tv Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age Part 2 Witnesses for Eternity Deutsche Welle July 21, 2018 8:15pm-9:00pm CEST
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of. the human race has been building stone structures for eight years. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary. they started growing crops and raising livestock. people we're no different from ourselves they appreciate. the finer things in life these thirty six
the legacy of the neolithic age endures to this day. the neolithic people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today and. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. chimes in stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last an eternity. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia. nine
thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wadi moved or the valley of moses. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologist mario bands and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. when the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the part of the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or snow. but today the
weather respond. to ben's is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg abel was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of ex orienting. so far the team that carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that coopt were growing here. not only large as either one of the big questions for us is why would people want
to settle up here. but possibly to protect themselves because as can be closed off very easily. it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the pluto. as a reason that was not it was a farming society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats gets arrested. and they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock bomba there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status signal lives including. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this wasn't a gal. tarion society it also appears that they were built close together there was
no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. people seemed to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. of the small chambers where used to store food and how's life stock. up from this side was very carefully planned so for example we determined that all three of these passageways are the same height the odds are small of axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement spheres in the not time as i understand in the hold on the
other hand they knew nothing about using support beams to shore up the walls of this size this month so they kept the walls from falling down by building the structures that you see here. and so hardening that was on. since the yeah settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed . but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tombs are better suited for this. archeologists have already discovered the graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. this economy on these new homes three thousand of our in that had three different graves and one clinic it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and guns how they
was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items. we also found a grave in which two children aged three to five years old and a baby were buried to start a. new genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . for an. archaeologist spent a lot of time analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. having just imagine
a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred years in a small area surrounded by deep gorges. they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become sedentary. it's not yet clear why the settlement was later. abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. war perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed
living conditions throughout the mediterranean region. six holes in this one in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and ice jam in north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celcius the middle. and there was a big drop in precipitation when these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic peoples who does include two and although it could be called august. perhaps that's why people abandon the bay ya settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degree centigrade.
a climate change incident that took place about a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago the. water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. or. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologist search costs and believes that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen of in the whole of didn't evolve a rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the
ice age and post ice age phases. of sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years he says but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies it rose especially rapidly a lot wanted to see a hockey did. no good on its first engine over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared can you describe a serious so called located. between forty five hundred and three thousand b.c. in advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of local arioch in the air gras passage great. man here and it term called the tablet there martial. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marsh on site but there
are a number of impressive rock engravings. over the field at their docks several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols of stone there's an x. with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail heap of the. above that a crooked stick or crook you know through and finally. a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gavriel nice view so for a good. governance lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks to. go poorly made them all such as to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time if
you had to have a boat this was but not just a rock or a dock out those unsought if you're going to save him or not. i think they needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together shall survive the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large and do up and see it and you'll soon be back to. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local arioch a. column
was later torn down but some of the stone was later reuse a tribute to the symbolic importance that the structure one's health. to go to the. the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure the city. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eight hundred meters
over the countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its kind legal. does anything on and see is the guns in these monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built the again that's not later generations probably associated these structures with something entirely different now didn't knock organ thinking of its own and from what it must come to underestimate for born. we can only speculate on the thought processes of neolithic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money loot site also. may provide some insight.
at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell. the siege you know here's one bones. the sea and another the paralleled vertical lines represent the crew got the cinci the people. images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people had developed certain aspects of maritime culture. the sea decision. here's an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible see if you know the sheep. and they can be seen to all of us. and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a diversion to off you could see it could be a conventional depiction of. we
can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of more beyond. ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoyed doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly but was in
a regular process that took place over several thousand years. does i'm on the new looting these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest. these india the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of clay. activity as you can feel. the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so didn't listen to mines and for fun of the land certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance into beacons on and off and to see this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite obvious john is forced
in. europe's original inhabitants were hunters. in the new immigrants have been farmers for several generations. you. would. be. hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coasts of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
here in the colony model region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only model of this type of torching was stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i only need to show the show has pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but there are inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like or like any other one along the shoreline here so it's it's it's a particular site and probably is sacred dimension to us. hopefully we get to explore in time as the site has been ruled. by the elements. looks like
a court site now archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. it's a kitchen midden which is a site that was built the result of cooking here between six and maybe eight thousand years ago to the created by early farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the shore of galway bay yours were right along its line to cold behind us and is very border a grad landscape very unfair. fish resources and shellfish resources hugely important some of the areas sites in europe and the areas investigated archaeological sites in europe are shelled from the very north to denmark but over the last two hundred years to be an investigation is carried out on shell mounds but this is a classic example. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells the size of something that they've been
washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is and mesolithic our transition site between them as a hunter gatherer world is really a question european archaeology designs a gathers biz the new unit to the adopt a new think are to displace by early farming groups coming in from the consulate isn't going to be political and from one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the peoples emigrates to this region. the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became sid entry into mission field it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both from us because evidence to support each of these theories like this is can it is. believed in. between thirty eight hundred and twenty eight hundred b.c.
neolithic peoples in northern europe built a number of massive stone structures. german archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because not. it was a time during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem fish died it was good my student was even absent of big league. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. given now i see that up to
if we get neolithic peoples discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well get the good people who had used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields. and they use the used boulders to build cult sites or tunes or many years about these large single structures. so they found practical use. as for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how wild was a. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil. can sense people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk
of contracting disease but still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. burial grounds began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the men here just shown don't know. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hollow from a site that was at least four kilometers away. and then peered out tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred
sixty times. it leans slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell. there are more than three thousand men here in the area around karr now. why did the local residents build the structure. to. search cosson has been trying to answer that question for years. in sort of get all the local residents place the trust in those who are able to ensure their survival . and they were willing to work to put up ritual structures to one of them. confuse security is the one we see examples of this just about everywhere to one extent or another say used to do so because it was in way big sis we presume when they see.
this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven dull mens or single chamber tunes. from the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance. they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil that. they were. totally. glued draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples build ramps to make this possible.
to. move. a little. really. good. clean cut through. large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took a huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars of. these projects with wired and. amount of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures. because it was just a beautiful limited i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental most of the structures were built at grave sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last for centuries. even kids who bought.
the first meal i think farming peoples continue to migrate across europe some even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gaar is a major archaeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred nine. these just started buildings these are pieces of all potential beautifully constructed
and it's not just an overnight sensation this site voice special for over a thousand years. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures just. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is. covered by protective shield. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of putatively decorated relics. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks. only.
what were these decorated stone slabs used for there are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. colored seems to be in a very important part of the everyday life do you think people. in some ways have been left to the names that some of the preservation in particular areas it cites as being very crude and so we hop managed to pick up evidence for color not just in the ceramics but also actually in the walls of the buildings. nick carter and his team have found evidence of painted walls.
the use of decorative paint or die has also been confirmed that neolithic sites on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built here around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if. as we all there was an element of them of the sacrifice and the collection of blog or the blog in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blog which represents a life or represents the thought the sacrifice of phenomena so there may be this link between color ritual.
these beautiful relief artworks were carved in stone and stuff and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets. why didn't the olympic artisans choose these particular subject. there are a number of food result including the. the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother god this comes from the discovery of a number of such rules which are believed to represent a woman. the idea coming from one's mother have a mother of a mother the origin of mother's mother. these images indicate that women in
neolithic society enjoyed a special status. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power. and this image would change later of course it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women. also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. in new little hundred men during the nearly six period people began to define themselves by the material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods. and that value became the basis for
trade not done with days and bad five hundred the nearly six settlement of the yacht in southwestern jordan is guarded by a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. these people would carve out a disc shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over. a pulley at the sundown each end until they were quite fit and. there was none of these actions were probably too delicate for people to wear they are very fragile there's nothing to replace not to this my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money so the crime. was in exchange for food overall materials for example or narrative don't i
get. perhaps the way ya settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks . red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates that the yard may have served as a model. think people's work or limited objects made of animal horns and plant fibers they also use flint jadeite and up city or. the use of ax heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintain their beauty even today. she sent shimmer an exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. one of our colleagues.
determined that all this jade came from monte vizio and the western elks club and woods it was extracted there and then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers how would a four hundred. some jade ax heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnac's. people who were gathering muscles came across for acceptance but it ended up in what was in the olympic times alou veal soil. the good stuff to. see these acts heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions. both. the local residents smoothed and cleaned the plates to make them a shop was possible to prove also good at that sometimes they broke the axe heads
into two parts that good old piece of tissue. of salt. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist pierre petrarca found a deposit of jadeite in the asian region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. patrick khan's discovery provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade. city and or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. austrian archaeologists marco price ago uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of these shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles.
and they were popular as gifts. in. the neolithic period covered several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but archangel ancestors had the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and work together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised crops and livestock.
they organized themselves in the construction and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day. does it seem as if. the transition to civilization in europe. began with the arrival of the migrants from the east and even short migration produced civilizations and cities that's where. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. just want to see that was absolutely a major step forward and says of just this neolithic sadan tree culture provided
the basis for the development of later board bombs civilization instead of the most innovative it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully willing. to understand the present we must also understand the past rapid population growth of consumerism and the rise of megacities our phenomenon whose origins lie in an illicit period where sedentary life began a. good. little.
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