tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN March 10, 2016 2:00pm-4:01pm EST
in you can watch live coverage right here on c-span. >> when i tune in on the weekends, usually authors sharing their new releases. >> watching the nonfiction authors on book tv is the best television for serious readers. can have an, they longer conversation and delve into their subject. book tv weekend to bring you author after author that spotlights the work of fascinating people. >> i am a c-span fan. canadian prime minister justin trudeau and his wife are visiting washington, d.c. this week. tonight, president obama is holding an official leader -- dinner for the canadian leader as he makes his first visit as the canadian leader. live coverage tonight on c-span.
first, a look at a joint news conference with president obama and prime minister trudeau. this was from this morning in the white house rose garden. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states and the prime minister of canada. once again, i want to welcome prime minister trudeau to the white house. we just completed the very productive meeting, although i regret to earn -- inform you that we have not yet reached an agreement on hockey. but it is not interfering with the rest of our bilateral relationship. said earlier, this business reflect something that we americans don't always say enough and that is how much we value our great allies and
partnership with our friends up north. our moment together so deeply, as societies, economies, that it is sometimes easy to forget how truly remarkable our relationship is. a short border more than 5000 miles, the longest between any two nations in the world. every day, we do some $2 billion , theade and investment largest bilateral economic relationship in the world. every day, more than 400,000 americans and canadians across the border. workers, business people, students, tourists, neighbors, and of course, every time we have a presidential election, our friends to the north have to brace for an exit is of americans who swear they will move to canada if the guy from the other party wins. fine.lly, it turns out >> [laughter]
this is now my: second meeting with the justin, grateful that i have them as a partner. we have a common outlook on what our nations can achieve together. he campaigned on a message of hope and change, positive and optimistic vision inspiring young people at home. he is governing with a commitment to the passivity and , hisity on a world stage country's leading on climate change and cares about development. from my perspective, what is not to like? of course, no two nations agree on everything. our countries are no different, but in terms of our interests, our values, how we approach the world, few countries matchup the way the united states and canada do. and given our work together today, i can say, and i believe the prime minister would agree, when it comes to the central challenges we face, our nations
are more closely aligned than ever. we want to make it easier to trade and invest with one another. america is already the top destination for canadian exports and canada is the top market for u.s. exports, which support about 1.7 million good paying american jobs. when so many of our products, like autos, are built on both sides of the border in , thisated supply chains coproduction makes us more competitive in the global economy as a whole, and we want to keep it that way, so we have is drafted our teams to make it easier for goods and people to move back and forth across the borders, including reducing while next and streamlining regulations. we discussed how to move forward with the transpacific and today, we also reaffirmed our determination to move ahead with an agreement to pre-clear travelers through immigration and customs, making it easier for canadians and americans to travel and visit and do business together. as nato allies, we are united
against the threat of terrorism. canada is an extraordinarily valued member of the global ,ollision fighting isil itsning and enforcing troops in iraq, and providing humanitarian support. we are working closely together flow of foreign fighters and today we agree to share more information, including with respect to the no-fly list and full and limitation of our entry-exit system, even as we uphold the privacy and civil liberties of our respective citizens. in syria, the cessation of hostilities has led to a measurable drop in violence in the civil war, and the united states and canada continue to be leaders in getting humanitarian aid to syrians who are in desperate need. meanwhile, our two countries continue to safely welcome refugees from that conflict. i want to commend justin and the canadian people once again for
their compassionate leadership on this front. especially klees to say the united states and canada are fully united in combating climate change. the first u.s. president to visit the arctic, i saw how both of our nations are threatened by rising seas, melting permafrost, disappearing glaciers, and sea ice. so we are focusing on making sure the paris agreement is fully implemented and we are working to double our investments in clean energy research and development. today we are also announcing some new steps. candidate is joining us in our aggressive goal to bring down methane emissions in the oil and gas sectors in both of our countries, and together, we will move swiftly to establish copperheads of standards to meet that goal. we will also work together to 's and to limit carbon emissions from international aviation.
we are announcing a new climate and science partnership to protect the arctic and its people, and later today, i will welcome our partners, including canada, to our white house science ministerial on the arctic to deepen our corporation in this final region. grateful for canada's partnership as we renew america's leadership across the hemisphere. mr. prime minister, i want to thank you for canada's continuing support of our new chapter of engagement with the cuban people, which i will continue with my upcoming visit to cuba next week. we will work to help colombia achieve peace and remove the deadly legacy of landmines there , and our scientists and public health officials will work with partners across the hemisphere to prevent the spread of the zika virus and work together actively for diagnostic and vaccines that can make a real difference. finally, our shared values, our
commitment to human development and dignity of all people continue to guide our work as global partners. through the global health security agenda, we are stepping up our efforts to prevent outbreaks of diseases from becoming epidemics. we are urgently working to help ethiopia deal with the worst drought in half a century. today, our spouses, michelle and sophie, are reaffirming our commitment to the health and education of young women and girls around the world, and canada will be joining our power africa initiative to bring electricity, including renewable energy, to homes and businesses across the continent to help the people out of poverty. those are our values at work. again, justin, thank you for your partnership. i think we have laid the foundation for greater cooperation for our countries for years to come, and i like to think it is only the beginning. i look forward to welcoming you back for the nuclear security summit in a few weeks. i am pleased we were able to
announce the next north american leadership summit in canada this summer. the prime minister has invited me to address the canadian parliament, and that is a great honor. i look forward to the opportunity to speak directly to the canadian people about the extraordinary future we can build together. prime minister trudeau. prime minister trudeau: thank you, mr. president. good morning, everyone, it's an honor to be here. as i have reflected on the storied relationship between our two great countries, i constantly return to president kennedy, the wise words in our friendship, that what unites us is far greater than what divides us. and as president obama mentioned earlier, if geography made us neighbors, then shared values made us kindreds spirits, and it is our choices, individually and collectively, that make us friends. that friendship, matched by much hard work, has allowed us to do
great things throughout our the beaches of normandy, to the free trade agreement, and now today, on climate change. the president and i share a common goal. we want a clean growth economy that continues to provide good jobs and great opportunities for all of our citizens. i am confident that by working together, we will get there, sooner than we think. let's take the paris agreement, for example. is both ament symbolic declaration of global cooperation on climate change, as well as a practical guide for growing our economy's a responsible and sustainable way. canada and the u.s. have committed to signing the agreement as soon as possible. we know that our international partners expect and, indeed, need leadership from us on this issue. the president and i have announced today that we will
take ambitious action to reduce methane emissions merely by half from the oil and gas sector, reduce use and omissions of high rock -- hydrofluorocarbons, and align greenhouse gas initiative standards for heavy-duty vehicles amongst other plans, to fight climate change. french]g in >> new standards based on scientific data. from fishing in the high seas of the arctic, as well as set new standards to ensure maritime transport with less emissions. the partnership will also promote sustainable development in the region in addition to putting the bar higher in terms of observing the biodiversity in the arctic. we have also decided to make our
borders both more open and safe by agreeing, pre-clearing at airports in toronto and in the railroadll as stations in montreal and vancouver. moreover, we are creating a u.s.-canada working group in the next 60 days on the recourses to access how we will resolve errors of identity on the no-fly list. senator schumer: finally --prime minister trudeau: finally, the president and i acknowledge the unique relationship between canada and the united states. we have historically been each other's largest trading partners. each and every day, over $2.4 billion worth of goods and services across the border. today, we reaffirmed our commitment to streamlining trade between our countries.
overall, the president and i agree on many things, including, of paramount importance, the direction we want to take our countries to ensure a clean and prosperous future. we have made tremendous progress on many issues. unfortunately, i will leave town with my blog at that beloved expos still here in washington. cannot have everything. i would like to conclude by extending my deepest thanks to barack for his leadership on the climate change file to date. i want to injure the american people that they have a real partner in canada. canada and the u.s. will stand side-by-side to confront the pressing need that face not only our two countries, but the entire planet. i am very much looking forward to the remaining time here in washington, so thank you again for your leadership, and your
friendship. i know that our two countries can achieve great things by working together as allies, and as friends, as we have done so many times before. all right, ama: few questions. julie davis. >> thank you, mr. president. i want to ask about the supreme court. you have already said you're looking for a highly qualified nominee with impeccable credentials. can you give us a sense of whatever factors you are considering? so much of it comes down to a gut feeling for you. does it affect you to know that your nominee will hang out in the public eye without hearing a vote for a long time and maybe ever, and shouldn't that be driving your decisions, if you are asking someone to put themselves forward for this position? for prime mr. trudeau, i know you have been following our presidential campaign. you even made a joke about welcoming americans who might be
frightened of a donald trump presidency to your country. what do you think the stakes are for you, the relationship between canada and the u.s., if donald trump or ted cruz were to win the presidency and succeed president obama? on a lot of issues with him. how would that affect the relationship if one of them are to succeed president obama? president obama: even though it was not directed at me -- >> [laughter] president obama: i want to point out, i'm absolutely certain, in 2012, when there was the possibility that i might be reelected, there were folks that were threatening to go to canada as well. one of the great things about a relationship like canada's and the united states, it transcends party. it is bipartisan, in terms of the interest we share. with respect to the supreme
what i'mhave told you looking for. i want somebody who is an outstanding jurist, who has impeccable legal credentials, ,ho, by historical standards would it not even be questioned as qualified for the court. obviously, it is somebody who i follows the sure constitution, cares about things , understand the necessary humility of a judge at in looking at the statute, with the elected branches are doing, is not viewing themselves as making law
, or in some ways, standing above elected representatives. but also recognizes the critical role that that branch plays in protecting minorities, ensuring the political system does not ways that systematically leaves people out, that are mindful of the traditions that are embedded in our cherished documents, like the bill of rights. so in terms of who i select, i will do my job. then my expectation will be, will the senate do its job, as outlined in the constitution? i have said this before. i find it ironic that people who are constantly citing the constitution would suddenly read into the constitution
requirements, norms, procedures, that are nowhere to be found there. that is concisely the kind of interpretive approach that they have to be immediately -- vehemently rejected and have accused liberals of all the time. well, you cannot abandon your principles, if, in fact these are your principles, simply because of political expediency. we will see how they operate once a nomination has been made. i am confident that whoever i , among fair-minded people , will be viewed as an eminently-qualified person. that it will be up to senate republicans to decide whether they want to follow the constitution and abide by the rules of fair play that ultimately undergird our thecracy, and that ensure
supreme court does not just become one more extension of our polarized politics. happens, our that system is not going to work. it is not that the supreme court, or any of the courts can be hermetically sealed from the rest of our society. these are human beings, they read the newspaper, they have opinions, values. but our goal is to have them be objective and be able to execute their duties in a way that gives everybody, both the wedding party and losing party in any given case, a sense that they were treated fairly. oft depends on a process selecting and confirming judges that is perceived as fair. cooler heads will
prevail and people will reflect on what is at stake here, once a nomination is made. one ofinister trudeau: the things that is abundantly clear whenever a president and prime minister sit down to engage on important issues of is thate to our peoples the relationship, the friendship between our two countries goes far beyond any two far beyond ao individuals or any ideologies. i have tremendous confidence in the american people and look forward to working with whomever they choose to send to this white house later this year. alex? alex: good morning. this meeting is happening at a unique point in the u.s.-canada relationship. president obama, you have very little time left. prime minister trudeau, you have
thinkl years left to about canada's most important relationship. so, i would like to ask you a longer-term question about laying down some markers for big ideas that you think the two countries could achieve, and include aose could common market that would allow goods and services and workers to flow more freely across our border. on a more personal note, you have had a chance to observe each other. i would like to ask your impression about president obama and his potential legacy, and about prime minister trudeau's potential. if you can answer in french, bonus points to either of you, but we are especially keen to hear prime minister trudeau do so. mr. trudeau: thank you.
we did engage in big conversations this morning and over the months leading up to this meeting today. issues that are important not to the our citizens, but world. whether it is how we ensure that there is no contradiction and an a strong economy protected environment, understanding how we need to work together as individual and is a planet to address the concerns of climate change, how we ensure security for citizens at home but also create stability and opportunity and health security for people around the world facing pandemics, violence, and issues. that canadag issues and the u.s. have always been engaged on in various ways over the past decade and we will continue to.
one of the things we highlight is the fact that we have differentscales, on similar issues and on shared values is actually a benefit in that we can call them and each other in our engagement with the world and our approach to important -- comp lament each other in our engagement with the world and our approach -- complement each with theour engagement world and our approach to different issues. i look forward to many years of friendship and collaboration between our two countries. [speaking french] climate change, security in the the mostmmitment to vulnerable populations. canada and the united states are lucky countries in many ways.
we will always have a lot to do in order to be together in the world. this is what we are going to in the years and decades to come, and we hope in .he centuries to come president obama, i have learned a lot from him. he is a deep thinker with a big heart and a big brain. for me to be able to count on a lived through many of the things i am about to encounter on the political stage and the international stage is a good comfort to me. it is a ways great to have people that you can trust, people you can count on personally because when you are facing very big challenges, such
as we are now in the united states and canada. to hear fromleased president obama how he has engaged in difficult issues in the past because he is a man of tremendousheart and intellect. being able to draw on his experience and wisdom as i face the very real challenges that our country and world will be facing in the coming years is something i appreciate deeply about my friend barack. mr. obama: let me just note --st of all that the tender tenorof your question -- of your question seems to imply that i am old and creaky. you have managed it well, but didn't catch h
that. youdicated that if in fact plan to keep your dark hair, you have to start dying in early. you hit a certain point and it's too late. you will be caught. but look. i think justin and his delegation -- because one of the things we learn very rapidly in these jobs is that this is a team effort, not a solo act -- they are bringing the right values, enormous energy, enormous passion and commitment to their work, and perhaps most , it is clear they are keenly interested in canadian citizens in the process of solving problems. i think that is how the process is supposed to work, and their
instincts are sound. i think that will carry them .ery far justin's talent, his concern for the canadian people, and his appreciation of the vital role that canada can play in the larger world is self apparent. i think he is going to do a great job. we are looking forward to arenering with him and we glad to have him and his team as a partner. with respect to big ideas, to some degree, you don't fix what slot broken. is not broken. the relationship is extraordinary, and doesn't, i don't think, need revolutionary concepts. what it does require is not taking the relationship for granted. ,t does require a steady effort
and perhaps most importantly, because we have so much in common, it requires that on the big, looming issues on the horizon, it is vital for us to moretogether because the aligned we are, the more we can shape the international agenda to meet these challenges. climate change is such an example. this is going to be a big problem for everybody. there are countries that will be it.worse by in some ways, canada and the united states, as wealthier countries, can probably adapt and manage better. on the other hand, we are those responsible for a lot of the carbon pollution causing climate change.
agree.on't if we are not aggressive. if we are not farsighted. if we don't pool our resources around the research and development energy agenda required to solve this problem, then other countries won't step up and it won't get solved. that's a big idea. that's a really important effort. economy, oneto the of the things that canada and the united states share is a commitment to a free market. i believe, and i know justin does as well, that a market based economy not only has proven to be the greatest engine for prosperity the world has ever known, but also underwrites our individual freedoms in many ways, and we value our business sector. we value entrepreneurship. what we are across the developed world -- and this will
have manifestations in the developing world -- is the need inclusion in growth, making sure it is broad-based, making sure people are not left behind in a globalized economy, -- that is an area big idea for the united states and canada to work together on, along with our other partners. if we don't get this right, if that the make sure average canadian or average american has confidence that the --its of their labor will the opportunities for their children are going to continue -- if theyver time see societies in which a very
few are doing better and better and the middle-class and working people are farthing further and further behind, that destabilizes the economy, it makes it less efficient, it makes it less rapid and its growth, but it also starts destabilizing our politics and our democracies. and so, working together to find effective ways -- not to close off borders, not to pretend that ,omehow we can shut off trade not to forget that we are nations of immigrants and that diversity is our strength, but rather to say yes, the world is big, and we are going to help shape it, and we are going to value our openness
and diversity and the fact that we are leaders in a global supply chain, but we're going to we make sure where everybody benefits. that is important work we have to do together and i know justin shares that commitment just as i do. margaret brennan. margaret: some of your critics have pointed to the incredibly polarized political climate under your administration is contributing to the rise of someone as provocative as donald trump. do you feel responsibility for that or some of the protectionist rhetoric from some democratic candidates and do you have a timeline for when you might make a presidential endorsement? isyou feel political heat constraining your pool a viable supreme court nominees? thank you. mr. obama: i think it's important for me to nominate a quicklycourt nominee
because i think it is important for the supreme court to have .ts full complement of justices i don't feel constrained in terms of the pool to draw from having to take shortcuts in terms of the selection and vetting process. respect to your first question, i have actually heard this argument a number of times. have been blamed by republicans for a lot of things, theiring blamed for primaries and who they are selecting for their party is novel. look, i have said and i said at the state of the union that one regrets is the degree to
which polarization and the nasty tone of our politics has accelerated rather than waned over the course of the last seven and a half years. and i could do all kinds of soul-searching in terms of things i could do better to make sure we are unifying the country, but i also have to say, margaret, that objectively, it theair to say that republican political elites and many of the social media, news outlets, talk radio, television stations have been feeding the republican base for the last a notion that
everything i do is to be opposed , that cooperation or compromise thatow is a bit trail, , absolutist positions on issues are politically advantageous, that there is a them out there and and us, and them are the folks who are causing whatever ,roblems you are experiencing and the tone of that politics, which i certainly have not thinkbuted to -- i don't i was the one to prompt questions about my birth certificate, for example.
i don't remember saying hey, why don't you ask me about that? you question whether i am american, whether i am loyal, whether i have america's best ?nterests at heart those are not things that were prompted by any actions of mine. so, what you are seeing within the republican party is, to some degree, all those efforts, over the course of time, creating an environment where somebody like a donald trump can thrive. more of whating has been done for the last seven and a half years, and in fact, in terms of his position on a range of issues, they are not a
whole lot different between any of the other candidates. there is not a massive differen ce between mr. trump's position on immigration and mr. cruz's position on immigration. mr. trump is just different in the way he says it. there's not a big difference between mr. trump's position and mr. rubio's position on immigration. despite the fact that mr. cruz and mr. rubio are both products of immigration and the openness of our society. so, i more than happy to own the as president, as the only officeholder elected by all of the american people, to continue to make efforts to bridge divides and help us find .ommon ground as i said before, i think that
common ground exists all across the country and you see it every day in the way people live together, work together, play together, raise their kids together. do isat i am not going to thedate some notion that republican crackup that has been consequence of a andons that i have taken, what is interesting -- i will just say one last thing about this. there are thoughtful conservatives who are troubled by this, who are troubled by the direction of their party. i think it's very important for them to reflect on what it is about the politics they having the circushat allows
we have been seeing to transpire. in to do some introspection , i want animately effective republican party. i think this country has to have responsible parties that can toern and that are prepared lead and govern whether they are in the minority or the majority, whether they occupy the white house or they do not. i have often said i want a republicanfective party, in part to challenge some of the blind spots and dogmas in , and iocratic party think that is useful. you mentioned trade. have beenthat there bad trait deals on occasion in the past that oftentimes have
globalthe interests of corporations, but not necessarily serve to be interest of workers, but i am absolutely persuaded that we cannot put up around the global economy, and that to sell a bill of goods to the american people and workers that if you just shut down trade somehow your problems will go away prevents us from actually solving some of these big problems about inequality and the decline of our manufacturing base and so on, and that is an area where some traditional conservatives and economists have had some important insights, but they can't be presented effectively
if it's combined with no interest in helping workers, in busting unions, in providing tax breaks to the wealthy rather folks who are working hard and trying to pay the bills, and , it's not going to be heard if coupled with vehement anti-immigrant sentiment that the trays our values -- betrays our values. i think the democratic voters are doing just fine working this out. i think it's useful that we have had a vigorous debate among to good people who care deeply about our country and to have workingard on behalf of people in this country for a
long time. i think it has been a good conversation, and my last important role will be to make after the primaries are done i bring everybody together so we can focus on winning the general election. >> i will be asking my question in french but i will repeat it for you in english afterward. trudeau, you have not talked about lumber, and it's a major problem with bilateral relations. have you thought about a solution to avoid the conflict reopening in november? to surviven you do the november election? all of this could have to be
restarted a year from now? you and mr. to do have signed a number of issues. what can be done for this progress to not be lost with the arrival of the new administration? mr. trudeau: this morning we worked very hard and made a lot , and have shown what is at stake, a lot is at stake. we hope this will be solved wore
canadian economy but the economy of both of our countries. among this discussion, of course lumber. the question of we keep working on that. i am totally confident we are on ae right track to have solution in the next weeks and months to come. in terms of the decision we have taken and the work we have done i am extremely confident that what we have managed to agreement we have taken in the solution we have found for the problems we have faced together, i am confident all of this is going to become a reality the cousin at every stage, not only are we talking about what is good for one side or the other side, we are talking about what is good for
both countries. our economies are so are goingcted that we to have agreement, for instance, crossing facilitate borders while increasing the security of our citizens. this is good for both sides and it is where we worked so hard with a lot of progress and a lot of success today. we discussed many issues this morning, issues that have been worked on intensely by our colleagues,riends, and delegations over the past .eeks and months certainly, softwood lumber came up.
i'm confident we are on a track irritantsolving this in the coming weeks and months. but in general, the issues we have made tremendous progress on, i am extremely confident we rapid andforward in a appropriate fashion because we found such broad agreement on issues that are not just good for one of our two countries, but indeed both of our canadians and americans for our jobs, for our , forand their futures workers, businesses as we tackle challenges and the economy, challenges and the environment, and understand that working together in constructive, is exactly what
this relationship and indeed this friendship is all about. imc a extremely good about the hard work we have done this and indeed about the work remaining to do over the coming weeks and months on the issues we brought forward today. mr. obama: this issue will get resolved in some fashion. we are already making progress on it. it has been a long-standing but ital irritant, hardly defines the nature of the u.s.-canadian relationship, and we have some very smart people and they will find a way to resolve it. undoubtedly, to the dissatisfaction of all parties concerned, because that is the nature of these kinds of things, right? want 100% and we
will find a way for each side to get 60% or so of what they need, and people will complain and but it will be fine. and in terms of continuity, one is ani will say -- this area where i will play the elder -- as alexnd described me. and is somebody who came in after an administration that politically saw things very .ifferently than i did is that forcover all the differences you may have in your political parties, when you are actually in charge, then
you have to be practical, and you do what is needed to be done and what is in front of you, and one of the things that is important for the united states or for canada, or for any toding power in the world is live up to its commitments and provide continuing momentum on efforts even if they did not start under your administration. so, there were a whole host of initiatives the began under the bush administration, some of which owes very into zs took about this very and suzy astec andome of which i was very enthusiastic about, like
pep far, which provides drugs for aids in various parts of the world. but there were some that when i was outside the government, i questioned how they were approaching it. imight have tweaked it and might say to my foreign partners look, we have a problem doing it this way, but here is a suggestion for how we can do the same thing or meet your in a slightly different way, but you are always concerned about making sure that the credibility of the united states is sustained or the credibility of canada is sustained, which is why, when there is turnover and the work that has been done continues, particularly when you have a --se friend and cringe ship close friend and relationship
like we do with canada. it's not like the work we are doing on entry and exit visas of vanishes when the next president comes in. of course, i intend to make sure the next president who comes in agrees with me on everything, but just in case that doesn't happen, the u.s. and canadian relationship will be fine. all right? thank you, everybody. thank you. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
announcer: some news from the road to the white house. set tonator mike lee is endorse ted cruz for president. we will be taking you to the site of tonight's republican debate for the official announcement. it should be starting shortly. while we wait to hear from senator lee, here is a look at some of today's "washington journal." we are back to talk about the new report of the changing demographics and population in the country. on 2016effect it has and future elections. here for the discussion, ruy teixeira the senior fellow for american progress, and karlyn
bowman. bowman, let me begin with you. why did the two of view, and others, come together? guest: we have been working on changing demography for eight years or nine years and this is the second major cooperation. we are also working with the brookings institution and we are interested in numbers and how the population is changing. and how it has a powerful affect. host: you have two different philosophies. guest: we do. togethers brings you and you come up with the same end results? came up with the same end results and agreed on the facts, which is the motivation of the project. we know that the united states is changing dramatically with population, as it has done in the past and how it will do in the future, and we thought it would useful across the
political spectrum to nail down and get the best estimates possible. so much change has taken place and how much we are likely to see in the future. for example, we look at the andging race, ethnics, age dissolution in every state for the year 2015. we took those and walked them into different assumptions about support levels, turnout from the parties, and their implications about how changing demographics will shape you to elections. that is something to be cognizant of and think about in terms of political strategy. host: let's start with population. how is it changing question mark -- how is it changing? guest: in so many ways. if you look at what is happening with the asian population, growing very quickly, the large hispanic population growing strongly in the big part of the growth in the hispanic
population coming from people born in the united states, citizens, people voting, so that will have a significant effect. we looked at the african-american conversation, the slow-growing population, and one that could be extremely important to hillary. we are also looking at the white population in terms of voting population. 1972,han 90% of whites in the electorate was 90% white, and now it is 72% white, so a big change. host: let's stick on that and talk about the white vote versus the nonwhite vote because we are seeing that being played out right now in this primary process. quite codersible -- white voters are there compared to nonwhite voters? guest: in terms of eligible voters, our election for this 2016 cycle -- the percent of minority voters is 30% in the
percent of white eligible voters is 69%. because turnout patterns estimate that whites will be somewhat overrepresented in the voting pool and our guess is more around 71% of actual voters who will be white and 29% as minorities. this represents a to point to climb in the white eligible voters and has increased the minority share of voters. that has been the way things have gone steadily for the last several decades. we expected to continue in the future. host: you do expect record turnouts in the republican primaries and donald trump's claim -- i am getting people who have never voted before to get out to vote. guest: certainly the turnout in the republican primary and it will be interesting to see that continues through the election. we do not know who he is bringing in to the election. there have been interesting stories on who he has brought to the polls, working white class
-- working-class white voters but that remains to be seen. host: what do you make of this? guest: we don't really know how to interpret this. there is a certain amount of enthusiasm. say. really hard to i am personally skeptical we will see a huge spike in white turnout because of this in the november election. we certainly may see something increase in the minority turnout as well because globalization -- because globalization bites counter mobilization -- mobilization counters counter mobilization. it has very little effect at the margin and you could keep on going in the direction i was alluding to. i certainly think that is the scenario that donald trump may dream about at night. [laughter] guest: huge outpouring of
conservative and white support. they increase their support level among the voters, but in the end, it sweeps the upper midwest and takes florida and a few other states. host: would that be the reality? true andream came minority voter turnout remained , if the%, i mean majority of white voters in this country turned out, what might happen? guest: that would probably boost the gop candidate at this point. i expect -- i don't know whether that will be donald trump or what counter mobilization there would be, but that is a good thing if there is turnout at all. there is a debate about if there were a lot of white voters staying home. this is a debate whether it is not seem to be a perfect answer but something we will watch. host: still ahead. guest: i wanted to say in the
report, one of the areas we deal with has a great amount of or shows howt is things can change despite demographics. if you increase the white support for the republicans by four points or five points, under this scenario and keeping voters in the minority turnout level, may not only increase the clicks we are going to leave this and take you now to florida where mike lee is making an endorsement of ted cruz for president. mr. lee: he promised he would oppose efforts to undermine religious liberty. he has kept those promises and every other promise he has made to the people of texas. it is with that trust that he has earned that he will move forward and unite our party. people throughout this country have been told over and
over again by the political establishment in washington, d.c. that our best days are behind us, that we have to settle for the status quo, sluggish economic growth, more of the same, business as usual .n washington ted doesn't believe you have to settle. ted doesn't believe you should settle. there is a big difference confusion and confidence, and ted is that difference. there is a big difference between platitudes and a plan. ted is that difference. there's a big difference between slogans and substance. and ted is the difference. it's time for us to recognize that we don't have to settle. we don't have to settle for slogans that can fit on a bumper sticker.
expect substance. don't settle for a federal thatnment the projects -- projects weakness abroad. expect a federal government the protects you and your rights. it's time to expect more. it's time to expect freedom. it's time to elect ted cruz as the next president of the united states. look at this presidential election cycle, one of the many things that comes to mind is the fact that when the -- with the recent death of the antonin scalia, a lot of people wonder who is going to fill the vacancy, who will fill that role, and who is going to name the person who will fill that role. one of the great things about ted cruz is that americans can know with confidence that ted an outstanding
person to fill antonin scalia's position on the supreme court of the united states. stand withso confidence in knowing that this is a man who knows his family. i have seen ted stand with them and for them. i have seen him stand with and for his father and four in with his mother. and you know, he will stand for you. he will stand for every mother, father, son, and daughter in america. said.l do what he he will speak the truth, just as he has in the united states senate. today, i call on all within the sound of my voice to join me in this cause, to look forward to the first 100 days of a ted cruz presidency, 100 days that will be marked i reform, a reform that will restore the greatness of our economic mobility society. we have seen in recent years that economic mobility has been
in dangers. we have seen the poor and middle class being held back. we see economic opportunity fading as ground deals and rich and empower incumbents who are already enriched and empowered. work to undo that into restore the greatness of the american people, to put the power back where it belongs .hich is with the people it is time, my fellow americans, and in particular today, my fellow republicans, to unite behind one candidate. that candidate is ted cruz. >> what kind of signal are you sending with this endorsement when you called marco rubio your friend? signal: i am sending a that it's time to unite. the time is at hand when we as republicans need to unite behind
one leader. everyone will have to make that choice. if senator rubio were asking me that, i would encourage him, and i do encourage him, to get behind ted cruz. senator rubio and i speak on a very regular basis. talk to him about this decision? mr. lee: yes. that was a private conversation between the two of us. [inaudible] isst of all, my focus here to support ted cruz. i am not here to trash talk other candidates, including the one you mentioned. i will say that is a candidate about whom i have many questions. i'm still waiting to hear a lot of things i don't know about what motivates donald trump about what informs his policy
positions, about what his policy positions actually are down a iole host of issues, and don't have answers to most of those questions. >> marco rubio has the lions share of endorsements out of the senate. mr. lee: the overwhelming majority of republican senators have not endorsed anyone. i expect that will change and i expect i will be the first of many republican senators who will endorse ted cruz. iamb confident more are on the way. are -- i am confident more on the way. i welcome others to join me. long -- walkyou so andhrough the evolution, senator cruz has said donald trump is unfit to be the nominee and unfit to be president?
do you agree with that and why? again, i was looking for the right moment, when it was time to unite. things of aligned. to the cruz has spoken american people, and the american people in state after state have chosen. in some of those states, he has come in first. in others, he hasn't, but he has a building groundswell of support that is unmistakable. some people said it was impossible for him to do what he set out to do. then they said it was unlikely. now they are starting to see it is unstoppable. she truly is unstoppable. that's why i think it's time for us to unite behind him. -- he truly is unstoppable. i think it's time for us to unite behind him. >> do you think donald trump is fit to be your nominee or the country's president? mr. lake: --
>> mr. lee: i am here to talk about my support for ted cruz. i am still waiting to hear from donald trump about where he stands on a whole host of issues, how he interprets power and various provisions of the constitution, his views on federalism, on separation of powers. i would like to hear more substance from him. i don't think i can make a determination based on the information he has given us so far. >> [question in spanish] spanish][answering in porque es mi amigo. >> what role if any will you
play in getting more of your colleagues in congress to endorse senator cruz? lee: person to person, talking to them about what their .lans are this is an ongoing process. i don't want to say a parlor game, but a frequent topic of conversation among republican senators. we talk about where the presidential election is going. he is the only candidate who can defeat donald trump and hillary clinton, and i believe he will. [inaudible] person, no one effort is enough to bring about
the result we want, but there are a lot of efforts on the part of a lot of people in a lot of states from a lot of different backgrounds that i think will bring us to that end. what set? -- what is that? i think it's too early to predict that. i would not say we are to that point. i think a clear leader could still emerge in the field and someone could get to the convention with a solid majority. i would not say that's a fit a accompany -- fate feteld not say that's a acompli at all. later tonight, canadian prime minister just
intrude oh and his wife visiting washington, d.c. this week. we will -- justin trudeau and his wife visiting washington, d.c. this week. our live coverage will begin at 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. california, former first lady nancy reagan is lying in repose at the ronald reagan presidential library in seamy valley. her casket is covered in white roses and peonies -- simi valley. her casket is covered in white roses and peonies. today's public viewing will and in a couple of hours at 5:00 p.m. eastern time.
announcer: the funeral for the former first lady is tomorrow. among the speakers, diane sawyer and tom brokaw, reagan white house chief of staff james baker as well as the reagan's daughter , patti davis, and son, ron reagan. we will have live coverage from the lak reagan library right hee on c-span.
>> i think what it's so unusual is -- if i could be sappy for a acond -- to be able to have professional and personal partnership over more than 15 years is a really unusual thing. great temperament and division in terms of editing are something i don't have and never really spent any time on. -- i stuck to the grunt side of the equation. >> sunday, susan glasser and peter baker join us to talk about their marriage, their careers, and their upcoming move to israel. >> it's going to be a great adventure. we have done the overseas thing together before, but we have never spent time in jerusalem or israel, and i think we are looking forward to learning a lot. it's going to be a real adventure. it's a part of the world that
has so much history to it, and it's a vital part of today's issues. we have spent a lot of time in washington on a but we have .ever been on the ground susan: i will be helping to lead our editorial growth and continuing to expand internationally. we launched politico europe this past year. i came to politico two star politico magazine about two and a half years ago. a reallyt has been exciting new platform to take us into both ambitious longform the world of ideas. >> sunday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span's q&a. >> charles bolin testified on his agency's budget request for the next fiscal year before a senate appropriations
subcommittee today. reduces nasa funding by about 2%. >> the committee will come to order. you are no stranger to the committee. last year, congress provided nasa $19.3 billion to maintain a balanced space program and ensure that nasa's priorities are able to move forward. to this administration would leverage the solid provided foundation we to move forward on all of nasa's goals, but i think that hope was
short-lived. the budget nasa has presented to us claims to include a total funding level of $19 billion, look at thato closely. this overall amount is achieved through congressional air he spending and an unprecedented amount of spending. since the budget rollout of february 9, nasa has used glossy rhetoric to mask the fact that 760 $3 million of agency is offset byding proposed tax increases, such as a new $10 tax on each barrel of imported oil that request is only $18.26 billion, a cut of $1 billion from what the subcommittee provided in the last fiscal
year. these cuts, if enacted, would a road ongoing science missions, jeopardize core operations, and delay exploration launches. i'm sure it's no coincidence that most of those proposed cuts target programs that are supported by this committee and other members of congress, in both chambers and on both sides of the aisle. -- if thestration administration prioritizes funding, they cannot find enough discretionary spending for nasa. nasa failed to propose a truthful budget that can be accomplishing the agency's goals. to move forward in 2017, the subcommittee must set aside those so-called mandatory spending units. we must provide honest funding that is necessary to advance our nation's ram using discretionary spending that does
not us the budget caps agreed upon last fall. proposed budget presents staggering reductions that would lead to a nearly $1 billion 'sduction to nasa discretionary budget compared to last year. hase proposed cuts implications that if not corrected will delay ongoing work and drive of development outcomes that the subcommittee is worked hard to avoid. particularlyd to with the concern of consistent lack of support with nasa's human exploration efforts to go beyond lowers orbit. -- low earth orbit. the crude vehicle or e.on would be cut by $217 billion. proposed funding and development path forsls ensures that our
next crude expiration vehicles were not even meet nasa's far from ambitious target of launching in 2023. surprisingly, nasa has not proposed a single dollar for the development of the upper stage engine that is absolutely necessary for a crude omission that is only seven years away. the request were not allow nasa to stay current on its own production and launch schedule. around theaveled country in recent months, touting nasa's strong support for sls and orion missions. in reality, this budget will effectively delay any humncement in a nasa an-led mission. budget expiration is what the administration calls strong support, i hate to imagine what the requests would look like if there was only a
professed marginal commitment from nasa. other missions across nasa will feel the detrimental consequences of this request level. planetary space missions would rely on imaginary funding to fund operations and effectively cancel this budget trade under this year's proposed budget request, the new horizons mission to pluto which had its mission extended will depend on ahave to tax increase that has virtually no chance of being enacted. even the recent high-profile announcements of error not ask the experimental flight vehicles have become greatly dependent upon budgetary gimmicks. many other activities across riskare open to additional caused by budgetary uncertainty. the inspector general and the government accountability office have cited risks from funding uncertainty as a top chronic
concern at nasa, and this budget has borne out these concerns even further. this budget creates more problems than it solves. 'sfind it disturbing that nasa true priorities are not better reflected in an honest legit. i look forward to hearing your views on these matters and ask you to work with our subcommittee members to grant our concerns. before i yield our vice chairman, i want to recognize that today is the last scheduled cgs budget hearing for this year. this could be the senator's final hearing as a member of the subcommittee which he has helped to lead as chairwoman or ranking member since 2005. senator mikulski has been a great champion of our federal science agencies over many decades, especially nasa, and you have also served as a vigilant steward of our tax dollars. you have consistently challenged nasa to be better and because of
your leadership, nasa has better served america upon strive for exploring space and making new discoveries. of the hubblelife space telescope, rebooting the james webb space telescope construction, returning the vehicle -- space shuttle to fly after the columbia accident -- these are just some of the very important activities we fought so hard to achieve and did over the years. you are a true and valued partner and it has been a pleasure and honor to work alongside you these many years. i look forward to one last year writing the subcommittees appropriations bill with you together and it is my hope we can get nasa's budget again this year. senator mikulski? senator mikulski: thank you, senator shelby. this is my final scheduled hearing of what is called the cjs subcommittee on the budget
,f such an inspirational agency the national space agency. i came to the appropriations committee in 1987. first women toe serve on this committee. able one are so many both sides of the aisle who continue to serve. when i came to this committee or hud, anttee va independent agency. i so loved america's veterans and wanted to help anyway i could. i wanted to be on a committee that funded hud because i come from the gritty streets of baltimore and worked as a social worker and a new what a forrhouse the hud could be economic and job development opportunity. then there were those independent agencies one called -- agencies, one called nasa.
in my campaigns i would come to about something called god or -- cjs, we have been here. and i'm so proud of the men and women that have worked here. and though i knew little about the space program, i certainly wanted to get started. today i want to pay special tribute to senator j garn. came to the subcommittee, it was chaired by a republican from utah, a senator who himself had flown into space. what a wonderful human being. he was gracious in his welcoming and patient in his tutorial. between he and john glenn, i about the american
space program and what it took to be great. not only great to be a great agency and in spaceflight, but how great men can make great things happen. since then we have had a bipartisan relationship. i'm grateful for what senator i can worknd that hand-in-hand with my own college senator, and then of course there was a unique friendship i was able to develop with kate bailey hutchinson as we put together a space coalition. and then you, senator shelby. we know each other from energy and commerce house of representative days, the incubator of senators. there were a lot of people in that committee who saw a rising stars that were a lot more glamorous, they were on all the editorial boards, and they were on their way to be president. but we were on our way to being .ery solid senators
we've had such a superb relationship, i appreciate the gracious way you have governed, to get to know your wife, to get to know alabama, the only community in america that has its own foreign policy. because we have worked together, having this zone of civility, mutual respect, we have been able to do mutual accomplishments. i am proud of this committee. i'm proud of the way you helped thesform the fbi, modernize weather service, focusing on violence against women and making sure we have more cops on the beat and that they have the right equipment. we certainly have done a lot. we have seen great accomplishments and great challenges. when i came to the committee, it was days away from the terrible challenger accident. at the same time, whether he was
the challenger, the columbia, the hubble telescope the needed lensost extensive contact in american history, we were able to solve those problems because we worked together. we have seen great discoveries. one of the greatest discoveries was getting to know the american space program, from the astronauts who dared to go where no one has ever gone before to then deliver the greatest allovery since science, for those who work in space science and error not ask, i am proud of them. i'm grateful for what maryland has been and got her to the space telescope institute. discovery has not only been what is out there, but the wonderful men and women who work right here. i look forward to hearing your appropriations. all i can say is, may the force be with us.
>> thank you, senator mikulski. you proceed as you wish. i am pleased to be here today to discuss with you president obama's $19 billion fy 2017 budget request for nasa. it's been my honor to serve as nasa administrator throughout the obama administration and as we submit what is likely my final budget, i'm proud of the many things this agency has accomplished on the behalf of the american people with the resources the president and congress have committed to us over the past seven years. joino wish to personally you, mrs. chairman, in recognizing senator mikulski for her leadership throughout her service in congress and her dedication to a robust, balanced, and bipartisan nasa program. senator mikulski, you will be sorely missed. together we have enabled our
nation to continue leading the world in space exploration and scientific discovery. last week american astronaut scott kelly returned home from the international space station after 12 months working off the earth, for the earth. his year in space will pay scientific and medical dividends for years to come, helping pave the way for future astronauts to travel to mars and beyond. commander kelly significantly advanced our journey to mars, and i trust that you will join me in saluting his service to our nation. to sendingser american astronauts to mars than at any point in our history. this budget will keep us moving forward. the support of this committee and congress is essential to this journey. the international space station is the cornerstone of our exploration strategy. thanks to the determination and ingenuity of american industry, we have returned space station target resupply launches to u.s. soil and sourced jobs and help
establish a new private market. companies are now ferrying supplies to our astronauts on the international space station from the united states. x targeting a resupply mission in early april. will return tol its home to conduct a return to flight mission for the waltz flight facility. -- wallace flight facility. thanks to this committee possible funding and last year's budget, boeing and spacex continue to make great progress toward certification in 2007 to safely transport our astronauts to the space station from u.s. soil, ending our sole reliance on russia once and for all. nasa is making significant progress on the journey to mars, developing our newest, most powerful rocket ever built, the space launch system.
this budget supports the agency's baseline commitment for an uncrude test flight in 2018 and a crewed flight by 2023. with the additional funding provided by congress, teams are working towards an earlier launch date for the first crude mission. the budget increases funding for habitation systems development, a key component of our steppingstone strategy to send humans to mars. the president possibly funds a robust science program with dozens of operating mission studying our solar system, the universe, and earth. this coming july 4, independence day, the juno spacecraft will orbit jupiter while the cassini spacecraft will prepare to exit its dramatic grand finale orbits of saturn. osiris rexx will launch to a near asteroid to collect a sample and return to earth in 2023. will17 and 2018, nasa
launch seven exciting science missions, including the james webb space telescope. before we send humans to mars, robots are paving the way, with mars insight slated for launch in 2018, another mars rover set joining the 2020, curiosity and opportunity rovers now exploring the red planet. we are formulating missions to explore jupiter's moon europa and are accelerating the building of land set 9. technology drives exploration. willthis request, nasa continue to conduct rapid development and incorporation of transformative space technologies to enable future
human and robotic missions, increase capabilities of other u.s. agencies, and address aerospace industry challenges. space technology investments will ensure that we continue to lead the world in exploration and scientific discovery. nasa's aeronautics program advances u.s. global leadership i developing and transferring key enabling technologies to make aviation safer, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly. errorhis request, nasa not x is ready to take the next step, to develop and fly explain demonstrators. in partnership with industry and academic, including sub sonic transporter experimental aircraft and the world's first low boom supersonic flight demonstrator. the support we have received from this committee during my tenure, and i look forward to your questions. >> thank you very much.
administrator bolin, the discretionary budget request proposes that i mentioned to cut e.ony $770 million in or -- in orion by 2017, that's nearly one billion bucks. these proposed cuts are necessary under a constrained budget profile to continue progress towards a crude launch as early as 2021. without these funds, i believe nasa's ability is at risk of delay. beingscretionary amounts requested by the administration in 2017 do not even meet the agreed upon funding levels in the agency's decision documents. less invites delay,
increased cost, and inefficient program management. a couple of questions to you. even asking for the discretionary funding needed thechieve results at confidence level set by the agency in their planning agreements? thecan you justify financial risk nasa has taken with its exploration program? i know you don't make all those decisions. >> yes, sir. nasa form where i sit, we are budgeting a $19 billion for this upcoming fiscal year. i know that may sound trivial, but i leave it up to the budgeteers and folk to determine where all the money comes from. >> i know my agreement with the and subsequently the president of the united states is that we are requesting $19 billion for the nasa program. >> i want to get into another
aspect. there's been a lot of debate over whether to limit the number after outright ban of the russian engines used on rockets launched in the u.s.. there are some who have threatened to enact a total fan, which if enacted would seriously impact missions and capabilities . what is rarely discussed is the impact such drastic measures could have on nasa. contractors for commercial crude and commercial cargo missions intended to use the atlas five -- atlas 5 rocket. science missions are also currently being designed with the intent of using reliable rockets. a couple of questions for you. enginemprehensive purchased on russian engines
regardless of being designated as national security or weretific missions successfully implemented, what would be the impact on nasa, and how confident are you that the number of rd 180 engines currently available will allow nasa to continue with these planned flights? mr. bolden: i am in full favor of the tests that secretary james has given on numerous occasions. we commiserate with each other on a regular basis. she and i both agree that while we want to rid ourselves of dependence on the russian rocket engine, it should be done in an orderly -- >> we all want to get rid of them, that we have to be measured in how we do it. mr. bolden: i agree with that sentiment exactly. that is the plea we have made. being counting on ula
able to get the number of engines that will satisfy the requirements for nasa to fly the dream chaser in 2019. more quickly, to fly the boeing cst-100 star liner. the american industry has risen to the occasion, when you look jeff bezosgin and and what he is doing with the team there, they helped develop a new launch system. i think you heard far too much that we don't gain by developing a rocket without a full system in which it is integrated. we support what secretary james has said. also the position of the secretary of defense, is it not? also the national director of national intelligence and others. bolden: that is correct. she speaks for all of us although she does not speak for civil space for it and i are in
lockstep for that. sen. shelby: getting into , nearlyetionary funding 5% of nasa's budget proposal is comprised of funding gimmicks which are contingent upon tax increases and other legislation that is yet or maybe will never be enacted by congress. with such a reliance on nondiscretionary spending to accomplish its goals, nasa would face difficult funding choices if the agency were to only $18.26 billion in discretionary dollars requested. significant impacts would follow nasa's vehicles that enable plans of traveling to mars. other missions across nasa would likely be shut down, severely cut back, or not start it at all. what specific legislative
language $18.26 billion in discretionary dollars requested. significant impacts would follow nasa you are sharing with the uprising committee that if enacted would provide nasa with $773 million in funding? i will just say -- it's out of my league. sen. shelby: it's not a tough question to find the money. mr. bolden: my hope is that we will be able to work with this committee and the committee in the house as we have always tried to do to come up with a way that we reach an appropriate amount of money for nasa's budget. my submission to this committee and the appropriations committee and the house is for $19 billion. sen. shelby: i think we've got a lot of work to do in the committee, but with senator mikulski's experience and help, maybe we can work through it. but it's going to be difficult. senator mikulski? yes, i too am
concerned about the mandatory funding. .t sounds like it's mandatory for the folks back, who don't understand washington speak and budget lingo and the way words mean what they don't mean in washington, they either have no meaning or a different meaning. mandatorymeans it's to get the revenue. that will be a stretch in the short time allocated. but i believe the hallmark of this committee has been the b word, bipartisan working together, and also here, a balanced space program assuring human space exploration, space x, and aerror not reliable going out into space transportation system. if we stay with our balanced system, i think we will be able to get through it. mr. director, i know this is your last time before this subcommittee.
for your thank you service, both as a marine corps officer, as an astronaut, and now the leadership you have helped to provide nasa. i want to get to the question about space science and the james webb telescope. it's got to go right. this committee was able to fix the hubble, and it performed in a stunning way. the hubble telescope not only brought us great science, it andght is great prestige, it also was an inspiration to young people. nowwe don't have the money to go back and fix the james webb. number one, are we on track for the james webb to go, because if it makes it, it will secure america's space and astronomy
for the next 50 years. are we managing the project to maintain the 2018 launch risk? do you have adequate resources to prevent problems, and including the scheduled reserve? if it breaks, i'm not sure we can fix it. mr. bolden: as i promised you when we met some years ago when thate before you to admit we had james webb in trouble, we were underfunded and we had overestimated our ability to deliver -- i think it was a 2014 launch -- the agreement we made was that we would go back and take a look at it and bring you what we thought were reliable numbers. we are now well on course to deliver the james webb in 2018. monthve a 7 1/2 contingency reserve in terms of time on the schedule.
that means we have the funds available. in a simple word, yes. we will deliver james webb to its position, i million and 1/2 kilometers from earth in 2018. maybe we will go to that together. it's got to work. i want to bring up the issue of satellite servicing. this has been developed at goddard space agency. last year we provided $138 million for satellite servicing to support the restore mission to demonstrate the ability to reform on orbit government science satellite. it means things like refurbishing the weather satellites, where all they take is either a nudge to a new orbit where they have drifted out or two refuel. concerned that we have
reduced the funding for satellite servicing in fiscal 2017 and we are also going to rely on a mandatory request. could you tell us where we are in satellite servicing? it will really help refurbish other government satellites, and also could be an opportunity for lucrative and productive rabbit sector work -- private sector. we could refurbish, we could save money and yet maintain productivity. could you share -- mr. bolden: what you and i have discussed is a program being headed up by the goddard space flight center. now, in formulation right and we have put $130 million
towards the restorable program. we have moved it out of human exploration and operations mission and into space technology, a place where probably better fits it. we have had to make sacrifices in space technology. way towell on the delivering restorable and a satellite commission. the other thing we are getting from it is finding synergies with the redirect mission, something which is a part of our journey to mars, if you will. in working with industry and academia and entrepreneurs, we are finding that we are learning a lot and gaining a lot by working on restoral. it is another thing that restore rail has done -- when you look back on the lessons learned from previous shuttle missions, some will remember a mission where we a spentd to go and save upper stage rocket using a