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tv   Investigating E- Cigarettes  Al Jazeera  March 11, 2018 1:33am-2:01am +03

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people rescued. and separate operations and taken back to tripoli the third boat was picked up and taken to italy but it had lines. on counting the cost in what's been a big global trade we'll look at how the u.s. is bending the rules of commerce and free trade is really worth fighting for. mind bending concept cars from the geneva. counting the cost at this time. the nature news as it breaks its estimated ten million children still roaming the streets of baghdad with details coverage children guatemala face a number of serious problems from chronic malnutrition to extreme poverty from around the world. you have in two thousand and thirteen. more than twenty million dollars in legal fees. this is
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techno innovations that can change lives the science of fighting the fire we're going to explore the intersection of hardware and humanity and we're doing it to be unique way. this is a show about science no not by scientists tonight techno investigates. yes they did it's everywhere in clubs street corners in cars they say it's safe and can help break the cigarette happen if i had to say what is more dangerous honestly what's really inside those pieces you never know what you're getting dr crystal dilworth is a neuroscientist who specializes in nicotine studies she'll bring us the latest research what happens to your lungs when those metal particles. reach a davison is an environmental biologist and they're going to be around the corner
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they went through there really quick. we got him she's off the coast of california where drones are taking some incredible images of migrating whales as this technology becomes available to more people we're going to see more research is using the unfilled tours. that's our team know it's do some science. pages welcome to techno on phil tours joined by maria davison and dr crystal still worse bigger and potentially more dangerous that's the best way to describe what's happening with the smoking alternative known as the cigarettes or vapor that's an industry that seems to really be exploding i mean you're seeing it everywhere and a part of me wonders if this might be because of some misinformation about it that's that's my sense in our dr crystal dorthy of your ph d. in the study so we've asked you to keep a tab on this there's a lot of academic research is being done on the safety of the use of these devices
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but it can't really keep up with a growing industry. i enjoyed the taste of. what smoking does called in vapors are foggers are competitive cloud chasers all are welcome at crystal vapor one of thousands of bake shops across the country since techno first reported on the dating phenomenon in two thousand and thirteen the industry has taken off like wildfire revenue is estimated to reach three point five billion dollars this year doubling since two thousand and thirteen according to a recent poll ten percent of all american adults out of a thing that's an estimated twenty million people when it comes to kids well conventional tobacco smoking among them is dropping to record lows east cigarettes are a growing concern that the centers for disease control between two thousand and thirteen and two thousand and fourteen alone we saw a tripling in use among us high school students. to the point where it was about
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thirteen point five percent of us high school students had used these products within the past thirty days from the early generation of cigarette lookalikes techno first reported on personal vaporizing devices known as mobs have gone high tech beings come a long way baby we've seen the shift move from pens and tanks at least culturally to what we call cloud trees and devices from mechanical mogs to basically box models what's going on right now it may sound confusing but the basic mechanics are pretty simple there's a battery powered out of my zip that heats up the liquid mixture known as juice entered into vapor which the user inhales. when we first met researcher i'm an equal you should wrapped up a study that found harmful metal particulate in the vapor from earlier models of cigarettes following the evolution of the industry she's updating her study so the original study we had looked at a cart a miser style cigarette and we had detected high amounts of ten present in the car
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demise or parts do you still finding heavy metal particulate in the paper we're still finding yes but still a scary because it's going to people's lungs what happens to your lungs when those metal particles go in and lation of metal especially things like ten can cause stenosis and that could constrict the bronchioles and you know the airways in the lungs across the hall at u.c. riverside they're studying one of those compounds research or a lot of is bogus to nicotine concentrations and refillable. in this case the solution tested is tennessee cured by red oak a fluid made by johnson creek enterprises and online seller of liquids and accessories we order a bunch of them and just run most of them to the accuracy of the label and in this case this is eighteen micrograms per milliliter so this would be considered a high nicotine concentration so the test here is we'll see how much it's measuring from the speak and then we'll compare that to what's on the label and as you can
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see from our control it was a lot. higher so we know for sure that it is nicotine and recent paper that we published we found out that this specific sample was fifty nine percent higher than its advertised they will whoever bought this got way more than they bargained for yes they did techno asked johnson enterprises about its nicotine labeling discrepancy they offered this statement between twenty eleven and two thousand and twelve there was a noticeable improvement in our manufacturing processes including in process controls and analytical methods for testing nicotine concentration with greater accuracy while the company's stated claims point to a step in the right direction the red oak sample that they manufactured with the fifty nine percent higher nicotine discrepancy was purchased for the u.c. riverside study online in february two thousand and twelve well within the range of johnson creek stated internal improvements in controls and accuracy but they're not alone currently u.c. riverside is evaluating a new batch of liquids from a variety of vendors and pullin any results continue to suggest large discrepancies
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in nicotine labeling throughout the industry just based on all the research that we've done you never know what you're getting it could be higher nicotine contribution it could be lower and although lower my sound better that's going to mean they need smoke more interesting what you're buying is normally used to researchers are also concerned about the content of the hundreds of flavored liquids that are number one seller is from animal this is a cereal fruit loops flavored with a little bit of milk. a lot of the flavors that are regarded as grass is generally regarded as safe that is a term that's given to flavor in products that can be ingested what's happening to these flavoring products when they're being aerosolized at these high temperatures and inhaled into the long you have chemical reactions that can break them down into a lot more toxic chemicals known as carbon compounds prime example being formaldehyde that's a very common when everyone's heard of formaldehyde and everyone should know how it is and could be so in head to head comparison. versus conventional cigarette which
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one do you think is healthier my opinion i think they're both dangerous i think the narrative that most people are missing is that the public health opponents to vapor have lumped in vapor with the evil tobacco folks that they fought you know back in the eighty's in the ninety's and so they've decided that this is the exact same thing cynthia is the executive director for the smoke free alternative trade association called safira of aping lobby group we need to dispel the idea that these products paper products are the same as combusted tobacco products because they're not so we need to look at any time that anyone is using a vapor product they're not smoking and that's a win for everybody the z. cigarettes they don't contain the seven thousand plus chemicals that conventional cigarettes have and that's always a plus but on the flip side they do have their own set of compounds that you're
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being exposed to unfortunately we're going to have to wait for the long gemini studies but if i had to say what is more dangerous honestly i there to me they're equal the food and drug administration which regulates tobacco is still reviewing vaporing regulations travis padgett has been smoking since high school today he baits to cut down on tobacco use for me it was you know it was just it's kind of like a different you when you get to know microbiology major at u.c. riverside travis is babying for science participating in a study that measures his intake puff duration volume and frequency when you get out here you're going to have a science degree why not wait for science now before we know if it's safe i mean it's either a vapor a smoke cigarettes and we already know cigarettes are about to roll the dice exactly and it's a roll of the dice and. the people that are choosing a thing over conventional cigarettes are choosing the unknown over the know and they know that conventional cigarettes and give them cancer. there's
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a chance that it's better and so they're rolling the dice with that but they're still gambling with their own house and sometimes adults are making more informed decisions with and you have all these kids well absolutely i mean adolescents there are still in a stage of brain development they're not as capable as adults of making good decisions and they're uniquely sceptical of two addictions and usually we've got regulations in place that help protect for specifically those kind of cases but here it's so new you know you know the regulations aren't they haven't kept up obviously that's a major concern all of the regulations of protections that we have developed for tobacco products conventional cigarettes are not there when it comes to be things will go as fascinating topic and i'm sure crystal you'll keep us up to date on this but to understand you when we're watching i did i got to go whale watching using drones in the sky so a little bit like spying but it's a great way to observe whales that we normally wouldn't be able to see and we don't really disturb them at all. most times when you see images
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from a drone something is exploding usually devastation from the air these are the military drones in service around the world. closer to home in california they're also used for important peacetime missions like assisting firefighters by mapping out hot spots during raging wildfires. much has been reported about the use of drones especially when it comes to military applications drones may even become the delivery system for consumer goods but today off the coast of san simeon california researchers using drones like this one here behind me for a spectacular use all in the name of science this is the peters walk of life station this is a very unique piece of property because it sticks out into the migratory corridor or of the northbound gray whale cows and calves a picture perfect location for researchers to fly a science drone to get an unprecedented bird's eye view of what swims below. right
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there. but in the distance online on our. wall or. for twenty two years wayne perry man and a team from noah have been here from march until may counting and collecting data on great whales migrating north from the breeding grounds of mexico to the arctic a trip of six thousand eight hundred miles this point is kind of a focal point for them and we were able to see them very very well they passed often within one hundred meters of the beach so it's a great place to count animals great whales swim close to land as protection against their main predator killer whales even so it takes a sharp eye and strong binoculars to spot the northern migration once they do it's go time for a one of a kind unmanned aircraft named mobley. to the rights to the right now move there in the middle of the frame the right keep on going out
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on the service economy of the frame good come down a little that has the i'm doing to the right as i'm underwater know a scientist and pilot john durban is tracking a mother and her calf from a distance of about three quarters of a mile out from where he stands john's wife and co researcher holly fernbach is under the towel that shades a control panel giving her a real time video feed that aids in guiding the flight so when they come up next i'm going to move out of them at picking out markel but the very right adds to be perfect so now it's split second timing for john to remotely trigger the camera to take high definition photographs of the whales i'm going to be around the corner they went through there really quickly we got to we did well the yeah. this is really a tool we have a flying a camera and we're trying to make inference about size and shape of whales by taking photographs of school photogrammetry so this is
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a camera. and we want to get above the wales. mobley was built by don the boy at a cost of twenty five thousand dollars it may look like a hobby a stream project but in fact it's packed with many high tech systems to do science so it's called a house a carpet because it has six motors and six rotors if it's not being told what to do wants to see how we're going to be stable when the air. behind a finish and photos taken from the eye in the sky give scientists a better look at the overall health of the whales a female who has been eating a lot and she spat her whip relative to her link will be different than a female who hasn't eaten very much so we can take just those two measurements and with those two we can get an index of condition index of fat miss for that female peri min says this season many of the northbound lactating female gray whales
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observed appeared more robust than in previous years data that is important for many reasons will health give scientists a snapshot of the balancing act between food sources natural predators even climate change we're getting to the point now where we really can talk about how climate change in the arctic is impacting this population now there's less ice and it's then or there's more photosynthesis going on in the wintertime because like can penetrate and what we want to do is kind of understand that dynamic of what's going on. recently john durban and the know it's team took mobley to canada to study killer whales taken from one hundred feet above this video the first of its kind give scientists a clearer picture of the health of northern resident killer whales in these images the whale on the right appears robust and in good condition while the whale on the left is then and in poor health scientists. leave this will later died because it
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was no longer spotted with its pod. killer whales are important because they're competing with us fish would try to understand all the getting enough food as this technology becomes available to more people we're going to see more research is using it say for research say for the animals i think it's a win win. from an emotional perspective just being able to see these incredibly beautiful species out in their natural environment we'd never be able to do that and we don't have to disturb them to see them but in terms of the overarching story i mean a scientist you can collect data on two things what is and what's changing and it seems like this method allows them to collect data that's sort of speaking to both of those objectives they're studying what is now and when things change well no and i mean that also speaks to the importance of having these long term data sets right because you have to be able to establish a baseline which i think they're doing very well you know with twenty two years
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worth of data and now with the changes of climate change you know that that's a really powerful sedative and it to to give us a sense of what's what's on the horizon. you are going to tell us about a unique to where you took a little unusual lab and a tray here you know it's basically a lab full of trash and for invited us to check out the ways that they're making the auto industry will be greener so clearly a lot of environmental incentives here a player there you know obviously when you use recycled materials over new ones are going to be saving a little bit of money but they also found some new ways to solve some old problems using some very cool methods so saying look. it's taken over a century but today a car manufacturers are getting into high gear when it comes to going green from hydrogen fuel cell cars to electric plug ins and hybrids mileage is going up and
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with a lead. ten percent of vehicles environmental impact the assembly process manufacturing is going green to. companies like toyota g.m. volkswagen ford and honda are all stepping up eco friendly methods with zero waste factories diverting millions of pounds from landfills reusing water recycling sludge and going solar powered and it's not just assembly take forward eighty five percent of its cars are renewable recyclable or compostable everything from recyclable aluminum bodies and engine parts to so we form seats in fabrics made from five million was cycled plastic bottles and this is where the ideas percolate the materials research lab at ford headquarters in dearborn michigan what would you say is the craziest thing that you guys work with do you think those are they hook ups yes oh these are cigarette filters it's a cellulose yes
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a tape fiber and so we're looking at that fiber as a reinforcement for plastics debbie moleski start of the lab back in two thousand and one was soil foam oil was about forty dollars a barrel and so nobody saw a reason to use plant based materials even though there was an environmental improvement when we launched our soil base foams oil was about one hundred fifty dollars a barrel and so suddenly what was a very poorly received idea was very well received instead of a petroleum base the foam and every seat in north america is made of michigan soil and now the lab is testing algae oil with its more global reach plastics researcher ellen lead gave techno the first public look at this newest experimental phone rang and have you had in a search back then this one. and that acts like the egg and it mandates that planned everything together and then i'm going to have you have the following agent which in our case this water i'm going to make says. and then we'll see the film
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start to react. and better go if they can until like hey you can see all the gas bubbles all ready for we use this to kind of evaluate our formulation and how fast it comes out why is it important that this reacts fast how fast you can be made each part is really important for manufacturing because we want to be able to make things in a timely manner are we talking a matter of minutes per phone seat or seconds or less than that ford is aiming to make their plastics at least twenty percent bio based this actually making the plastic stronger yes it does. these parts are later in ways they can show you one that is made from camp first class and it's about a thirty percent weight reduction so if we continue to do this we will improve fuel economy as well ford says it's already diverted more than thirty million pounds of plastic from north american landfills with materials as diverse as we grass coconut
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hair shredded jeans and millions of dollars of greenbacks a lot of people don't know as money isn't actually paper it's a blend of cotton and linen try to grind it down into a smaller fine and right research engineer just simply look curious showed me how it's done bullets crime some money to use a crime there's a shuttle that goes inside and using magnets it turns the magnets on and off and it will move the shuttle back and forth between the two metal ends smashed the money using liquid nitrogen around liquid nitrogen the liquid nitrogen all just cool the money down to a brittle so it's easy to smash and turn on the machine. is on getting that. powder money then it's melted in with plastic in formed into pellets you melt them down and then you formed them into things like this right and this is a coin trick that is
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a pointer enormous. and money back into your vehicle what is this tomato fibers these are actual skin leaves and stems from the tomato plants from hines's ketchup production they process millions of pounds of tomatoes every year and they have a lot of leftover why is this a good product for us to use we can use this to reinforce our plastics to make them stiffer but then at the same time we can start in fact the lab is in the very early stages of testing but to myrtle beach possibilities you can samples bun melting and mixing plastic extruding it into pellets and molds for testing you would mention part of the test is actually the smell you know if they're driving a lot and they may not want to smell tomatoes because they might get hungry. so what's your big end goal for all of us we all have kids and we want to make sure that there's a green nice planet for them with materials that they can continually replenish i
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don't want them to depend on petroleum as their only source of materials. sitting between you guys is of course ten thousand dollars worth of cash but unfortunately it is old cash shredded would normally go to the trash but in this case they're reusing it making this idea of closing the materials you know going as much as we possibly can to words zero waste in manufacturing it's not just lip service anymore it's happening and it makes total business sense i think it's so interesting to see that that trip across industry collaboration like catch up and ford motor is that these aren't really two companies that i would think would work together in this way i mean i as a chemist i think a lot about it is a green chemistry that you want all of the by products of your chemical reactions to be used for their reactions and that's kind of like how i think about it but this is really created when your doctor crystal. jefferson in the past not only catch up on car interactions when i spilled ketchup and my car been there from. the
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california coast all the way over to detroit we've covered a lot of ground today guys and covered some pretty interesting topics so thanks for that level up more for you next time on techno see this dive deep into these stories and go behind the scenes at al-jazeera dot com slash techno follow our expert contributors on twitter facebook instagram google plus and more. as poverty and desperation sweep across ruhi just settlements women and girls are being bought and sold and given away you know refugee camps one on one east investigates yet another dark side of the crisis at this time on al-jazeera. being located outside that weston's and trix fairer than truants we're able to bring a different perspective to global events when you pave the way of the politico the military in the financial dark and you see the people in those words and his
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policies are affecting see the emotion on their faces the situation they're living in that's when all the us can identify with the story. like everywhere connectivity. or infrastructure in the pen than some foreign corporation. now a politician activists are building a homegrown solution. and securing the nation's technological sovereignty. eeks the citizens network at this time. was just ten years old when a devastating earthquake struck mexico city in one thousand nine hundred five the quake damaged her family's apartment and the government moved them to distant shack around seventy families who lost their homes in that earthquake still live in this
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camp. gather the government raised our hopes and then abandon us politicians have promised that they won't allow a repeat of what happened after the earthquake in one thousand eight hundred five but the cost and complexity of housing hundreds of people living in camps is a major task and one that many people here think the government will fail.
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this is. this is our life for my headquarters in doha coming up in the next sixty minutes three weeks into the siege of the syrian.

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