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tv   The Shah and the Ayatollah  Deutsche Welle  July 6, 2020 7:15am-8:01am CEST

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the 73 year old rock star has the planning a farewell tour but the call that night and i make as good as retirement plans on hold. and watching do that well you know. i mean the entire team here and thanks for turning it. hard on me all come good welcome to the 2nd season of only good friends on the planet on the brink of disaster we just long interviews with experts about one question how to change it up to police.
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979 shah mohammed to raise up octavia was overthrown by a revolution that put an end to a monarchy that was more than 2500 years old. the true nature i didn't believe it was an uprising at 1st. you know. that's where 13 regimes fall 1st gradually and then suddenly. the shah's mistake was to want to do too much too fast mohammed raise our pocket he was the last shah of iran and a key figure in world politics during the 2nd top of the 20th century. and was the shiite i have told most sabi khomeini. became
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a beacon of resistance to the shops rule. to buy goods in the tissues or 2 of them were polar opposites both in terms of social image and personality by the investor they became very fierce antagonists absolutely and the shock developed. and almost of session with. their rivalry lasted almost a lifetime eventually the shah was defeated and with the ayatollahs victory came islamic fundamentalism a new challenge for world politics. in september 941 at the height of the 2nd world war the iranian parliament swore in 21
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year old mohammed to raise our posterity as the country's new head of state. his father a razor sharp levy had declared iran neutral but make no secret of his sympathies with the nazi regime the allies demanded his abdication. since hitler's invasion of the soviet union in 1941 the british and americans had been transporting heavy military equipment through iran to aid russians in their fight against the german reich i. myself 5 and up to one raise a shot abdicated and fled iran he left his son behind mohammad reza stayed in iran raise a shot told him to remain there. take over here. mohammed ray says father
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had prepared him for this moment from a young age his crown prince had always had a special role among his siblings his father chose his son's playmates and sent him to an elite swiss boarding school to receive a western education. he also dictated who he would marry. the egyptian princess. a union that ultimately would end in divorce razor sharp wanted this arranged marriage between the 2 ruling families to strengthen the power of the parkland the dentist in iran. and he was of very very powerful charismatic figure who completely dominates the sun's life. 300 kilometers southwest of the capital tehran lies the away says city of hama and the youngest of 6 children ruhollah more savvy khomeini was born here in 1902 and
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a house on the outskirts of the city his father was murdered when he was just 5 years old. the case was officially never solved but khomeini always held praise as shah responsible. until the end of his days at a loss for many thought that there is a shop a surly have the intervened and to say the murder that was done bitterness lived in them because in his writings you know every now and then uses of those whose fathers have been killed by it is a shock. growing up without a father would shape the rest of khomeini's life his mother put him in the care of a wealthy aunt who made sure he got a good education. common he started school age 5 a village school teacher taught him to read and write. he proved to be
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a quick learner far more capable than his classmates while the children played he studied and read the koran. before razor sharp was forced to abdicate he had launched a comprehensive program of reforms he wanted iran to become a modern country and one of his moves was to ban women from wearing the traditional veil known as the shadow all the clergy accused him of meddling in their affairs and a wave of protest and chewed. khomeini was now starting islamic law and he also felt that this was a fundamental violation of the principles of islam. it must have come as a relief to from a day when razor sharp was pressured by the allies to abdicate khomeini demanded that iran should return to being governed by islamic law but his demands fell on
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deaf ears. razor sharp died in exile in south africa in 1984 or eyes were on his son when he took over. people were intrigued to see how he would solve the conflict with the clergy that he had inherited from his father up until then his public image had always been rather reserved. for the young shah now or showed surprising determination like his father he wanted to modernize the country and its society but he also wanted to end the religious dispute. khamenei had by now started teaching as law make law and he found a willing audience among young students who are becoming increasingly radicalized one shiite fundamentalist group called itself. islam the devote of islam its. still
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exists today. its members came from poor districts of tehran and campaign for a theocratic state based on the qur'an they wanted western influences banned and to force women to cover up in public. be deemed a couple of years they really became very important because the 1st or the assassinated top intellectual the said i might just be who campaigned against islam as a whole then they proceeded. as a citizen deprive mr jenner. for many was a. cleric who gave them clerical cover because you know he. is in showbiz you kong just go i choose somebody i list. with r.t.d. for rights of fatwa as for example. in early 1949 unknown attackers tried to kill the shah many believe the devoted islamic
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behind the attempted assassination although that was never proven the iranian parliament accused the pro moscow today party and banned it a move the shark proved of because he was as suspicious of communism as he was of radical islam his political path was needing him to want the west. i'm looking. for the canner thank you. for. their great big. here and their great love that democracy is in the. us president harry s. truman and the people of america gave sharm ahmed a razor and exuberant welcome when he arrived in november 949 of course this wasn't a purely selfless gesture america was looking to gain access to the immense oil
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reserves in iran. the shah also needed support for his plans to modernize the country and was interested in technical innovations like the hoover dam but not everyone shared his enthusiasm for the west. just a page the country was totally dependent the shah was dependent on the americans and the british but we wanted to have an independent state. a country that was in control of its own fate. one that made its own decisions soaps and shy that. the post-war global economic boom was fueled by one thing in particular oil the largest refinery in the world was being built an up or down not far from the persian gulf oil production had been a predominantly british enterprise since the start of the 20th century the anglo
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persian oil company in iran was like a state within a state. in march 1951 the iranian parliament decided to nationalize the oil industry and britain cut off its supply to iran many skilled british workers had to leave the country the state's takeover of the oil facilities was popular but the oil embargo soon caused an economic slump extreme part is like the communist today party exploited the crisis for their own ends. the shah even briefly fled to into exile to escape the line of fire. several camps were now fighting for power in iran including the mullahs and their followers and various political groups like the communists who wanted to abolish the monarchy in favor of a people's republic the shark could only hold on to his power with help from the us
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the american intelligence service the cia gave him money and helped him to set up his own secret police called sock. the shah was willing to team up with any ally who would fight against the influence of communism from the soviet union the clerics were traditionally anti communist and pro-monarchy so he tried to win them over to his. signed but it didn't work. he certainly thought that that ideological backing was religion. and that again another mistake that he made. region as particularly as incarnated by our clergy could never have because. the ideological
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framework on which to build modernization and it was. in december 1959 terran witnessed huge celebrations press photographers from all over the world fought for the best picture of mohammad reza pahlavi and his new wife. after 2 failed marriages his 3rd wife the new queen would soon give birth to the much awaited heir to the throne and ensure the future of the park ave din estate. with the shah by her side. became an influential figure in her own right she accompanied him on his trip to america in 1962 by the couple warmly received. together with john f. kennedy as president bashar intensified iran u.s. relations the 2 of them agreed that only a strong military could fend off the latent threats from the soviet union the u.s. promised aid to strengthen iran's armed forces and in return for weapons america
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would get oil. i think ari. often the americans gave the modern weapons to build up his armed forces. there were countless military advisors in iran who decided what would be done and what wouldn't give us. that and the things they did was certainly not a service to democracy bush diminished a democratic. in the 960 s. iran was still very much a developing country most people were tenant farmers with most of the land in the hands of feudal lords and big landowners including numerous mourners and religious foundations. on
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january the 11th 1963 the shan put forward a comprehensive reform program aimed at significantly improving the people's living conditions he called it the white revolution. and the nervous if it was a white revolution that his majesty decided to undertake was truly his idea and his decision he wanted his country and his people to develop the vision jello better a nationwide referendum was held on a vast majority voted in favor of vampish as program then to abolish the feudal system privatized state owned companies combat illiteracy and give women the right to vote they want allowed to vote in the referendum but were allowed to fill in unofficial ballot papers to register their support of the rakyat he wanted iran to modernize white but bhushan was intended to make iran better and it did in many many ways it ended feudalism in iraq that's not an easy thing to do.
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the starting point of the white revolution was a land reform which met with staunch resistance from the clergy the shan gave more than 500000 hectares an area twice the size of luxembourg to $30000.00 poor families. yet that even with the fit me getting. there were rumors that the shah's reforms were carried out under pressure from america which would have meant they would only have served colonial and imperialist interests and not those of the iranian people. in other words they were being carried out on foreign on american orders because you are. so-called educational soldiers were sent to village schools to teach children how to read write and count . adult farmers and nomads also had to go to school
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the shah included people from all social classes in his campaign. the air is god i know i made sure i voted to see if there was an army for literacy but not for real education. i mean of course it's a good thing that people are literate but literacy doesn't equal political education there's a big difference for it it should be little. and segue also into shit and or political education was banned in schools and in universities. for wharton. khomeini became the spokesman for a group of mourners who rejected his policy as being pro western. that was a monarch for law for many and one of the at the time the ayatollah khomeini was someone who represented the people and the opposition that is on the holler fundal
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was he bravely articulated their demands which is why we supported him. as i told the khomeini him my yes we go for many votes of the khomeini was now very much in the public eye he was no longer the young clergyman he had been in the city of course complaining about razor sharp and holding back out of respect for his teachers so on and mel he was the grand ayatollah he gathered a considerable following and had much more potential to mobilize the people. and. so many took advantage of this enhanced power imagine from the shadows and adopting an. aggressive stance towards the shah's policies for the 1st time he publicly want him against continuing in the ways of his family. coming he sent a couple of letters directly addressed to the shah and the shah gave a couple of lectures speeches directly responded. i've quoted those at length
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in the shop and they're remarkable khomeini for his defiance. boy. don't do something so that i throw you out of the country like your father and the shah saying these little. the world is like ants like the who survive in feces we're not going to let them rule this country. the key elements of the white revolution was to strengthen the role of women in iranian society. iranian women enjoyed their newly acquired rights under self-confidence that came with them not only could women vote they could even run for political office. it was a milestone on the journey towards female emancipation.
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khomeini and his followers believed the foundations of their faith while under threat from the new role of women in politics and society and head back home any denounced corruption state violence and the torture employed by their son back secret police threatening what he called the tyrants of our time with a black reaction to the white revolution. mainly by dying. 0. dharma back then khomeini was the only one who spoke out against the shah. to go out. and he threatened to portray him as a sinful person and. a religiously sinful person mentioned and to organize a revolt against him at. trial and i stand here you mean through our
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various you know. demonstrations and counter-demonstrations swept the country the shah sent the army into the holy city of qum and khomeini was arrested and sentance . the deaths. the sentence was mitigated after intervention from the clergy but khomeini was forced into exile in a jaf in iraq. meanwhile the white revolution was running into problems in the country signed. the farmers now had their own fields to cultivate but they often lacked seeds water and modern farming equipment. that each should flee is that as these above. the land reform resulted in people having to move out of their villages and into the cities such as terror. but they
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couldn't live in the city centers so they settled on the outskirts. it was these marginalized communities that became the soldiers of the revolution just about as an analog for that. when khomeini arrived in not just the stronghold of shiite islam in iraq he initially withdrew from public life now aged 60 he was isolated and believed that his time was coming to an end many iranian clerics wanted nothing to do with his political activities he started taking a renewed interest in the study of the holy scriptures and talked with just a few of his students to keep up to tanks with the situation in iran and. family members who had accompanied him into exile were amongst his few supporters when.
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he was just distant figure very little interest in anything other than his mosque and his books in never went once 2 blocks from his house the other side to see a river. went to his mosque and came home for 14 years. back in iran the shah had always maintained that he wanted to achieve something for his country before he finally ascended the peacock fry and now he finally allowed himself to be crowned in a lavish coronation in october 967. he knew how important it was to display the dentist his religious foundations and always involve the clergy and his public appearances so he had their support as he took up his rightful place as the new shot hunch shot the king of caves.
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where. he also had his wife crowned empress an elevation unprecedented in iran's long history hamish immediate family can is that good to be said and i would urge when his majesty placed the crown on my head it was as if he put it on the heads of all women. it was a very important moment in the history of our country. i didn't think that i had become important in my own right. i saw it as a sign of progress and respect for women. it did on the bizarreness. earlier in 1967 the glamorous couple had been on a state visit to the federal republic of germany where they were greeted by president col hina luca and chancellor court keeping up the visit focus primarily on economic ties between the 2 countries bashar visited the big steel companies
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along the rhine and he needed help to industrialize his country for example building new dams for agricultural irrigation it was a lucrative opportunity for german businesses. but the ugly side of the shah's regime was revealed during the couple's visit to the opera and ballet and when members of savak attacked demonstrators protesting against oppression and torture and iran the situation escalated in the shah's visit and the protests against his policies became a turning point in the history of west germany. i i to drive his white revolution forward the shah used capital from abroad to upgrade his country's technology he invested billions in electrification and in various industries. he wanted iran to catch up with the modern world and become the global power it once was.
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and i think that our country in the next 10 years will be what you are today. in the next 25 years according to other people i'm not saying that would be among the 5 most prosperous countries of the world. the iranian capital in particular had started opening up to western culture and was quickly becoming a modern metropolis very few women still covered up in public and young people could travel freely and get an education abroad terence people enjoyed all the advantages of a cosmopolitan city where they were free to express themselves. but as far as the political structures were concerned nothing had changed embodied by the shah himself the monarchy remained an all powerful and unaccountable avoid aliza line in chad and does while here feel he wanted to decide everything all by
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himself for good that was the mistake behind all his failures. and what ultimately led to his demise and the if you're taught well as a large charge at the shows ministers didn't have the courage to tell him about the country's poor economic situation. this has been caused by changes imposed from above the move towards an all for a tear in regime rife with corruption crime and the murder of intellectuals and the country was bleeding to death intellectually it was about trial and that was if iran were under foreign rule gone and the government rushed. in a jar for however time seemed to have stood still khamenei was still giving lectures to a small circle of students and thinking about how an islamic legal system by the clergy played a leading role would look he condemned western shallowness and had an ism he attacks
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the colonial powers and israel and he called for an end to the separation of politics and religion. the transcripts of his lectures were published in a book entitled islamic government. i think i was one of the maybe 1st people to read it i was shocked. but i like a lot of other simple people like me thought this would never work this is a medieval idea the run it has had a constitutional revolution in 1000 or 5 or 7 is not going to let the clergy come and cut off people's hands in public squares it's not going to lead the clergy rule because they know sharia. i was wrong as were a lot of other countries and forces.
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iran wanted to stop the spread of radical ideas and theological demands from shiite clergy and banned harmony's book but this censorship only made it more attractive to opponents of the ruling class. anyone who opposed the shah's regime could expect to end up in some back cells where torture and executions were commonplace there was no escape from this dreaded prison in tehran which german architects had built in the 19 $130.00 s. this is what the students in germany were protesting at during the shah's visit. even some of iran's current political leaders were imprisoned here during the shah's rule including today supremely.
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the shah's regime was totally intolerant of opposition or even dissent there was no open dialogue about the country's social and political development and political parties both left and right now largely stamp out. the opposition had either fled abroad or been locked up. the shah's autocratic rule meant he was increasingly losing touch with the people of his country. tehran with its modern high rise buildings had come to symbolize a belief in progress but many people were no longer able to keep pace with the shock so they turned to the institution that was familiar to them one that had always provided support in times of uncertainty. it completely well after the left. whether it was the left there was dependent on the soviet union or
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whether there was a social democratic left the only people who were allowed to build mosques build schools teach their own cadres were the religious works and you bring millions into the cities and chanted towns concentrate them made them easy to mobilize and allow the closure to be the only one who's at the and then people are surprised that the revolution was won by the clergy. during the 1970 s. the shah renovated many of the country's mosques and greatly increase the number of qur'an schools as well he wanted to reassure the clergy that islam was fundamentally important to him that it was the very foundation of iranian society despite the orientation of his policies towards the west. through his public appearances and his annual pilgrimage to the city of mashad considered one of the 7 holy sites of shia islam he hoped to keep the clergy family on his side.
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he saw religion as his last line of defense he saw religion as his most powerful stronghold within the country and that's where he made a massive miscalculation massive strategic and neither logical miska and political miscalculation because what he thought of as his most powerful strong quarter and backing turned out to be his most fatal and then dress enemy. in 1978 and inflammatory article about khomeini in a leading daily newspaper accused him and the clergy of mounting a counter revolution. how his followers took to the streets in tune. to show their solidarity. was was this was
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a very different moving evolution may be. the fosses revolution in human history because everything happened within 4 months with every passing day the resolve of the shah's regime to stay in power was weakening and the resolve of the opposition to demand his removal was increasing. as many as 300 people were killed at the demonstration in coom. there was a 40 day mourning period as is customary in islam but straight after that hundreds of thousands took to the streets again their numbers swelling by the day. the shah wasn't prepared for resistance on this scale it took him and his regime completely off guard and left it paralyzed. an acid attack on the wrecked cinema in the oil city of abba down on august the 1978 killed
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422 people. the opposition accuse the secret police and the shah however evidence later suggested that khomeini himself had masterminded the attack after it was a different story both in magnitude and anger and industry organs for the 1st time i heard thousands of people say death to the shah. that would have been unimaginable in 77. the protest became increasingly violent and the military was called to intervene september the 8th $978.00 would go down in history as black friday. it's not known how many people were killed on central tehran's janice square that day estimates range from less than 10215000 in searing general strike brought the country to a standstill. sharpshooting
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. starkers the shah had a strong military and intelligence service. so all the instruments of power were in his hands and this reading. your draft of story that's why many people like me thought. let's 1st try to overthrow the regime with khamenei. and then we'll deal with him later on mid internet issue of. the shah pressured the iraqi government to declare khomeini persona non-grata and he had to leave his acts out and the job of his aides advised him to head to europe which he had 1st rejected asking them what he would do and non islamic countries little did he know that thousands of his followers from all over the world would make a pilgrimage to his new home in new flare château
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a small suburb of paris western politicians i'm going to like choice like a sham paul sartre michel foucault and francois mitterrand also showed support for khomeini in france he suddenly found himself at the center of global attention. but. nobody talked about the radical ideas khomeini had expressed in his book about islamic government since his writings were banned in iran and unknown in the west now one even raised the subject with him his speeches against bashar were recorded and distributed throughout iran. mob aashiqui if you would in but ya it's a lot we spread these speeches around in every form possible that we handed the tapes out all over the place and we even took them to the villages i mean that. the generals in iran were waiting for mohammed razor to order them to take action
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against the insurgents but nobody realized that the shah was suffering from cancer and was physically weak without orders the military held its file. cabinet. once the soldiers had stopped shooting down civilians people put flowers in their guns and held pictures of the many and their hands in a celebration of their future leader. but then the shah used the television address to try and regain the initiative. my knees pay on me i'm going over some of the lucky you don't rush anything because we need going to. be a better source of not so see. it go let it be more. better with a 1000000 maybe do has this to. kill looked weak she looked absolutely despondent. he couldn't read the text. and the point that he was saying is that i have heard of the famous phrase i have heard the. call of your
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revolution and give me another chance. and people saw it rightly as a sign of his weakness if ever there was a sign that he is not going to be able to master the situation that was to me the speech. the international community was alarmed by the crisis in iran and french president of valery giscard d'estaing invited german chancellor helmut schmidt u.s. president jimmy carter and british prime minister jim callaghan to a meeting on the island of quad a loop to discuss what to do. offered up the. talks had a twofold objective. to increase security and reduce tension around the world. we thought we needed to recognize the realities of today's world and increase our efforts to improve international relations what do you really want as you said you
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know that you know. western powers decided that meant abandoning the shah and his regime on january the 16th 1979 he left iran with his family. the shall fall the crisis would soon be over and he would be able to return but in actual fact it was goodbye forever for his rough i don't usually include i'll never forget the tears in his eyes when we left and the officer who threw himself at his majesty's feet. to the party and is that inducted. 14 days later on february the 1st $979.00 khomeini flew from paris to tehran many fear that the sharks air force would thought khomeini's return by forcing the plane off course or even shooting it down. to the. ground of boarding that plane in spite of the danger well you couldn't feel
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safe of course you'd be worried about how many didn't show any sign of fear but he must have been afraid anyone would. butterfly the other day. in the laura bush. photon iranian soil after 14 years in exile millions of people jubilantly celebrated his return and. the iranian monaco had come to an end after 2500 years and khomeini was welcomed as a savior. nobody had any idea of the consequences the islamic revolution would have for iran. was a tribute to intellectuals supported for many from the right to live including
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those reservoirs of the shah. over all our big business you know our big tycoons load our billionaires the all support so are here 3 ated the degree of unity among gad all these different factions in tehran which was impressive khomeini's 1st visits were to behest is on a cemetery on the outskirts of town where those who were killed by the shans regime are buried and to the holy city of qum where his fight against the shah had begun many years ago was the confrontation between these 2 could be summaries to the confrontation of 2 opposing words and in such a confrontation it is always the stronger will that will win you know and that's what exactly what happened in iraq. khomeini's were was far
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stronger. to conquer power than the sharks were to keep power. after a long odyssey through various different countries the shah died of cancer on july the 20 seven's 980 in cairo he was 60 years old his body was buried in the mosque in the egyptian capital. the ayatollah khomeini died from a heart attack on june the 3rd 1989 in tehran during his 10 year reign he followed through on his ideas of an islamic revolution with uncompromising stringency and turned iran into a theocracy. and in doing so he set in motion a dynamic process that even now still keeps the wild anxious lee gassing.
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to me. starts july 27th. this is coming to you live from berlin coronavirus cases search in south africa the country records is the biggest increase in a single day we report on why some communities are not cooperating with the government in piling disease also coming out the polls in croatia predicted a different outcome but the governing conservatives secured another victory in
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parliamentary elections as the party managed to stay in power.


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