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tv   In Good Shape - Alzheimers - the loss of memory and life  Deutsche Welle  November 18, 2017 6:30pm-7:01pm CET

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difficult for independent journalists i see many of the younger promising journalists are now making names for themselves all over the. song live get along the way song might follow some with continue. their experience of freedom in a sense is like the unions of the day you can visit but your call come back. whining is your forte and i work at the. welcome to in good shape coming up the loss of vision can a corneal transplant help. need or nails
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tips for finger nail care. and also timers what happens in the brain and can it be treated. and here's your host dr constantly go tot. hello and welcome to in good shape the force the institute has recently found out that one in two germans is afraid of getting alzheimer's disease and i guess in your country this is quite the same which is quite astounding because i frequently read some news about alzheimer's and i can herbal tea which improves brain function or some secret formula out of the net of the families who took a company so what is new in alzheimer's this is what i'm going to find out here in bonn at the german center of new degenerative diseases. what causes nerve cell death at the german center for neurodegenerative diseases researchers are trying to find out what are the origins of parkinson's and alzheimer's diseases. what
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disrupts communication between the neurons. the scientists work with patients using cutting edge technology to find answers one of the questions how do different substances act on the nervous system thousands of samples are analyzed with the help of robots the aim is to find ways of preventing and treating these devastating conditions. dementia that's what doctors call the deterioration of mental abilities it comprises a collection of symptoms memory loss confusion in language time and place it can also lead to a fully blown personality change and the most common form is alzheimer's disease people fear alzheimer's so much because until now there is no cure. seventy three year old helmut that is a former school principal unhappily married to uter but he's becoming increasingly
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forgetful he has out sinus. what. has an appointment at the rhine has in clinic in western germany andrea fell deeble is a leading specialist in geriatric medicine. alzheimer's is a neuro degenerative disease that worsens over time clumps of proteins shown here in green form on the surface of nerve fibers preventing communication between neurons as contact points between neurons are lost the patient starts to lose their memory. takes a few years before these protein deposits and changes produce noticeable symptoms so the changes in the brain precede the symptoms once the disease is advanced the patient becomes immobile bedridden and susceptible to pneumonia bladder infections and things which eventually lead to death. the whole process usually takes about
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ten years ago. who gets alzheimer's disease. risk factors for alzheimer's are the same as for vascular diseases. like high blood pressure diabetes disorders of the lip at metabolism for people with these conditions are more likely to get alzheimer's like so much of a common. which support methods are most helpful to alzheimer's patients helmet avert tries to do as much as he can by himself if there's anything he can do his wife helps him but sometimes it's too much for her lensman if i'm not feeling well and he asked me three or four times when we driving into town oh when of the children coming then i say look in your diary or write a note for yourself. the sweetest is confident too and so far the most important thing is to avoid confrontation patients with dementia related to out time as can
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become paranoid they might think people are stealing from them or they're convinced someone has it in for them they accuse members of their family or other people of taking something when in fact they've just mislaid of themselves doesn't work at all that is trying to reason with them because it escalates the situation skipped. over. how it's alzheimer's treated. as yet there's no drug that can stop protein deposits or prevent pathological changes in the brain. come into whether there are symptomatic treatment on medication that boosts the function of nerve cells and this can help improve awareness and other mental functions so the patients ability to concentrate for example is improved guys to go from. so to conclude. this still no cure for alzheimer's but early diagnosis can extend the patient's
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life expectancy patients can also benefit from a stable environment familiar faces as well as physical and mental activity. i'm here at the german center for neurodegenerative diseases with professor michael henniker and he's the head of the department of neurology generative disease and do you want us to read this because it's a very complicated title so what do you do with this kind of title that's complicated diseases so ready. aim of the department actually is to study the fundamental biology as well as the clinical symptoms are from the new generation of diseases like alzheimer's dementia or parkinson's disease and then kind of overarching fashion so we span from bad to burnside and tried to take for example samples from the patients and study them and the lab and on the other side develop strategies and research directions and have prophecies in the lab and follow them up in the patient so it's from bench to bedside and what are the new
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history sounds you have any promising. there well so i think this is not the time of the new most exciting results this is the kind of phase we're going through where we reconsider prior's very kind of hot topic strategies which have failed in the past and we try to figure out where there was and so next so that we you know we think whether these principles or considerations we're well be. we have to rethink the path of biology of the disease itself but there is some new view on alzheimer's disease that there is inflammation which place a certain role so what we know is that for example amyloid deposits in the brain that's well known and some himself described it first and this is in a certain form in the structure and b. there should structured amyloid surround her a body there on the surface of bacteria which are commands of in our good for
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example which means that our. immune system actually has been trained for millions of years through evolution that yeah this is an enemy so it's not only the stuff which is put into your brain and packed in the brain but it's the inflammation in the process of the body fighting to relation which destroys the brain and memory function exactly and it's like the chronic type of inflammation which takes place there which is very low but continuously growing through our brains but if we could stop this information process could this mean we can heal alzheimer's where no one knows because there's no clinical trial we would have to find the idea of therapeutic window which most likely lies decades ahead of the beginning of clinical symptoms so some tests which could take an early stage or even before some symptoms appear would be mandatory and that's one of the very important things to
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achieve during the coming years we need to have a reliable detection system which should be as easy as a blood test for example or a unit we're hearing tests or kind of imaging brain scan which should tell us whether or not a person is add risk or at high risk to develop alzheimer's disease and then we would actually try to convince that person that intervention would be necessary in order to prevent him from having dementia in later stages of his life if we treat alzheimer's right now what are the options. treatment as it stands is probably restricted to some dramatic treatment with and in the air we sample and tag a nurse or a satirical and astros inhibitors which other two principal class of drugs we have on hand to help patients these drugs are not very popular and the reason is that their colleagues always have the kind of idea they want to hear help or hear of the memory deficit now what happens of the time the patients appears in clinic with the
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first memory deficit's these regions are massively factored by he says processes so they're not being rescued. and therefore we most likely not have any drug which were reconstituted the entire memory function still we don't treat patients we would need to there's a quarter of patients in germany which is being treated of those who actually should receive those therapies there's always hope in medicine and there's hope for some new treatment options now alzheimer's disease is very very promising results it's called the antibody therapy. one hundred fifteen years ago the doctor in psychiatry. identified the disease that now bears his name. but he didn't find a cure. to this day the disease hasn't been fully understood. in germany over one million people suffer from alzheimer's there's still no effective
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medication to treat it. but there is hope on the horizon. scientists from the u.s. and switzerland conducted a year long study treating patients with a new medication and you can imagine. the results were highly promising one of the main causes of proteins produced by the body these so-called amyloid plaques for more nerve cells and block the neurons transport systems. with the new therapy antibodies attack the planks. and destroy them. the study involved one hundred sixty five outside ms patients each received either an infusion containing the antibodies or a placebo brain scans of the patients on the medication showed a significant reduction of the protein deposits as shown here on the right the higher the dosage of added can a map and the longer the therapy lasted the greater the reduction in a malloy plaques holga niche from the university of zurich was part of the research
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group that developed the therapy. for the highest dose of ad you can imagine resulted in an almost complete disappearance of the amyloid plaques asemi high dose clearly stabilize the patients clinically and cognitively in their everyday activities the condition of patients in the placebo group got worse as you would expect for patients with this stage of alzheimer's disease who weren't being treated. so far the research into antibody therapy has focused on safety and dosage in a further study involving two thousand seven hundred patients they now hope to corroborate their findings if they do so that would be a major step forward in treating out simers. so i'm here with professor any collateral he's chairman of the desert and he and he's a leading international expert on dementia and alzheimer's disease thanks for having me thank you but what can you tell us about the state his office antibody
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therapy well it i think it does the veil up quite nicely over the past few years with first of all different types of ant about this which have improved their efficacy in removing a milad from the brain. in addition to these we have now also other therapies with other antibodies which neutralize the other protein involved in some instances the other measured protein towle the major issue i see it is that probably single treatments will not be effective it's a multi model disease probably the right solution is to have a combination of different strategies it's still one single disease or do you know if you think alzheimer's disease is there almost a whole disease so you're also trying to get into the causes of alzheimer's disease self so i know that there's something about m.r.i. pluck position in the brain but is this a full story it is part of the story i mean i'm a lloyd the position of the position of the brain is there's been one of the
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measure mechanisms that have has been linked to the onset of alzheimer's disease and we do know from the cases which i read it i read cases where there are mutations into the enzymes into the province that modulator the formation of amyloid that you get alzheimer's disease so as they fully is one cause of alzheimer's disease or one of the major cause of alzheimer's disease and the the plaque formation and the position of the protein starts as early in the lifespan of some twenty year. old old what does it mean so even the studies from the families affected by genetic mutations indicated the first deposition of amyloid or alterations linked to potential to alzheimer's disease they start twenty years before the disease manifest with symptoms so this means that we have to. go for early diagnosis and that's obviously one implication of the question is we anticipated this may be exactly the same in elderly individuals so that changes in
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the brain will take place many years before the disease manifest itself but what kind of prevention i mean if if the protein starts to to accumulate in the brain what you can read one question is why does it take you less in the brain we understand which are the main leading causes for accumulation of amyloid or for other kind of features of alzheimer's disease then of course we can try for example to prevent chronic inflammation we can try to have a better lifestyle which means better nutrition physical exercise mental training all these things are not necessarily addressing the causes of this is but enabling the brain to compensate so there must be protective factors inherent with this individuals that prevent them from having a large number of intricate this is some kind of longevity yes of course there is a predisposition to longevity which may very well be part of genetic but if you think about these factors you know there is of course epigenetic which is the
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environment but overall these people managed to overcome disease or at least not to have measured diseases and so we have to learn from this paradigm to try to find out what what actually could protect us all from these conditions what should i do should i just go out for a run because exercising helps me in then any exercise will help you to lower the risk of a number of conditions from cardiovascular they a be this cancer itself they're also you know they they have a great benefit of physical exercise. physical activity other thing quit is coming out and is more and more important is keeping a very healthy nice social network. meaning have a very good social life. and at the same time you know trying to keep stress and you know things which i don't want to depression for example or so. usually seems very simplistic but this is a matter of fact the people who tend to approach life in a more optimistic way they have no other pressure and they tend to be able to have
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a good healthy quality of life in nutrition they tend to have less incidence of measure chronic disease is related to aging that's very good news thanks so much for having me today in front of a to me thank you so much thank you thank you for having asked that question and if you've got any questions you like me to ask our experts be sure to write to me and . smoking is bad for your health but many people enjoy smoking and find it extremely difficult to quit why is that and what's the best way to kick the habit send your questions to in good shape dot com just write how to stop smoking in the subject line we look forward to hearing from you. because there is our eyes protective outermost layer it plays a key role in our ability to see you things clearly and in focus if it gets damaged
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by disease infection or injury it can impair your vision in severe cases it can affect you so extensively that only a cornea transplant can get you back and running. just reading a newspaper for a long time that was impossible for her. she suffers from an inherited corneal disorder which made her vision gradually deteriorate. when i was walking around i couldn't recognize the people approaching me they'd say hello and i didn't. recognize them that was embarrassing. climbing stairs was also really hard because i couldn't see the steps i was feeling more and more uncertain moving about it really limited me in daily life. playing. for months ago hilda had a corneal transplant in her right now she's going to her eye doctor for a check up. on.
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the cornea the transparent cover of the eyeball protects the eye hand plays a big role in vision. the cornea is our window onto the world together with the lens it focuses the image on to the retina without a properly focusing cornea you can't see clearly. there are different causes for that. there are various disorders and there are lots of injuries that can lead to the corning are no longer being clear. corneal transplant is also advisable when the cornea has scars or irregularities. like most recipients of a transplant hilda spent a lot of time weighing things up. it's terrible that someone has to die so that i can get a cornea. but you can't stop their death and if the person has decided to donate
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their organs or their tissue then i am just incredibly grateful. the people who organize organ and tissue donations know how hard it is a potential donors and their families many fear that removing the i will change the appearance of the dead person the coordinators take care to ensure it's all done with dignity. as a rule we remove the entire. and replace it with a glass pathetic with a dead person's eye color we also close the eye again so after the donation the removal isn't at all visible and. soon as is already the case in other german clinics the hospital here in stuttgart will carry out all the transplant taishan steps in its own cornea bank the eyes have to be removed within seventy two hours of death and the corneal tissue separated from the eyeball transplants maybe taken
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from donors who are three years old and up but certain disorders are grounds for refusing a donation. since i and i time for example outside and parkinson's disease blood cancers like leukemia and of course infectious diseases like hiv or hepatitis the transplant operation usually takes place under general anaesthetic the donor cornea is examined again and then cuts to the right size almost always in a circular shape the recipient's cornea is marked to ensure that the sutures will be in the right place the old cornea risk cutout and the donor tissue is so known the body rarely rejects foreign corneal tissue. in a sense the cornea is privileged it has a privileged immune status because it doesn't have any blood or limb fossils and that makes a rejection reaction much less likely i usually don't have to give any immune suppressants to prevent rejection. here's that flight as operation went well.
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very nice very clear even wonderful. after a few weeks she could already see much more clearly however the healing process takes a long time the last stitches would be removed for eighteen months. this is not a short or simple process the patients have to know what they're getting into they also have to take a certain amount of responsibility for the transplanted cornea and take good care of it. i'm so delighted to have a new cornea i'll definitely look after it and keep it healthy. even now just four months after surgery here to florida his quality of life has improved in fact she can see well enough to drive herself home. and now to our next pressing topic broken fingernails for many of us a touchy subject but as
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a g.p. i can tell you there's something you can do about it. specialist patti only needs to take one look at me i see they look pretty good for a young man. because. they could use a bit of oil. brittle damage dry. natural very well looked after the cuticles might need some care. very classic perfect males that every woman wants. but such healthy nails are rare and no wonder they come in for a lot of wear and tear water and chemicals are bad for them and vitamin deficiencies also affect their condition people susceptible to nail problems are likely to be. typically people with poor diets vegetarians vegans who don't eat properly balanced diets. but also people undergoing growth spurts such as
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teenagers who are growing so fast their bodies can't keep up. artificial need. level occasions can also have a damaging effect and show me your hands. you can see here that you have some redness in the upper part of your nail. that's a very typical sign that the nail wasn't treated properly before the artificial nail was applied yeah the real nail has been over filed. so it didn't get five to ten or twelve. the damage needs to be repaired very carefully. to his see as it's important to file it properly and using the right kind of nail file the nail is very thin and brittle the procedure shouldn't be painful and i want to avoid tearing off even more of the nails natural mineral or glass nail files are gentler than old fashioned metal ones and. you should always
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file in the same direction to avoid any heat build up. a repair treatment can also help nails that have been damaged this entails applying oil on a regular basis for four weeks massaging cream into the nails is also effective. can i wear nail varnish on top. what does a dermatologist recognized. there as well varnish seals the nails and help stabilize them but then nail polish does have to be removed at some point in a nail polish remover dries out nails and makes them all brittle it's quite a stringent. thank you much if you wear nail varnish a lot of ladies it's a good idea to take a break now and then to give your nails the time to recover when. experts tend to advise avoiding artificial nails looking after your own and applying polish now and
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then is a much better option. that's it for today and don't forget to switch on next week.
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slavery in the twenty first century. starting december second on d w. this is d w news live from berlin zimbabwe and turnout and there are tens of thousands took to demand president robert mugabe's resignation the streets of the capital harare have been packed with crowds calling for mogahed his departure after nearly forty.

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