There has been public concern that wildlife could be affected by military training activities. Of particular interest was the hypothesis that noise from military aircraft would disrupt the ecological balance between predator and prey by giving one or the other an advantage. To gauge these effects, this study was conducted under an Air Force Range in an area receiving levels of exposure higher than normally encountered under a Military Training Route. A nearby control site was exposed to much lower levels of noise. Noise monitors recorded actual exposure, and hearing of one heteromyid species, the kangaroo rat, was measured in situ. A total of 14,455 trap-nights were spent monitoring nocturnal small mammal communities on exposed and control plots. Rodent species diversity, numbers, reproductive activity, recruitment, mean weights, and survival were measured. The kit fox, a predator, was also examined. Although differences were uncovered between kit fox and small mammal populations between the control and exposed areas, none was large, and none was at odds with the most parsimonious natural explanations. If the effects observed are assumed to be the result of aircraft noise exposure, the consequences to rodents and fox populations were smaller in magnitude than the natural variability observed during the course of the study.