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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  March 24, 2019 1:15pm-2:01pm CET

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amsterdam last time the teams met there and october the netherlands celebrated a three no victory now in germany youngsters have a chance to take swift programs. which are watching t w news from berlin coming up next the second part of our chil part documentary secrets of the stoney thanks for watching. one. stay in form. and language courses. or. anytime anywhere. w. the center.
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of. the human race has been building stone structures for eight years. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. to play. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary. they started growing crops and raising livestock. needlessly people we're no different from ourselves. sheets of the finer things in life. the legacy of the
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neolithic age endures to this day. the neolithic people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today is tied to the harvest. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. and is into stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last an eternity. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia. nine
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thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wa the move or the valley of most. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists bands and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. and. the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the plateau the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or so. no but today the
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weather is fine. for ben's is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg able was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of ex orienting. so far the team have carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that quotes were growing here. and not one of the large is either one of the big questions for us is why would
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people want to settle up here. but possibly to protect themselves gorges can be closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the plato. as recent as it was a founding society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats good so as to survive and they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock and there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status is no lies include. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an. calla
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tarion society it also appears that they were built close together there was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. people seemed to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. of the small chambers where used to store food and how's life stock. up from this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways of the same height the small axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement affairs even when i'm not tired as i understand no holds on the other
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hand they knew nothing about using support beings to shore up the walls of the size of the month so they kept the balls from falling down by building the structures that you see here. so hard when that was put on. since the boyar settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tombs are better suited for this. archeologists have already discovered neil i think graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. this country on these new homes that he found a variant that had three different graves and one kind of it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns have
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all they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items. we also found a grave in which two children aged three six five years old and a baby were buried just that the. genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . for. archaeologists spend a lot of time analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. just imagine
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a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred years in a small area surrounded by deep gorges. they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become seventy. one. it's not yet clear why the settlement was late. abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. war perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed
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the living conditions throughout the mediterranean region. six thousand one in the in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and i stammered north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celcius the middle. and there was a big drop in precipitation when the these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic people to just include one daughter and if the pool darvish good. perhaps that's why people abandon the by ya settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degrees centigrade.
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a climate change incident that took place about a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago. the water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologists search costs and believes that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen of in the whole of the rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age phases of
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the ice a field of sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies it rose especially rapidly. hockey did you. know what is supposed to do it over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared can you describe a series you said called located. between forty five hundred and three thousand b.c. and advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of local arioch in the air gras passage grabbed the every man here and it took him called the toddler demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marsh on site but
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there are a number of impressive rock engravings. over the fall that occurred you know several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols the stone there's an x. with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail he put it there me above that a crooked stick or crook you know third hole and finally. a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gaffney nice new sort of food a good. governance lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks. don't pull i live in them on the set of to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time
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if you had to have a boat of this bush but not just a rock or a dock out those unsought but if you're going to exceed a certain time or not. i think they needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together shall source of the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large in do up i see that you also got to. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local arioch.
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the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later we used a tribute to the symbolic importance that this structure once held. me. also to the south of the british the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure the city explorer. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eighteen meters over the
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countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its kind. doesn't mean them and see here is the guns and these monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built the league and that's not later generations probably associated the structures with something entirely different now and did not forget who can have its own and from what it was going to underestimate whom. we can only speculate on the thought processes of neolithic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money loot site also near cape may provide some insight.
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at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell. the siege now here's one both. the c. and s. and another the parallel vertical lines represent the crew got the cinci to keep. images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people have developed certain aspects of maritime culture. he says. here's an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible if you know the sheep. and the casing to all of them there. and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a diversion to off a clue because see it could be your conventional details. we
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can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore being on. people's often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoyed doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that
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took place over several thousand years. does i'm on a new listing these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest. these are the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of go. activity as it comes feel obert is in fact the hunter gatherers where they are first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so did listen to mines and for fun of the land certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance and to beacons on and off and to see this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite obvious john his
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friend forster. europe's original inhabitants were hunters. in. the new immigrants have been farmers for several generations. would. be. hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. that. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coasts of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
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here in the colony modern region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only mall with this type of torching was stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place to his survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i only need to show the show has pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but they are inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like or like any other one along the shore right here so it's it's it's a particular site. obvious sokal are sacred dimension to us. hopefully we'll get to explore in time as the site has been ruled. by the elements. looks like of
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course i know archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. it's a kitchen midden which is a site that was built the result of cooking here between six maybe eight thousand years ago to the created by early farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the shore of galway bay or right along its line to coast the behind us in this very boring grad landscape very in for. fish resources and shellfish resources hugely important some of the areas sites in europe and the areas investigated archaeological sites in europe are in the very north to denmark but over the last two hundred years to being investigations carried out on shell mounds with this is a classic example of one here. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells the size of something that they'd been
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washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is a mesolithic our transition site between them as a home together world is really the question you have an archaeology is on the gatherers bill is the new lasik to the adopted nearly think already displaced by early farming groups coming in from the consulate isn't going to be political and from one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region. the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became sid entry into mission field it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both sides of this case evidence to support each of these theories splices can a frustrated just believe in. between thirty eight hundred and twenty hundred b.c.
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i think peoples in northern europe built a number of massive stone structures. with . german archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because from what i flung. there was a time during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem fish died it was good much good was even absent of big league. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. given now as you get up to
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if we get neolithic peoples discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well good to get people who had used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields to cheat us in for them and they use these dollars to build cult sites or tunes or of many years of all these large single structures. so they found practical. uses for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how wild was a. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who use simple tools to till the soil. can sense people
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were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. burial grounds began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the men here to shandong all. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hollow from a site that was at least four kilometers away. the men here get out tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred
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sixty times. it lean slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it or said to guard the entrance to hell. there are more than three thousand meniere's in the area around karr now. why did the local residents build these structures. search costs and has been trying to answer that question for years. and so they get on to the local residents place that trust in those who are able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up which will structures to one of them. have still i see examples of this just about everywhere to want to extent or another they used to do so because it was a way big sis we presume when they see clear.
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this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven dollars men's or single chamber to lose. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil and. glued draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples built ramps to make this possible.
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to. move. on i'm going to. cut a little. large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars to these projects were required and in. amount of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures. it was just at the level of limited all i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental most of the structures were built at grave sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last centuries. and even streets of all.
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the first neolithic farming peoples continue to migrate across europe. some even made their way to northern scotland probably by seen. the nests of broad gar is a major archeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site nine hundred ninety nine. he's just gone buildings these are pieces of all kids which are beautifully constructed
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and it's not just an overnight sensation this site boy's special for over a thousand views. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures thirst. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is. covered by protective sheet. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautifully decorated relics. now. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks.
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what were these decorated stone slabs used for there are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. color seems to be in a very important part of that will be a pretty wife and people. in some ways have been left to the names that some of the preservation in particular areas with sites is being very cute and so we hop managed to pick up evidence for color not just in the ceramics but also actually in the walls of the buildings. nic card and his team have found evidence of painted
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walls. the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed at neolithic sites on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built here around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if. as we are assuming there was an element of animal sacrifice and the collection of blog or the use of blood in some form then one could be led to believe that the red represented the color of blood which represents a life full represents the thought the sacrifice of anonymous so there may be this link between color ritual.
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these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sandstone and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets. why did neil lithic artisans choose these particular subject. there are a number of theories out there including the. the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother god this comes from the discovery of a number of such rules which are believed to represent a woman. the idea coming from one's mother have a mother of a mother the origin of mother's mother. these images indicate that women in
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society enjoyed a special status. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power does this image would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women. pay. also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. in new little handyman during the nearly that period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods. and that value became the basis for
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trade talks. with there's about four hundred the new olympic settlement of by god and southwestern jordan is guarded by a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. people would cover out a disk shape. and then they'd create these items out of the material that was left over. a pulley at the sun down each end until they were quite certain. there are saying these actions were probably too delicate for people to wear their very fragile. place not to this my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money. in exchange for food overall materials for example her to do and i'm good. perhaps
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the boyar settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks. red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates that the young may have served as a model. needle with a people's war or limited objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also use flint jadeite and up city. the use of ax heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintain their beauty even today. since sheer exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. one of our colleagues. determined that
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all this jade came from monday visa in the western l.p.'s. woods thought it was extracted there and then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers how would a four hundred. some jade ax heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnac's. people who are gathering muscles came across for accidents that had ended up in what was in the olympic times a lou veal soil. the good stuff to. see these x. heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions. both see the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make them a shop was possible to prove that also good at that sometimes they broke the axe heads into two parts but good old piece of this you need to pull salt.
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in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist pierre petra confound a deposit of jadeite in the asian region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. petrie comes to scupper it provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. austrian archaeologist marco pricing uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of these shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles.
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and they were popular as gifts. in. the neolithic period cover several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but archangel ancestors had the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and worked together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised crops and livestock.
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they organize themselves in the construction and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day. does it seem as if. the transition to civilization in europe began with the arrival of the migrants from the east short migration produced civilizations see that is it sir. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. to see that was absolutely a major step forward and says of history this neolithic sedan tree culture provided
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the basis for the development of later ordered fonts civilization instead of the most beautiful it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully going. to understand the present we must also understand the past rapid population growth of consumerism and the rise of megacities our phenomena whose origins lie in the neal with a period where sedentary life began a. good. play.
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in. the book is dead. long live the long. and the like to look for a. resurrected. common ancestor everything is gonna i'm surprised demonstrate good pricing. out of stock. leipzig the two thousand and. thirty minutes long dead w. .
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sometimes books are more exciting than real life. preparing to. go. what if there's no escape. list. german plus st. patrick's. coming president of rwanda and had abandoned major noted fronting the tiny the rebel army and in the one nine hundred ninety four genocide wasn't when total in the room it wasn't when it was given you it taught me to reinforce a controversial leader whose success is beyond question he could touch. and wanted tragedy starts abel fifth on t w cuts.
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claim. this is news a lie from berlin votes are being counted in thailand's first elections since a military takeover millions of thais cast ballots in a contest pitting the military backed party against allies of the country's. old guard but there are fears the military has already stacked the political deck in its favor for a live in bangkok for analysis also coming up. terrifying moments at sea a cruise ship breaks down in dangerous waters off the region.

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