps explain the extreme decline in fertility is the italian attitude to marriage and cohabitation. [golini] in italy, we have low marriage rates, but we have very low cohabitation and, uh... very low share of births out of a wedding. so consider that in some country
of northern europe, the births out of wedding are between 30% and 50%. in italy, we are about 6%, so much, much lower. [abrami] i think that as far as the specific aspects of marriage, italy is very different from other european countries, even different from some southern european countries, like portugal, for example. in italy, still 95% of births occurs inside marriage. so the postponement means postponement of marriage and after marriage, perhaps postponement of childbearing. but i mean, marriage is still, for the time being,
a must, apparently, for italian couples. [speaking italian] [translator] yes. my priority is to get married and have children, rather than pursue a career. yes, of course, but first i intend to finish my studies, and then i'll be thinking of having a family. i think that, um... the value of the family is something that can't be surpassed and comes probably before everything, even before a career. women students in italy still expect to have children. the reality is that the birth rate is still falling. [montanari] i believe that the italians are still interested in having big families, and they are dreaming in having big families. they are reconsidering the past-- for instance, living in a small village or in the countryside with big family
as a good pattern of families. i mean, this was really what they are considering the, uh...the targets of their life. there are inevitable consequences of the low birth rate. the guiditta tavani arquati school in rome faces the increasingly common problem of falling rolls. [woman speaking italian] [translator] i came here eight years ago, and at that time, there were three classes for each year. the large fall in the birth rate has meant a drastic reduction in the number of classes but an increase in the number of teachers to teach specialized subjects. we are therefore, in fact, much better off from a teaching point of view.
we don't know what it will all lead to. we aren't told very much at all. there is talk of amalgamating a certain number of schools so that some would be abolished altogether because, obviously, the cost to public funds is too high. some children would have to travel quite far to get to school. they would no longer be able to choose the school they prefer. well, in the immediate future, we certainly won't be having any second-stream classes. second and third streams for each year are totally out of the question. the worst predictions indicate the closure of schools or at least the reduction of certain schools. certain buildings would remain, and others would disappear. the students of the primary school 25 years ago was about five millions and at present, more or less 3.5 millions.
this means 1.5 millions less students in primary school. and then we expect that the number of students in university will decline starting between 1995 and 1998. [ricci speaking italian] [translator] we are already beginning to notice signs on the jobs market, a factor which will become ever more noticeable and consistent over the next few years. [speaking italian] in fact, over the past few years, there has been talk of and very obvious signs of a need for manpower by the industries which cannot be met. this need refers partly to general workers, to general laborers, and the skilled workers.
and we now have to recognize that we have a large foreign immigrant population settling in our region who have found particularly favorable conditions with regard to integrating into the workplace. even in emilia-romagna, with italy's best social services and highest living standards, there's no sign of fertility returning to northern european levels. italy's combination of late and rapid industrialization, low levels of support for mothers and children, plus the paradoxical legacy of catholic family values, has made it an extreme case. the same factors in even more extreme forms make it clear that spain will soon displace italy as the country with the world's lowest fertility.