tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN July 2, 2014 10:00am-12:01pm EDT
meeting, please say aye. time receiving unanimous consent to proceed, we will now proceed. after the meeting has been adjourned, we will not be having a press conference, but individual members of the board will be available to meet with the press. the board is convening today to formally adopt its report on the surveillance program operated pursuant to section 702 of the foreign intelligence surveillance act. section 702 permits the attorney general to join the authorize surveillance of targeted persons who are not u.s. persons who are recently believed to be outside of the united states with compelled assistance of electronic communication service providers in order to obtain foreign intelligence information. although u.s. worsens may not be targeted under section 702, communications of or concerning u.s. persons may be acquired. 702 program is extremely complex. it involves multiple agencies, collecting multiple types of information for multiple purposes. overall, the board has found the
information the program collects has been valuable and -- ineffective in protecting the national security. the program is operated under a statute that was publicly debated and the text of the statute outlines the basic structure of the program. the operation of the section 702 program has been subject to judicial oversight and extensive andrnal supervision, the board is found no indication of intentional abuse. outside of this fundamental core, certain aspects of the section 702 program do raise theacy concerns and push program close to the line of constitutional reasonableness. including the scope of u.s. versus communications, the use of medications acquired through the internet that are neither to or from the target of the surveillance, and the use of such queries to search information collected under the program for the medications of certain u.s. persons. with these concerns in mind, the
report that we are voting on today offers a set of policy proposals that should strike a better balance between privacy and civil liberties and national security. push theesigned to program more comfortably into the sphere of reasonableness ensuring that the program remains tight to its constitutionally legitimate core . the key goal of our studies to improve public understanding of how the program operates. therefore we look forward to discussing our proposal, and i want to start by dispelling a great snow should about the program's operation. first, it is audible collection program. the program only targets medications a particular person. laster, approximately 90,000 targets were assigned in the program, but it is not a widespread collection of information. other than for those who are targeted based on the belief that there are non-us people outside of the united states with foreign intelligence values. second, non-us persons are not targeted when a person has the
government has only a belief that a 50% likelihood that the person is overseas. there is no 51% test. is obligated to obtain a standard of due diligence. if there is conflicting information and equating whether a person is located in the united states or is a u.s. person, that conflict must be resolved and the user must be u.s.rmined to be a non- person in order to be targeted. used inmericans are not targeted for discussing things such as osama bin laden. only specific electorates such as e-mail addresses can be used. tois important for the board enhance public debate by making the operation of counterterrorism programs consistent with national security concerns. during the process of preparing this report, we sought and
obtained the classification of facts about the still highly classified program. in order to allow us to put in context how the program operates and clarify some public misconceptions. as a result, over 100 new facts were declassified by the government to provide needed context for the program's operation. i want to extend the appreciation to the personnel of the officer of director of intelligence, department of justice, nsa, fbi, and cia, who worked constructively with the board in this process. the result is the more comprehensive program of how 72 operates, and we believe this will advance the public's understanding of the program. analysis was adopted unanimously. the board also unanimously operates 10 recommendations to strengthen privacy safeguards and to address these concerns. they are in a number of categories. first is a targeting process. the board called for the government to clearly articulate
the foreign intelligence basis for its targeting decisions. second regards the role of the four intelligence surveillance court and the board calls for the government to submit a sample of sheets and query terms of the court can consider them. programparts of the known as up street or about, the board calls for a periodic assessment to make sure that the best technology is being used to filter out purely domestic medications and urges the development of technology that would permit policy decisions to be made about whether so-called can be made.ns the board calls for declassification of consistent with national security of fbi, cia, and nsa atomization procedures and have the government provide more insight into the extent to which it acquires and utilizes communication of u.s. persons. with regard to efficacy, the board asked the government to develop a comprehensive
methodology for assessing the efficacy of counterterrorism programs. lastly with regard to u.s. person queries, that is queries using u.s. persons, data program, for the 702 indicates of u.s. person queries conducted by the fbi, the board agreed that the fbi should update its minimization procedures to make it clear that in criminal matters, its agents routinely query the database for section 702 information. the board also agreed that limits should be imposed on the fbi's ability to use and disclose 702 data. three additional statements are included in the board's report representing different board to limitingroaches the fbi's use and dissemination of section 702 information. one position is that there should be enhance internal review of that process. is that if this question is not pressing now should be addressed before it becomes urgent, and a third, such queries should be subject to
approval before it should be made. he board takes up at the nsa and cia should take up committees for section 702 for four intelligence versus -- for foreign intelligence purposes only if the query is reasonably likely to return for intelligence information as defined in the foreign intelligence surveillance act. gone wald and i would've further and we have separately proposed to additional regulations that were not adopted by a majority of the first is to ensure that medications when americans are properly purged if not evidence of a crime. the second is that for intelligence queries using americans as identifiers should only be made with court approval. board members brand and cook take the position that such queries are already rigorous and judicial review is not necessary or appropriate. all of the board's recommendations are based on policy grounds and none of them require legislation to be implemented. as part of the study we
conducted two public hearings and one public workshop, and the board also solicited public comments through regulations.gov. dozens of comments were received and the board has reviewed all of those comments. we appreciate the public input that were valuable to the publication of this report. the board has received full quad portion of the intelligence community. while the board was the report was subject to review, none of the changes that resulted from that process affected our analysis or recommendations. the entire report that the board is going to vote on today is unclassified, there is no classified appendix. pursuant to the board's statutory duty to of eyes the president and elements of the executive branch and congress, staff on briefed june 2 regarding the board's tentative: illusions and senior white house staff on june 17. in the course of inductive the
found nothing but hard-working men and women in the intelligence community who are dedicated to protecting this country and we have seen no evidence of misconduct. the215 and 702 fit into router mandate to balance national security and oversee existing programs and providing advice on new programs. it is not our institutional job to always oppose or critique counterterrorist reruns but analyze them. we will hold a public meeting to discuss where the board goes from here and get input on the boards long-term agenda. the board now has sufficient staff to work on more project -- on more than one project at a time, and we look forward to extending our oversight function and our advice function as well. to thank board staff who works tirelessly both to study , analyze them, and to make sure that the classification progress work smoothly.
i will not give individual board members an opportunity to address themselves starting with ms. cook. >> thank you, david. i wanted to also start with thanks to the incredible work of the staff. for all intents and purposes, we have been building this airplane as we have been playing it, and it takes extraordinary skill and dedication to do that, so thank you. i would also commend the chairman and in particular our executive director for again at flying this metaphor too far, their remarkable work piloting the plane. opportunityke this to briefly discuss some of the recommendations we have made. we concluded that the section 702 program is legal, valuable, and subject to intense oversight. our recommendation should not be indication of concern about the current operation of the program. instead, they are targeted and
focused recommendations for relatively slight changes at the margins of the program. first and foremost, our recommendations as to queries using u.s. persons, identifiers, notabout corrections are driven by a concern that u.s. persons rights are being violated. instead, the recommendations are designed to prevent the section 702 program from transforming over time from a foreign intelligence program to a means of effectively surveilling u.s. persons. we have seen no evidence of a backdoor, so our recommendations are designed to make sure one is not billed. second, the current requirements for the foreign intelligence purpose of the targeting itionale are the natural primed the statutory structure as well as the historical underpinnings of the section 72 program. section 702 was designed to move away from requiring the expensive justification necessary for traditional fisa
and for good reason. we're not recommending a return to a full traditional fisa packets, just the statement of facts, which will have the effect of increasing the rigor ch in thealysts' approa oversight process. i also wanted to emphasize the board's conclusion as to the value of the program for the government's counterterrorism efforts, to say nothing of its larger for intelligence benefits. this program has assisted the government's efforts to learn more systematically about the membership, leadership structure, robbery, tactic -- priorities, tactic, and plans of international terrorist organizations. it has enabled the discovery of rigorously unknown terrorist -- previously unknown terrorist operatives, provided the location of known suspects, and allowed the discovery and disruptions of clots directed
against the united states and foreign countries. a program can have value to my have substantial value, separate and apart from plots t hwarted, and the section 702 is an example of that. finally, the value of the board's report may be in the dispelling of the misunderstanding and ms. deceptions of the section 702 row graham -- misconceptions of the section 702 program. it is not always require a change in the government's operations. i hope we will now focus on building out our advisory capacity. the last year has been largely devoted to oversight, but our mandate is twofold. as we continue to build the permanent, meaningful federal agency envisioned by the 9/11 commission and congress, we have the opportunity to really think about how best to protect privacy and civil liberties in
light of the need for counterterrorism programs, and i look forward to that process. >> judge wald. >> thank you. i do thank everybody was engaged in getting this fairly mammoth and complex report out in record time. i want to take just a few minutes, put in context why the chair and i wrote an additional statements dealing with u.s. personal queries. as diligent readers of the reports will recognize, this is a very complex program, and its be able to is to collect the communications of foreign, non-us persons who are based abroad. in that process, however, the maycations of u.s. persons and are collected where they are communicating with the foreign target.
in many cases, the u.s. person may well not know, in most cases may well not know that they are communicating with a foreign target. since we are a privacy oversight our focus was on the privacy of the u.s. persons who indicate with targets, in many cases not knowing that they are target. if those medications on their face contain foreign intelligence of it seems quite reasonable to other members of the board that the government be to thatuse have access for intelligence. however, the fact that is in the vast scope of the numbers of two indications of u.s. persons that are collected without their ,nowing it in this process there will be much private and financial information, which beer normal rules would
, where isas privacy that everybody, and this is in the main body of the report, recognize that americans have a fourth amendment, some fourth amendment interest, protected interest in their private indications, so to get to -- to go to the chase, the two recommendations that we felt were needed additionally were one -- right now, when u.s. persons can indications come in, they may contain a lot of private information, which is not at all relevant to foreign intelligence. in the current practice, those are not purged in any regularized fashion. the minimization requirements which we proposed made more
restrictive, say that the analyst upon review, but there is no duty to review ever, ,hould be purged of a taken out but only if clearly they cannot be of any foreign intelligence value, and the standard that is used is what we would call kind of a mosaic standard. the analyst has to decide that even if right now there appears to be no foreign intelligence value, is inconceivable that in some distant future or some other analyst or somehow it might become relevant -- we don't think that should be the standard. we believe that there should be a duty to at the point any query is made of u.s. interests, u.s. persons interests, that there should be a purging process going on, which takes out the information which is not of
foreign intelligence value. we said in our statement that is what the original definitions in the fisa registration, still apply to 702, and the thought of meant tonal directors happen. the other recommendations we had were for some kind of judicial oversight, and in this case it has to be fisa because there is no access to regular district courts for individual applications. courtnk that the fisa should have to approve a query foreign a potential intelligence value. the same thing would be true in the case of the fbi when they send these things through to see if there is any evidence when they are making an assessment or investigation of a regular crime. there ought to be some judicial approval of the fact that it is reasonably likely to come
up with foreign intelligence value. perhaps it is my own insurance as a judge, but i do feel that some kind of outside, not involved approval ought to be necessary before the private information of a u.s. persons which is not of intelligence value should be made accessible in these queries. >> abraham. >> thank you, mr. chairman. staff your thanks to our who tirelessly worked throughout this respect and to shepherd it through the preclassic, preclearance review process. turning to the substance of the report, i think it is a -- significant of the board with our very it grounds unanimously concluded that this program at its core is statutorily authorized, cause additional, and highly effective. our believe that our target recommendations for the
program will protect civil liberties without impacting the effectiveness of the program. i do not plan this morning to address these separate statement of chairman mdeine and judge wald -- chairman medine and judge wald, but i do want to dispel the common misconceptions that have surrounded this program in recent months. irst, as our report made clear, this is not able collection program or a dragnet. i do not think we can stress that often enough because it has been such a common misconception. under section 702, the government may only target individual non-u.s. persons located outside the united states from the government -- whom the government believes will have for intelligence information. to impact that, the government may never target americans under section 702 no matter where they are located. they may never target anyone inside the united states. the government must select specific targets for
surveillance and collect only the communications of the target and even when selecting a particular foreigner or abroad -- second, i would like to dispel any notion that this program is likely to give the government a complete or even a significant picture of an american's private life. our report discusses incidental collection under section 702, and chairman medine already reference this. if a targeted foreigner abroad communicates with a person, that will be collected. vote -- it is unavoidable under the program. concerns have been raised about the extent of collections. we spent a lot of time at the board looking at that, but the fact is that the government is not exactly have a u.s. two indications are collected under section 702. that, we have made recommendations that the government take measures to access the collection, and we
look forward to seeing a result of that inquiry and deciding whether in the additional regulations to the program should be made on the basis. but it is already clear based on what we do know that the chance that any given american will have any of his or her communications collected an under section 702 is remote. if the individual is an communication with a targeted thengner unde abroad, yes, it can indications with that individual will be collected, but none of his other can indications. and if an individual is regularly in contact with a number of targeted foreigners abroad, such as a significant number being incidentally collected, then that collection can be very important for the government to know. value --to maturity examples to maturity value where they exist. i hope the rest of the board's report will dispel the program
and i look forward to you with the government on the recommendations we have made. ask mr. dempsey. >> thank you, mr. german. -- mr. chairman. obviously, missing the work of our staff and getting this report to conclusion, i would say as a person who values his weekends and there were far too many weekend and e-mails with this report, but that is something that it takes, and i appreciate it time people put in on this. there were couple of overarching .eports one, as the chairman said, everything we wanted to say is in this unclassified report. nothing that we really wanted to say to explain this program that we were not able to say, and in the process of producing the reports and pushing it through the
interagency review process and classification, as the chairman discrete additional facts about the program were declassified for release, and i think there is a very important lesson about intelligence and national security in the post-9/11 world that our governments, any government, i believe, but our government can talk about programs of this nature, of this importance and that it can be done in an unclassified way. secondly, the report unanimously find that the program fits within the statutory framework that was publicly adopted by congress. in this way, there is a major -- contrastween
between this program and the 215 telephony data, would the board concluded was not statutorily authorize. this program is the program that congress andy written into the statute. i think that as well carries a very important lesson about intelligence and national security in a democratic society. that the statute on the books can describe the governmental powers that are being exercise. d. thirdly as to constitutionality, i remember when section 702 was being debated, there was a lot of questions being raised as to whether a program targeting non-u.s. persons overseas, court who under current interpretations have no fourth amendment rights under our constitution, whether a program targeting non-u.s. citizens abroad implicated the
constitution at all, even though it clearly was going to intersect some communications to and from people inside united states. that debate in my opinion is over with, whether this program implicates the constitution. the government position is yes, this program does implicate the fourth imminent rights of americans that this program must be analyzed through a constitutional lens, and our report is premised on analyzing this program through the lens of the fourth amendment. the program collects can indications to and from u.s. citizens and others in this country. really urge anybody, including members of the public -- i really think we tried in a pretty clear way to spell out the constitutional analysis by which a program like this should
be analyzed, and i think really provide a lot of important clarity to how to think about the application of the fourth amendment to the constitution and the context of intelligence collection programs that collect communications to and from americans. controversialthe aspects of the program, among the most controversial aspects of the so-called about collection, and to a lesser extent the multi- --ication transactions, multi-communication transactions, mct's, the board found after digging deep into this that both of those info involve necessities the way the
technology associated with the way the program operates. and we concluded us to both of them that as of now it is not possible to avoid technologically speaking, not aboutle to avoid even collection. we're not talking about keyword or collections about an american at that point, we are talking about collection and can indications that are about the selectors being searched for. we spell all of this out in great detail in the report, and say that more work is needed to be done on the technology about collection and with upstream collection in general. and we urge the government to work with telling -- telik medication service providers to develop the technology that will segregatellow us to
those communications, then you can have sort of a policy debate about how and under what criteria to do so. and finally on queries, querying the database of collected 702 data looking for two indications , u.s.from americans persons from using the identifiers -- again, the board unanimously agreed that this clearly raises fourth amendment implications and policy implications. it clearly affects the rights of americans. my own view was that trying to limit discovery of data in the database in the hands of the government is not the right way to go here. that discovery of the information should be permitted
under a relatively -- under criteria, but under a relatively flexible and agile and prompt process. i do believe that limits should be placed on the use of that data, and i've referenced in my one paragraph on this issue the president's own policy directive in which he is doubtless limits on the use, limiting to national security matters the use of data collected about non-u.s. persons abroad in both collections scenarios. i thought that was a place to look. this issue will continue to be debated. is one contribution to that. i think the board will continue to be engaged on that issue. think there are a variety of ways in addition to those separateut in the two statements by board members on that question. again, thank you, mr.
chairman, thank you to the board members. we spend a huge amount of time on this, debating among ourselves, and the product is found in this unanimous report, which i do urge you all to read. just don't go through the headlines -- dig in on this report. i think it is a remarkable report. backspace on the board was a review of the section 702 operated under the foreign intelligence surveillance act, i now move that the board approves its report and the recommendations. all in favor say aya. >> aye. the vote is an animus -- >> the vote is unanimous. i want to indicate that the board will be holding a public meeting later this month to vote on the issues of its semiannual report to discuss the board for the board was a short-term agenda and to seek public input on the board's medium and
long-term agenda. i now move that the board approved the publication of the federal register, announcing that meeting to be held on july 23 at 1:00 p.m. all in favor say aye. >> aye. >> the vote is unanimous. the july 23 80 will be published. the board for the activities for the day are now complete. the board encourages all of those who are interested to review the report, as did see said today, go to --where the report can be transmitted. available onll be our website. all in favor of adjourning, say aye. >> aye. >> we are now adjourned. the time is 10:35. thank you. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2014] [captioning performed by national captioning institute]
events as well as our coverage of previous members of -- meetings of the privacy and civil liberties oversight board on our website, go to c-span.org . we do have more live coverage coming up today including a discussion on the escalating violence in iraq and the role of the kurdish regional government. i will start at 12:30 eastern live on c-span. also coming up this afternoon on under secretary for education ted mitchell will talk about how federal and state leaders can work together to improve the nation's schools. i will be live at 12:15 eastern again on our companion network, c-span2. tonight, a look at the legal marijuana industry and efforts to expand recreational use around the country. we will show you the industry's's first major business conference held recently in denver. here is a look.
of the opportunity, the economic opportunity, but that is not what keeps them. what keeps them are the people, the passion, the change that we are making, the pioneering spirit that we are building, and because this is different, your businesses are not like other businesses, so i think it is going to be an interesting ride as we look at our different motivations for being involved in the sector. if you wanted that something done in this world, you've got to figure out how to make it profitable. right. keep being they were right about ron noble energy -- about renewable energy, organic foods,
cannabis. these are movements because people cared about something. he cared about -- they cared about the environment, they wanted to use renewable goals, they cared about the form and the land and what we put in aour bodies, and it started out really small and with an activist sort of flavor, but once they figured out how to have profitable is this models nowon those ideas, boom, organic foods are everywhere, ron noble energy is growing by leaps and leaps and bounds, and i think that is what the cannabis industry is doing for freedom. wife you can see the entire summit on legalizing marijuana tonight here on c-span. biggest underway at 8:00 eastern. on c-span2 tonight, book tv takes a look at nuclear power
beginning with ken adelman who summit in the 19 85th iceland, and then craig nelson on his book "be age of andance," on the history -- also the fukushima disaster. that is at 8:00 tonight on c-span2. participants include afl-cio president and leaders on the national council of the raza, mexican american legal defense fund, and the day laborers network. this portion is about one hour. >> buenos dias. it is a great honor to be here
with all of you. what a wonderful day. my name is hector's hi sanchez. i am the head of the house of latino labor. [applause] and also the chair of the national hispanic leadership agenda. to have aare here very important conversation addressing action, how failure to pass immigration reform harms workers. we want to be very strategic answer -- and concise, and we want to look at it from a more holistic effective, like the long-term impacts that enforcement only policies are having on the working class. to put two elements on the
table. on the one hand, we have all of these republican anti-immigrant pieces of legislation, and a number of states have a devastating impact on the quality of life, in particular of the latino community, and on the other hand, we also have the highest levels of deportation that we have ever seen in the nation, so we asked the question policies, andese what is the impact that these policies are having on the ground, not only on immigrant communities, but in particular the latino community. panel, experts, leaders, organizers, and we're really excited to be here. let's start with president trum president trumka of the
afl-cio. he is working with worker centers and others. small coal up in a mining communities and rose to the president of the farmworkers america. i'm happy to call him a champion of workers and a champion of immigration reform. president trumka. [applause] >> thank you, hector, for that overly generous introduction. i appreciate it. good morning, everyone. let me say hi and welcome to the house of labor. i would like to thank the labor council for latin american advancement for cosponsoring this event with us, but also for all of your leadership that you have shown over the years in the on workersunity issues. i'm happy to say a lot of trade
union faces in the audience this morning as well as many of our allies and many of our friends. momentarks a bittersweet in the fight for justice for immigrants. it is better because after 18 months of work, the bill languages, deportations continue, and our immigration system remains broken. house republicans have failed to to serve theuty national interest -- they have squandered a very historic opportunity to move our country forward. but today is sweet because of all all grotto and hector sanchez and i -- because of
pablo alvarado and hector sanchez and i have become closer. in fact, our very movements are inextricably connected, and i can tell you i am happy to go to war with allies like each one of them. i really am. you see, the war that we have been fighting is of course a moral one. the devastation of families, the ,isruption of communities emotionally, i've got to tell you, in my heart, it hurts. it hurts every time i see a family split up, every time i see a life disrupted, every time i see somebody's plans sort of you raced. crisis isportation not america as it is supposed to be. nor america as it can be.
today want to focus on something else. i want to focus on the economics .f immigration reform because while the moral arguments are reason enough to fight for immigration reform, they are not the only reason. there are so many hard-hitting reasons why. it is in every working person's interest to ensure that each and every one of their colleagues enjoys full rights. and the best way to illustrate these economics of the crisis is through how we came to this issue originally. 1990's, our immigration system broke under the pressure of nafta. realizeoyers came to that workers without legal papers could help sleazy all low-wageploit
workers everywhere. why? because employers grew to understand that immigrants without legal rejections cannot complain about working conditions. if a meatpacking plant worker "it ismething about unsafe," the employer can threaten to get him or her deported, well, the worker probably backs down, and everybody lives in unsafe conditions. if the worker seeks workmen's compensation for an injury, all of a sudden, an employer might be able to get around the law. if a construction worker finds his paycheck is not an include the overtime that he worked that week, will he have the courage to go to the authorities to complain?
and risk deportation? and if you are a sleazy employer choosing between equally qualified workers, and one has citizenship and the right to stand up for himself or herself, and the other can be intimidated, who do you choose? not modestese are academic concerns. let's take the example of wage theft. the national employment law project estimates that 68% of low-wage workers, many of them undocumented, experience pay violations, and we are not talking small violations. they accumulate annually to a of their income.
$2600eans employers steal a year from workers who only about $17,000. certainlyexploitation does not work for workers. but it also does not work for the economy as a whole. an estimation is that wage theft steal $64 million a week from employers' pockets or workers pockets in new york city, los angeles, and chicago alone. workers need status to fight back against injustice on that scale. and we will all benefit, every worker will benefit when they finally have it. how much will we benefit? well, the congressional budget office has shown that economic
benefits from the bipartisan senate immigration bill are so great that they would increase $459 billionues by between 2014 and 2023. 459 billion with a b. heck, $459 million would be a lot of money. timesis estimate is 1000 that. so how can we improve a lot of workers and the economy as a whole? well, the easiest and best way to end is to end the deportation crisis, for the house to call for a vote on the senate bill. that bill would pass overwhelmingly.
andrtunately, john boehner kevin mccarthy and the republican party seem to care more about the feelings of the in party than about justice america's workplaces and communities. week, thego last senate did its part. their comprehensive bipartisan bill created a clear and achievable path to citizenship, ensuring that our economy and social fabric would not be undermined by a permanent underclass of noncitizens without full rights. the bill strengthens the protections for all workers, and it divides a new type of employment-based visa system tie to real labor market needs and not the whims of manipulative employers.
year, thehe last house republican leadership has embarrassed itself before history. they have cheapened its constitutional responsibilit ies, and they have diminished millions of lives. especially as the clock rolled into 2014, republican pretensions to action were more and more transparent. while the country waited for leadership, it got game played. though republicans have failed to act, the core principles of comprehensive immigration reform are not going to go away.
the legislation enacted by the senate last year is our guide, and we will remain steadfast in our support of its principles next week, next month, next year, for as long as it takes for me to pass a real bill that gives citizenship to our brothers and sisters. [applause] and in that regard, we renew our call for the administration to exercise its authority to uphold those principles by providing reliefte, temporary and work authorization to all of those who would qualify for citizenship under the bipartisan senate bill. [applause] you see, we have a recent test
of just how immediate the benefits of affirmative relief and work authorization can be for immigrant workers. 61% of deferred action for childhood arrivals, daca, recipients surveyed said they had received a new job since adjusting their status. sadly, more than two thirds of those same newly documented people indicated that they knew someone who had been deported. the new economic opportunities for working people for of action would be considerable. and that positive energy can only be realized if the president asked boldly and if we we standoldly and if
together and if we act boldly, i believe that the president will act boldly, and that bold action, my brothers and sisters, will lift our economy while andng our country more just living up to the slogans that we say around the world. brothers and sisters, we have much work to do. i suggest we begin. thank you. [applause] >> thank you. we have a top priority, which has always been to recognize latinos in the nation, due to all of these enforcement only
an example. i want to introduce the president ceo of the largest national hispanic symbol in the united states. 2005, -- the nation's 50 million hispanic -- by strengthening the partnership between 300 communities. president andhe -- fivecounsel of offices pursuing community appreciation in the united states. and we have the executive director of the national day
laborer organizing network. they have been more strategic to develop leadership and organize day laborers. i would like to open one question. from your perspective, what have been the impact of how -- how do you see the consequences? >> thank you. good morning, everyone. it is a rogue pleasure, and indeed, i feel very privileged to be up here on this panel because this panel has a number of wonderful leaders who have been not only leaders for us in the latino community but also on the immigration reform movements
and i want to give a special trumka.dation to bridgrich i appreciate the leadership you it is sonstrated important using a strong voice. and to see all of the new voices coming together is so important. i feel very, very privileged to be here. i wouldn't say related to the soact, rich articulated perfectly how we conceive really economict and it is an impact, a social impact, and what we will talk about today to is also the political impact, so the failure of the house yearsicans to act after after the senate has passed a bill, and if they did not like the senate bill, they could have passed their own bill.
if they did not like one bill, they could have passed several bills, but they made no effort and sat on their hands and did nothing. the impact of doing nothing and that failure of leadership has been wrong. the economic impact, the lost wages, lost salaries, and the exploitation of workers -- what we are also seeing is an overall loss of revenues to our roast a method product. we know, and i have the statistics to demonstrate, that passing immigration reform will actually add in boost our economy and reduce our deficit by nearly $1 trillion. to see that kind of failure of wedership's and action when know that the country first and foremost would benefit tremendously from an economic standpoint is any feasible. social cost to the
failure to act in the impact of int is being directly, particular of the latino community, workers in general, but for us it is family. what we see happening is a failure to reform our immigration system is that many of our families are still being torn apart, children are being separated from their parents, and the cost in those committees when we see that happening, but the human impact and the pain and suffering that we see, the fear that we still have in this country for someone who has been in their everyday, going to work, making sure that they are intervening and living up to their potential, except for the ability to have that documentation, for us to see in this 21st-century that these people are still living in fear and in a shadows and vulnerable to exploitation and see their families suffering is also
inexcusable, and that has been a human social impact that we see still today. and i guess i would just say ist on the political impact, one that i think the republicans underestimate in the minds of latino voters because what we see happening is the republicans deliberately turning their backs on not just our community but on moving our nation forward. we know that it is within their grasp, it is within their hands to create a permanent solution, but they have closed the door to that, and have said that they are not going to take up immigration reform. lack ofsuch a responsibility that it is astonishing to think about. what for us as voters, we have been marking and keeping track with the leadership of these folks on this panel, and , would bely hector national hispanic leadership agenda, we have report cards where we have been keeping
track of what we believe is in the interest of us particularly in the interest of immigration, and one of the last their votes at the republicans in the house that taken was to repeal one of the last clear votes that republicans in the house have taken was to replay it -- to repeal the deferred action for arrivals for children. that is the last on record vote that they have. that is what they want to take them into the midterms and i guess into the 2016 election. why? it is fair to say here today that there will be political consequences for that failure and in action. for us and the latino community, the republicans may have given up on a permanent solution. we will never give up on a permanent solution.
what i heard from richard trumka is that the flc iowa never give up on a permanent solution. we are going to continue to fight for a permanent solution to this, and in the meantime, we will make sure that everyone votes. the accountability should live directly the feet of the house republicans and speaker boehner. it is within their power to move something forward on immigration reform. they have utterly failed to do so. that will be remembered for a long time in the minds of latino voters. [applause] >> to answer your question, the impacts we have heard already stated. the devastating impact of this in action on communities, the economy, on our families -- beyond that, i would say much more about this nation. those are -- and there are those who would attribute this inaction to another example of partisan congressional gridlock. we need to recognize that
inaction on this issue in particular is of a different kind. what is at stake is the very soul and humanity of our nation. our failure to act is a mark on the success of our nation that draws away from our reputation around the world and that undercuts the very principles upon which this country was founded. this is not another instance of gridlock. this is the defining issue of injustice of our day. our nation has made great progress on other issues, notably, for example, the issue of marriage equality, but we have not, in over a decade, made any progress on this critical issue. history will judge our nation and its leaders and how we react
will we demonstrate a belief in the abiding, unifying, and prevailing nature of our principles and values, or will we continue to betray those principles and values? house inaction comes from people , some of whom have built their careers around the notion of color-blindness, yet they continue to support through their inaction the discriminating against immigrants, primarily from
mexico, but from other countries in latin america and asia. because you are for mexico, you will wait 20 years to immigrate legally, while those from other countries will wait fewer years. can you imagine leaders accepting that in another context? can you imagine leaders accepting a university, public or private, saying to applicants, we've already admitted enough of people from your background, so you will wait 20 years to be admitted to this university? it would not last one minute. we have had the system for decades. leaders have failed to lead. we have leaders who have built their political careers around a bedrock devotion to family values, but those leaders are nowhere to be seen as family upon family is devastated and torn apart daily by our broken immigration system. we have leaders who have argued in election after election that they believe in the power of
entrepreneurialism, but these same leaders have failed to recognize the value in the spirit of those who at great personal danger and cost, even children, traveled great distances to come to this country to build a better future for themselves and their families. these believers in entrepreneurialism have demonized, politicized, and characterized children who have engaged in that entrepreneurial endeavor. there is no question that this inaction is an assault on our values as a nation, and our very soul and humanity is at stake. more than that, there is an urgency that you have already
heard. we must act now. the devastation occurs daily from our broken immigration system. deportations continue at record paces, tearing apart families and communities across the country. nearly 51 years ago, martin luther king jr. gave a speech in the march on washington. we often focus on certain parts of that speech, but i want to focus on one not in the record. dr. king, at the time, was facing those who would argue for a slower, more deliberate approach to solving the defining issue of civil rights for african american. he warned us of 51 years ago to reject what he called the
tranquilizing drug of gradual. that is where we are today. the urgency is now. we need bold leadership. we need aggressive action to ensure that our principles as a nation are vindicated through recognizing the needs to adjust -- address the justice. -- the injustice. [applause] >> buenos dias. thank you, president trumka for having us today. i want to recognize the board of directors of my organization. i was thinking about how broken
the immigration system is, but i think it's conventionalism that it's not just broken -- conventional wisdom that it's not just broken but it's really unjust. it is unjust because it denies immigrants so much they deserve. and then these images of kids came up to my head, and i couldn't stop thinking about it. i'm from a small village. there are five people in detention from that village, including a cousin of mine right now. there was also a minor detained in arizona from my same village.
as i listen to the president's speech yesterday, i think that this is not -- this is actually time for us to show our moral courage. it is simply unacceptable what is happening with these children. if we want to do good and advocate for workers rights, if we want to do good for people, if we want to do good for civil rights, if we want to do good at the ballot box in november, we must do good, we must do the right thing for the children. for too long, this immigration debate has been so polluted with hatred, to the point that in this city this debate has become almost unrecognizable.
that has to change. a significant part of the society has become desensitized to their suffering. it is time to demonstrate our moral outrage. so, the problem is that yes, the status quo is causing a lot of harm. the status quo is causing a lot of suffering, a lot of hardship. it is out there. there is a group of vigilante politicians in congress that are holding the legalization of people hostage. we have an unprecedented national security apparatus,
well-funded. $18 billion. we have an incredible deportation machine that is enforcing unjust laws. that is the result of inaction. the reality is that my organization has been fighting for immigrant communities. we have tried to pressure the president, and we haven't been able to pressure him. there is still hope. what choice do we have in these circumstances? we have taken this battle to courts. we have taken this battle to state capitals, the city halls. as a consequence of that battle,
many innocent melodies are essentially revolting against musicality's are essentially revolting against municipalities are essentially revolting against this program. many jurisdictions are saying, we are not going to detain people just because we suspect they are undocumented. the fight -- the tide is also turning. i think people will also continue to take this battle everywhere. in california, for example, its example of how we can fight back. it has opened the doors for many families. every time there is a jurisdiction that says, not one more unjust deportation, we're achieving the goal.
the inaction is energizing our community. we suspect these fights at the local level will expand. we want to make sure that there is justice. [applause] >> all of the speakers before me have really made clear how failure to act by the republican leadership has had a devastating effect on our communities. on family, being split up, not just being split up, but living in fear every day of being split
up, not knowing if your loved one will come home at the end of the day. all of those things happening to families. they are not just immigrant families. -- aren't just immigrant families. every day a worker gets cheated out of a wage, every worker set her's. that is part of the cost of delay. when workers are injured or killed on the job, and there are 150 of them dying every day from injuries or occupational diseases, they are more likely to be from latino community. they are more likely to be somebody who doesn't have the ability to stand up and call out those unsafe conditions. our communities sometimes rise against each other. sometimes racism, anti-immigrant feelings get carried away. less healthy, less productive. as i mentioned earlier, and
speakers before me mentioned, our economy suffers when workers are cheated out of wages. they can spend. think about those workers i talked about, $17,000 a year, and they get cheated out of $2600. that hurts every american. the failure to act has been devastating indeed. it presents challenges to those workers who are out there in the community, yet every time we see them -- [indiscernible] yet every time we see oppression step up, we also see -- somebody be creative. we see courageous campaigns
coming from communities and workers who really have the most to lose by their actions. we see the courage. one of the positive things that has happened besides the devastation is that we are seeing leadership emerge. you are going to see some courageous people stand up and speak for better country. they fight for rights not just for undocumented workers, but they are fighting for work -- for rights for every worker out there, and that leadership has been bold and creative. we see the new tactics that they are doing, figuring out ways to get around the traps that has been set for them. the other byproduct, it's built partnerships that will never,
ever be broken again. the people right up here on this stage right now, we've bonded together in this fight. we will never be divided or separated again. while there has been much devastation, there have been a few rays of sunshine, and that new leadership that has bubbled up as one of those rays of sunshine. the new partnerships that have been forged and bonded together is another ray of sunshine. i can tell you, for me, it has been one of the most inspiring times in my life. what we are able to do now, all of us coming together, the entire progressive community
coming together to fight for fairness and justice -- [indiscernible] i seem to have a devastating effect on this microphone. [laughter] i just wanted to say thanks to these people here, and to all of our other brothers and sisters that rise up every day and fight against injustice, common men and women who are never going to articles written about them, but every single day, they are fighting to make this country a little bit better, a little more sane, a little more just, and i just think it's an honor for us to be able to be with you. [applause]
>> it has been a longtime, and the question i have for you-- where do we go from here? you have been the fight for a long time. what are the next steps we've got to make to fix our broken immigration system? is there anything that makes you hopeful? >> thanks, hector. we have always had a three-pronged strategy, legislative, administrative -- i think it is time for us to lean into those strategies. it is for that the house republican leadership is refusing to act on any sort of legislative reform.
that gives the president every opportunity to intervene and stefan -- step in and create administrative relief. we agree with the fact that he has authority to do something, and we are going to encourage him and call on him to be bold, to make sure that through this administrative authority that he has, well within the legal authority laid out, that he uses that authority to provide, albeit temporary, but relief for many who right now are in the shadows and are suffering and fearful of being separated from their families.
we want very much for the president to build on deferred action for childhood arrival programs and look at the parents of these children and understand that we have seen deportations at staggering levels, up to 2 million individuals deported, and within that, we've seen more than 277 -- 277,000 parents of u.s. children that have been deported since 2020. we believe the president has an opportunity right now, because of the failure of the republicans to act, to step up and intervene and make sure that we can end this separation of family, end the suffering of the
children who are being torn from their parents, and to do the right thing economically by this country and make sure that we are taking advantage of these individuals who are working and contributing to this economy. for us, we see a very important step for the president to be very bold and to build on the daca program, and to really make sure we are doing everything we can to grant this kind of relief at this particular moment, building on the daca program. that was something we saw supported by the vast majority the public that includes republicans -- vast majority of the american public, that includes republicans. the other prong of our strategy is to pursue an electoral strategy. we need to make sure our communities, voters, that they're able to register and to go to the polls, and we mobilize of them to the polls. it is important to weigh in as a community and hold these elected officials accountable. that becomes another theme -- [applause] without that accountability and
without us exercising our own voices, we aren't going to be able to achieve our full potential. for us, it is really making sure that we are pursuing a strong and bold administrative action and encouraging the president and calling on the president to act within his legal authority to build on the daca program and to look at the scope of individuals who would have qualified under the senate bill and think about how he can get as many of those individuals with some administrative, temporary relief. in our community, we need to make sure that all of us understand we have a responsibility to weigh in and make sure we are part of this process, this democratic
process. we need to make sure that we are registering to vote, that we are educated, and that on election day, we are voting and holding these elected officials accountable. that is our strategy. [applause] >> what made me hopeful is that house leadership does not reflect this country. it is absolutely clear that action on this critical issue, they are capitulating to a thin slice of americans better feel for all -- fearful of democratic -- a demographic change. they feel exploited by others. the truth is that this country increasingly as a wide majority support action to address this issue and injustice. we see positive indicators across the country. states and localities are taking action to ensure they limit their complicity in the ongoing devastation. that is encouraging. it is 100% clear that we now
must look to the president to take actions consistent with the authority that he and his predecessors have exercised to ensure that our immigration enforcement does not result in devastation and injustice. a few years ago, the administration announced a policy of prosecutorial discretion, but that resulted in little change. we need the president and the secretary to take action to ensure that the rank-and-file actually follow a rational, principled policy of prosecutorial discretion, and we need the president to take bold action consistent with his authority to grant relief to all of the immigrants who have been here, contributed, raising families, ensuring that our
communities grow -- [indiscernible] at the same time, we will be emboldened, as we see across the country leaders step forward in communities to ensure that the deportations end and that there is relief for patriots in the form of immigration reform legislation. we need the president to act. we need the congress -- a congress next year that will better reflect its constituency by supporting principled and progressive policies. [applause] >> what is next? for too long, for almost 15 years, we have let washington, d.c.
determine what is good for our community. we are talking about citizenship everywhere. citizenship -- [indiscernible] that requires that people speak for themselves. talking about the immigration debate -- the fruits are ripening on the trees. it's exactly the way forward for our organization. we are going to make sure that this immigration debate make sense again and addresses the suffering of the people at the
center of the debate. that is at the core for us. we will no longer accept the promise of legalization and the threat of deportation to be used as a bargaining chip for legislation. it has not worked out so far. yesterday in his speech, from my standpoint, the president was admitting that he was wrong and that strategy has been wrong, that his enforcement-first approach and deportation policies essentially haven't been able to persuade the right wing republicans. that was the difference between
his speech yesterday and other speeches my past -- in the past. we are going to make sure that he ask on the right things. we are going to stand with him when he does the right thing. that is the way forward for us. [applause] >> first of all, the afl-cio is in this fight for the long haul. we are not going to quit until we are absolutely victorious. there are several things we are going to do. the first is we are going to continue working to pass comprehensive immigration reform. that is truly, with a pathway to citizenship -- it truly does protect all workers. in the coming months and whatever it takes, we will be gearing up to pass that legislation and to defeat bad pieces of legislation. all the while, we will be looking for ways to protect
brothers and sisters at the state and local level. anything we can get done there to protect them and help them, we will continue to that. we will work to end the deportations and insist on a more humane enforcement strategy. we will work to promote bold executive action in the weeks and months coming up. the third thing we will be doing -- the naturalization of nearly 9 million community members who are currently eligible for citizenship. last saturday in this very room, families came here for help with
processing their citizenship and their daca. we helped them. we are turning our local union halls around the country in two to help naturalize those citizens and get them a path so they have a voice in the political arena, so they have an everyday voice on the job, and they are all better off for that. first, we will continue to fight for immigration reform. we will continue to educate our members and the general public about the effects of a broken immigration system and what can be achieved. we will continue to mobilize them to get bills passed to defeat bad bills, and to unelected people -- to unelect people who have been obstructionists.
and that turned their backs on the needs of americans in this country every single day. [applause] we would like to thank the panel. [applause] all of the immigration teams -- we are going to bring some workers to continue this conversation. daniel marino. i want to thank you, pablo, rich, thank you for everything you guys are doing. let's continue this fight. do not move, please. it will be a quick change, and
we're going to continue this conversation [applause] . [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> coming up lab, a discussion on the escalating violence in iraq and the role of the kurdish regional government starting at 11:30 eastern. also live, under secretary for education ted mitchell will discuss how federal and state leaders can work together to improve the nation's schools. that will be a 12:15 p.m. eastern on c-span two. the facebook question today deals with the supreme court looking for your opinion. sold to the -- " highest bidder. victor adds
you can offer your thoughts at facebook.com/c-span. we may read it on the air. >> book tv sat down with former secretary of state hillary clinton in little rock to discuss her new book "hard choices." >> getting to the point where you make peace is never easy because you do not make peace with your friends. you make it with those that are adversaries, people that have killed your own people or those you are trying to protect. it is a psychological drama. you have to get into the head of those on the other side because you have to change their calculation enough to get them to the table. in iran, we had to put a lot of economic pressure to get them to the table. we will have to see what happens.
that was the first stop. afghanistan, pakistan -- trying to get the taliban to the table for a comprehensive discussion with the government of the understand. iraq in a rock today -- in today, what we have to understand is it is primarily a political problem that has to be addressed. the ascension of the sunni extremist, the so-called isis group, is taking advantage of the breakdown in a lyrical lack of and the total trust -- political dialogue and the total lack of trust between the maliki government, the sunni leaders, and the kurdish leaders. >> more with hillary clinton saturday at 7:00 p.m. eastern, and sunday morning on c-span two's book tv. >> june unemployment numbers are expected to be released this
coming friday. a discussion about the labor "washingtontoday's journal." now, npr's senior business editor, marilyn geewax. welcome to the program. the news breaking even in the last hour or so is this report that talks about jobs numbers. first of all, what is 80 p and why should we care, and what is it significant or not? >> they collect statistics about private employment. the report is positive and in line with what everyone is expecting for tomorrow. usually, the labor department releases job reports on fridays. but we have a holiday on friday so we are all off. they will release it thursday. everyone watches the monthly job report and pays a great deal of attention. like the latest private
poll and other data suggest that once again, we will have a good month for job growth, probably in the range of 2000 jobs and maybe more. if you can keep going at that rate, about 200,000 new jobs created and added on top of what we already have, it is starting to finally pull the economy forward. it is not as strong as it should be, but when you think, it was exactly five years ago, right where june was turning into july of 2009, when the economy began a rebound. we are now five years, happy birthday recovery, five years into it, and we are just now getting to where unemployment is not quite so bad. there are still millions of people come more than 9 million, who are unemployed. but when you're adding 200,000 jobs a month, you are eating into the unemployment: getting
the economy on stronger footing. probably, the unemployment rate will still come in at 6.3. it is not great, but not the horrors we had in 2009, which was 10%. magicand that is the number anyway as far as recovery is concerned. guest: yes. it has been a long and slow climb and there is still a long way to go to get the economy back to a vibrant state, but we have recovered all the lost jobs, and we're starting to dig into the pool of long-term unemployed unless something changes. it is finally starting to feel a little bit more like a normal job market. >> what about the jobs being restored? economy isall, the starting to be a two track economy. people who are in the petroleum right now, natural gas, any kind
of engineering job, those kids are coming out of school, starting in six figures. chemicalal pay for a engineer graduating this year was just shy of 100,000 a year to start. those kinds of good jobs are happening everywhere. if you have the right skills. but the problem is many of the jobs that have been created tend to be in hospitality, leisure, restaurant work, that kind of thing. two-tiered economy happening where we have skilled workers who are very much in demand and getting good quick -- good wages, and a lot of job growth in service jobs that do not pay much. average people can provide middle-class wages, those are still tough. recovery is as the
concerned, is there still a y factor? -- why factor? a series of factors on why the economy is recovering? guest: that is more of an economic argument, sort of a political argument. president obama was saying congress needs to do something construction,way bridges, those kinds of things. congress needs to act to get that done again. in the president's point of job, there is a reason growth has been slow. congress has not done enough to get the stimulus going and get the economy moving and get -- m ake sure the state is hiring construction workers. good paying but not super skilled but not super low skilled, good old construction jobs, building bridges. president argues he needs more help from congress on that. others would argue --
republicans certainly would argue -- that the president's's policies have been too focused on regulation and have held back businesses and things like the affordable care act. they feel it has slowed job creation. those are arguments for someone in politics. from an economic point of view, i think it is fair to say that the economy has been growing over the past five years. it clearly has been. but there have been setbacks throughout that that have kept growth lower. one of the setbacks we had this was the gdp report we have recently that shows come in the first quarter, january, february, and march, the weather lousy, that it really restrained the economy. it looks like the quarter that just ended in april, may, and june, that second-quarter probably saw a great deal of
growth because it was a bounce back from the first quarter. things that did not get done in february got done in april. you will probably see more than three percent when the numbers finally come out. overall, they would like to have more even growth rather than up and down. what goes through your mind? is that a valid concern? the past winter was quite exceptional. if you have a terrible tornado that hits a place in missouri, that is bad for the town. ondoes not have an effect the overall national economy. even a pretty big hurricane, a thing like trina is devastating for new orleans, but it did not do much to slow down massachusetts. but the weather this past winter
was quite pervasive. there are large parts of the country that really had a problem. this you have got the us -- ongoing drought and flooding in the upper midwest. that will have an impact on food prices. we are already seeing meat is quite expensive. you have weather factors that are real and that do impact the economy. eventually, the field strike up and sooner or later, it has got to rein in the dry parts. toodo not want to put that much into a long-term forecast. but, for the first half of this year, there have been real weather issues that are again important enough and pervasive enough that they have affected the economy. topicthat is our broad for the segment. here is the way
you can comment and ask questions. -- if you want to send us a tweet -- for may, the unemployment rate is three .6%. --6.3%. this is mark on the democrats line. caller: good morning. i think there are a couple of not having jobs picked up. one, they are our jobs overseas tax cuts to send them overseas seems pretty stupid to me.
the southone is, korean steel industry dumping america, isl into just decimating our steel industry. just like the golden gate bridge. as it did, it came out over budget. host: we have two comments out there and we will let our guest respond. guest: they have had a tough time for a long time. the complaint when i was young was about japan, who was flooding the steel. there is now a lot of concern about south korea. really seen is
tremendous technological change in the steel industry. there are a lot of different aspects of that. things like the kind of steel mill my grandfather worked in, where there were tens of thousands of men going to work, a lot of that has really dramatically changed, where you can go into a germ -- a modern steel mill today and shoot a cannon and not hit anybody. they are very empty. issuesre two separate involving steel. one is steel sales and sales taken by foreign competitors. when it comes to steelworker jobs, that is, in many ways, more of a technology issue. the industry has changed so much. that is a real challenge for the economy. there are technological advances happening and that is a lot of what has happened with middle-class jobs. it is very tough to keep up with that level of change.
caller: i disagree with the numbers. andid slow with florida texas and california. they are constantly blaming the lousy economy on other things. ands a democrat economy democrats thrive in bad economies. when the economy is good, they got beaten. ohio, it didl in exactly what it was supposed to do. moved industry out of ohio to mexico and other places. that is what it was supposed to do. manufacturingong country, democrats lose. they love the economy. there is nothing wrong with the economy.
guest: a couple of points to make. they did have a really bad drought there. it was a mix of problems. there was snow and cold in some parts of the country and dry heat in others. but they have got, of course, some problems with their crop from disease. the economy is quite mixed. to say things have been bad joined the obama era, it is a complicated picture when you look at it. the stock market has done almost unbelievably well. incks from where they were 2009 when obama came into office, they are really at record highs again. financial markets have boomed. it looks like the markets are moving even higher. host: it is about to hit 17,000.
guest: the financial markets have done very well in the country. is problem for everybody that there is a lagging job growth. republicans would say the economy is being choked by too many regulations and too many taxes. as toa political debate the more core problem. as far as the overall economy, it is quite mixed. it depends on what sector you are looking at. investor, thetock last five years, you should have bought in the summer of 2009. you would be very happy today because these stock prices moved up sharp lee -- sharply. host: from texas, republican line. caller: one comment and two questions.
comment is i'm hearing a lot of excuses, basically. the weather has not been bad for seven years now. you mentioned how chemical engineering jobs are everywhere. they are only where the epa does not shut them down. then you differ that obama's policies are political in nature. they have real economic effects. my two questions. like to know the total labor force over the last 10 years. also, we are now halfway to a recession. we have negative growth, negative gdp. why is there not much comment about that? i will listen to you on the television, thank you. >> i wanted to be clear, when i was talking about the weather, i have not been talking about the
first five years, but just the first half of this year. i was only referring to this past winter in the first half of 2014. think you would have a tough time finding an economist who did not agree that weather was a factor in the first half of this year. factor thiss a year. there was a reference to the labor participation rate. the number of people who participate in the labor force peaked in the late 1970's. with of that has to do women coming into the workforce. previously, most women came home in the 1970's. a lot of women came into the labor force to take jobs. the participation rate shot up quite a bit. years, all those women
who came into the workforce in the late 1970's, the women who came in the 1980's, people are retiring now. you have a demographic old shove people who are in their 60's right now and they are falling out of the labor force. you also have a high percentage who, this recession was brutal. people washed out of the labor market and have never gotten back in. 2008,you lost her job in when you're in your late 50's. now, you are on social security and just out of the workforce. there has been a demographic been a majoras reason for the decline in labor participation rates. there are other factors as well. it is just true that baby boomers are aging. it is also true this has been a horrible economy for a lot of people in the middle sector jobs who have not been able to get
steady work and they have drifted away. a lot of people have turned to disability insurance. many people are in their 50's getting a social security system and moved into disability because they really cannot fit in today's workforce. you have a lot of factors. a slow growth in middle income jobs, demographic factors, and changes in the way the skill level people need to participate. host: democrats line. caller: i want to say to everyone out there, we are all in this together. let's stop moving backwards and talking about what happened and let's move ahead. way,ing, somehow in some we have got to get it through congress that they need to incorporate money for people to
get traded. come on. if people do not buy things -- what did george bush say after 9/11? get out there and buy stuff and keep the economy going. the middle-class keeps the economy going. understande have to this is going to take time. because the time recession was pretty bad. we have got to work on this not,her because if we do this country will not survive. there are two very valid points to make about what has been holding back the economy. one thing is this discussion of training, a tremendous missed -- --smatch -- masmatc
mismatch. how do you get people who have the skills to fill the job? if you talk to employers, they are deeply concerned about training. another thing that is important is the housing market continues to fit together with that in crazy ways. one of the things that has really kept the housing market from being as robust as it otherwise might the is the fact young people are shying away from buying a first-time home because they are so burdened with student debt. much more than we have had in the past. people know they need the training. they try to pay for it themselves. they find themselves with typical student loans. debtsin 10 have student
and there in the tens of thousands of dollars. they really have a hard time saving for the first down payment. these twin issues are tied together because you need job training to get ahead. funding it yourself is very expensive, so you want the college degree, you do not want the student debt. what you end up this with literally people living with and they cannot take the first step toward has reallyip. that impaired the ability of the economy to grow because we are counting on the housing sector to be a big job creator. alain is next, florida, republican line. caller: wondering if you could answer a couple of questions. could you tell us how many jobs that were created that are full-time and how many are part-time? with the weather
being a factor for the low economic numbers, couldn't the fact that salaries for part-time workers being lower, people holding onto their money -- they don't have the money to spend. i would like to hear your answer to that. thank you. >> there has been a very high percentage of jobs that have been part-time jobs. i am sorry i don't have a specific number for you, but it is true that there has been a real problem with creating full-time jobs for people. many companies have turned to using-- part-time work or the existing work for overtime, anything to avoid adding another person to the payroll. that has been true throughout the recovery, it has been hard to add the full-time jobs. wages have been really quite low. we really have not seen the kind of wage growth that one would stockly expect with the market and corporate profits being very strong. it really has not translated into wage hikes for workers.
when you ask economists about that i say that there is just such a large pool of unemployed people that unless you are in those super skilled positions where there is high demand -- if you are just sort of a regular, ordinary person looking for a over 10lions of people, million people until recently were unemployed. that meant that large pools of downable workers have held wages and kept people in a part-time situation. it really has been a real problem for demand. when you want to get this economy going, what people say is that they have got the of supply, they can make all the things that you want, but they just don't have the consumer demand and the demand has been held back by this low wage growth. it is a process of healing when you have gone through such a traumatic event as this recession.
getting debt to diminish you have to sort of walk up these rungs of the latter to get back to growth and we have been having a tough time climbing the ladder. --our guest works for npr host: our guest works for npr. you were in europe. what were you studying? >> they take a group of journalists each year into the radio in the americas sector. do anogram continues to exchange program where they take a group of americans, we go there, germans go here, we study politics. i am just back from this great time in germany -- it is a great time to go during the world cup, everyone was very exciting -- excited. in the daytime we toured factories and talk to people. this comingok at trade relationship that the white house is trying to put together with europe. europe is
under the some relative of the european union. there are 28 countries, hundreds of millions of people, a big, robust market. it is our biggest trading block. in some ways the u.s. economy and european economy are already so tied together. on any given morning you wake up and you have got your cup of getlé's hot chocolate, you in your volkswagen, you drive to work, maybe you haven't no key a phone that you use to call the office. there are so many european products in our lives and in europe there is just a tremendous number of american products. you would think that the relationship would be very close. but it is not that close. it could be closer. there are still lots of -- rsists, -- terrorists -- terrorists -- tariffs. the white house and the european union want to