tv Doc Film - Luther and the Nation Deutsche Welle November 4, 2017 8:15am-9:00am CET
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initially montanus it was only calling for a renewal of the church and his face but the pope and the emperor saw him as a threat and he was demonized by both. an overwhelming majority of the population at home supported him would martin luther divide or unite the germans. april sixteenth fifteen twenty one it looked like a reenactment of palm sunday in jerusalem.
a man branded a heretic by the church celebrated like the messiah in the german city of forms. he's in where there are other mountain. we could still turn back here. in venice and if death itself were awaiting me i would not turn back even the stone . martin luther on his way to the imperial diet of forms and assembly of the holy roman empire on german soil an event that would change the course of history. never before had a man of the people excited such enthusiasm ordinary people peasants and members of the lower aristocracy in particular put their hopes in this month that.
even if the pope and the amphora were against him martin luther knew the people of germany were on his side. he was celebrated like a victim but his biggest test was still to come would he remain steadfast. right you're taking a difficult path i wouldn't want to be in your shoes day. behind. the cupboard as he done because i started a song and now it might prove too high for my voice so off in the chair is a support did nothing to relieve his anxiety what will be contested behind these doors wasn't a matter of who had the right place it's a new thing it was a matter of life and death. in germany in the early sixties intreated noting. just
as a united political entity territorial princes ruled over their own regions of the ten million german speakers one in ten lived in towns the rest in the countryside. the dominant belief was one of a god given order of rulers and the ruled one empire one faith one emperor it was the idea that held the holy roman empire of the german nation together but it was beginning to unravel. at first the only criticized abusive practices of the church nepotism corruption and waste but then he publicly rejected any into meijer between man and gone. he singled out the dignitaries of the roman catholic church who he said behave like princes rather than priests for luther only the bible was infallible.
luther accused gone's representatives on earth of hubris after layer the tenth was crowned pope in fifteen thirteen he was more an arts page and than an ecclesiastical leader holding cold with pomp and extravagance to underline his power and glory. this pope from the powerful mcgeechan family wasn't interested in theology since god has given us the papacy he said let us enjoy it leo transformed rome into a cultural center and political power but he depleted the papal treasury in the process. he commissioned a massive renovation of some peter's basilica in the vatican to pay for it leo encourage the sale of indulgences and exemption from punishment for sins. luther maintained only the mercy of jesus could himself sin not money. the only path to salvation was faith not deeds his ninety five theses attacking corrupt
church practices were quickly second acted across the country the pope threatened luther with excommunication but luther responded by publicly burning the bill humble monk motivated solely by his conscience. the reformation was triggered by the dispute over indulgences luther was convinced that believers were being duped and that their salvation was in jeopardy. he believed the indulgences were lolling people into a false sense of security with disastrous consequences. the fatah list by the time luther was summons to the diet of the pope had already branded him a heretic. he was given the opportunity to recant before the emperor of princes and nobles of the empire if he did not he faced an imperial ban and death.
decision day had arrived. he must recount. luther must recant or he'll burn unless he finds powerful supporters luther already had frederick the wise elector of saxony had watched his rebellious subjects popularity grow and he sympathized with luther's criticisms of the roman catholic church and so he will run as the emperor's rules one way or another. but the empress role has been the role of god goddess. frederick the wise was powerful he was one of seven electors in the empire who chose the emperor and the others with among grave of brandenburg the king of bohemia the count palatine. and of the rhine and the archbishop's of cologne months and train.
any candidate for king and emperor had to make concessions to the powerful princes that also was true of the hapsburg and for a chance the fifth who was elected in fifty nineteen. the new vive and his election wasn't without controversy if there was opposition and skepticism. the roman curia had a different candid god they were very strong reservations because of his immensely powerful position. and that was prejudice against him as it was viewed as a foreigner in the employer over which he now presided the human one of chi's a fortune and. the hapsburg emperor was unfamiliar with germany and its people even as ruler of the world he could not override the german princes the image he cultivated wasn't just posturing charles was right in saying the sun never sets on his empire. his prayer
book has survived to this day it doesn't just testify to the hapsburg ruinous piety one page depicts the most powerful man on earth kneeling at the feet of a guardian angel. the page shows signs of wear and ten an indication perhaps of the young and for his insecurity. as a devout catholic charles was determined to silence the heretic from the end but the german princes forced him to hindu thought out. the emperor who spoke no german was represented at the dot avanza by the archbishop of trias legal advisor the empire's top tier witnesses to an unequal jewel a german david against a supremely powerful goliath. yes in three of us i met. well we're gathered here to put an end to the blasphemous lie
a spread by doctor not in luther from that underline. that. with with heretics zeal yes cast doubts on paper law thora t. his writings to question the author of the of the church and in so doing he has destroyed the unity of all christians. martin luther are you ready to recount your life's an iris here and now here yet so we don't hold. even news has powerful supporters advised him to recant. no one can deny that through the pope's laws the consciences of the faithful have been almost pitifully troubled. does and also the possessions of the german nation have been devoured by unbelievable tyranny that if then i recant the only effect will be to add strength to such tyranny to open not the windows but the main doors to such blasphemy.
many snitched unless i am convinced by the testimony of scripture or by clear reason i cannot and will not recant anything. so help me god. a man. luther's appearance before the diet of alms went down in history is a turning point in european history but luther didn't have the benefit of hindsight he dared to stand up to the most powerful man on the planet perhaps because he knew he wasn't alone. in the luther knew he had
a far reaching social reform movement beyond him and that enabled him to act the way he did involves in volves in the towns we have the support of the middle class the intellectual elite associated with the humanists online as well as to a degree that the backing of the imperial not and a portion of the clergy supported him to die it is clear was all this coincided with the calculated use of the nascent power of the media the battle to shape public opinion began involves. it was the first propaganda war in european history fought by followers and opponents of the reform of the friar from a german backwater became an international household name one placed on an equal footing with the pope in the fight for the one true faith. thousands of flyers were printed some portrayed. there is
a saint stuffing the greedy mouth of the roman demon others portrayed him as a divider and a messenger of the devil as a satanic heretic doomed and damned. this visual propaganda in the form of caricature was once a reach people who couldn't read. in the battle for hearts and minds luther's supporters made headway but ultimately it was up to the em for it to pass judgement on the reform of. the hapsburg ruler made his position on luther clear since the king of the germans didn't speak german he composed it in french. bush do you understand what he's saying. you don't need to understand french to know he has it in for losers and not on the top and the lick in those is designed if you're concerned about him. that he
plays. whatever the empress ponders can only end one way i miss you most of. the day you know he wants to see luther burned. to do that he has to get in first he's done this. in the edict involves charles the fifth declared luther an enemy of the church and state held a previously issued guarantee of safe conduct but as soon as it expired luther was to be arrested and punished would it come to that. luthor set off to return to that and back but the journey was interrupted. what was that hunters he got. yes and i
know who they're hunting too. deep in the woods foresman ambush luther's carriage. and he goes if they don't want you. luthor had been briefed on the plan what looked like a kidnapping was in fact a rescue operation. to prevent the implementation of the edict of alms the reformer was bundled off to a secret location. not the door so implementing the edict along side was difficult for the under offered him from a legal perspective he had no executive organs to enforce in there and he depended on the willingness of the regional princess to publish the edict and enforce it and in that territory i trust and understand these as it is naturally frederick the wise and that no such intention to allege for those devices dr gun is done.
luther's princely protector had different plans frederick the wise hid the reformer advanced book castle now eyes enough in his area of jurisdiction. as a territorial prince the electorate of saxony. made use of his autonomy to secretly defy the amphora. the persecuted reformer was given a comfortable room invite book council he was to want for nothing. though forced into hiding luther had not been silenced his writings spread across europe. faced with an unknown period of confinement luthor decided to make good use of his time. he adopted a pseudonym. and changed his appearance. and
he began a revolutionary work a translation of the bible into german luther wanted the word of gaunt to be accessible to everyone including lay readers he rejected church doctrine that maintained the pope was the sole authority of interpreter of scripture his followers would come to be called evangelical from the latin and german words for gospel. it took luther just a few weeks to complete his translation of the new testament into german. a new communications technology gave him fast access to a wide audience the printing press. the individual letters were cost back to front laid out in galleys and fixed in
position the ink was made of linseed oil insert a formula which produced pages that haven't faded in centuries the sheet was printed in the press this device later lent its name to an entire. branch of media the press. at the start of the sixteenth century there were four hundred printing facilities in the german speaking world. as print shop in fifth and back was the first to publish luther's new testament in september fifteenth twenty two. with sixty six reprints the work had had a run of one hundred thousand copies by fifteen twenty five it was the first bestseller in german history. loses translation wasn't always literal he used everyday language with colloquial turns of phrase.
the new testament in german a translation by martin luther. traveling booksellers often luther's bible for sale at markets demand was huge. concert can you read yes and then read. a sample come and listen listen to what he's reading the new testament in germany. commented out at a time of widespread illiteracy reading out loud was a common practice. once that soon he does forget i'm leaked it got discussed going . on to feel. like you feel i and others come of it denotes the words of the bible in the language of the germans and it leaves on
a you know this is a church. is. not susan's father it sounded like jesus. by. you just got my studio on the book good to see. that i didn't. lose his translation of the complete bible was published in german in fifteen twenty four an original copy is preserved in the anna amalia library environment. luther's work had a profound impact on the development of the german language the author dedicated it to his protect and the electoral saxony his bible led to standardize ation of the german language which in turn fostered a stronger sense of common identity among german speakers. who does luther's bible translation didn't just serve to strengthen the sense of
community within the protestant movement it also had a long term impact on the german nation as a whole village and his language became the language of literature he thought wish interestingly and unbeknown to them catholics were also impacted by this development if it happened behind their back so to speak them that in workings of the economy fast. it wasn't just the bible that spread from the back but so too did lose his reformation teachings neither would have been possible without the protection of the saxon prince but frederick the wise never fully embraced luther's teachings and remained a catholic all his life. holed up and fought for council luther was aware of the debt he owed the prince for his protection he also knew that in return the elector expected luther's loyalty that
loyalty was put to the test by development that shook the wide swathes of german speaking europe and brought those regions to the brink of out right civil war. yes a bloody uprising staged by peasants demanding greater rights and freedom encouraged by luther's reformation ideas they used his arguments to justify their revolt the presence will pose a deep dilemma for luther. should he stay true to his conscience or to his princely protector. the peasants war panorama in franken hausen is one of the largest paintings in the world in great detail it depicts the first revolution on german soil emboldened by the religious reform movement the peasants saw to overthrow the feudal system under
which they were bound to the estates of nobleman and forced to give up most of what they produced. the revolt was sparked by opposition to new taxes and fees on the german service and based on their interpretation of scripture paying a times on the fruits of the earth had long been exacted on the peasant as a form of church tax. but now the lord sought to extend this payment to the possession of animals the tax collectors invoked divine law to justify their demands. luther's translation of the bible into german allowed people to verify those demands by consulting scripture themselves. it's a complete injustice to take
a toys for animals to. be constantly how dare you don't know rightfulness of our actions. those who possess livestock have to pay a times for them so that's what it says in the. liable for a stay of vouchers for dr. holder is what for the we voted for ourselves and later the bible says nothing of the sort we watch yourself mouth will undo you you will pay a tithe on older animals either that or in coins and if you don't see you in court on this day and you are the emperor the judge we would be as steadfast as dr luther extortionist. of so. many peasants refused to continue tolerating such conditions luther was their role model and the bunch of the laced shoes the emblem of never evolved.
when the conflict threatened to escalate the peasants called for luther the reformer left his hiding place in violent book and traveled to the rebels in the hope of defusing the situation. luther that shown how to resist the all thirty of the emperor and pope both townspeople and peasants now wanted to follow his example. i was asked if god spoke german yes i tell you yes. yeah how else would he have understood your prayers he had to be the first one god has understood them and he has ons of them done on. earth.
is that's also true for the prayers of us person he said about one of the peasants expected luther to side with them. got turned out about god also he is the peasants and he sees the injustice done to them . but fighting injustice with injustice is not god's will it's the will of the devil puts out. luther distanced himself from the peasants when violence broke out in may fifteen twenty five they also targeted members of the high in ability. yes this is now it's your turn count. you to meet your judgement hasn't so be it go.
the bloodshed triggered a radical change of heart in the fact he now saw the devil at work and even appealed to the german princes to crush the peasants. let whoever can stab strangle and kill them like mad dogs. luther described the war against the peasants as a battle against the forces of evil. the decisive battle took place near franken hausen in fear in jail six thousand peasants lost their lives. advocated the preservation of divinely appointed to secure his reformation he sacrificed the peasants. to. the end of a people's hero. the peasants and the
reformer were not seeking the same types of freedom. the surviving outside the core issue at the time was the term freedom the term had different meanings for different players for luther. it meant first and foremost the freedom of a christian regarded as in the passons it meant the freedom from jews and bond with dogs it is for the princes it was the political freedom to rule their territories and it was a similar story for the town magistrate as florian on the end of his of. one man's freedom was another man's loss catholic property was lost to the church wherever rulers adopted the new face in outsell a saxon in the monastery was disbanded the building turned into a quarry. and. it was
a fate the oldest indian prior in that neighborhood was spared. the elector of saxony gave the property to his famous subject martin luther and his new family. and in june fifteenth twenty five martin luther married the former nun catalina from bora the reformer had called for the abolition of celibacy in his earliest writings . luther's married life was not untouched by political upheaval my dad is no latin and my bedroom knows not just these last lines it's urgent people are waiting. at forty two the former monk became the master of his own household and a happy husband god gave me cater and i don't want to give her up not for france nor for venice. commonalities god anything.
is lent over already travelled by. and haughty dr luther himself is supposed to have said twice a week long time not have it well then it must be right. catalina and martin luther founded an institution of us the clerical marriage had a tremendous impact on cultural history because it effectively ended religions demonization of sexuality for toys for sex with boss has also made of flesh and blood wasn't mentioned not macit and it was a bombshell oft do not just for lucas contemporary can austin nobody inside goodness and. the reformation didn't just revolutionize family life with its emphasis on the sermon it also transformed
religious services. the core messages depicted above the altar of the church invest in back salvation cannot be earned through good works sacraments or indulgences. and salvation is attained only through the grace of god. there was no longer any into meijer a between god and humankind neither a pope nor a church. luther had pave the way to a new world order. charles the fifth was determined to prevent its emergence after the edict yvonne's he'd left germany to wage war on numerous fronts. neglecting the struggle against the reformation. protestantism spread now charles decided to reassert his
authority as the chief defender of catholic christendom he would restore the old order one amphora one empire one church. after the pope agreed to crown him emperor in bologna a in february fifteenth thirty charles traveled to germany with his army of mercenaries there was a renewed showdown with luther's followers this time at the diet of alex book. the chancellor of saxony christiane bear spoke for the protestants. my your majesty in this document we have laid down the basic doctrine of our faith. galoot theron's wanted a settlement for church unity it would suffice if there was agreement on the teaching of the gospel and administration of the sacraments they sought to sever
their faith in the papal hierarchy and rome. but the confession of our expert that laid down the core lutheran doctrine was rejected by both the emperor and the papal envoy. the emperor will startle your new confession however he believes only the roman curia is qualified and intitled to compose texts of this nature. that tax lacks any polemical antagonism with regard to the church in rome and indeed if any text ever had a shot at facilitating an agreement it was the outs book confession he tried to add to the new confession. a lot of time has passed since vons the ideas are not confined to this book they are out there in the world. so those.
xylem his majesty regrets not having eliminated the heretic and his ideas and ones involving. the lutheran powers knew that a confrontation with the emperor was just a matter of time. made these or was this document piece is within reach everyone may keep their faith wherever they are without feeling constrained or threatened if. charles hope to turn back the clock he was ready for the battle against prostin princes towns and landholders if necessary he would settle the protestant challenge by force of arms. his majesty isn't afraid of war he gives you six months before his mercenaries enforce peace the free gift. in charles reinstated the edict of warm condemning luther.
once again the lutheran princes left the diet under protest and the noun protestants was coined a label for their new political identity. by the mid sixteenth century only the bavarian heartlands parts of bohemia and austria as well as the territories to the west of the rhine remained roman catholic pope had lost all influence across the rest of the empire. luther and self had only been able to follow the events in out spoke from a far. down stack is no doubt that ended without the protestants the news for now spoke was bleak. you know it's bad. a military showdown was looming lived his life's work was in danger he had only wanted to reform the church but it gonna do rough of the highest authorities he'd
wanted to liberate christians but it fosters strife. who knows what god wants and what plans he has for us germans. martin luther sense that the conflict with the church and the emperor was coming to a head a peaceful solution was not in sight. this is the first map of conscious in germany drawn up by the katanga for sebastian minster in the mid sixteenth century the borders between the principalities play as insignificant a role as the who run an empire but this vision was threatened by the specter of an empire about to strike back.
fearing the worst protestants rally together in the town of. eighteen princes and representatives from twenty eight towns in the empire joined forces in a new defensive alliance. they demanded the right to choose the religion in their territories. the document drawing up the league in april fifteenth forty seven the alliance was put to the test. as troops approached the river from the west closing in on the unsuspecting forces of the league and camped on the eastern bank. the protestants led by john frederick of saxony trusted in god.
by i have news from the scouts of the emperor has advanced as far as allows a given its followers on here still have to cross the aisle that buys us time that skipped on sight sight time enough to prepare the warm welcome the emperor deserves and found. the protestant army felt safe on the other side of the river which it deemed impossible for the emperor's artillery. but charles was determined to take the initiative on the cover a sick funk his soldiers folded that elba cut down the guards and secured a floating bridge. if it succeeded the surprise attack would rout the troops.
the men under john frederick trusted england. but the emperor's troops banked on the element of surprise. that the for. the for. the for. the stealthy attack caused panic among the forward scouts of the small county glee. then he. dressed in splendid omma arrived wholly unexpected while most of his infantry had crossed the floating bridge the cavalry found a ford higher up stream. his defeat of the protestants at the battle of mubarak was
decisive. the portrayed by commemorating his victory had reached his goal of returning germany to the empires followed. after his triumph on the battlefield the emperor went on to capture the town where everything and begun that in the. but the man he had declared an enemy of the state was no longer alive. the great reformer had died at the age of sixty two one year before the battle of mubarak in february fifteenth forty six. a quarter of a century after the diet of vons the emperor and counted the reformer again at least his tomb in the castle church and that and back. the victorious habsburg ruler wanted to see the grave of his anniversary with his
own eyes. dead or alive and he's a heretic and cats and. he must burn. joined should we get them out. charles was advised to dig up and burn the heretics bones. feel the quake by wage war with the living not the dead. luther's tomb was closed. what remains notice long for us to go luther's long term impact on germany and the germans is the cultural and more specifically the linguistic achievement which through this translation of the bible has had repercussions far beyond the protestant territory as you know he also had a political input he supported the development of territorial states of the modernity and in this respect you could say that luther advanced the federalize ation of germany the zeal. that. luther's vision of
a new faith surged division the church in germany fractured into the good. with the loss of church unity the old political order to was irretrievably lost. france's towns and entire regions embraced luther's doctrine. yet the man who found refuge in casa left behind fall more than a theological legacy. martin luther's appearance involves was a rallying cry not only for freedom of religion but also for freedom and secular offenses in germany and else when his translation of the bible laid the foundation for a nation bound together by a common language luther was a unifying and a divider his legacy has shaped german history five centuries.
a couple song. goes on there as a german radio station. fifteen minutes. on this thing i know that i love life and you will always remain my beloved parents . have lost fans songs to i.x. . land and guns he was a totally normal boy of the german parents desperately searching for their children and what of the old fart is doing them like you disappointed parents and now appealing to german law micah's for. thirty minutes on. every journey begins with the first step and every language of the first word i looked in the. piece in germany to learn your. business just why not.
it's simple online on your own mile and free. to suffer. the learning course goes week. made easy. this is d.w. news live from berlin catalonia is independent leader says they'll defiance international arrest warrant carlist push them on is in brussels or authorities are deciding how to respond to the warrant issued by a spanish judge in barcelona tens of thousands of food among.