Skip to main content

tv   Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age Part 2 Witnesses for Eternity  Deutsche Welle  July 13, 2018 7:15am-8:01am CEST

7:15 am
birth. home tunes of species. a home worth saving and. again those are big changes and most start with small steps global ideas tell stories of creative people and innovative projects around the world. but here's the target selection goosed drainage solutions and resource titian. interactive content teaching the next generation about environmental protection. up using all channels available to inspire people to take action and most of term and to build something here for the next generation the idea is for the environment series of global three thousand on d w and online.
7:16 am
you could. look at. the human race has been building stone structures for ages. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. good luck. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary they started growing crops and raising livestock. needlessly people were no different from ourselves they appreciated the. in the things that. the legacy of
7:17 am
the neolithic age endures to this day. the neolithic people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today is tied to the harvest time. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. chimes in stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations and. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last any turn to be the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia.
7:18 am
nine thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wa the move or the valley of moses. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists bands and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. when. the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the part of the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or snow. but today the
7:19 am
weather is far. from benz is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg able was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of x. oriented. so far the team have carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that clubs were growing here. not one of the large is either one of the big questions for us is why would people
7:20 am
want to settle up here. but possibly to protect themselves as can be closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the plato. as recent as now it was a founding society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats good source to see if. they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock and there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status in the lives including. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an egalitarian. in society it also appears that they were built close together there
7:21 am
was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. people seemed to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. the small chambers where used to store food and how's life stock. up from this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways are the same height the small axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement spheres even when i'm not tired as i understand it's on the other
7:22 am
hand they knew nothing about using support be institutional at the wools. so they kept the balls from falling down by building the structures that you see him. so hard in that was one. sense the boyar settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tunes are better suited for this. archeologists have already discovered nearly think graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. this morning on these new haunts that we found a room that had three different graves and one clinic it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns have
7:23 am
all they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items cannot we also found a grave in which two children aged three six five years old and a baby were buried just add to. the. genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . for an. archaeologist spent a lot of. i'm analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. as they flushed and here i'm just imagining
7:24 am
a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred he is in a similar area surrounded by deep gorges as they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become sedentary. wouldn't. room. it's not yet clear why the settlement was later abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. or perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed living
7:25 am
conditions throughout the mediterranean region. six thousand one in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and i stammered north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century and that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celsius the middle. and there was a big drop in precipitation when the these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic people to just include one daughter and if the poor dogs could. perhaps that's why people abandon the bejar settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degrees centigrade.
7:26 am
a climate change incident that took place about a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great icing sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago the water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters further inland. french archaeologists costs and believe that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen i've been there all of that you need about the rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age
7:27 am
phases of the ice a few sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies it rose especially rapidly a lot of wanted to see a hockey game. both what is supposed injured over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared a key discovery serious set formal take. between forty five hundred and three. thousand b.c. an advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of locum arioch in the air gras passage great. man here and it term called the tabla demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marsh on site but there
7:28 am
are a number of impressive rock engravings. over the fold of the uk several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols stone there's an axe with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge he says you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail in the ruby he puts it there. above that a crooked stick or crook you know through and finally a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of gavriel nice new sort of fool for a good. little. governess lives in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks to. go poorly. to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time you had to
7:29 am
have a boat but not just a rock or a dock out. i think they needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together shall source of the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large wound up by sea and you also got to. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local.
7:30 am
the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later reused a tribute to the symbolic importance that this structure once held. to the south of the coal business or what the men hear of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure the city explorer. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eighteen meters over the
7:31 am
countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its kind. doesn't mean on and see here is the guns and these monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built click and that's not later generations probably associated the structures with something entirely different now and did not forget who can have its own and from which it must count on the destiny for born. we can only speculate on the thought processes of the illicit peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money loot site also look more yaki may provide some insight. at first glance they may
7:32 am
seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell of the siege now here's one both. the c. and s. and another the paralleled vertical lines represent the crew got to keep c.g. to keep. images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people had developed certain aspects of maritime culture. he says he has an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible if you know the sheep. take a stick to all of us. and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a divergent office you could see it could be a conventional induction film. we
7:33 am
can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore being all. ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoy doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that
7:34 am
took place over several thousand years and it. does i know nailed it in these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest. the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of glacial activity as you can feel. the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so didn't let's think of minds and for fun it was all and certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance into beacons on and off and to see this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite obviously honest friend
7:35 am
who knew for certain. europe's original inhabitants were hunters. the new immigrants had been farmers for several generations. and hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coasts of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
7:36 am
here in the colony modern region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only moment of this type tarty mars stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i only need to show the show has pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but there are inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like on like any other one along the shore right here so it's it's it's a particular sites and has an obvious sacral are sacred dimension to us. hopefully we get to explore in time as the site has been ruled an alibi by the elements. but
7:37 am
it looks like a core site now archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. but there are shades a kitchenmaid which is a site that was built are the result of cooking here between six maybe eight thousand years ago to the creator by early farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the shore of galway bay or soar right along its line to coast the hour nines out behind us and is very boring granite landscape very unfair tiger on saw fish resources and shellfish was. this is hugely important so some of the earliest sites in europe and the earliest investigators archaeological sites in europe are showdowns from the very north to denmark but over the last two hundred years to being investigations carried out on shell mounds with this is a classic example of one here. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells the size of some thought that they've been
7:38 am
washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is a mesolithic our transition site between the message to hunter gather war does relieve the question european archaeology designs a gathers bill is the nearly sick to the adopt a new take already displays by early farming groups coming in from the consulate isn't going to be political and from one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region of the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became city entry in the us its mission field it's difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both from us out of this evidence to support each of these theories by this is king that is frustrated by this could just be a game. between thirty eight hundred and twenty eight hundred b.c. neolithic peoples in northern europe built
7:39 am
a number of massive stone structures. german archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because not to influence because it had during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as. as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem and it would be much less even and for him big me. by this time people had learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. could now as you have to be
7:40 am
a food vs neolithic peoples discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well it gives people who had used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields host city that was good for them and they use these dollars to build called sites or tunes or men hears about these large single structures. so they found practical uses for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how about. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil. and since people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an
7:41 am
increased risk of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. very old wells began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the main here to shandong all. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hauled from a site that was at least four kilometers away. the men here do not tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred
7:42 am
sixty times. it leaning slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell. there are more than three thousand men here in the area around karna. why did the local residents build the structures. to. search cosson has been trying to answer that question for years. and sort of get on to the local residents place their trust in those who are able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up a ritual structures to one of them and that's the fault of the. story see examples of this just about everywhere to want to extent or not so used to do so because it presumes big prison where the seeker.
7:43 am
this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven dull men's or single chamber tombs. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil. code draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples built ramps to make this possible.
7:44 am
good. look. at. large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars of all these projects were acquired an enormous amount of planning and organization. so why did people building structures. it was just a beautiful woman to get it all i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental get able most of the structures were built at grave sites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last but centuries. can disappear jewish food
7:45 am
even if it's a ball. the first meal i think farming peoples continue to migrate across europe. some even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gar is a major archeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred nine. these just on buildings these are pieces of all kids which are beautiful reconstructed
7:46 am
and it's not just an overnight sensation the this site was special for over a thousand years. this is what the nest might have looked like stone buildings covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures just some. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is covered by protective shield. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautifully decorated relics. found. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks.
7:47 am
what were these decorated stone slabs used for and there are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. experts believe that the nest of broad car was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. seems to be a very important part of the everyday life of people i mean in some ways been lucky the names that some of the preservation in particular areas of the site has been very cute and so we thought managed to pick up evidence for color not just in the ceramics but also actually on the walls of the buildings. nic card and his team have found evidence of painted walls.
7:48 am
the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed that neolithic sites on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built here around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if as we all assuming there was an element on the moon the sacrifice the collection of blood will do a lot in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blood which represents a life full represents the thoughts the sacrifice of anonymous so that maybe this link between kala ritual.
7:49 am
these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sandstone and indicate that animals were important to the local residents both game animals and pets. why didn't the olympic artisans choose these particular subjects. that are all a number of food result include. during the. the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother goddess comes from the discovery of a number of such rules which are believed to represent a fertile woman. the idea coming from one's mother how the mother of the mother but the origin of mother's mother. these images indicate that women in military
7:50 am
society enjoyed a special status. if. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power has been this image would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women among the fall of the mutants. peoples also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. in nearly three hundred men during the neolithic period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process. side of an industry and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods and being and that value
7:51 am
became the basis for trade talks on that's done with isn't valid for hunger that the nearly six settlement of by god in southwestern georgia is guarded by a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. owes it to so far that these people would carve out a disk shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over on a pulley yet but sundown. and until they were quite thin. they gave us and these items were probably too delicate for people to weigh they are very fragile there's nothing to a place not to my sign if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money too but i don't. want stuff in exchange for food overall materials for example inherited
7:52 am
don't i get tell us what. perhaps the way ya settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks. red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates that the yacht may have served as a model. meal they think people swore ornamented objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also used flint jadeite and up city of. the use of x. heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintained their beauty even today. since should their exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. before one of our colleagues. determined that all this
7:53 am
jade came from monte vizio in the western alps coleman woods thought it was extracted there and then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers house order for hundreds. some jade x. heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnap. people who are gathering muscles came across for acceptance but it ended up in what was in the olympic times alou feel soil. thank you did so to. see these x. heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions. both. the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make them a sharp as possible to prove also sometimes they broke the axe heads into two
7:54 am
parts that little piece of tissue need to. be. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist pierre petrarca found a deposit of jadeite in the aging region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. petry khan's discovery provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings. the shells of spiny oysters were also used. here austrian archaeologists marco prosecutor uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of the shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles.
7:55 am
and they were popular as gifts. in. the neolithic period covered several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but our ancient and. sisters had the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and worked together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised cross and livestock.
7:56 am
they organize themselves in the construction brigade's and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day. is it seems a woman shot the transition to civilization in europe began with the arrival of the migrants from the east and even short migration produced civilizations and see visits to. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. just want to see that was absolutely a major step forward and says of just this new lipsticks
7:57 am
a dead tree culture provided the basis for the development of later more violence civilization strophe motivated it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully. to understand the present we must also understand the past rapid population growth of consumerism and the rise of megacities our phenomena whose origins lie in the military here where sedentary life began to. good. odds.
7:58 am
come. the laundry go international talk show for journalists discuss the topic of the week living how to dishes among nato allies spent on more open display than it this year summit in brussels could friday fire from president trying to defeat one of the strongest military alliances in the street join us for this week's country. quadriga and thirty minutes on t w.
7:59 am
so must the ball head now from the box open air festival in northern germany. the medal battle will show just dozens of newcomers from the. c.w. complex forces are going to. fucking open their two thousand and eighteen stores in august. don't. be told. this works god is for truth. the munchies and treason should. be children twenty.
8:00 am
odd. to. me. this is g.w. news live from berlin british american relations under strain u.s. president donald trump lashes out at the u.k. government's brags of clams trump's visit to britain gets off to a rocky start after he says the british government's roadmap to exit the e.u. would probably make a free trade deal with the united states and possible. plus syrian government troops recapture and off as a stronghold the syrian flag is raised about the city of there are were massive protests in two thousand and eleven led to an uprising against the assad regime.


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on