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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  November 24, 2013 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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♪ ♪ ♪ on this edition for sunday, november 24th, what the agreement on iran's nuclear program means. margaret warner reports from geneva, switzerland. and in our signature section from that way pep a get-tough program that's keeping probationers out of prison. >> the way i was raised and the way my wife and i was trying to raise our son. you tell them what the rules are and if there's misbehavior, you do something immediately. >> next on pbs "news hour weekend." pbs "news hour weekend" is made possible by judy and josh westin, joyce b. heal, the wall be onning family in memory of
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ira d. wallick and bernard and irene schwartz, rosalynn p. walter. pacific islanders and communications, corporate funding is provided by mutual of america, designing customized, individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios in lincoln center in new york. >> good evening. thanks for joining us. the united states and the world's other major powers today hailed the interim agreement struck last night with iran over that country's nuclear program. >> the united states, together with our close allies and partners took an important first step toward a comprehensive solution that addresses our concerns with the islamic republic of iran's nuclear
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program. under terms of the six-month deal announced in the middle of the night in geneva, switzerland, the west will ease some of its economic sanctions against iran. in return, iran agreed not to enrich its uranium beyond 5%, well below the level needed to develop a nuclear wep opinion upon inspectors will monitor the agreement. mohammed zarif. >> it is important that we all of us see the opportunity to end an unnecessary crisis and open new horizons based on respect for the rights of iranian people and remove afl aal of any doubte exclusively peaceful nature of iran's nuclear program. >> secretary of state john kerry sought to reassure israel which has demanded that iran stop all enrichment of uranium.
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>> the united states absolutely share the same goal here. there is no daylight between us with respect to what we want to achieve at this point. we both want to make it certain iran cannot have a nuclear weapon. >> but in israel today prime minister benjamin netanyahu denounced the deal. >> translator: what was achieved last night in geneva is not an historic agreement. it is an historic mistake. today the world has become a much more dangerous place because the most dangerous regime in the world has taken a significant step toward be on take the most dangerous weapon in the world. for the first time the leading powers in the world have agreed to a nuclear enrichment in iran. >> joining us now from geneva, switzerland is margaret warner. she's been reporting on the story all week. it's somewhat complicated, margaret, but break it down for us. which sides get what? >> reporter: in the days of
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painstaking negotiations in the intercontinental hotel right behind me, iran and the u.s. both got the most important thing they needed. for the u.s., the u.s. needed to stop the clock on the advancing of iran's nuclear program because it's believed to be within three to six months of being nuclear weapons capable. and so the fear, the concern was that even during negotiations on a comprehensive agreement to stop it all that iran would achieve that state and then president obama would have a very unpleasant choice of military accident and letting it happen or watching israel launch a military strike. so i'll just give a few examples of the programs that -- all of the reactors we've heard a lot about and the plutonium reactor, iran promised not to build any more centrifuges and not even
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operate thousands that they have installed that aren't operational and they agreed to no longer enrich the 20% which was weapons grade and to reduce and ultimately eliminate that stockpile. they will be allowed to continue enriching uranium at the 3% to 5% level which is one of the nuclear reactors. at the end of the six months they're not allowed to have more of that than they do right now. iran got two things it wanted. one is the the financial sanctions that were choke the economy and about $6 billion worth and then they did get not a statement of their right to enrich, but a statement in this document here which says that the end of the whole business which could be ten or more years from now and the, p comprehensi deal, after that, iran will enjoy the same status at any other non-nuclear weapons producing nuclear state.
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say brazil or japan, and that implies the right to a domestic enrichment program. >> so what about the diplomatic consequences here? it seems both saudi arabia and israel are on the same side of the table and both in strong opposition to this deal. >> reporter: it's definitely a case of strange bedfellows. irrace just doesn't trust, does not want iran to have any enrich at all as prime minister netanyahu made clear today and they don't trust however good the safeguards are that iran will ever abide by them and not have some sort of secret plan going. so they're even upset at this field because they feel it does imply a right to enrich, however, netanyahu still faces a choice and they further scuttle this and does he start focusing more or saying the final deal. he did mention the threat of
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action, and few people think he would dare to exercise that during this six-month phase. for saudi arabia, it's more complicated. what they're really worried about is any pressure with iran and the u.s. elevates iran's status and they're engaged in a great power sunni versus shia rivalry in the gulf, but it does not have a lot of clout in the u.s. congress and they don't expect to do much at home. what they expected to try to do is shape the final deal as much as they can. >> so what happens in the next six months? will we see more regular checks on iran and its nuclear progress? >> reporter: yes, absolutely. one of the elements is that iran has a much more intrusive verification and that's one of the implementations of this phase one deal. in addition to negotiating the
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big deal which is how hard these negotiations were, nobody i talked to thinkses it can can be done in six months as the prime minister originally promised or pledged and he talks about a year and finally, president has a political task ahead which is to keep congress, hold the lines and congress trying to impose additional sanctions on iran even during this phase, and i thought it was telling that the democratic foreign relations committee said he still wants to push that kind of legislation just with the six-month trigger out there. secretary kerry said last -- early this morning at this dawn press conference, but president obama would probably veto something like that. i think president obama has political jobs ahead at home as well. >> margaret warner joining us from geneva, switzerland. thank you very much for your reporting all week. >> my pleasure, harry. in afghanistan today another turn in the security-packed
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dispute between president hamid karzai and the obama administration. 25 tribal elders meeting in kabul approved the plan permitting american forces to remain in afghanistan in a non-combat role beyond 2014 and they assigned it properly, but karzai again insisted that he will not sign off on the plan before the afghan elections next april. the obama administration wants the deal done before the end of this year. >> china's airspace over discuted islands in the east china sea is totally unacceptable. the action could destabilize the region. china said all non-commercial aircraft entering the area must get approval from china first. chinese fighter planes flew over it today. it scrambled fighter jets yesterday over the east china sea under terms of the treat e the united states is committed to intervening in defense of japan if there is an attack on a
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japanese-administered territory. >> in a national referendum in switzerland today, voters reject and initiative designed to reduce salary inequality. the proposal would r capped the highest paid exec testifies the lowest paid workers at 12 to 1. the plan would have made it more difficult for them to recruit. swiss voters approved another plan that empower shareholders of publicly traded companies to sign off on executive compensation and that would ban signing bonuses and parachutes and novartis announced a package of $80 million. >> a safety warning out of boeing. the ge engines on the 787 dreamleaners could ice up if the planes fly high altitude con take flight crystals. united, japan airlines, and ge acknowledged his case, there
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have been six planes with nx engines temporarily losing trucks and they should be in service in the first quarter are 2014. that big storm that began in california, and there was snow across parts of noouchl causing damage to power lines in the texas panhandle. three people were killed in a crash involving more than a dozen vehicles. that brought the death toll to eight. difficult driving conditions in the middlest week as millions of americans take to the roads for thanksgiving. some good news for a change in the stom-ravaged philippines. thousand of filipino fight fans from the devastated city of tacloban cheered on their countryman, manny pacquiao as he registered a title bout late last night. pacquiao dedicated the fight to the storm survivors and has promised to visit tacloban. the official death count from the typhoon now tops 5,000.
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ now to our signature segment. tonight we return to hawaii to report on a program that began locally and is now expanding across the nation thanks to its success. it's called hope and designed to keep probationers out of prison. that's a priority for many states since housing inmates is expensive. probation is meant to keep probationers on the straight and narrow without strong lock them up for long periods of time, but it often doesn't work out that way. so a judge in hawaii tried something different. megan thompson reports. >> if i can't control what you're going do do, i can control what you're going do, and what that means in the future if you violate any of the conditions of probation you can count on me giving you some jail
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time. >> this isn't the way things used to be. when judge stephen alm was assigned to a felony trial courtroom in honolulu in 2004 he saw judges routinely warning offenders to follow the rules of probation and probationers just as routinely ignoring those warnings. >> at sentencing the judge says no drugs. you have to see your probation officer. you have your to pay your restitution and in the real world they go out and violate those conditions and typically there's no consequences. >> no consequence because the only threat was years of in prison. and that threat was usually carried out after dozens of violations over months or years. >> i thought what a crazy way to try to change anybody's behavior. >> so people just aren't reforming. they're not getting better. >> they're not. they're getting worse j. >> reporter: judge alm with a reputation as one of the toughest sentencers wasn't having it so he decided to try a different approach, an approach based on his experience as a
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father. >> i thought to myself, what would work to change behavior, and i thought of the way i was raised and the way my wife and i were trying to raise our son. you tell him what the family rules are and if there's misbehavior you do something immediately. swift and certain is what's going on get people's attention and help them tie together bad behavior with a consequence and learn from it. >> do you need sit in jail any longer to realize how seriously we're going to take all of this stuff? >> despite all of the tough talk. the judge called his new program hope. it stands for hawaii's opportunity probation with enforcement. judge alm worked with the probation supervisor, public defender and law enforcement to institute new procedures were which were pretty simple if any probationer violated the rules they'd be punished immediately. >> in some ways hope is parenting 101. a lot of the folks in the program, i think grew up in families where there wasn't a lot of structure are and there
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wasn't a lot of tie-in between behavior and consequence so they didn't have a chance to learn from it. make sure you call the hot a line every week day morning. they target probationers and alm estimate it is about 80% of them abused drugs and alcohol. so unlike regular probation where offenders can usually attend a drug-tested employment, hope imposes drug testing that is frequent and random. they're assigned a caller and number and must call a hotline every single morning. >> today's colors are blue, two, green, three. >> if their color or number are called they must report by 2:00 p.m., no excuses. short jail stashgs sometimes just a few days long are immediately imposed for positive drug tests and other violations like missing appointments, but there's some leeway here. >> everyone that shows up and tests dirty and admits to it is telling me that they're having problems, they messed up and
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they're taking responsibility for it. i understand that by only give young a couple of days in jail so we'll work with you on that. >> these seemingly simple reforms in that i whatty soon produced remarkable results and the department of justice funded a study five years after the program launched. that study found that compared to people in regular probation, hope probationers were half as likely to be arrested for new crimes or have their probation revoked. they ended up spending about half as much time in prison and were 72% less likely to use drugs. >> the results from hawaii caught the attention of criminal justice experts across the nation. >> when i first encountered the hope model, i was skeptical. most criminologists are. >> he's an expert on criminal justice at rutgers university. he's skeptical because old models that use threats usually don't work because the threats
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were too big and never carried out, but hope, he says, does the exact opposite. >> what they've done with the hope model is to ratchet down the level of penalty. so that it's something that you can actuallia, ford to do and then ratchet up the likelihood that if you engage in misconduct you will actually experience that penalty. >> clear says the hope model also works because these penalties are seen as fair by the offenders. >> have a good day. >> rapid responses that are reasonable, that are understood to be reasonable, that the person understands what was happening and why it was happening and have a behavior shaping and behavior changing capacity. >> hope's success in steering offenders away from prison is so promising that programs modeled after it have now launched in courtrooms in 17 other states. >> washington state, for example, put its entire parole and probation population into its version of hope and the federal department of justice has launched hope programs in
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communities in four states. >> here in honolulu, the program is working for people like john kenna. he was picked up in 2006 for resisting arrest and possession of methamphetamine. his case was representative of larger problems that hawaii struggles with. high rates of meth use and disproportionately high incarceration rates among native hawaiians. first, he was put in regular probation and he repeatedly missed appointments and failed drug tests all with few consequences. >> i wasn't ready to give up drugs and alcohol. >> then in 2009 his frustrated probation officer put limb in the hope program where he faced judge alm. >> at first, i didn't like him, honestly. >> why not? >> he kept putting me back in jail. >> within months, judge alm slapped him with a short jail stay with a dirty drug test. then there were the phone calls. >> when i have to starts calling the color on a daily basis, that's when it started turning
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around in my life. >> why? >> because i needed to be accountable for those times that i call, you know? it was totally up to me to make the right decision whether i want to go back to jail or just want to have freedom. >> was that the first time in your life that you were really being held accountable? >> oh, totally. totally. >> after repeated violations and jail stays, he says he finally learned his lesson. he checked into a drug treatment program in 2012 and had been sober for more than a year. he graduated from hope last summer. >> as long as you worry about yourself, you'll be all right, mark. >> today he's a mentor to others who struggle with substance abuse. >> you're look at people who have been engaged in pretty serious behavior that puts them into prison for years, but with the threat of just a few days in jail, they're shaping up. >> it's the disruptive nature of this program. it's not something bad might happen years down the road.
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it's -- you're going to jail today. that will cause them to change. >> judge alm also says the program could save taxpayers big time. according to alm, a probationer on hope costs $1500 a year. prison in hawaii costs around $46,000, but critics say the swift sanctions come at a cost. more strain on the local jail, and the bigger workload for the honolulu police who have had to serve hundred of warrants for hope probationers who have gone on the run. >> the criminal justice system law enforcement and being able to look for them and able to bring them back. >> honolulu city prosecutor thinks judges should put more people in prison from the start. he also thinks hope keeps offenders on probation too long and alouse them too many chances. >> what kind of consequences do we have for these probationers? >> when people violate the conditions of probation or
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commit crimes they need to go to prison. >> is it better, though, that these offenders are in hope probation which in theory has more oversight and more requirements for checking in and more drug testing than regular probation? just by having them do drug testing is not supervision. it's one form of supervision, but it's not enough. >> not enough, kenneth says, because even though it's been rare, he's seen about a half dozen offenders on hope probation charged with serious crimes like rape and murder since he took office in 2010. there have been some instances of people committing very serious crimes. >> well, part of the hope program, including murder, do those people belock in a probation program or should shea have been sense to prison to begin with. >> well, if we all had crystal balls they might have been sent to prison. in cases that i'm aware of, when they were put on probation they were put on probation for a small amount of drugs.
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no question some people on hope aren't going get charged with crimes and some people on probation aren't going to get charged with crimes. people on hope are getting charged with crimes a lot less often. many are also shaping up and getting off probation. the day we visited, four successful hope probationers were discharged from the program. >> the motion for early termination is granted. you are no longer under cart supervision because you've shown you can be responsible. >> we want people to decide i can have a life without drugs and i can have a life without committing crime. >> thank you. >> good job. >> that's what it's all about. that's what we're looking for. >> learn about other alternate of parole programs around the country. visit newshour.pbs.org.
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♪ ♪ this is pbs "news hour weekend sunday." finally, in our series of reports from our british partners the at itv documenting the mistreatment of an will mas in the wild. tonight elephants orphaned at an early age and the important lessons they never learned. ben chapman reports. >> reporter: it's said that an elephant never forget, but what about the the things it never had a chance to learn? for three decades which was how south african parks dealt with having too many elegants. thousands were orphaned and depriefd of the wisdom of their parents. now animal psychologists are discovering the effects. they played a deafening call to this herd in kenya which was never affected by kully. >> they start to move up into a defensive bunch as they should
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do in this situation. >> reporter: but there was a stark contrast when they blade the same sound through a group of south african elephants who grew up without their parents. many didn't know how to respond. others were aggressive, signs of the mental scars they still carry. >> and individuals are able to watch all of those being slaughtered around them and then they had to grow up with the older role models and those things all contributed for to this poor decision making. >> and this occurs that could -- new generations. those who die aren't the only victims. >> we've got to protect the way we are, and the social fabric. the scientists hope they're that they'll call new attention to the giant creatures and especially the smart ones hoping to share in their wisdom. ben chapman, itv news.
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♪ ♪ join us on air and online on the news hour tomorrow. we'll have a report on tunisia's struggle to restart democracy. that's it for pbs "news hour weekend." thanks for watching. -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com
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pbs "news hour weekend "is made possible by joyce b. hail. the wall be onning family in memory of ira d. wallock and the milstein family, bernard and irene schwartz. rosalynn p. walter and pacific islanders in communication. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america designing customized, individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provide by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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narrator: our planet is under attack. our solar system is full of deadly missiles that could strike at any time. it's like cosmic roulette. you can't go on playing a game of chance and expect to keep winning. narrator: killer asteroids. trillions of tons of rock, hurtling through space at tens of thousands of miles per hour. some are on a collision course with earth. an asteroid has more damage potential than a nuclear bomb of the same energy. narrator: 65 million years ago, a huge asteroid wipes out much of life on earth. but strikes aren't all ancient history. in 2013, a much smaller asteroid terrorizes this siberian city.

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