tv Documentary RT October 27, 2013 9:29am-10:01am EDT
hello welcome signals your date is the end of all it's all but not supposing it possible but luckily for us the sun hasn't finished everywhere so we thought we pop culbut go in search of a song winter's knocking at moscow's door but we're not ready to die alone johns just yet so we travel to europe to soak up some rays imbibe the culture and see what's going on in the world of technology france was europe's largest exporter of electricity last year but despite its opponents in power the country is still looking for new energy sources and even has to bring the power that drives the song down so we're. there's a lot of energy in france and i'm not just talking about the street dunces the country ranks second in the world in terms of nuclear power stations but with growing environmental and safety concerns the sun may be setting on nuclear energy as we know it so ministers from around the world have come to discourse of possible shift away from nuclear fission. there are clearly one hundred eighty five nuclear power plants in europe and another seventeen on the way france is almost
a third of the total with fifty eight plants producing seventy eight percent of the country's energy needs only stations have produced well over one million cubic meters of radioactive waste ninety percent of which is stored in three facilities this is where nuclear fusion comes in almost the difference. nuclear fission isn't normally found in nature it's the process by which heavy elements split to form lighter elements and has been created by mankind to make poa stations and nuclear bombs. typical reaction a neutron hits isotope which caused it to destabilize and splits into small elements and neutrons giving off energy unfortunately its also uses a large amounts of radioactive waste which is incredibly hard to dispose of safely nuclear fusion on the other hand is nature's atomic power you just have to look at the some of the stars to see it in action in this reaction hydrogen isotopes in the sky. terry and combines a form of heavy isotope helium
a single neutron and lots of energy because most importantly fusion gives off hardly any radioactive waste. a slow the idea of eater was first discussed at an international forum in washington in one nine hundred seventy five together with the leader of the us thermo nuclear program we gave a report on things we could do together and on ways to do them back in one nine hundred seventy five we said we should work on what is known today as a technological platform this was it or this is what we said back in one nine hundred seventy five and all the work after that basically followed this plan which you. really have suggests the general secretary got about twelve bring it up at the geneva superpower summit in one thousand nine hundred eighty five he discussed it with president reagan and the international thermonuclear experimental react to project was born in europe france in particular was already looking to diversify
its energy sources and joined the project along with japan in two thousand and six the agreement to build and decommission was signed and promised finally broke in two thousand and seven construction is now in full swing and gathering momentum every day. he says is also latin for the way symbolizing the way that she locating color rush in the south of france is one of the most ambitious international scientific collaboration is ever undertaken the e.u. india japan and china russia south korea and the u.s. representing over one half of the world's population all taking part in a project to make the holy grail of energy production a reality. but nuclear fusion won't come easy given the groundwork for the project is a feat in itself the test site is the size of sixty football pitches making it one of the largest manmade level surfaces in the. the access roads from the poles have
all been reinforced to support the weights of the deliveries and five thousand people are expected to be working on the site during the peak of construction as the host country france is responsible for a lot of the infrastructure but the sheer size of the projects is too much for one country alone. since this is an international project it's very important to make sure we're all on the same page different countries will be providing different components and it's important that all the components is supplied at the right time compatibility issues need to be taken care of. nature has none of these problems and creates fusion a long time ago the temperature at the sun's core is fifteen million degrees centigrade this combined with this huge mass and density create the perfect conditions for fusion so perfect and fights that the fuse is six hundred twenty million tons of hydrogen every second construction is complete the real fun starts at the heart of the entire complex is this fusion reactor which will recreate the
conditions in the sense of the sun. equally charged so to overcome that not sure which happens so easily in the sun they need to be heated to over one hundred fifty million degrees in a vacuum at this temperature they form a possum which is confined to detroit old or donut shaped magnetic field and electric currents is run through the plasma to help heat it on the walls of the chamber have to be built to withstand the intense heat in vacuum conditions and this magical device that can create stars. but it's not a new invention. is a russian acronym for toroidal chamber with magnetic coils and it was created in russia over sixty years ago. many of the people i've spoken to mention the soldier when i asked them about the history of nuclear fusion so i went to the state library in moscow to find out more i was intrigued by this mysterious figure despite having received very little formal education before the al. make of the
second world war to develop a passion and the talent for nuclear physics. alexandrians he was the first person proposed from fun passing an electrostatic field in one hundred fifty brodie's i.d.'s in a letter to stalin but never received a reply but the second letter addressed to the central committee caused quite a stir and he's invited to moscow to discuss his ideas with soviet physicists andre sucker of tom and they were impressed by his originality and boldness some kind of recommended that will continue cliff fusion get started straight away but you find . using a secure magnetic field instead physicist eager to push outs of gave a talk in england where he revealed the soviet union's novel approach and progress the world was impressed by the u.k. declassified its nuclear fusion research and international cooperation began in earnest the first magnetic plasma containment device the t one was created in one thousand nine hundred fifty seven the teeth three which both sucker of and tom had been working on was completed in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight it's
a huge record temperature levels and plasma confinement times and the talk about to become the dominant concept in fusion research after this talk amounts began to sprinkle all over the world. some of the most notable include the joints european tourists or jets in the u.k. which is chief the first controlled release of fusion power and holds the record for the most power produced this talk is currently being used to test a wall lining for. japan's j c sixty which holds the record for the highest plasma time density and temperature ratio on the c.s.t. on america which means to heat the plasma to a mindblowing five hundred ten million degrees c. despite these advances no talking mike has ever achieved a long salt breakeven point where device releases the same amount of energy as it's used to stop the reaction so it. is not a nuclear power plant it's an experimental reactor at its purpose. it's to show
everyone that all the major technological and physical problems have been solved and that thermo nuclear energy is now available as a source of electricity for industrial needs if you get a problem with. the alternatives to talk among the stellar it was invented nine hundred fifty in the us and doesn't run a current through the plasma making it easy to operate however any deviation from the complex geometric form results in a significant reduction in plasma containing characteristics was a lot of progress has been made in germany in recent years with a vengeance trying seven weeks initial confinement fusion uses dozens of high powered lasers to heat a compressed hydrogen fuel pellets and ignite a fusion reaction although exciting from a theoretical point of view it can be tricky to extract power from this method. there's also the talk a lark turned out to be the most practical plasma confinement system and the fact that these days every decent university or laboratory has its own talk
a market proves it. the first ever talk of mark the team one was built right at the code chatzky institute in moscow. the institute is named after. the russian domestic agencies also based here managing all aspects of the country's participation in the heats have projects. holmes says he wants distant descend to ten which was built almost forty years ago and is the largest talk among currently operating in russia the teatime has generated around ninety thousand positive pulses which is way over its original designation despite its age old faithful still has a place in today's research and plays an important part in testing how plasma interacts with electromagnetic waves for. firstly it will use this tocome up to test out new technologies and once that does that we can apply them in a bigger scale secondly that we also use it to develop new diagnostic methods for
this is not an easy task because in actual fact many of these diagnostic tools do not yet exist and will use either to develop them in some of these diagnostic tools will be developed here at the office and it's. the talk of markets located just behind these walls and take it from me it's quite something see the possibility of naked eye but if you want to be able to control it you have to be able to monitor it and this is why they have this being generator generates a sense of being a neutral part schools through the plaza which because it's on the go a series of spectral changes the beam and comes out of the plasma in the sense of these five optic cable the constant beam is given a frame rate of about two hundred fifty per second with this filter the beam then goes through this box and through a series of lenses and it's finally picked up by the spectrometer to see. the spectrometer that send all this information to a computer which does the number crunching to calculate the spectral properties of
the beam and these these properties that you calculate the heat and the concentration of the. the electric field strength and rotation speed of the. measurements these are the most important. version of this laser system will eventually be fitted in the. one diagnostic system is far from enough. be monitored closely. there are different types of diagnostics. physical diagnostics. technological diagnostics and then there are safe diagnostics give us a clear picture of the things happening inside the reactor. given the experimental nature if. you will have around forty five diagnostic systems nine of which have been developed in russia three in the institute three in the institute and three in
the institute. the diagnostic systems range from lasers x. rays a neutron cameras to impurity monitors particle spectrometers and radiation. unfortunately we can't cover them all but check out a few. is also working on these highfield side reflect the system we sense michael. and use the extent to which they reflected to gauge the density and therefore the stability of the plasma a wide range of frequencies they used which allows them to take a cross-section and see the density distribution within this system is tested using this full. wave. but the main challenge different way frequency is done the same guide without distorting them you know this diagnostic technology the way it is meant to be applied editor has never been used with the talk of mark. so we decided to start by installing diagnostic sensors inside the t ten and now
we have collected a full. results. this is a full scale replica of the. the six ton device would be located just one point five meters away from the. business and only a two centimeter gap in. the diverts helps maintain the purity of the place an important role in ensuring the safety of the talk among. the gamma radiation produced during the reaction this information to measure the confinement of the alpha particles generated during fusion. a crucial role in producing a burning plasma which is a self-sustaining reaction. if any power. to institute he's also building this neutral particle. concentrations.
energy. isotopes deviation from. the reactor this information allows a few levels to be adjusted accordingly. has been put in charge of supplying this dog gnostic system basically that's because we've been leaders in the application of these diagnostics nuclear installations for a number of decades now we've dozens of instruments operating on this principle and supplied them to our foreign partners. so i went down. to see what they were up to. make mission systems for. generate the huge electrical currents required to heat the plasma they also.
protect the soup can too. from overheating if the small explosive charge in the pirate bay could detonate causing a small and medium brings to expunge and completed by prosecutes which discharges the excess current in less than twenty microseconds kind of like a giant fuse. or we have a range of key technologies being developed for the ether that must be supplied on time some of the needed to ensure the experiment safety. among them the technologies related to the magnetic system the vacuum chamber the palaces the chamber elements. this panel is part of the inside wall of the talk a mark is made up of lots of little tiles like this one. consists of a layer of tungsten papa. and the inside wall have over one million of them and six hundred thousand we made here in russia europe and japan also made these panels and the sun them hits we tested in this chamber the chamber can hit into three thousand
degrees c. but still it's s m fifty eight hundred which is the exact same temperature as inside the talk of. the inside wall of the reactor represents an immense engineering challenge the heat is subjected to the sequence of one hundred thousand light bulbs shining on one square meter the force exerted by the magnets could be compared to the way to fifty lorries and if this weren't enough. degrades the structural integrity of the wall this testing shaper contains an electron beam which imitates the heat load on the wall to ensure it's capable of dissipating all these heat over a relatively small area without fracturing so how can two stand with a melting point of three and a half thousand degrees based on temperatures of over one hundred million. most of the particles held in the plasma only a few of them can escape the magnetic field and reach the first hole the talk of the density of the particles drops significantly which means that the fates attention the wall is subjected to these also lowered the water cooling the walls
juicing steam. which drives a turbine to produce electricity. this is a complicated task because we have to combine different materials into a single structure which should be able to operate for a decade or so being exposed to aggressive plasma which we draw from soviet and russian researchers experience with modern materials for example the high energy laser mirrors rocket nozzles. vehicle fairing and formal protection high energy radars. and this is why russia was able to achieve excellent results in this area. with. a lot of the money has to be adopted especially for. this laser welding machine is used to create seamless.
traditional welding techniques there are no impurities in the well as of molten metal morning after the break. they're doing whatever they want in syria these days and even the obama administration can do nothing to rein the saudis in and i think the sad answer is that the united states doesn't have the power that it once had it doesn't have the leverage that it wants tries to work through allies through international organizations and occasionally on its own and deal with the court of public opinion that the best of america can but there are there is a lot in the toolbox right now they're not many tools live.
a lot of the work for each day as we count out here in st petersburg and what better place to come than the institute which is the birthplace of nuclear physics in russia it is also home to the country's newest to the global. church of himself which is a senior research at the ofer institute before moving to moscow to head his own lab as well as developing many diagnostic systems for each at the institute has also built a talk a mark of its own it uses a device to study plasma behavior as well as tests reheating systems police not
like any talk about we've seen before. the global sam is a spherical talk it's also the new eastern russia i was built entirely in st petersburg is more compartment traditional talk much so the money so located much closer to the plasma which greatly reduces the amount of energy required to confine it the shape of the chamber also makes the past mean currently more stable and an increase in efficiency is achieved by holding the puzzler much more centrally. despite the magnetic fields being generally we can this type of talk mark making it harder to reach required positive density is certainly not without its uses. as far as the energy industry is concerned research is a currently designing a hybrid reactor that's a token mark or a spherical talk i'm back in our case is used as a source of false neutrons among like say there's no self-sustaining reaction and
those false neutrons say used to radiate spent unspent nuclear fuel with the blood clots normally used in fission reactors. isn't just providing a technology for a lot of the money a function is being carried out here as well one of the country's speciality is the simple so that's why it's joined forces with five other countries to produce for. my next existence bush will provide a total of seventy three spools of superconducting my nets a cable for each for the length of eight hundred meters. we are very pleased that the savage stream. takes. from sample to sample. is stable. and there are many stages to the money for it to process the same superconducting.
chemical factory and then send seven hundred fifty miles hates it but they are cleaned and. the why is it then won't produce strong which in turn around five times to produce a cable first sentences that. is then about in a steel jackets and compressed the cable is loaded onto an eight and a half ton school for transportation. to the money it will be assembled in the test giant money to send a puff of money for russia. eighteen superconducting to oil field and six field goals essential solenoids on the sets of correction calls the confined shape and control the placement inside the box and vessel. is an ancient russian city not only known for its keep stress beauty and rich history but its reputation for science the research and manufacturers is known far outside russia's
borders. production facility. is responsible. producing nine out of the twenty four. were invented in russia in one thousand nine hundred sixty four now called a nice north good institute for pride physics. know used in the vast majority of talk of marx throughout the world as heating the puzzle without them next to impossible. he says twenty four gyra trying to locate it in a separate building one hundred fifty meters away from the reactor the electromagnetic waves the producer be sent via long wave guys into the reactor helping keep the cosmic to the temperature necessary for fusion. we see each as a regular customer since we've agreed to supply it with knowing. the year two thousand and twenty there are a regular customer but we also hope to be able to sell to all three. under other
contracts in the same period. gyro is latin for circle untrimmed is taken from electron so it's a pretty good name for a device that's based on the rotates emotional electrons image. beams of elections are accelerating towards a covered c where strong when they see field is a plant the interaction between the rotating motion of the electrons and the magnetic field generates high frequency radio waves to travel in a straight line striking up to. the high frequency waves excite the electrons in the customer causing it so he talked a bit like a microwave heats water enjoy it also has a stabilizing effect on the puzzler helping prolong the length of the reaction and therefore the energy produced so that all these benefits demand for joe johns is pretty high at the moment and working on orders from germany china and japan but in the meantime it looks like we have another such five customer. review
for. the project therefore. i hope i have the confidence to share. this quarter. and. it's a project. there is a leading member of the project therefore result. of access over to protect the phone returning to france jima visit. physics where the artificial diamond windows for the produced highly conductive results in very little power and they don't. they don't come cheap the latest estimates place the final cost of the project at thirteen billion euros or so may say that the countries of simply blown the money away so those see the benefits of the project for the next couple of decades the money now represents a huge investment in the future energy security of the entire world. international
cooperation at its best peaceful use of nuclear power for the advancement of mankind and protection of the environment most of the money invested in the project has already been through the technologies and materials developed which have already. known there's no doubt there's a long way to go for. progress so far i'm sure fusion has a bright future but until then enjoy the right. some of the sixteen percent of imports came from illegal fishing. the european union is ironically taking fish from some of the poorest nations on earth so this is a very serious and very urgent problem that needs immediate international action.
they enter our territorial waters they fish they load this fish into the ships and leave for europe. to day illegal fishing is taking the bread out of our mouths. choose your language. make it with. some of. the concerns you. choose the opinions that immigrate to. choose the stories that impact your life choose be accessed off to.
minds. eavesdropping on allies the latest n.s.a. leaks shows the agency has been a monitoring the german chancellor's cell phone for over a decade adding fuel to europe's frustration over u.s. surveillance practices also this week. on the recall being thrown onto the window then suddenly finding myself on the street and in a panic party talks to survivors of the suicide blast that hit a crowd of boss in the russian city of volgograd. america's unmanned killing machines draw condemnation from amnesty international and human rights watch who concluded that drone strikes in pakistan yemen should be classed as war crimes. down.