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tv   In Good Shape - Alzheimers - the loss of memory and life  Deutsche Welle  November 19, 2017 1:30pm-2:00pm CET

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boston katherine switzer can finally stop running. director of global two six one club network. is following the race in the media center. says quote on the stock she got to the start well which is quite a challenge in boston and then she got going in high spirits with our hundred line is and what was great is that we made a live recording in the place where the incident took place back then most of what i said was. the second. is rock. was right. when chuck said. i couldn't come again. thank you i recognize a heart attack and. suddenly recognize and realize
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this. was ok with it was. the finish line on the legendary boylston street in boston more than thirty thousand runners complete the right show our. thanks to a good four and a half hours conference with completes a knife boston mass and thanks. to. an interview after crossing the finishing line. the american networks get in with the first questions. it was.
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cold doesn't it actually come out i mean that oh. yeah. i feel overwhelmingly grateful for the streets of boston they started my journey fifty years ago with a very negative thing and attacked by a race director trying to throw me out of the race and pull off my big numbers jock semple and i the man who tried to throw me helmet vote tries to do as much as he can by himself if there's anything he can do his wife helps him but sometimes it's too much for her lensman if i'm not feeling well and he asked me three or four times when we driving into town oh when of the children coming home then i say look in your diary all right a note for yourself. this was distance call nine hundred two and so far the most important thing is to avoid confrontation patients with dementia relates to out
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time as can become paranoid they might think people are stealing from them or they're convinced someone has it in for them and they accuse members of their family or other people of taking something when in fact they've just mislaid of themselves doesn't work at all that is trying to reason with them because it escalates the situation skipped. as its own. how is alzheimer's treated. as yet there's no drug that can stop protein deposits or prevent pathological changes in the brain. come into so ever there are symptomatic treatment medication that boosts the function of nerve cells and this can help improve awareness and other mental functions so the patients ability to concentrate for example is improved guys to go from. so to conclude. this still no cure for alzheimer's but early diagnosis can extend the patient's life expectancy patients can also benefit from
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a stable environment familiar faces as well as physical and mental activity. i'm here at the german center for neurodegenerative diseases with professor michael henniker and he's the head of the department of new degenerative disease end do you want us to read this because it's a very complicated title so what do you do with this kind of title that's complicated diseases so ready. aim of the department actually is to study the fundamental biology as well as the clinical symptoms from the early generation of diseases like alzheimer's dementia or parkinson's disease and then kind of overarching fashion so we span from bad to burnside and tried to take for example samples from the patients and study them and the lab and on the other side develop strategies and research directions and have prophecies in the lab and follow them up in the patient so it's from bench to bedside and what are the newest results you
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have any promising news out there well i think this is not the time of the newest and most exciting results this is the kind of phase we're going through where we reconsider prior's. very kind of hot topic strategies which have failed in the past and we try to figure out why there was and so next so that we you know we think whether these principles or considerations where will be. we have to rethink the path of biology of the disease itself but there is some new view on alzheimer's disease that there is inflammation which place a certain role so what we know is that for example amyloid deposits in the brain that's well known and some himself described that first and this is in a certain form in a structure and leadership structure and amyloid surround tora body there on the surface of bacteria which are commands of in our good for example which means that
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our. immune system actually has been trained for millions of years through evolution that yeah this is an enemy so it's not only this stuff which is put into your brain and packed in the brain but it's. inflammation in the process of the body fighting be relation which destroys the brain and memory function exactly and it's like the chronic type of inflammation which takes place there which is very low but continuously growing through our brains but if we could stop this information process could this mean we can heal alzheimer's where no one knows because there's no clinical trial we would have to find the idea of therapeutic window which most likely decades it had the beginning of clinical symptoms so some tests which could take an early stage or even before some symptoms appear would be mandatory and that's one of the very important things to achieve during the coming
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years we need to have a reliable detection system which should be as easy as a blood test for example or a unit we're hearing tests or kind of imaging brain scan which should tell us whether or not a person is add risk or at high risk to develop alzheimer's disease and then we would actually try to convince that person that intervention would be necessary in order to prevent him from having dementia and later stages of his life if we treat alzheimer's right now what are the options. treatment as it stands is probably restricted to some dramatic treatment with and in the air we sample entanglements are a satirical an astros inhibitors which are the two principal class of drugs we have on hand to help patients these drugs are not very popular and the reason is that the colleagues always have the kind of idea they want to hear help or hear of the memory deficit now what happens of the time the patients appears in clinic where
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the first memory deficit's these regions are massively factored by these these processes so they're not being rescued. and therefore we most likely not have any drug which were reconstitute the entire memory function still we don't trade the patients we would need to there's a quarter of patients in germany which is being treated of those who actually should receive those therapies there's always hope in medicine and there's hope for some new treatment options now alzheimer's disease is very very promising results it's called the antibody therapy. one hundred fifteen years ago the doctor in psychiatry. identified the disease that now bears his name. but he didn't find a cure. to this day the disease hasn't been fully understood. in germany over one million people suffer from alzheimer's there's still no effective
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medication to treat it. but there is hope on the horizon. scientists from the u.s. and switzerland conducted a year long study treating patients with the new medication and you can imagine. the results were highly promising one of the main causes of proteins produced by the body these so-called amyloid plaques for more nerve cells and block the neurons transport systems. with the new therapy antibodies attack the planks. and destroy them. the study involved one hundred sixty five patients each received either an infusion containing the antibodies or a placebo brain scans of the patients on the medication showed a significant reduction of the protein deposits as shown here on the right the higher the dosage of added can a map and the longer the therapy lasted the greater the reduction in plaques olga
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niche from the university of zurich was part of the research group that developed the therapy. to for the highest dose of as you can imagine resulted in an almost complete disappearance of the amyloid plaques asemi high dose clearly stabilize the patients clinically and cognitively in their everyday activities the condition of patients in the placebo group got worse as you would expect for patients with this stage of alzheimer's disease who weren't being treated. so far the research into antibody therapy has focused on safety and dosage in a further study involving two thousand seven hundred patients they now hope to corroborate their findings if they do so that would be a major step forward in treating out simers. so i'm here with professor any cotterell he's chairman of the desert and he and he's a leading international expert on dementia and alzheimer's disease thanks for having me thank you but what can you tell us about the state his office antibody
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therapy well it i think it does the veil up quite nicely over the past few years with first of all different types of ant about this which have improved their efficacy in removing a milad from the brain. in addition to these we have now also other therapies with other antibodies which neutralize the other protein involved in some instances the other measured protein tao the major issue i see it is that probably single treatments will not be effective it's a multi model disease probably the right solution is to have a combination of different strategies it's still one single disease or do you know if you think alzheimer's disease is there almost well diseases so you're also trying to get into the causes of this is essential so i know that there's something about m.r.i. plucky position in the brain but is this a false story it is part of the story i mean i'm a lloyd the position of the position of the brain is there's been one of the
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measure mechanisms that have has been linked to the onset of alzheimer's disease and we do know from the cases which i read it i read cases where there are mutations into the enzymes into the province that modulator the formation of amyloid that you get alzheimer's disease so as they fully is one cause of alzheimer's disease or one of the major cause of alzheimer's disease and the the plectrum nation and the position of the protein starts as early in the lifespan of some twenty year. old old what does it mean so even the studies from the families affected by genetic mutations indicated the first deposition of amyloid or alterations linked to potential to alzheimer's disease they start twenty years before the disease money first with symptoms so this means that we have to. go for early diagnosis and that's obviously one implication of the question is we anticipated this may be exactly the same in elderly individuals so that changes in
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the brain will take place many years before the disease manifest itself but what kind of prevention i mean if if the protein me starts to accumulate in the brain what you can read one question is why does it take you relate in the brain we understand which are the main leading causes for accumulation of amyloid or for other kind of features of alzheimer's disease then of course we can try for example to prevent chronic inflammation we can try to have a better lifestyle which means better nutrition physical exercise mental training all these things are not necessarily addressing the causes of this is but enabling the brain to compensate so there must be protective factors inherent with these individuals that prevent them from having a large number of intricate there's some kind of longevity yes of course there is a predisposition to longevity which may very well be part of genetic but if you think about these factors you know this of course epigenetic which is the
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environment but overall these people managed to overcome disease or at least not to have measured diseases and so we have to learn from this paradigm to try to find out what what actually could protect us all from these conditions what should i do should i just go out for a run because exercising helps me in then any exercise will help you to lower the risk of a number of conditions from cardiovascular they a be this cancer itself they're also you know they they have a great benefit of physical exercise. physical activity now the thing quit is coming out and is more and more important is keeping a very healthy nice social network. meaning have a very good social life. and at the same time you know trying to keep stress and you know things which i don't want to depression for example or so. usually seems very simplistic but this is a matter of fact the people who tend to approach life in a more optimistic way they have no other profession they tend to be able to have
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a good healthy quality of life and nutrition they tend to have less incidence of measure chronic diseases related to aging that's very good news thanks so much for having me today in front of a to me thank you so much thank you thank you for having asked that question and if you could any questions like me to ask our experts be sure to write me an e-mail. smoking is bad for your health but many people enjoy smoking and find it extremely difficult to quit why is that and what's the best way to kick the habit send your questions to in good shape dot com just write how to stop smoking in the subject line we look forward to hearing from you. because there is our eyes protective outermost layer it plays a key role in our ability to see you things clearly and focus if it gets damaged by
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disease infection or injury it can impair your vision in severe cases it can affect you so extensively that only a cornea transplant can get you back and running. just reading a newspaper for a long time that was impossible for him. she suffers from an inherited corneal disorder which made her vision gradually deteriorate. when i was walking around i couldn't recognize the people approaching me they'd say hello and i didn't. recognize them that was embarrassing. climbing stairs was also really hard because i couldn't see the steps i was feeling more and more uncertain moving about it really limited me in daily life. playing. for months ago hilda had a corneal transplant in her right eye now she's going to her eye doctor for a check up. on.
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the cornea the transparent cover of the eyeball protects the eye hand plays a big role in vision. the cornea is our window onto the world together with a lens it focuses the image on to the retina without a properly focusing cornea you can't see clearly. there are different causes for that. there are various disorders and there are lots of injuries that can lead to the corning are no longer being clear. corneal transplant is also advisable when the cornea has scars or irregularities. like most recipients of a transplant hilda spent a lot of time weighing things up. it's terrible that someone has to die so that i can get a cornea. but you can't stop the death and if the person has decided to donate
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their organs or their tissue then i am just incredibly grateful. find. the people who organize organ and tissue donations know how hard it is both for potential donors and their families many fear that removing the i will change the appearance of the dead person the coordinators take care to ensure it's all done with dignity. as a rule we remove the entire. and replace it with a glass pathetic with a dead person's eye color we also close the eye again so after the donation the removal isn't at all visible and. soon as is already the case in other german clinics the hospital here in stuttgart will carry out all the transplant taishan steps in its own cornea bank the eyes have to be removed within seventy two hours of death and the cornell tissue separated from the eyeball transplants may be taken
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from donors who are three years old and up but certain disorders are grounds for refusing a donation. since i and i for example outside parkinson's disease blood cancers like leukemia and of course infectious diseases like hiv or hepatitis the transplant operation usually takes place under general anaesthetic the donor cornea is examined again and then cuts to the right size almost always in a circular shape the recipients cornea is marked to ensure that the sutures will be in the right place the old cornea wrist cut out and the donor tissue is so known the body rarely rejects foreign corneal tissue. in a sense the cornea is privileged it has a privileged immune status because it doesn't have any blood or limb fossils and that makes a rejection reaction much less likely i usually don't have to give any immune suppressants to prevent rejection. here's that flight as operation went well.
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very nice very clear even wonderful. after a few weeks she could already see much more clearly however the healing process takes a long time the last stitches won't be removed for eighteen months. this is not a short or simple process the patients have to know what they're getting into they also have to take a certain amount of responsibility for the transplanted cornea and take good care of it. i'm so delighted to have a new cornea i'll definitely look after it and keep it healthy. even now just four months after surgery here to florida his quality of life has improved in fact she can see well enough to drive herself home. and now to our next pressing topic broken fingernails for many of us a touchy subject but as
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a g.p. i can tell you there is something you can do about it. specialist patti only needs to take one look at me i see they look pretty good for a young man and. they could use a bit of oil. brittle damage dry. natural very well looked after the cuticles might need some care. very classic perfect males that every woman wants. but such healthy nails are rare and no wonder they come in for a lot of wear and tear water and chemicals are bad for them and vitamin deficiencies also affect their condition people susceptible to nail problems are likely to be. typically people with poor diets vegetarians vegans who don't eat properly balanced diet. but also people undergoing growth spurts such as
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teenagers who are growing so fast their bodies can't keep up. artificial nail applications can also have a damaging effect and show me your hands. you can see here that you have some redness in the upper part of your nail. that's a very typical sign that the nail wasn't treated properly before the artificial nail was applied yeah the real nail has been over filed. so it didn't get five to ten or twelve. that damage needs to be repaired very carefully. to history as it's important to file it properly and using the right kind of nail file the nail is very thin and brittle the procedure shouldn't be painful and i want to avoid tearing off even more of the nails natural mineral or glass nail files are gentler than old fashioned metal ones and. you should always
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file in the same direction to avoid any heat build up. a repair treatment can also help nails that have been damaged this entails applying oil on a regular basis for four weeks massaging cream into the nails is also effective. the kind i wear nail varnish on top. what does a dermatologist recommenced. there as well varnish seals the nails and help stabilize them but then nail polish does have to be removed at some point in a nail polish remover dries out nails and makes them all brittle it's quite a stringent. if you wear nail varnish a lot earlier it's a good idea to take a break now and then to give your nails the time to recover when. experts tend to advise avoiding artificial nails looking after your own and applying polish now and
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then is a much better option. that's it for today and don't forget to switch on next week.
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