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tv   Life and Career of Douglas Mac Arthur  CSPAN  December 26, 2016 1:45pm-2:27pm EST

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>> you're watching american history tv, covering history c-span style with tours of museums, archival film, eyewitness accounts and discussions with authors, historians and teachers. you can watch us on c-span3 every weekend during congressional breaks and on holidays, too. for more information visit our website, c-span.org/history. join us on tuesday, january 3rd, for live coverage of the opening day of the new congress. watch the official swearing in of the new and re-elected members of the house and senate and the election of the speaker of the house. our all day live coverage of the events of capitol hill begins 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span or c-span.org or listen to it on the c-span radio app. each week american artifacts takes to you museums and
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historic place toss learn about american history. general douglas mcauthur was a five-star general who committed allied forces at world war ii. at memorial in norfolk, virginia we learn about his early life, service in world war i and career during interwar years. this is part one of a two-part program. welcome to the mcarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia. it's my honor and privilege to be the director here. this is a museum and research center dead indicated to life and times of general of the army douglas mcauthur who lived from 1880 until his death at 64. we want to show you pressures from our exhibits. let's go take a look. we're located in old norfolk city hall built in 1850. given over to the memorial in
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1964. city hall contains nine galleries which follow chronologically life and times of general of the army douglas macarthur. we begin with his family which answers the $64 dollar question, why in norfolk. the answer is mom. let me show you a photograph of general macarthur's mother and the family estate. here is the family estate in the south side of the city. it's now a city park. here is macarthur's mother, who was born in norfolk and had four brothers who joined up in the confederate army from norfolk during the civil war. she was the youngest of the children. after the war in new orleans, she met a man named arthur macarthur from milwaukee, wisconsin who earned the medal of honor at the battle of chattanooga in november of 1863. they fell in love. when they got married, well, her three brothers who served in the army northern virginia and one of her cousins in the core
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cadets, well, they found other places to be during the wedding ceremony and they weren't able to make it. one of the things that people don't realize about the macarthur memorial is that we're not just guns and battles, even though we are dedicated to the life of one of america's great generals, we're really about people and really about stories. one of the things i used to show that is actually this, douglas macarthur's baby picture. he was born january 26th, 1880 in little rock, arkansas where his father was stationed at the time. you see photographs here next to it of his other brothers. his brother malcolm who died at smallpox age five and buried here in norfolk in the family plot and his older brother arthur iv went to annapolis and graduated from the naval academy. that's what these pictures here show, give you a sense of macarthur's family life, things like that. when douglas macarthur came back in 1951 to dedicate the old family estate as a city park, he referred to himself as the reunion of blue and gray
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personified. he said finally when i've come to norfolk, i feel like i've come home. he spent summers here in early teens and regarded norfolk as spiritual home. the mayor at the time remembered that and ten years later 1960s, early 1960s, mcarthur figuring out what am i going to do with my papers, my artifacts, what's going to happen, duck worth came to him and remembered that and played owned that and said i'll build you a memorial, archive and research center. macarthur said, i love it. can i be buried here with my wife? sure. we'll give you the old city hall to do it. that cinched the deal. outbid smithsonian, carlyle war college and outbid west point for the macarthur memorial to be here. so we don't just have his mother's family to be here, we've got elements, artifacts from his father's service. here is a photograph first of all from arthur macarthur from wisconsin, joined 17, age 18 medal of honor leadership under
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fire, age 19 boy colonel of the union army. he becomes the exemplar for douglas macarthur. really in many ways to understand douglas macarthurfat. he eventually becomes a general, served in the spanish america war, fights in the philippines. this is one of his philippines sword for the enemies that arthur mcarthur would have fought. 1899 to 1901. and then a novel, under mcarthur. most when they look of that, that must be douglas in world war ii. no, this was arthur. this was arthur back about a quarter century before that. as a matter of fact, for a long time, in the philippines, douglas was known as mcarthur the unger to differentiate him from mcarthur the elder, arthur mcarthur himself. one other neat thing that people don't realize we have. what's in the case right here from arthur mcarthur. this is his field desk from the
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philippine war. he was the senior american officer in the philippines from 1899 to 1901. military govern of the philippines also. until he ran afoul of the civilian governor who was appointed over him, william howard taft. the other thing i'll point out is right down here, is arthur mcarthur's glasses. if you see pictures of him in his later life, he actually looks a lot like teddy roosevelt. these are the glasses he's wearing in his picture. 1898 is when the spanish american war starts and arthur mcarthur is on his way to command american troops in the campaign battle from manila after the naval victory, we spent a force and arthur mcarthur was one of the commanders. his son, douglas, 18 years old just graduated from the west texas military academy and has grown up idolizing his father. he wants to go with his dad as a volunteer aid. arthur mcarthur performed a very
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great service at this moment. because he turned to his son and said, son, you have an appointment to west point. i want you to take that appointment. because it's this -- this will not be the last war. this is my last war, but this will not be the last war we will see. your job is to prepare yourself for that war. and so douglas took his advice and went off to west point. incidentally, mom followed along because with her oldest boy now in the u.s. navy. her husband going off to fight in the philippines, she didn't really have anywhere else to go. she took up residence for the next four years in the hotel. and a lot of people said, they joked at the end that douglas mcarthur and mary were the first to graduate when he graduated in 1903. although mary hardy mcarthur, as his mother's name was, actually performed a valuable service because she would often be an off-campus gathering place for cadets and girlfriends. she would keep tabs on the night
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watchmen and would signal when the coast was clear to sneak back to barracks. it wasn't all bad. she was very much a cadet's friend in some ways. west point was greatly formulative. in 1962, he said his entire life was duty, honor, country. and west point influenced him until his very last days. in many different ways. obviously through the education, through the formal classroom. one of the most outstanding academic records in the history of west point. first captain, highest ranking officer in his class. one of the things that drove home for him was the idea that the way to become a leader, way to become a good soldier was on the athletic field. you learn things like discipline, you learn leadership. his first leadership role was in high school when he was quarterback of the high school football team at west texas military academy. he managed in a team 1904. when he was there, one of his
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players of the 1904, joseph stillwell. who also by the way is the one who brought basketball to west point. we have the box score for the first time the naval academy played the u.s. military, first point versus indianapolis. if you look closely, douglas mcarthur who scored the winning run when army won 4-3. after graduation, mcarthur took a commission in the corp. of engineers which took him on myriad duties. one of the advantages, one of the significant moments in his career was about 1905 when his father who at the time was the senior ranking general in the army, he was a three star general and only the chief of staff of the army ranked higher. was given a task to go tour the far east and observe the japanese war which was then in progress. and he took his young
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lieutenant, lieutenant douglas mcarthur as an observer. this is very important period for douglas mcarthur. he wrote in his memoirs, he said everafter asia fastened herself with a grape that never relaxed. he was also fascinated with asia after this. he realized on that trip that the fate of the united states was forever bound in the far east. that's an attitude he gains, color and influence his days for the rest of his life. very much a pan asian general in a lot of ways for the united states. the other thing about this period, 1905 to 1960 which is a formative period for douglas mcarthur. 1916. the first public chief of information for the army. never a public affairs officer. formal one. this is important because douglas mcarthur learns press
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relations and how to promote. this is the period of the great debates over what the army, what the navy's going to look like. world war i is 1914 and the people of the united states know that sooner or later they're probably going to get dragged into it. and so what do we need to do to get army and the navy ready. as a chief of public information, douglas mcarthur was at the forefront of telling the army story and showcasing what the army was, what it could be for the country and how to get it from where it is to where it needs to be. a lot of people criticized doug last mcarthur later for a flair of publicity and a shameless self-promoter. there was a certain a. truth to that. you need to remember, he learned it at an early age. what he refer to today is manage the optics and to message. learned that at an early age and ahead of many contemporaries in terms of press relations. and it was skills that he
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learned here, he'll use for the rest of his career. so with that, let's go on upstairs and look at mcarthur in world war i. world war i started in august of 1914, but the united states didn't get involved until april 6 of 1917 when after many german sinkings of american ships, the united states declared war. the army at the time, numbered only about 400,000, active and national guard and reserves. over the next 18 months to two years. the army would grow to 4 million people. created a tremendous, tremendous war effort on a part of the united states. at one of the core of this is douglas mcarthur who was at the war office still, united states war office in washington when the war breaks out. one of the first things the national guard is vying for is the right for the first state to be the first troops over to france because they're going to send an american expedition their force to fight on the western front in france.
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and rather than have one of the state divisions, the pennsylvania, the new york state, california, rather than give one state the whole thing, they decide to create an amalgamation of the united states, as many of one infantry division of 21,000 men and ship it over. and they end up with 26 states in the district of columbia represented in this division, the 42nd division and they're trying to think of a nickname and mcarthur says it'll stretch like a rainbow across the country. and that's where it comes from. the 42nd rainbow division which is what this plaque this liberty loan plaque here signifies. 42nd division fought in world war i and world war ii as the state rp headquarters of the new york army national guard. douglas mcarthur appoints himself colonel and chief of staff of the 42nd division where he gets himself appointed. he'll end up being chief of staff, then later he'll command the 84th brigade, in order
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one-half of the division in combat. and then right at the end, for the occupation of germany and the rynelands for late 1918 into most of 1919. he'll be the division commander. youngest division commander in the first world war. 1918, he'll be promoted to the general, and at the age of 38 which will make him the youngest general in the american expedition their force over two million men in france. this object right behind me here, is mcarthur's traveling trunk. this fits a senior officer. most men, most soldiers carry what they own on their back. but senior officers in particular are allowed to bring their own bag ablg. and this is mcarthur's trunk. it has uniforms in it and it's worth pointing out by the way this american uniforms, american soldiers, they fought in, they paraded, they worked, and they lived in the same uniform. it's not like layer wars where
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you have different uniforms, field uniform and a dress uniform, things like that. you can see a uniform there. mcarthur was a well aide officer, student of military history and various books as you can see and other files and papers. he had a sewing kit, the soldiers nicknamed the housewife. you were expected to do mending to your own uniform. by the way, i should point out that officers bought their uniforms which is a tradition which remains part of the u.s. army today. but the last thing and the one thing i really want to show you is what maybe actually the most important thing in this trunk. and it's the straight razors. why is this, you ask? keep in mind, in world war i was the first introduction of chemical warfare in gas. and a man's ability to get his gas mask on in a matter of seconds sometimes was the difference between life and death. but there was another factor as well. gas masks don't get a good seal on the face if you have stubble or if you have a beard. so everybody was required to be clean shaven.
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and so, effective use of the razor and keeping yourself clean shaven could sometimes be the difference between life and death. now i mention mcarthur's brother in passing a few minutes ago and i want to call your attention to this plaque of the uss chattanooga. arthur mcarthur hunted german submarines and troop ships across the atlantic during the first world war and achieved quite a regard showing so. that he commanded during the war itself. so we've looked at house the united states ghets, how mcarthur gets to france. and to do that, to tell that story, we've got a section of trench, section of reproduction trench that shows you a little bit of the depth of trench warfare and a little bit of couple infantry men living in the trenches. the trench warfare had really started with the stalemate on the western front in belgium and france. starting really in october of
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1914 and would couldn't almost without let up until the summer of 19 -- spring, summer of 1918. it cut a almost 500 mile scar from the north sea in belgium, all the way to the swiss border through northeastern and eastern france. the trenches themselves allied in german, sometimes no man's land which was the space in between was measured in just a few hundred yards. and the trenches themselves were higher than a man stood tall. so as you can see, there's a fair amount of protection if you're walking through standing up. this gentlemen here, this soldier here with the -- who's on the firing step who's on kind of peering out over into no man's land, is watching the enemy. and every morning and every evening, they had what's called stand to. just in case the enemy tried to do something crazy at either dawn or dusk, everybody would assume their fighting positions just to be on the safe side. and so that's what he's doing here. now one thing you'll notice, he's very low to the ground, but
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he is kind of poking his head up to see what's going on in no man's land. if he poked his head up too far, there was probably a german sniper not too far away that would kill him instantly. snipers and artillery in particular were feared weapons. both for gas and for projectiles. trenches are very confined space. you had to live and work there. and there was a lot of other forms of life that lived in them, most notably rats, fleas, ticks, bugs, all kinds of things. and a good rainstorm, they can flood, and several cases there's some very iconic photographs from the trenches where men are fighting in knee-high, sometimes waste-high water. dugouts where men could sleep and bunk a little bit. mud and dirt was ever present. but part of it -- part of not just the physical stress, but the psychological stress of the enemy being this close and death being literally sometimes the wrong movement away, psychological toll on these guys. and by the time the united
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states entered the war, people had realized that you needed to rotate people through the trenches and so on an average, soldier would spend four days in the front line trench. it's been four days in a rear trench, couple hundred yards behind the front line, but in a support position, then they'd spend a week on rest. which is really in the rear, maintenance, training, drill, replenishing supplies, administrative tasks, things of that nature. that was the rotation. four days in the front, four days in the reserve, seven days rest, then you start the whole thing all over again. the last thing i would point out to you is the combat in the trenches was often short, sharp, and brutal. if you went over the top, a lot of attacks, a lot of men never made it even to the barbed wire half way across no man's land. and if you rated the enemy trench or the enemy rated your trench, it could be very close quarters combat with knives, pistols, sometimes brass knuckles. this is also the first war by the way to illustrate this point
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and thor have fosty of the combat, first war where the u.s. army issues a shotgun as a standard issue weapon part first time. model 1918 trench gun as they call it. and it's designed specifically for use in close quarter trench fighting. so it's a particularly intense, it can be very boring at times, but when the fighting is intense, it can be short, sharp, bloody, and extremely intense. and it's just -- the trenches were not a very pleasant place to be. and everybody longed for a war of movement which again would start in the spring and summer of 1918 particularly when the american army arrives and really gets involved. so that brings me to the last piece, let's talk about douglas mcarthur on the battlefield and the american army on the battlefield. one of the best illustrations we have is taken from photographs. and it brings me to one of the first of a series of murals done specifically for the mcarthur memorial. by a guy named alton toby back
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in 1965. and different aspects and different segments of general mcarthur's life. and this is one of the first talking about mcarthur in world war i. there's a lot of things going on in the portrait here, the here, the painting. tells you something on the battlefield and american troops on the battlefield. americans are marching forward to engage in combat. and mcarthur was involved in several battles during the summer of 1918 and the champagne region, offensive in september of 1918, and then the argan offensive, september, october, november of 1918. this is probably late fall judging by the weather. you notice most men are marching forward. but you notice this officer standing right here with binoculars. that's general mcarthur. general mcarthur adopted a very distinct look because he realized as a chief of staff, he had a good staff and realized that to keep his men's moral up. cope with what's going on and even sometimes to be there to
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make a quick battlefield decision if necessary. he had to be up front. and in order for his men to realize that hey, the boss is here, the chief is here, he decided to dress distinctively. there's nothing unusual about that. cesar wore a red rope so that his men could find him. george patton wore that distinctive look in world war ii that was made famous. there are many other generals that cut distinctive figures so that their men knew here's the boss. there is one officer in the american army in france that dresses like this. and it's douglas mcarthur. if you see somebody like this, it's general mcarthur. you notice he's not wearing a gas mask. he was gassed twice in the war. he also issued orders that if anybody followed his example that didn't wear his gas mask, they were going to beourt martialed. but this is an important thing, not only for the distinctive look and the self-promotion. look at where he is. area where most generals and senior headquarters officers
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were in the rear, comfortably in the rear, most of the time, mcarthur's up front. also notice he's not wearing a weapon. he would often lead attacks carrying nothing but that riding crop that you see in his left hand. and the men look at this and realized, hey, if the colonel and later the brig can take it, well, i can take it too. and that command -- that's called command presence. and that's called it's not just bra va toe. mcarthur believed as he wrote later, leadership is often crystallized in invisible event. invisible way. invisible manifestation, whatever term you want to use. and by being up front, by being fearless, it showed that he was leading from a very visible way. douglas mcarthur in world war one was the most decorated american officer. he earned seven silver stars, distinguished service cross and a host of other medals.
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and actually, to end on a light note in world war one, this get up almost cost him. because in early november of 1918 is the americans are racing forward in victory, there's an order given to ignore divisional boundaries and seize objectives as you need to. decides he's going to seize in a neighboring sector of the first division, so it goes over to kind of recognize the situation, gets captured bay first division soldier. never seen an american dress like this. takes some six hours to convince him hey, i'm not german, i'm really an american. and it's only when the 84th says hey, where's our general, that they realize that this is really who this is. but, it's again, mcarthur, leading from the front, and very much, very much cut from a heroic mold and one of the great combat leaders of the first world war in the american army. world war i in particular helped solidify mcarthur and who he was
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and how he would lead forward. even in korea, he leads from the front in most cases. where did he get that idea? where did he get that idea of being out front and among the soldiers and being able to make a quick battlefield decision as necessary, got it in the trenches in france in 1918. let's look at the inner war period. i'll stop you here and i'll show you -- this is general mcarthur coming home on the troop ship in 1919. you can see mink coat, dressed extremely well, cut a very fine figure. the men of the 42nd division. if he ever ran across a veteran in later life, you always had
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time -- always saw them, always attended the reunions. 42nd division was a very, very big part of his life going forward. as a matter of fact, the tributes from the division throughout the rest of his life were some of his most cherished artifacts and the division has donated the veteran's association has donated all of their artifacts and all of their memorabilia to the memorial about five years ago. in recognition of the strong, strong connection. but the other reason i stopped here is simply to talk about 1919 and something of a water shed. because when we do tours, we do tours for military groups, we do tours for school children, things like that. one of the things i always point out and ask the following question is when was the map of the middle east wrong? it was drawn at the end of world war one and the treaty that ended the war. if if you look at the middle east today those board verse only existed less than 100 years. and if you look at the middle east today and you imagine iraq,
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jordan, and israel as british, there's a reason why iraq and jordan are shaped the way that they are. and the reason that borders were drawn that way is so that the british, if the suez canal was ever closed still had a land across to india. of course those borders today have created all kinds of geopolitical problems that are being resolved in the middle east, but it all goes back to the end of the first world war here during the treaty of versailles. and it's something to keep in mind. you think about the history, you think about this oh, it's dusty history. there's a relevance to it. there's a lot of parts of the world where things like this in particularly world war ii are like yesterday. and to understand the world, you have to understand things that went on in the life and times of general mcarthur of which this is only the first example. mcarthur comes back at the end of the world war i and becomes superintendent of west point. this is the superintendent's house of water color of the superintendent's house where he
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lived. when mcarthur got to west point, the curriculum little changed in the last # 00 years. and he realized we can't just train engineers. it's one of the finest engineering schools, it's a great engineering school and still is in many ways. we can't just train them. we have to train officers, we have to train soldiers, but we have to train them not just to be professionals, but also to take command of a mass citizen army and lead them on a modern battlefield with airplanes, tanks, neck anization, things like that. warfare has changed a lot since civil war certainly the war with spain. and mcarthur said about under great resistance to change west point and modernize the curriculum. and a lot of it stuck. he's been known today, known today at u.s. military academy. the father of the modern west point. two of the more prom nantd examples of his reforms that have endured the longest and endured the most. the first -- west point has
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always had an honor code but never formalized with the process and whether agreed upon language until mcarthur was superintendent. the other thing that mcarthur did and this is something that is etched literally etched in stone up at the military kma is the institute it was a real booster for army athletics. for the rest of his life, real booster of army athletics nap goes back to his playing days for the military academy and even before that. and he actually had enscribed over the gymnasium, upon the fields a friendly strife really seeds that upon other fields on other days will batter fruit was victory. what does that mean? this is where you learn the discipline and leadership skills. the discipline to prepare yourself for athletic competition, and leadership skills to lead athletes on the field, will translate directly to leading now men and women only the battlefield. and that's where mcarthur, mcarthur lived that in life and
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firmly believed that until the day he died. he was not the only one by the way that believed that, but he was able to institutionalize it at west point. while there, also married for the first time at age 42. and on valentine's day 1922, he marries louise brooks after a very short courtship. and very happy marriage for the first few years. but it will end in divorce in the latter part of 1920s. be up this is a photograph of general mcarthur and his first wife, louise. one of the invitations and a box actually they shared pieces of the wedding cake and this is one of the boxes containing one of those pieces of the wedding cake. the other thing mcarthur did as superintendent of west point which is kind of interesting, he owes to dignitaries. one is right here. the prince of wales visiting in 1922, and walking with general mcarthur. both veterans of the western front, i can only imagine what they talked about at the dinner table. prince of wales eventually becomes king edward 8th.
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as we come down after mcarthur leaves in 1922, goes to the philippines for a while. and actually, 24, 25, 1924, 1925, a real tough period. first of all in december 1923, his brother, scam tin arthur days of appendicitis. he's on his way to admiral. he dies as captain. and this is one of the great what-ifs. his contemporaries, admiral -- future admiral harold stark and chester nimitz are the navy officers at the beginning of the second world war. this is to me one of the great what ifs. what if he hadn't died of appendicit appendicitis. that's the first great tragedy that strikes. second, not necessarily a tragedy, but definitely it has an emotional component to it. is the court marshal of billy mitchell in late 1925 for insubordination. great air power pioneer, great
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air leader from world war i. from milwaukee. which is douglas's father's hometown. billy mitchell dad and douglas mcarthur's father served together during the civil war. douglas and billy mitchell had known each other as kids. and to sit on the court marshal of an old family friend, could not have been easy for general mcarthur. we don't know how he voted, but he was convicted with the end of 1925. so kind of a real down period for general mcarthur certainly on a personal level. and then in 1928, it's an interesting, interesting thing most people don't realize about general mcarthur what he does in 1928, running with the u.s. olympic team. they delegate him, major general to pick the team, pick the coaches, chose the the athletes and lead them as the senior american olympic official to
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amsterdam to the summer games in amsterdam. the events at the time and the attendance and the a. participating countries is probably a third of what it'll be in 2016, but at the same time, that doesn't mean it's aniless of an event then as it is today, and it certainly was. united states i'm proud to say earned more gold medals than any other country in the 1928 games. and general mcarthur was roundly praised for the performance in the u.s. olympic team and represented it well. little known fact, the united states army has had a role in every sing the olympic -- u.s. olympic team since certainly for the summer games since 1896 since the modern olympic era. george patton was an olympian in 1912. u.s. army shooting team represented the united states in london in 2012. they will again in rio in 2016. there's always been soldier participation to a greater or lesser degree in every olympic team.
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in 1928 was special in the sense that an american soldier serving american soldier ran the u.s. olympic team. then we come to the 1930s. this is another important time in general mcarthur's life. he had now achieved just about everything his father had ever achieved in his army career except one thing, his father was never chief of staff of the army. he was never the army's senior most commanding officer. well, in 1930, doug last mcarthur manages to do what his father never did and become chief of the staff for the army. post he will hold for five years in 1930209 latter part of 1935. there's a real rough time for the united states. because the great depression and stock market had crashed in fall of 1929, and mcarthur has a very turbulent time as chief of staff for the army. and there are several things that go on in particular that contributes that. the first is when the stock market crashes, 25%
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unemployment, the country goes in the darkest, deepest economic depression it's ever had. and there are a lot of veterans that have been promised bonuses, promised the first payments since 1945. several thousand of them march on washington in the early 1932 and camp out in southeastern washington on the flats, basically to ask dong say hey, we're destitute, we don't have anywhere else to go, we don't have any money, can you help us out? can you advance our bonuses and pay them immediately? and they become known, the camping becomes known -- the grouping becomes known as the bonus exme dish area force. summer of 1932, mcarthur stationed in washington, of course, receives orders to clear out the bonus expedition their force and assist the washington police in doing that. alaska arthur against the advice of dwight eisenhower who later becomes president.
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dons his uniform, and goes off and commands the troops in the field. the third calvary among whom by the way is george patton. and sends tanks and calgary into the flats, and clears it out in a very, very violent evening. very few casualties on either side. just a few wounded and injured here and there. but, the pictures of the burning of the camp and the way that the american -- the american army treated veterans of the previous american army sticks in a crawl and is definitely one of the darker moments in douglas alaska arthur's career. he paints as something of a communist uprising which is at variance with the established facts. tries to put the best face toward on it, but this remains one of the more controversial periods of general mcarthur's career, certainly his chief of staff. the other thing about mcarthur's career as chief of staff is
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budget. and this is a leader lesson that we use when we try and teach strategic leadership and exercise of judgment. is not just thinking about the army today, but thinking about the army ten years from now or the organization ten years from now to put it in a civilian sense. the army was the largest part of the federal budget, and every year he was chief of staff except for the last one, took a 10% cut every year. and so mcarthur very quickly had to prioritize, do i save programs or do i save people? and do i save development? and mcarthur made the following choice. he said, i can put programs and as he wrote later though, he says, i have to save the people as he wrote under the only weapon that cannot be extemporized, generated quickly, is experienced leadership. and so if i can keep the experienced officers and senior enlisted personnel in the army, that is the foundation for the army in the future if we ever have to go back to war. keep in mind, this is the early
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1930s, adolf hitler rose in germany. fascism is on the march. there's a prospect for a war in the something of the foreseeable future. who did mcarthur keep in the army by deciding to keep the leaders together. keep the personnel. who stayed in the army. george marshall, mark clark, george path patton, walter kruger, robert, collins, and all of the generals -- virtually all of the generals that will fight and win the second world war. he also saved research and development dollars. what is developed at this time? the rifle, the thompson sub machine gun. the b-17 bomber. the sherman tank, p-40, p-47 thunder bolt. all started their development in some way, shape, or form while mcarthur was chief in staff.
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these are the weapons that will be used -- the famous weapons that will be used by the american army to win the second world war. the last impact of alasmcarthur find jobs for these people that he was maintaining as their programs were cut was mcarthur assumed control of the civilian conservation group. george marshall who was chief of staff for the army during world war ii said later this was his experience with mass mobilization and kind of creating a mass movement of people organized towards one objective. organizing ccc camps in illinois. what the ccc does, many of our national parks, their infrastructure is built by the ccc. they built other buildings. all this public works performed by the civilian conservation corps in the 1930s under the overall eejs of the united states army. a tremendous, tremendous legacy. that remains visible in this country and will remain visible
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and preserve our national treasures during a time of great crisis. mcarthur's tenure as chief of staff has some very positive things. very negative things. certainly a turbulent period, but he stays in it for five years which has been extended a little longer than the normal four year term. but by october 1935, he's going to be leaving the chief of staffs office very soon and there needs to be -- there's not really suitable job for him. he's now done everything that an army officer can expect to do in the army of 1935 at that point and what had gone before. until the philippines calls. a place that he has been before, a place that he has always enjoyed a place he has friends. and they hire him as their military advisor. and so in late 1935 they're going to be independent, 1946, advise and create the philippine army and who better than the outgoing u.s. army chief of staff. man known among the islands.
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arthur accepts, and then the fall of 1935, october, november, 1935, he leaves washington and as far as he's concerned, he's moving to manila, going to build a philippine army and live out his days in the philippines. fate has something completely different in store. >> you can watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website. c-span.org/history. each week, american artifacts takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. douglas mcarthur was a five-star general who commanded allied forces in the pacific during world war ii. at the mcarthur memorial in norfolk, virginia, we learned about his role during the war. the occupation of japan, the korean war, and his life after serving in the military. this is the second of a two-part prog

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