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Propensity score weighting is a tool for causal inference to adjust for measured confounders in observational studies. In practice, data often present complex structures, such as clustering, which make propensity score modeling and estimation challenging. In addition, for clustered data, there may be unmeasured cluster-specific variables that are related to both the treatment assignment and the outcome. When such unmeasured cluster-specific confounders exist and are omitted in the propensity...
Topics: Statistics, Methodology
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.06086
Arxiv.org
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Probabilistic Component Latent Analysis (PLCA) is a statistical modeling method for feature extraction from non-negative data. It has been fruitfully applied to various research fields of information retrieval. However, the EM-solved optimization problem coming with the parameter estimation of PLCA-based models has never been properly posed and justified. We then propose in this short paper to re-define the theoretical framework of this problem, with the motivation of making it clearer to...
Topics: Statistics, Methodology
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.05208
Arxiv.org
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Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are a ubiquitous tool to model time series data, and have been widely used in two main tasks of Automatic Music Transcription (AMT): note segmentation, i.e. identifying the played notes after a multi-pitch estimation, and sequential post-processing, i.e. correcting note segmentation using training data. In this paper, we employ the multi-pitch estimation method called Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis (PLCA), and develop AMT systems by integrating different...
Topics: Learning, Machine Learning, Statistics, Sound, Computing Research Repository
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.03711
Arxiv.org
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Causal inference with observational studies often relies on the assumptions of unconfoundedness and overlap of covariate distributions in different treatment groups. The overlap assumption is violated when some units have propensity scores close to zero or one, and therefore both theoretical and practical researchers suggest dropping units with extreme estimated propensity scores. We advance the literature in three directions. First, we clarify a conceptual issue of sample trimming by defining...
Topics: Statistics, Methodology
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1704.00666
Arxiv.org
by Shu Yang; Jae Kwang Kim
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Predictive mean matching imputation is popular for handling item nonresponse in survey sampling. In this article, we study the asymptotic properties of the predictive mean matching estimator of the population mean. For variance estimation, the conventional bootstrap inference for matching estimators with fixed matches has been shown to be invalid due to the nonsmoothess nature of the matching estimator. We propose asymptotically valid replication variance estimation. The key strategy is to...
Topics: Statistics, Methodology
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.10256
Arxiv.org
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Automatic Music Transcription (AMT) is one of the oldest and most well-studied problems in the field of music information retrieval. Within this challenging research field, onset detection and instrument recognition take important places in transcription systems, as they respectively help to determine exact onset times of notes and to recognize the corresponding instrument sources. The aim of this study is to explore the usefulness of multiscale scattering operators for these two tasks on...
Topics: Machine Learning, Statistics, Sound, Computing Research Repository
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09775
Arxiv.org
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We consider causal inference from observational studies when confounders have missing values. When the confounders are missing not at random, causal effects are generally not identifiable. In this article, we propose a novel framework for nonparametric identification of causal effects with confounders missing not at random, but subject to instrumental missingness, that is, the missing data mechanism is independent of the outcome, given the treatment and possibly missing confounder values. We...
Topics: Statistics, Methodology
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1702.03951
Arxiv.org
by D. Cazau; G. Revillon; W. Yuancheng; O. Adam
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Automatic Music Transcription (AMT) consists in automatically estimating the notes in an audio recording, through three attributes: onset time, duration and pitch. Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis (PLCA) has become very popular for this task. PLCA is a spectrogram factorization method, able to model a magnitude spectrogram as a linear combination of spectral vectors from a dictionary. Such methods use the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of the acoustic...
Topics: Learning, Machine Learning, Statistics, Sound, Computing Research Repository
Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09772